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ब्रूयाम् 1As-विधिलिँङ्

Today we will look at the form ब्रूयाम् 1As-विधिलिँङ्र् from श्रीमद्वाल्मीकि-रामायणम् 2-52-38.

यदहं नोपचारेण ब्रूयां स्नेहादविक्लवम् |
भक्तिमानिति तत् तावद् वाक्यं त्वं क्षन्तुमर्हसि || २-५२-३८ ||

Gita Press translation “If I speak to you in an unfaltering tone due to affection and do not speak with reverence (which is due to you as my master), you ought in fact to forgive my mode of speech, considering me as full of devotion (to you) .”

ब्रूयाम् is derived from the धातुः √ब्रू (अदादि-गणः, ब्रूञ् व्यक्तायां वाचि, धातु-पाठः #२. ३९).

The विवक्षा is विधिलिँङ्, कर्तरि प्रयोग:, उत्तम-पुरुषः, एकवचनम् ।

In the धातु-पाठः, the √ब्रू-धातुः has one इत् letter which is the ञकार:। It gets the इत्-सञ्ज्ञा by 1-3-3 हलन्त्यम् and hence takes लोप: by 1-3-9 तस्य लोप:। Since ञकार: is an इत्, as per the सूत्रम् 1-3-72 स्वरितञितः कर्त्रभिप्राये क्रियाफले, the √ब्रू-धातुः will take आत्मनेपद-प्रत्ययाः when the fruit of the action (क्रियाफलम्) accrues to the doer (कर्त्रभिप्रायम् = कर्तृ-अभिप्रायम्)। In the remaining case – when the fruit of the action does not accrue to the doer – by 1-3-78 शेषात् कर्तरि परस्मैपदम् – the √ब्रू-धातुः will take परस्मैपद-प्रत्ययाः।
In reality though, this distinction of the fruit of the action accruing to the doer or not, is rarely honored in the language. So as a practical matter, a verbal root such as “√ब्रू” will take either आत्मनेपद-प्रत्ययाः or परस्मैपद-प्रत्ययाः regardless of whether the fruit of the action accrues to the doer or not. In short, √ब्रू-धातुः will be उभयपदी। In this verse, it has taken a परस्मैपद-प्रत्यय:।

Since the विवक्षा is उत्तम-पुरुषः,एकवचनम्, the प्रत्यय: will be “मिप्”।

(1) ब्रू + लिँङ् । By 3-3-161 विधिनिमन्त्रणामन्त्रणाधीष्टसंप्रश्नप्रार्थनेषु लिङ्, the affix लिङ् is prescribed after a धातुः when used in the sense of command, direction, invitation, request, inquiry and entreaty.

(2) ब्रू + ल् । अनुबन्ध-लोपः by 1-3-2 उपदेशेऽजनुनासिक इत्, 1-3-3 हलन्त्यम्, 1-3-9 तस्य लोपः

(3) ब्रू + मिप् । 3-4-78 तिप्तस्झिसिप्थस्थमिब्वस्मस् तातांझथासाथांध्वमिड्वहिमहिङ् mandates the प्रत्ययः “मिप्” as the substitute for the लकारः। “मिप्” gets the सार्वधातुक-सञ्ज्ञा by 3-4-113 तिङ्शित्सार्वधातुकम्

(4) ब्रू + अम् । By 3-4-101 तस्थस्थमिपां तांतंतामः, the तिङ्-प्रत्ययाः तस्, थस्, थ and मिप् of a लकारः which is a ङित्, are replaced by ताम्, तम्, त and अम् respectively. अम् also gets सार्वधातुक-सञ्ज्ञा by 1-1-56 स्थानिवदादेशोऽनल्विधौ

(5) ब्रू + यासुट् अम् । by 3-4-103 यासुट् परस्मैपदेषूदात्तो ङिच्च , the परस्‍मैपद-प्रत्यया: of लिँङ् get यासुट् as an augment, and this augment is उदात्तः and a ङित्। 1-1-46 आद्यन्तौ टकितौ places the यासुट्-आगमः before the प्रत्यय:। The उकार: in यासुट् is for pronunciation only (उच्चारणार्थः)। The टकार: is an इत् by 1-3-3 हलन्त्यम् and takes लोप: by 1-3-9 तस्य लोपः

(6) ब्रू + शप् + यास् अम् । By 3-1-68 कर्तरि शप्, the शप्-प्रत्यय: is placed after a verbal root, when followed by a सार्वधातुक-प्रत्यय: that is used signifying the agent. The शप्-प्रत्यय: which is a शित्, gets सार्वधातुक-सञ्ज्ञा by 3-4-113 तिङ्शित्सार्वधातुकम्

(7) ब्रू + यास् अम् । By 2-4-72 अदिप्रभृतिभ्यः शपः, the शप्-प्रत्ययः takes the लुक् elision when following a verbal root belonging to अदादि-गणः।

(8) ब्रू + या अम् । By 7-2-79 लिङः सलोपोऽनन्‍त्‍यस्‍य, the सकारः of a सार्वधातुक-लिङ् affix is elided, provided it is not the final letter of the affix.

(9) ब्रूयाम् । By 6-1-101 अकः सवर्णे दीर्घः, when an अक् letter is followed by a सवर्ण-अच् letter then in place of these two there is a single substitute of a long (अच्) letter.

Questions:

1. Where is √ब्रू (ब्रूञ् व्यक्तायां वाचि, धातु-पाठः #२. ३९) used in a तिङन्तं पदम् for the first time in the गीता?

2. The अव्ययम् “इति” normally ends a quotation. Based on the context we have to find out where the quotation begins. From where does the quotation begin in this verse?

3. What would have been the final form in this example if a आत्मनेपद-प्रत्यय: had been used?

4. Can you spot the शप्-प्रत्यय: in the verse?

5. Why didn’t the ending नकार: of भक्तिमान् take लोप: by 8-2-7 नलोपः प्रातिपदिकान्तस्य?

6. Use some words from the verse to construct the following sentence in Sanskrit:
“You ought to forgive my offence.” Use the masculine प्रातिपदिकम् “अपराध” for “offence.”

Easy questions:

1. Which सूत्रम् was used to get न + उपचारेण = नोपचारेण?

2. Can you spot two places where 7-1-12 टाङसिङसामिनात्स्याः has been used?

आत्थ 2As-लँट्

Today we will look at the form आत्थ 2As-लँट् from श्रीमद्भागवतम् Sb4-20-30.

मन्ये गिरं ते जगतां विमोहिनीं वरं वृणीष्वेति भजन्तमात्थ यत् ।
वाचा नु तन्त्या यदि ते जनोऽसितः कथं पुनः कर्म करोति मोहितः ।। ४-२०-३०।।

Gita Press translation – The words “Ask (of Me) a boon (of your choice)” that You (just) addressed to me, engaged in worshipping You (in a disinterested spirit), I reckon as intended to delude the creatures (of the world). If the people were not bound by the cords of Your speech (the Veda), wherefore should they take to action (with interested motives) under a spell of delusion?

आत्थ is derived from the धातुः √ब्रू (अदादि-गणः, ब्रूञ् व्यक्तायां वाचि, धातु-पाठः #२. ३९).

The विवक्षा is वर्तमान-काले, कर्तरि प्रयोग:, मध्यम-पुरुषः, एकवचनम् ।

In the धातु-पाठः, the √ब्रू-धातुः has one इत् letter which is the ञकार:। It gets the इत्-सञ्ज्ञा by 1-3-3 हलन्त्यम् and hence takes लोप: by 1-3-9 तस्य लोप:। Since ञकार: is an इत्, as per the सूत्रम् 1-3-72 स्वरितञितः कर्त्रभिप्राये क्रियाफले, the √ब्रू-धातुः will take आत्मनेपद-प्रत्ययाः when the fruit of the action (क्रियाफलम्) accrues to the doer (कर्त्रभिप्रायम् = कर्तृ-अभिप्रायम्)। In the remaining case – when the fruit of the action does not accrue to the doer – by 1-3-78 शेषात् कर्तरि परस्मैपदम् – the √ब्रू-धातुः will take परस्मैपद-प्रत्ययाः।
In reality though, this distinction of the fruit of the action accruing to the doer or not, is rarely honored in the language. So as a practical matter, a verbal root such as “√ब्रू” will take either आत्मनेपद-प्रत्ययाः or परस्मैपद-प्रत्ययाः regardless of whether the fruit of the action accrues to the doer or not. In short, √ब्रू-धातुः will be उभयपदी। In this verse, it has taken a परस्मैपद-प्रत्यय:।

Since the विवक्षा is मध्यम-पुरुष-एकवचनम्, the प्रत्यय: will be “सिप्”।

(1) ब्रू + लँट् । By 3-2-123 वर्तमाने लट्, the affix लँट् comes after a धातुः when denoting an action in the present tense.

(2) ब्रू + ल् । अनुबन्ध-लोपः by 1-3-2 उपदेशेऽजनुनासिक इत्, 1-3-3 हलन्त्यम्, 1-3-9 तस्य लोपः

(3) ब्रू + सिप् । 3-4-78 तिप्तस्झिसिप्थस्थमिब्वस्मस् तातांझथासाथांध्वमिड्वहिमहिङ् mandates the प्रत्ययः “सिप्” as the substitute for the लकारः। “सिप्” gets the सार्वधातुक-सञ्ज्ञा by 3-4-113 तिङ्शित्सार्वधातुकम्

(4) आह् + थल् । by 3-4-84 ब्रुवः पञ्चानामादित आहो ब्रुवः , the first five affixes (तिप्, तस्, झि, सिप्, थस्) of लँट् following the verbal root √ब्रू (ब्रूञ् व्यक्तायां वाचि २. ३९) optionally get the first five णलादि-प्रत्ययाः (णल्, अतुस्, उस्, थल्, अथुस्) as replacements. As per 1-3-10 यथासंख्यमनुदेशः समानाम् , the substitutions are done respectively. Simultaneously, “ब्रू” takes the substitution “आह्”।

(5) आह् + थ । अनुबन्ध-लोपः by 1-3-3 हलन्त्यम्, 1-3-9 तस्य लोपः

(6) आह् + शप् + थ । By 3-1-68 कर्तरि शप्, the शप्-प्रत्यय: is placed after a verbal root, when followed by a सार्वधातुक-प्रत्यय: that is used signifying the agent. The शप्-प्रत्यय: which is a शित्, gets सार्वधातुक-सञ्ज्ञा by 3-4-113 तिङ्शित्सार्वधातुकम्

(7) आह् + थ । By 2-4-72 अदिप्रभृतिभ्यः शपः, the शप्-प्रत्ययः takes the लुक् elision when following a verbal root belonging to अदादि-गणः।

(8) आथ् + थ । By 8-2-35 आहस्थः, the हकारः of the verbal form “आह्” gets थकारः as the replacement when followed by a letter of the झल्-प्रत्याहारः।

(9) आत्थ । By 8-4-55 खरि च, a झल् letter is replaced by a चर् letter when a खर् letter follows.

Questions:

1. Where has आत्थ been used in the गीता?

2. The अव्ययम् “इति” normally ends a quotation. Based on the context we have to find out where the quotation begins. From where does the quotation begin in this verse?

3. What would be the other (optional) final form in this example?

4. Commenting on the सूत्रम् 8-2-35 आहस्थः, the काशिका clarifies – आदेशान्तरकरणं “८-२-४० झषस्तथोर्धोऽधः” इत्यस्य निवृत्त्यर्थम्। Please explain. (Why didn’t पाणिनि: just use the अनुवृत्ति: of “ध:” which was easily available from the prior सूत्रम् 8-2-34 नहो धः? Couldn’t we use 8-4-55 खरि च to replace the धकार: with a तकार: and get the same final form आत्थ? Then what was the need to prescribe a different थकारादेश:?)

5. Further commenting on the सूत्रम् 8-2-35 आहस्थः, the काशिका says झलि इत्येव, आह। Please explain.

6. How would you say this in Sanskrit?
“Speak with confidence.” Use अविशङ्कम् as an adverb for “with confidence” (literally, “without doubt/hesitation.”)

Easy questions:

1. Can you spot the तिप्-प्रत्यय: in the verse?

2. Which अव्ययम् has been translated to “if”?

बिभेति 3As-लँट्

Today we will look at the form बिभेति 3As-लँट् from श्रीमद्वाल्मीकि-रामायणम् 3-33-17.

नानुतिष्ठति कार्याणि भयेषु न बिभेति च |
क्षिप्रं राज्याच्च्युतो दीनस्तृणैस्तुल्यो भवेदिह || ३-३३-१७ ||

Gita Press translation “A king who does not perform his duties and is not apprehensive (even) in the face of dangers is soon deprived of his kingdom and reduced to a wretched condition, and becomes of no more worth than straw in this world.”

बिभेति is derived from the धातुः √भी (जुहोत्यादि-गणः, ञिभी भये, धातु-पाठः #३. २)

The विवक्षा is लँट्, कर्तरि प्रयोगः, प्रथम-पुरुषः, एकवचनम्।

The “ञि” at the beginning of “ञिभी” gets इत्-सञ्ज्ञा by 1-3-5 आदिर्ञिटुडवः and takes लोप: by 1-3-9 तस्य लोपः

The √भी-धातुः is devoid of any indications for bringing in आत्मनेपद-प्रत्यया:। (Neither 1-3-12 अनुदात्तङित आत्मनेपदम् nor 1-3-72 स्वरितञितः कर्त्रभिप्राये क्रियाफले applies.) Therefore, as per 1-3-78 शेषात् कर्तरि परस्मैपदम्, the √भी-धातुः, in कर्तरि प्रयोग:, will take the परस्मैपद-प्रत्यया: by default. As per 1-4-99 लः परस्मैपदम्, 1-4-100 तङानावात्मनेपदम्, the nine प्रत्यया: from “तिप्” to “मस्” get the परस्मैपद-सञ्ज्ञा। So √भी-धातुः can take only one of these nine प्रत्यया: in कर्तरि प्रयोग:। Since the विवक्षा is प्रथम-पुरुष-एकवचनम्, the प्रत्यय: will be “तिप्”।

(1) भी + लँट् । By 3-2-123 वर्तमाने लट्, the affix लँट् comes after a धातुः when denoting an action in the present tense.

(2) भी + ल् । अनुबन्ध-लोपः by 1-3-2 उपदेशेऽजनुनासिक इत्, 1-3-3 हलन्त्यम्, 1-3-9 तस्य लोपः

(3) भी + तिप् । 3-4-78 तिप्तस्झिसिप्थस्थमिब्वस्मस् तातांझथासाथांध्वमिड्वहिमहिङ् mandates the प्रत्ययः “तिप्” as the substitute for the लकारः। “तिप्” gets the सार्वधातुक-सञ्ज्ञा by 3-4-113 तिङ्शित्सार्वधातुकम् – The affixes of the तिङ्-प्रत्याहारः and the affixes that have शकारः as an इत् get the designation of सार्वधातुकम् if they are prescribed in the “धातो:” अधिकार:।

(4) भी + ति । अनुबन्ध-लोपः by 1-3-3 हलन्त्यम् , 1-3-9 तस्य लोपः

(5) भी + शप् + ति । By 3-1-68 कर्तरि शप्‌, the शप्-प्रत्यय: is placed after a verbal root, when followed by a सार्वधातुक-प्रत्यय: that is used signifying the agent.

(6) भी + ति । By 2-4-75 जुहोत्यादिभ्यः श्लुः, the “शप्”-प्रत्यय: following the verbal roots “हु” etc. gets “श्लु” (elision).

(7) भी + भी + ति । By 6-1-10 श्लौ, a verbal root when followed by “श्लु” gets reduplicated.

(8) भि + भी + ति । By 7-4-59 ह्रस्वः, the अच् (vowel) of a reduplicate (अभ्यासः – ref. 6-1-4 पूर्वोऽभ्यासः) is substituted by a short vowel.

(9) भिभेति । By 7-3-84 सार्वधातुकाऽर्धधातुकयोः , an अङ्गम् whose final letter is an इक् gets गुण-आदेशः, when a सार्वधातुक-प्रत्यय: or an आर्धधातुक-प्रत्यय: follows.

(10) बिभेति । By 8-4-54 अभ्यासे चर्च, in a reduplicate (अभ्यासः – ref. 6-1-4 पूर्वोऽभ्यासः), a letter of the झल्-प्रत्याहारः is substituted by a letter of the चर्-प्रत्याहारः or जश्-प्रत्याहारः। The substitutions take place as per 1-1-50 स्थानेऽन्तरतमः

Questions:

1. Where has 6-1-10 श्लौ been used in Chapter 4 of the गीता?

2. Among the nine items in the conjugation table of √भी (ञिभी भये, धातु-पाठः #३. २) with लँट्, in which form does 6-4-82 एरनेकाचोऽसंयोगपूर्वस्य apply?

3. Which धातु: and लकार: has been in the form (अनु)तिष्ठति?

4. Can you spot a “इय्”-आदेश: in the verse?

5. How would you say this in Sanskrit?
“I am not afraid even of death.” Use the neuter प्रातिपदिकम् “मरण” for “death”. Use पञ्चमी विभक्ति: with “मरण”।

6. How would you say this in Sanskrit?
“I am only afraid of infamy.” Use the feminine (compound) प्रातिपदिकम् “अकीर्ति” for “infamy”. (ref. गीता 2-34.) Use पञ्चमी विभक्ति: with “अकीर्ति”।

Easy questions:

1. Where has 8-4-40 स्तोः श्चुना श्चुः been used in the verse?

2. Can you spot a “शि”-आदेश: in the verse?

जुहोति 3As-लँट्

Today we will look at the form जुहोति 3As-लँट् from श्रीमद्भागवतम् Sb3-29-22.

यो मां सर्वेषु भूतेषु सन्तमात्मानमीश्वरम् ।
हित्वार्चां भजते मौढ्याद्भस्मन्येव जुहोति सः ।। ३-२९-२२ ।।

Gita Press translation “Ignoring Me, the Supreme Ruler, the Self present in all living beings, he who stupidly resorts to idol-worship alone throws oblations into the ashes.”

जुहोति is derived from the धातुः √हु (हु दानादनयोः । आदाने चेत्येके । प्रीणनेऽपीति भाष्यम्, जुहोत्यादि-गणः, धातु-पाठः #३. १)

The विवक्षा is लँट्, कर्तरि प्रयोगः, प्रथम-पुरुषः, एकवचनम्।

In the धातु-पाठः, the √हु-धातुः has no इत् letters. It is devoid of any indications for bringing in आत्मनेपद-प्रत्यया:। Therefore, as per 1-3-78 शेषात् कर्तरि परस्मैपदम्, the √हु-धातुः, in कर्तरि प्रयोग:, will take the परस्मैपद-प्रत्यया: by default. As per 1-4-99 लः परस्मैपदम्, 1-4-100 तङानावात्मनेपदम्, the nine प्रत्यया: from “तिप्” to “मस्” get the परस्मैपद-सञ्ज्ञा। So √हु-धातुः can take only one of these nine प्रत्यया: in कर्तरि प्रयोग:। Since the विवक्षा is प्रथम-पुरुष-एकवचनम्, the प्रत्यय: will be “तिप्”।

(1) हु + लँट् । By 3-2-123 वर्तमाने लट्, the affix लँट् comes after a धातुः when denoting an action in the present tense.

(2) हु + ल् । अनुबन्ध-लोपः by 1-3-2 उपदेशेऽजनुनासिक इत्, 1-3-3 हलन्त्यम्, 1-3-9 तस्य लोपः

(3) हु + तिप् । 3-4-78 तिप्तस्झिसिप्थस्थमिब्वस्मस् तातांझथासाथांध्वमिड्वहिमहिङ् mandates the प्रत्ययः “तिप्” as the substitute for the लकारः। “तिप्” gets the सार्वधातुक-सञ्ज्ञा by 3-4-113 तिङ्शित्सार्वधातुकम् – The affixes of the तिङ्-प्रत्याहारः and the affixes that have शकारः as an इत् get the designation of सार्वधातुकम् if they are prescribed in the “धातो:” अधिकार:।

(4) हु + ति । अनुबन्ध-लोपः by 1-3-3 हलन्त्यम् , 1-3-9 तस्य लोपः

(5) हु + शप् + ति । By 3-1-68 कर्तरि शप्‌, the शप्-प्रत्यय: is placed after a verbal root, when followed by a सार्वधातुक-प्रत्यय: that is used signifying the agent.

(6) हु + ति । By 2-4-75 जुहोत्यादिभ्यः श्लुः, the शप्-प्रत्यय: following the verbal roots “हु” etc. gets “श्लु” (elision).

(7) हु + हु + ति । By 6-1-10 श्लौ, a verbal root when followed by “श्लु” gets reduplicated.

(8) झु + हु + ति । By 7-4-62 कुहोश्चुः, in a reduplicate (अभ्यासः – ref. 6-1-4 पूर्वोऽभ्यासः), a letter of the कवर्गः or हकारः is replaced by a letter of the चवर्गः । The substitutions take place as per 1-1-50 स्थानेऽन्तरतमः
(क्, ख्, ग्, घ्, ङ्, ह्) are replaced by (च्, छ्, ज्, झ्, ञ्, झ्) respectively.

(9) झु हो ति । By 7-3-84 सार्वधातुकाऽर्धधातुकयोः , an अङ्गम् whose final letter is an इक् gets गुण-आदेशः, when a सार्वधातुक-प्रत्यय: or an आर्धधातुक-प्रत्यय: follows.

(10) जुहोति । By 8-4-54 अभ्यासे चर्च, in a reduplicate (अभ्यासः – ref. 6-1-4 पूर्वोऽभ्यासः), a letter of the झल्-प्रत्याहारः is substituted by a letter of the चर्-प्रत्याहारः or जश्-प्रत्याहारः। The substitutions take place as per 1-1-50 स्थानेऽन्तरतमः

Questions:

1. Where has √हु (हु दानादनयोः । आदाने चेत्येके । प्रीणनेऽपीति भाष्यम्, धातु-पाठः #३. १) been used with लँट् in the last ten verses of Chapter 9 of the गीता?

2. In which other (besides 6-1-10 श्लौ and 2-4-75 जुहोत्यादिभ्यः श्लुः) सूत्रम् (that we have studied) does पाणिनि: mention the term “श्लु”?

3. पाणिनि: prescribes द्वित्वम् (duplication) in two sections in the अष्टाध्यायी – one is from 6-1-1 to 6-1-12 and the other is from 8-1-1 to 8-1-15. The term “अभ्यास:” (defined by 6-1-4 पूर्वोऽभ्यासः) applied to which section?
i. Only to the section from 6-1-1 to 6-1-12
ii. Only to the section from 8-1-1 to 8-1-15
iii. To both sections – from 6-1-1 to 6-1-12 and from 8-1-1 to 8-1-15
iv. Neither to the section from 6-1-1 to 6-1-12 nor to the section from 8-1-1 to 8-1-15.

4. Where has 3-4-79 टित आत्मनेपदानां टेरे been used in the verse?

5. With regard to the form भस्मनि (नपुंसकलिङ्ग-प्रातिपदिकम् “भस्मन्”, सप्तमी-एकवचनम्) will there be an optional form by 6-4-136 विभाषा ङिश्योः?

6. How would you say this in Sanskrit?
“I remember only a part of the answer.” Use the masculine (compound) प्रादिपदिकम् “एकदेश” for “part” and the धातु: √स्मृ (स्मृ चिन्तायाम् १. १०८२) for “to remember.”

Easy questions:

1. Where has 7-2-106 तदोः सः सावनन्त्ययोः been used in the verse?

2. Which सूत्रम् was used to do the “आत्”-आदेश: in place of the ङसिँ-प्रत्यय: in the form मौढ्यात् (नपुंसकलिङ्ग-प्रातिपदिकम् “मौढ्य”, पञ्चमी-एकवचनम्)?

लेढि 3As-लँट्

Today we will look at the form लेढि 3As-लँट् from श्रीमद्भागवतम् Sb3-25-38.

न कर्हिचिन्मत्पराः शान्तरूपे नङ्क्ष्यन्ति नो मेऽनिमिषो लेढि हेतिः ।
येषामहं प्रिय आत्मा सुतश्च सखा गुरुः सुहृदो दैवमिष्टम् ।। ३-२५-३८ ।।

Gita Press translation “They who depend on Me, nay, to whom I am the only object of love, nay, the very self, the son, the friend, the preceptor, the kith and kin and the chosen deity, are never deprived of these enjoyments in Vaikuntha (which consists of pure Sattva); nor does My weapon in the shape of Time ever devour them.”

लेढि is derived from the धातुः √लिह् (लिहँ आस्वादने, अदादि-गणः, धातु-पाठः #२. ६)

The विवक्षा is लँट्, कर्तरि प्रयोगः, प्रथम-पुरुषः, एकवचनम्।

In the धातु-पाठः, the √लिह्-धातुः has one इत् letter which is the अकार: following the हकार:। This इत् letter has a स्वरित-स्वर:। Therefore, as per the सूत्रम् 1-3-72 स्वरितञितः कर्त्रभिप्राये क्रियाफले, the √लिह्-धातुः will take आत्मनेपद-प्रत्ययाः when the fruit of the action (क्रियाफलम्) accrues to the doer (कर्त्रभिप्रायम् = कर्तृ-अभिप्रायम्)। In the remaining case – when the fruit of the action does not accrue to the doer – by 1-3-78 शेषात् कर्तरि परस्मैपदम् – the √लिह्-धातुः will take परस्मैपद-प्रत्ययाः।
In reality though, this distinction of the fruit of the action accruing to the doer or not, is rarely honored in the language. So as a practical matter, a verbal root such as “√लिह्” will take either आत्मनेपद-प्रत्ययाः or परस्मैपद-प्रत्ययाः regardless of whether the fruit of the action accrues to the doer or not. In short, √लिह्-धातुः will be उभयपदी। In this verse, it has taken a परस्मैपद-प्रत्यय:।

Since the विवक्षा is प्रथम-पुरुष-एकवचनम्, the प्रत्यय: will be “तिप्”।

(1) लिह् + लँट् । By 3-2-123 वर्तमाने लट्, the affix लँट् comes after a धातुः when denoting an action in the present tense.

(2) लिह् + ल् । अनुबन्ध-लोपः by 1-3-2 उपदेशेऽजनुनासिक इत्, 1-3-3 हलन्त्यम्, 1-3-9 तस्य लोपः

(3) लिह् + तिप् । 3-4-78 तिप्तस्झिसिप्थस्थमिब्वस्मस् तातांझथासाथांध्वमिड्वहिमहिङ् mandates the प्रत्ययः “तिप्” as the substitute for the लकारः। “तिप्” gets the सार्वधातुक-सञ्ज्ञा by 3-4-113 तिङ्शित्सार्वधातुकम् – The affixes of the तिङ्-प्रत्याहारः and the affixes that have शकारः as an इत् get the designation of सार्वधातुकम् if they are prescribed in the “धातो:” अधिकार:।

(4) लिह् + ति । अनुबन्ध-लोपः by 1-3-3 हलन्त्यम्, 1-3-9 तस्य लोपः

(5) लिह् + शप् + ति । By 3-1-68 कर्तरि शप्‌, the शप्-प्रत्यय: is placed after a verbal root, when followed by a सार्वधातुक-प्रत्यय: that is used signifying the agent. The शप्-प्रत्यय: which is a शित्, gets सार्वधातुक-सञ्ज्ञा by 3-4-113 तिङ्शित्सार्वधातुकम्

(6) लिह् + ति । By 2-4-72 अदिप्रभृतिभ्यः शपः, the शप्-प्रत्ययः takes the लुक् elision when following a verbal root belonging to अदादि-गणः।

(7) लेह् + ति । By 7-3-86 पुगन्‍तलघूपधस्‍य च, when a अङ्गम् is followed by a सार्वधातुक-प्रत्ययः or an आर्धधातुक-प्रत्ययः, then its इक्-letter takes गुण-आदेशः in the following two cases: i) The अङ्गम् ends in a पुक्-आगमः। or ii) The penultimate letter of the अङ्गम् has the लघु-सञ्ज्ञा।

(8) लेढ् + ति । By 8-2-31 हो ढः, a हकारः gets ढकारः as replacement when followed by a झल् letter or at the end of a पदम्। In this case the हकार: was followed by a तकार: (which is a झल् letter.)

(9) लेढ् + धि । By 8-2-40 झषस्तथोर्धोऽधः, a तकारः or थकारः gets धकारः as the replacement, when preceded by a letter of the झष्-प्रत्याहारः with the exception of the धकारः belonging to the धातुः √धा (डुधाञ् धारणपोषणयोः | दान इत्यप्येके ३. ११)।

(10) लेढ् + ढि । By 8-4-41 ष्टुना ष्टुः, when the letter स् or a letter of the त-वर्ग: (त्, थ्, द्, ध्, न्) comes in contact with either the letter ष् or a letter of the ट-वर्ग: (ट्, ठ्, ड्, ढ्, ण्) then it is replaced respectively by ष्, ट-वर्ग: (ट्, ठ्, ड्, ढ्, ण्)।

(11) ले + ढि । By 8-3-13 ढो ढे लोपः, a ढकारः is elided if followed by a ढकारः। See question 1.

(12) लेढि ।

Questions:

1. As per 8-2-1 पूर्वत्रासिद्धम्, the ढकारादेश: done by 8-4-41 ष्टुना ष्टुः in step 10 should be असिद्ध: (as if it has not taken place) in the eyes of 8-3-13 ढो ढे लोपः। Then on what basis was 8-3-13 ढो ढे लोपः applied after 8-4-41 ष्टुना ष्टुः?

2. Can you recall another (besides 8-3-13 ढो ढे लोपः) सूत्रम् (which we have studied) by which there is लोप: of a particular letter if followed by the same letter?

3. In the nine items in the conjugation table of √लिह् (लिहँ आस्वादने, धातु-पाठः #२. ६) with लँट् in परस्मैपदम् in which form does 8-2-41 षढोः कः सि apply?

4. In the verse, can you spot a इकारान्त-प्रातिपदिकम् which does not have the घि-सञ्ज्ञा?

5. How would you say this in Sanskrit?
“How many weapons do the enemies have?” Use the प्रातिपदिकम् “कति” for “how many” and a प्रातिपदिकम् from the verse for “weapon.”

6. How would you say this in Sanskrit?
“There should be no error in this sentence.” Use √भू (भू सत्तायाम् १. १) for “to be” and the masculine प्रातिपदिकम् “दोष” for “error.”

Easy questions:

1. Where has 7-1-52 आमि सर्वनाम्नः सुट् been used?

2. Can you spot a नकारान्त-प्रातिपदिकम् (a प्रातिपदिकम् ending in a नकार:) in the verse?

पर्युपासत 3Ap-लँङ्

Today we will look at the form पर्युपासत 3Ap-लँङ् from श्रीमद्भागवतम् Sb10-58-6.

तथैव सात्यकिः पार्थैः पूजितश्चाभिवन्दितः ।
निषसादासनेऽन्ये च पूजिताः पर्युपासत ।। १०-५८-६ ।।

Gita Press translation “Honored and greeted in the same way by the sons of Pṛthā, Sātyaki made himself comfortable in his (own) seat. Treated with respect, others too sat in a circle near by.”

आसत is derived from the धातुः √आस् (आसँ उपवेशने, धातु-पाठः २. ११)

The विवक्षा is लँङ्, कर्तरि प्रयोग:, प्रथम-पुरुषः, बहुवचनम्।

In the धातु-पाठः, the धातुः √आस् has one इत् letter – the अकार: following the सकार:। This इत् letter has a अनुदात्त-स्वर:। Thus by 1-3-12 अनुदात्तङित आत्मनेपदम्, √आस्-धातुः will get आत्मनेपद-प्रत्ययाः। As per 1-4-100 तङानावात्मनेपदम्, the nine प्रत्यया: from “त” to “महिङ्” get the आत्मनेपद-सञ्ज्ञा। So आस्-धातुः can take only one of these nine प्रत्यया: in कर्तरि प्रयोग:। Since the विवक्षा is प्रथम-पुरुष-बहुवचनम्, the प्रत्यय: will be “झ”।

(1) आस् + लँङ् । By 3-2-111 अनद्यतने लङ् , the affix लँङ् follows a धातुः when used in the sense of past not of today.

(2) आस् + ल् । अनुबन्ध-लोपः by 1-3-2 उपदेशेऽजनुनासिक इत्, 1-3-3 हलन्त्यम्, 1-3-9 तस्य लोपः

(3) आस् + झ । 3-4-78 तिप्तस्झिसिप्थस्थमिब्वस्मस् तातांझथासाथांध्वमिड्वहिमहिङ् mandates the प्रत्ययः “झ” as the substitute for the लकारः। “झ” gets the सार्वधातुक-सञ्ज्ञा by 3-4-113 तिङ्शित्सार्वधातुकम् – The affixes of the तिङ्-प्रत्याहारः and the affixes that have शकारः as an इत् get the designation of सार्वधातुकम् if they are prescribed in the “धातो:” अधिकार:।

(4) आस् + शप् + झ । By 3-1-68 कर्तरि शप्‌, the शप्-प्रत्यय: is placed after a verbal root, when followed by a सार्वधातुक-प्रत्यय: that is used signifying the agent. The शप्-प्रत्यय: which is a शित्, gets सार्वधातुक-सञ्ज्ञा by 3-4-113 तिङ्शित्सार्वधातुकम्

(5) आस् + झ । By 2-4-72 अदिप्रभृतिभ्यः शपः, the शप्-प्रत्ययः takes the लुक् elision when following a verbal root belonging to अदादि-गणः।

(6) आस् + अत । By 7-1-5 आत्मनेपदेष्वनतः, the झकारः of a आत्मनेपद-प्रत्ययः gets “अत्” as the replacement when following an अङ्गम् that does not end in अकारः।

(7) आट् + आस् + अत । By 6-4-72 आडजादीनाम्, when followed by लुँङ्, लँङ् or लृँङ्, an अङ्गम् which begins with an अच् gets आट् as an augment.

(8) आ + आसत । अनुबन्ध-लोपः by 1-3-3 हलन्त्यम्, 1-3-9 तस्य लोपः

(9) आसत । By 6-1-90 आटश्च, वृद्धिः letter is a single replacement when आट् is followed by a vowel.

“परि” and “उप” are the उपसर्गौ (ref. 1-4-59 उपसर्गाः क्रियायोगे।)
परि + उप + आसत = पर्युपासत। 6-1-77 इको यणचि, 6-1-101 अकः सवर्णे दीर्घः

Questions:

1. In the first verse of which chapter of the गीता has √आस् (आसँ उपवेशने, धातु-पाठः २. ११) been used with the प्रत्यय: “झ”?

2. Which term from the सर्वादि-गण: (ref. 1-1-27 सर्वादीनि सर्वनामानि) has been used in the verse?

3. Which combination of indeclinables has been translated to “in the same way”?

4. Commenting on the सूत्रम् 7-1-5 आत्मनेपदेष्वनतः, the काशिका says – अनतः इति किम्? च्यवन्ते। Please explain.

5. Which two अधिकार-सूत्रे exert their influence on the सूत्रम् 6-1-90 आटश्च?

6. How would you say this in Sanskrit?
“Sit here.”

Easy questions:

1. Where has 7-1-9 अतो भिस ऐस् been used?

2. Can you spot a ङि-प्रत्यय: in the verse?

अस्मि 1As-लँट्

Today we will look at the form अस्मि 1As-लँट् from श्रीमद्भागवतम् Sb3-9-3.

नातः परं परम यद्भवतः स्वरूपमानन्दमात्रमविकल्पमविद्धवर्चः ।
पश्यामि विश्वसृजमेकमविश्वमात्मन् भूतेन्द्रियात्मकमदस्त उपाश्रितोऽस्मि ।। ३-९-३ ।।

Gita Press translation “I do not regard Your essence, which is purely blissful and undifferentiated and of the nature of unobscured effulgence, as something other than this form of Yours, O Supreme Spirit. That is why I have taken refuge in this very form, which, though creating the universe, is yet beyond the universe and is the source of all the five elements and the ten Indriyas.”

अस्मि is derived from the धातुः √अस् (असँ भुवि, अदादि-गणः, धातु-पाठः #२. ६०)

The विवक्षा is लँट्, कर्तरि प्रयोग:, उत्तम-पुरुषः, एकवचनम्।

The ending अकारः (which is an इत्) of “असँ” has a उदात्त-स्वरः। Thus the √अस्-धातुः is devoid of any indications for bringing in आत्मनेपद-प्रत्यया:। (Neither 1-3-12 अनुदात्तङित आत्मनेपदम् nor 1-3-72 स्वरितञितः कर्त्रभिप्राये क्रियाफले applies.) Therefore, as per 1-3-78 शेषात् कर्तरि परस्मैपदम्, the √अस्-धातुः, in कर्तरि प्रयोग:, will take the परस्मैपद-प्रत्यया: by default.
Since the विवक्षा is उत्तम-पुरुष-एकवचनम्, the प्रत्यय: will be “मिप्”।

(1) अस् + लँट् । By 3-2-123 वर्तमाने लट्, the affix लँट् comes after a धातुः when denoting an action in the present tense.

(2) अस् + ल् । अनुबन्ध-लोपः by 1-3-2 उपदेशेऽजनुनासिक इत्, 1-3-3 हलन्त्यम्, 1-3-9 तस्य लोपः

(3) अस् + मिप् । By 3-4-78 तिप्तस्झिसिप्थस्थमिब्वस्मस् तातांझथासाथांध्वमिड्वहिमहिङ् mandates the प्रत्ययः “मिप्” as the substitute for the लकारः। “मिप्” gets the सार्वधातुक-सञ्ज्ञा by 3-4-113 तिङ्शित्सार्वधातुकम् – The affixes of the तिङ्-प्रत्याहारः and the affixes that have शकारः as an इत् get the designation of सार्वधातुकम् if they are prescribed in the “धातो:” अधिकार:।

(4) अस् + मि । अनुबन्ध-लोपः by 1-3-3 हलन्त्यम् and 1-3-9 तस्य लोपः

(5) अस् + शप् + मि । By 3-1-68 कर्तरि शप्, the शप्-प्रत्यय: is placed after a verbal root, when followed by a सार्वधातुक-प्रत्यय: that is used signifying the agent. The शप्-प्रत्यय: which is a शित्, gets सार्वधातुक-सञ्ज्ञा by 3-4-113 तिङ्शित्सार्वधातुकम्

(6) अस्मि । By 2-4-72 अदिप्रभृतिभ्यः शपः, the शप्-प्रत्ययः takes the लुक् elision when following a verbal root belonging to अदादि-गणः।

Questions:

1. Where has अस्मि been used in Chapter 15 of the गीता?

2. We have studied four सूत्राणि from the “अङ्गस्य” अधिकार: in which पाणिनि: specifically mentions the धातु: √अस् (असँ भुवि, धातु-पाठः #२. ६०). Which are they and why didn’t any of them apply in this example? (Which conditions were not satisfied?)

3. Which term in the verse has the अव्यय-सञ्ज्ञा by 1-1-38 तद्धितश्चासर्वविभक्तिः?

4. Where has 7-3-78 पाघ्राध्मास्थाम्नादाण्दृश्यर्त्तिसर्त्तिशदसदां
पिबजिघ्रधमतिष्ठमनयच्छपश्यर्च्छधौशीयसीदाः been used?

5. Why didn’t the ending नकार: of (हे) आत्मन् take लोप: by 8-2-7 नलोपः प्रातिपदिकान्तस्य?

6. How would you say this in Sanskrit?
“I am the youngest in our family.” Use the adjective “यविष्ठ” for youngest and the neuter noun “कुटुम्ब” for “family.”

Easy questions:

1. Where has the युष्मद्-प्रातिपदिकम् been used? Where has the अदस्-प्रातिपदिकम् been used?

2. 6-1-109 एङः पदान्तादति been used?

आस्से 2As-लँट्

Today we will look at the form आस्से 2As-लँट् from श्रीमद्भागवतम् Sb3-9-11.

त्वं भक्तियोगपरिभावितहृत्सरोज आस्से श्रुतेक्षितपथो ननु नाथ पुंसाम् ।
यद्यद्धिया त उरुगाय विभावयन्ति तत्तद्वपुः प्रणयसे सदनुग्रहाय ।। ३-९-११ ।।

Gita Press translation “The path leading to You can be discovered only by hearing Your praises etc., and You surely dwell in the lotus-like heart of Your devotees, purified through the practice of Devotion. In order to oblige Your devotees You assume that very form in which they think of You, O Lord, who are profusely praised.”

आस्से is derived from the धातुः √आस् (आसँ उपवेशने, धातु-पाठः २. ११)

The विवक्षा is लँट्, कर्तरि प्रयोग:, मध्यम-पुरुषः, एकवचनम्।

In the धातु-पाठः, the धातुः √आस् has one इत् letter – the अकार: following the सकार:। This इत् letter has a अनुदात्त-स्वर:। Thus by 1-3-12 अनुदात्तङित आत्मनेपदम्, √आस्-धातुः will get आत्मनेपद-प्रत्ययाः। As per 1-4-100 तङानावात्मनेपदम्, the nine प्रत्यया: from “त” to “महिङ्” get the आत्मनेपद-सञ्ज्ञा। So आस्-धातुः can take only one of these nine प्रत्यया: in कर्तरि प्रयोग:। Since the विवक्षा is मध्यम-पुरुष-एकवचनम्, the प्रत्यय: will be “थास्”।

(1) आस् + लँट् । By 3-2-123 वर्तमाने लट्, the affix लँट् comes after a धातुः when denoting an action in the present tense.

(2) आस् + ल् । अनुबन्ध-लोपः by 1-3-2 उपदेशेऽजनुनासिक इत्, 1-3-3 हलन्त्यम्, 1-3-9 तस्य लोपः

(3) आस् + थास् । 3-4-78 तिप्तस्झिसिप्थस्थमिब्वस्मस् तातांझथासाथांध्वमिड्वहिमहिङ् mandates the प्रत्ययः “थास्” as the substitute for the लकारः। “थास्” gets the सार्वधातुक-सञ्ज्ञा by 3-4-113 तिङ्शित्सार्वधातुकम् – The affixes of the तिङ्-प्रत्याहारः and the affixes that have शकारः as an इत् get the designation of सार्वधातुकम् if they are prescribed in the “धातो:” अधिकार:।

(4) आस् + से। By 3-4-80 थासस्से the थास्-प्रत्ययः which substitutes a टित्-लकारः (a लकार: which has टकार: as a इत्), gets “से” as the replacement. “से” also gets the सार्वधातुक-सञ्ज्ञा by 1-1-56 स्थानिवदादेशोऽनल्विधौ

(5) आस् + शप् + से । By 3-1-68 कर्तरि शप्‌, the शप्-प्रत्यय: is placed after a verbal root, when followed by a सार्वधातुक-प्रत्यय: that is used signifying the agent. The शप्-प्रत्यय: which is a शित्, gets सार्वधातुक-सञ्ज्ञा by 3-4-113 तिङ्शित्सार्वधातुकम्

(6) आस्से । By 2-4-72 अदिप्रभृतिभ्यः शपः, the शप्-प्रत्ययः takes the लुक् elision when following a verbal root belonging to अदादि-गणः।

Questions:

1. Where has √आस् (आसँ उपवेशने, धातु-पाठः २. ११) been used in a तिङन्तं पदम् in Chapter 4 of the गीता?

2. In the absence of 3-4-80 थासस्से which सूत्रम् would have applied in step 4?

3. Which तिङन्तं पदम् can be derived from the धातु: √आस् (आसँ उपवेशने, धातु-पाठः २. ११) as well as from the धातु: √अस् (असँ भुवि, धातु-पाठः #२. ६०)?

4. Where else has 3-4-80 थासस्से been used in the verse?

5. Which अव्ययम् used in the verse translates to “surely”?

6. How would you say this in Sanskrit?
“Where should I sit?” Use the अव्ययम् “कुत्र” for “where.”

Easy questions:

1. Can you spot two places in the verse where 6-1-69 एङ्ह्रस्वात्‌ सम्बुद्धेः has been used?

2. Can you spot two places in the verse where 8-3-19 लोपः शाकल्यस्य has been used?

कुरुत 2Ap-लोँट्

Today we will look at the form कुरुत 2Ap-लोँट् from श्रीमद्भागवतम् Sb4-21-25.

तत्प्रजा भर्तृपिण्डार्थं स्वार्थमेवानसूयवः ।
कुरुताधोक्षजधियस्तर्हि मेऽनुग्रहः कृतः ।। ४-२१-२५ ।।

Gita Press translation “Free from a carping spirit and with your mind fixed on Lord Viṣṇu (who is above sense-perception), therefore, my (beloved) subjects, do your own duty for the good in the other world of your ruler (myself); (for) therein lies your own interest and thereby you will have done a (great) favor to me.”

कुरुत is derived from the धातुः √कृ (डुकृञ् करणे, तनादि-गणः, धातु-पाठः #८. १०)

The विवक्षा is लोँट्, कर्तरि प्रयोग:, मध्यम-पुरुषः, बहुवचनम्।

The “डु” at the beginning of this धातुः gets इत्-सञ्ज्ञा by 1-3-5 आदिर्ञिटुडवः। The ञकारः at the end gets इत्-सञ्ज्ञा by 1-3-3 हलन्त्यम्। Both take लोप: by 1-3-9 तस्य लोपः

Since the √कृ-धातुः has ञकारः as इत् in the धातु-पाठः by 1-3-72 स्वरितञितः कर्त्रभिप्राये क्रियाफले, the √कृ-धातुः will take आत्मनेपद-प्रत्ययाः when the fruit of the action (क्रियाफलम्) accrues to the doer (कर्त्रभिप्रायम् = कर्तृ-अभिप्रायम्)। In the remaining case – when the fruit of the action does not accrue to the doer – by 1-3-78 शेषात् कर्तरि परस्मैपदम् – the √कृ-धातुः will take परस्मैपद-प्रत्ययाः।

In reality though, this distinction of the fruit of the action accruing to the doer or not, is rarely honored in the language. So as a practical matter, a verbal root such as “√कृ” will take either आत्मनेपद-प्रत्ययाः or परस्मैपद-प्रत्ययाः regardless of whether the fruit of the action accrues to the doer or not. In short, √कृ-धातुः will be उभयपदी। In this verse, it has taken a परस्मैपद-प्रत्यय:।

Since the विवक्षा is लोँट्, कर्तरि प्रयोग:, मध्यम-पुरुष-बहुवचनम्, the प्रत्ययः is “थ”।

(1) कृ + लोँट् । By 3-3-162 लोट् च, the affix लोँट् comes after a धातुः when used in the sense of command/request.

(2) कृ + ल् । अनुबन्ध-लोपः by 1-3-2 उपदेशेऽजनुनासिक इत्, 1-3-3 हलन्त्यम्, 1-3-9 तस्य लोपः

(3) कृ + थ । 3-4-78 तिप्तस्झिसिप्थस्थमिब्वस्मस् तातांझथासाथांध्वमिड्वहिमहिङ् mandates the प्रत्ययः “थ” as the substitute for the लकारः। “थ” gets the सार्वधातुक-सञ्ज्ञा by 3-4-113 तिङ्शित्सार्वधातुकम्

(4) कृ + त । By 3-4-85 लोटो लङ्वत्‌, लोँट् is treated like लँङ्। लँङ् is a ङित्-लकार: (it has ङकार: as an इत्)। The तिङ्-प्रत्ययाः तस्, थस्, थ and मिप् of a लकारः which is a ङित्, are replaced by ताम्, तम्, त and अम् respectively by 3-4-101 तस्थस्थमिपां तांतंतामः । Since लोँट् is treated like लँङ्, the थ-प्रत्ययः of लोँट् also is replaced by “त”। “त” gets the सार्वधातुक-सञ्ज्ञा by 1-1-56 स्थानिवदादेशोऽनल्विधौ

(5) कृ + उ + त । By 3-1-79 तनादिकृञ्भ्य उः, when a सार्वधातुक-प्रत्ययः signifying the agent follows, the affix “उ” is placed after the verbal root √कृ (डुकृञ् करणे ८. १०) and also after a verbal root belonging to the तनादि-गणः। “उ” gets आर्धधातुक-सञ्ज्ञा by 3-4-114 आर्द्धधातुकं शेषः

(6) कर् + उ + त । By 7-3-84 सार्वधातुकार्धधातुकयोः, an अङ्गम् whose final letter is an इक् gets गुण-आदेशः, when a सार्वधातुक-प्रत्यय: or an आर्धधातुक-प्रत्यय: follows. By 1-1-51 उरण् रपरः, in the place of ऋवर्ण: if an अण् letter (अ, इ, उ) comes as a substitute, it is always followed by a रँ letter.
Since the प्रत्यय: “त” has the सार्वधातुक-सञ्ज्ञा and is अपित् (does not have पकार: as a इत्) it becomes ङिद्वत् (as if it has ङकार: as a इत्) by 1-2-4 सार्वधातुकमपित्। Hence 1-1-5 ग्क्ङिति च prevents the गुणादेश: for the उकार: which would have taken place by 7-3-84 सार्वधातुकार्धधातुकयोः

(7) कुरुत । By 6-4-110 अत उत्‌ सार्वधातुके, when √कृ (डुकृञ् करणे ८. १०) ends in the “उ”-प्रत्यय: and is followed by a सार्वधातुक-प्रत्ययः which is a कित् or a ङित्, then there is a substitution of उकारः in place of the अकारः (which is a result of गुणादेशः) of √कृ।

Questions:

1. The सूत्रम् 6-4-110 अत उत्‌ सार्वधातुके has been used many times in the गीता। Where has it been used for the first time? Where has it been used for the last time?

2. Which अव्ययम् used in the verse translates to “therefore”?

3. After step 7, why doesn’t the “उ”-प्रत्यय: cause the गुणादेश: for the उकार: in the अङ्गम् “कुर्” by 7-3-86 पुगन्तलघूपधस्य च?

4. Commenting on the सूत्रम् 6-4-110 अत उत्‌ सार्वधातुके, the काशिका says क्ङिति इत्येव, करोति। Please explain.

5. Where has 6-4-77 अचि श्नुधातुभ्रुवां य्वोरियङुवङौ been used?

6. How would you say this in Sanskrit?
“Do me a favor.” Use a word from the verse for “favor.”

Easy questions:

1. Which प्रातिपदिकम् used in the verse has the घि-सञ्ज्ञा?

2. Where has 8-3-22 हलि सर्वेषाम् been used?

शयीरन् 3Ap-विधिलिँङ्

Today we will look at the form शयीरन् 3Ap-विधिलिँङ् from श्रीमद्भागवतम् 5-13-15.

मनस्विनो निर्जितदिग्गजेन्द्रा ममेति सर्वे भुवि बद्धवैराः ।
मृधे शयीरन्न तु तद्व्रजन्ति यन्न्यस्तदण्डो गतवैरोऽभियाति ।। ५-१३-१५ ।।

Gita Press translation “(Even great) heroes, who have completely subdued the great elephants guarding the quarters as well as the four intervening corners, all bite the dust on the field of battle, having contracted confirmed hostility with one another for the sake of (dominion over) the earth, claiming it as their own. None of them, however, attains the goal which is reached by the recluse (who has completely shaken off all forms of violence and) who is free from enmity.”

शयीरन् is derived from the धातुः √शी (शीङ् स्वप्ने, अदादि-गणः, धातु-पाठः २. २६)

The विवक्षा is विधिलिँङ्, कर्तरि प्रयोग:, प्रथम-पुरुषः, बहुवचनम्।

The धातुः √शी is a ङित् (has ङकारः as a इत् letter)। Thus by 1-3-12 अनुदात्तङित आत्मनेपदम् √शी will get आत्मनेपद-प्रत्ययाः। As per 1-4-100 तङानावात्मनेपदम्, the nine प्रत्यया: from “त” to “महिङ्” get the आत्मनेपद-सञ्ज्ञा। So √शी can take only one of these nine प्रत्यया: in कर्तरि प्रयोग:। Since the विवक्षा is प्रथम-पुरुष-बहुवचनम्, the प्रत्यय: will be “झ”।

(1) शी + लिँङ् । By 3-3-161 विधिनिमन्त्रणामन्त्रणाधीष्टसंप्रश्नप्रार्थनेषु लिङ्, the affix लिङ् is prescribed after a धातुः when used in the sense of command, direction, invitation, request, inquiry and entreaty.

(2) शी + ल् । अनुबन्ध-लोपः by 1-3-2 उपदेशेऽजनुनासिक इत्, 1-3-3 हलन्त्यम्, 1-3-9 तस्य लोपः

(3) शी + झ । 3-4-78 तिप्तस्झिसिप्थस्थमिब्वस्मस् तातांझथासाथांध्वमिड्वहिमहिङ् mandates the प्रत्ययः “झ” as the substitute for the लकारः। “झ” gets the सार्वधातुक-सञ्ज्ञा by 3-4-113 तिङ्शित्सार्वधातुकम् – The affixes of the तिङ्-प्रत्याहारः and the affixes that have शकारः as an इत् get the designation of सार्वधातुकम् if they are prescribed in the “धातो:” अधिकार:।

(4) शी + रन्। By 3-4-105 झस्य रन्, the affix झ of लिँङ् is replaced by रन्। As per 1-1-55 अनेकाल्शित्सर्वस्य, the entire प्रत्यय: “झ” gets replaced. 1-3-4 न विभक्तौ तुस्माः prevents the ending नकारः of रन्-प्रत्ययः from getting the इत्-सञ्ज्ञा। रन् also gets सार्वधातुक-सञ्ज्ञा by 1-1-56 स्थानिवदादेशोऽनल्विधौ

(5) शी + सीयुट् रन् । By 3-4-102 लिङस्सीयुट् , the affixes of लिँङ् get सीयुट् as the augment. 1-1-46 आद्यन्तौ टकितौ places the सीयुट्-आगमः before the प्रत्यय:।

(6) शी + सीय् रन् । The उकार: in सीयुट् is for pronunciation only (उच्चारणार्थम्)। The टकार: is an इत् by 1-3-3 हलन्त्यम् and takes लोप: by 1-3-9 तस्य लोपः

(7) शी + शप् + सीय् रन् । By 3-1-68 कर्तरि शप्‌, the शप्-प्रत्यय: is placed after a verbal root, when followed by a सार्वधातुक-प्रत्यय: that is used signifying the agent. The शप्-प्रत्यय: which is a शित्, gets सार्वधातुक-सञ्ज्ञा by 3-4-113 तिङ्शित्सार्वधातुकम्

(8) शी + सीय् रन् । By 2-4-72 अदिप्रभृतिभ्यः शपः, the शप्-प्रत्ययः takes the लुक् elision when following a verbal root belonging to अदादि-गणः।

(9) शी + ई य् रन् । By 7-2-79 लिङः सलोपोऽनन्‍त्‍यस्‍य, the सकारः of a सार्वधातुक-लिङ् affix is elided, provided it is not the final letter of the affix.

(10) शी + ईरन् । By 6-1-66 लोपो व्‍योर्वलि , a वकारः or a यकारः is elided when it is followed by a letter of the वल्-प्रत्याहारः।

(11) शे + ईरन् । By 7-4-21 शीङः सार्वधातुके गुणः, the verbal root √शी (शीङ् स्वप्ने २. २६) takes गुण-आदेशः when a सार्वधातुक-प्रत्ययः follows.

(12) शयीरन् । अयादेशः by 6-1-78 एचोऽयवायावः

Questions:

1. 3-4-105 झस्य रन् is used in only one place in the गीता। Where is that?

2. Where else (besides in शयीरन्) has 2-4-72 अदिप्रभृतिभ्यः शपः been used in the verse?

3. 3-4-105 झस्य रन् is an अपवाद: for which सूत्रम्?

4. The अव्ययम् “इति” normally ends a quotation. Based on the context we have to find out where the quotation begins. From where does the quotation begin in this verse?

5. Can you spot a “उवँङ्”-आदेश: in the verse?

6. How would you say this in Sanskrit?
“This child does not sleep without his (own) mother.” Use the masculine प्रातिपदिकम् “शिशु” for “child”, use the अव्ययम् “विना” for without, use द्वितीया विभक्ति: with “own mother.”

Easy questions:

1. Can you recall a सूत्रम् (which we have studied) which is a अपवाद: for 6-1-78 एचोऽयवायावः?

2. Where has 7-1-3 झोऽन्तः been used in the verse?

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