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विनाशधर्मसु mLp

Today we will look at the form विनाशधर्मसु  mLp from रघुवंशम् verse 8-10.

अथ वीक्ष्य रघुः प्रतिष्ठितं प्रकृतिष्वात्मजमात्मवत्तया ।
विषयेषु विनाशधर्मसु त्रिदिवस्थेष्वपि निःस्पृहोऽभवत् ॥ ८-१० ॥

मल्लिनाथ-टीका
अथेति । अथ रघुरात्मजं पुत्रमात्मवत्तया निर्विकारमनस्कतयेत्यर्थः । ‘उदयादिष्वविकृतिर्मनसः सत्त्वमुच्यते । आत्मवान्सत्त्ववानुक्तः’ इत्युत्पलमालायाम् । प्रकृतिष्वमात्यादिषु प्रतिष्ठितं रूढमूलं वीक्ष्य ज्ञात्वा विनाशो धर्मो येषां तेषु विनाशधर्मसु । अनित्येष्वित्यर्थः । ‘5-4-124 धर्मादनिच् केवलात्‌’ इत्यनिच्प्रत्ययः समासान्तः । त्रिदिवस्थेष्वपि विषयेषु शब्दादिषु निःस्पृहो निर्गतेच्छोऽभवत् ।। १० ।।

Translation – Raghu, seeing that his son with an undisturbed mind was now well established among his subjects (ministers etc), became indifferent towards objects of sense which are perishable by nature – even though they might belong to heavenly regions (10).

(1) विनाशो धर्मो यस्य स: = विनाशधर्मा – That whose nature is perishing (impermanent.)

(2) विनाश सुँ + धर्म सुँ । By 2-2-24 अनेकमन्यपदार्थे – Two or more terms having the designation पदम् and ending in the nominative case may optionally compound to yield a बहुव्रीहि: compound provided the terms are employed to denote the sense of another पदम् (which is not part of the compound.)

(3) The adjective ‘विनाश सुँ’ is placed in the prior position in the compound as per the सूत्रम् 2-2-35 सप्तमीविशेषणे बहुव्रीहौ – In a बहुव्रीहि: compound the पदम् which ends in a seventh case affix or is an adjective takes the prior position.

Note: ‘विनाश सुँ + धर्म सुँ’ gets the designation प्रातिपदिकम्‌ by 1-2-46 कृत्तद्धितसमासाश्च। This allows 2-4-71 to apply in the next step.

(4) विनाश + धर्म । By 2-4-71 सुपो धातुप्रातिपदिकयोः – A सुँप् affix takes a लुक् elision when it is a part of a धातुः or a प्रातिपदिकम्।

(5) विनाशधर्म + अनिँच्‌ । By 5-4-124 धर्मादनिच् केवलात्‌ Following a बहुव्रीहि: compound in which the prior member is a single पदम् and the final member is ‘धर्म’ the तद्धित: affix अनिँच्‌ is prescribed and this affix becomes the ending member of the compound.

(6) विनाशधर्म + अन् । अनुबन्ध-लोपः by 1-3-2 उपदेशेऽजनुनासिक इत्, 1-3-3 हलन्त्यम् and 1-3-9 तस्य लोपः।

Note: The अङ्गम् ‘विनाशधर्म’ has the भ-सञ्ज्ञा here as per the सूत्रम् 1-4-18 यचि भम्। This allows the सूत्रम् 6-4-148 to apply in the next step.

(7) विनाशधर्म् + अन् । By 6-4-148 यस्येति च – When the letter ‘ई’ or a ‘तद्धित’ affix follows, the (ending) इ-वर्ण: (letter ‘इ’ or ‘ई’) or the (ending) अवर्ण: (letter ‘अ’ or ‘आ’) of a अङ्गम् with the भ-सञ्ज्ञा takes elision (लोपः)।

= विनाशधर्मन् ।

The gender of a बहुव्रीहि: compound matches that of which it qualifies. In the present example विषय: is being qualified. Hence we assign the masculine gender to the compound प्रातिपदिकम् ‘विनाशधर्मन्’। It declines like ‘आत्मन्’-शब्द:।

The विवक्षा is सप्तमी-बहुवचनम्।

(8) विनाशधर्मन् + सुप् । By 4-1-2 स्वौजसमौट्छष्टाभ्याम्भिस्ङेभ्याम्भ्यस्ङसिँभ्याम्भ्यस्ङसोसाम्ङ्योस्सुप्

(9) विनाशधर्मन् + सु । अनुबन्ध-लोपः by 1-3-3 हलन्त्यम् and 1-3-9 तस्य लोपः।
Note: ‘विनाशधर्मन्’ gets the पद-सञ्ज्ञा by 1-4-17 स्वादिष्वसर्वनामस्थाने – Excluding the affixes that have the सर्वनामस्थान-सञ्ज्ञा, when any of the other affixes from ‘सुँ’ up to ‘कप्’ follow, the base gets the पद-सञ्ज्ञा ।

(10) विनाशधर्म + सु । By 8-2-7 नलोप: प्रातिपदिकान्तस्य – The ending letter ‘न्’ of a पदम् is dropped when the पदम् also has the designation प्रातिपदिकम्।

= विनाशधर्मसु ।

Questions:

1. Commenting on the सूत्रम् 5-4-124 धर्मादनिच् केवलात्‌ (used in step 5) the सिद्धान्तकौमुदी says – केवलात्‌ किम्‌? परम: स्वो धर्मो यस्येति त्रिपदे बहुव्रीहौ मा भूत्‌। Please explain.

2. Commenting on the same सूत्रम् the तत्त्वबोधिनी says – अनिचोऽकारश्चिन्त्यप्रयोजन इत्येके। Please explain.

3. Which compound used in the verse may be justified using the वार्तिकम् (under 2-2-24 अनेकमन्यपदार्थे) प्रादिभ्यो धातुजस्य वाच्यो वा चोत्तरपदलोपः?

4. Can you spot the affix ‘ड’ in the verse?

5. Which two compounds used in the commentary are नञ्-तत्पुरुष: compounds?

6. How would you say this in Sanskrit?
“Even though we know that sense objects are by nature perishable still we’re attached to (towards) them.” Use the verbal root √सञ्ज् (षञ्जँ सङ्गे १. ११४२) preceded by the उपसर्ग: ‘आङ्’ (‘आ’) for ‘to be attached.’

Easy questions:

1. Where has the सूत्रम् 6-4-71 लुङ्लङ्लृङ्क्ष्वडुदात्तः been used in the verse?

2. Which सूत्रम् prescribes सम्प्रसारणम् in the form उच्यते used in the commentary?

दुर्मेधाः mNs

Today we will look at the form दुर्मेधाः mNs from श्रीमद्भागवतम् 10.44.33.

निःसारयत दुर्वृत्तौ वसुदेवात्मजौ पुरात् । धनं हरत गोपानां नन्दं बध्नीत दुर्मतिम् ।। १०-४४-३२ ।।
वसुदेवस्तु दुर्मेधा हन्यतामाश्वसत्तमः । उग्रसेनः पिता चापि सानुगः परपक्षगः ।। १०-४४-३३ ।।

श्रीधर-स्वामि-टीका
No commentary on these verses.

Gita Press translation – “Drive out of the city the two ill-behaved sons of Vasudeva; confiscate the wealth of the Gopas and put in bonds the wicked Nanda (32). On the other hand, let Vasudeva of evil mind, the vilest of all, be made short work of at once and so also Ugrasena, my father, who has sided with my enemy, along with his followers.” (33)

(1) दु: (दुष्टा) मेधा यस्य स: = दुर्मेधा: – He whose intelligence/mind is evil.

(2) दुस् + मेधा सुँ । By 2-2-24 अनेकमन्यपदार्थे – Two or more terms having the designation पदम् and ending in the nominative case may optionally compound to yield a बहुव्रीहि: compound provided the terms are employed to denote the sense of another पदम् (which is not part of the compound.)

(3) The adjective ‘दुस्’ (meaning ‘दुष्टा’) is placed in the prior position in the compound as per the सूत्रम् 2-2-35 सप्तमीविशेषणे बहुव्रीहौ – In a बहुव्रीहि: compound the पदम् which ends in a seventh case affix or is an adjective takes the prior position.

Note: ‘दुस् + मेधा सुँ’ gets the designation प्रातिपदिकम्‌ by 1-2-46 कृत्तद्धितसमासाश्च। This allows 2-4-71 to apply in the next step.

(4) दुस् + मेधा । By 2-4-71 सुपो धातुप्रातिपदिकयोः – A सुँप् affix takes a लुक् elision when it is a part of a धातुः or a प्रातिपदिकम्।

(5) दुर् + मेधा । By 8-2-66 ससजुषो रुः । अनुबन्ध-लोपः by 1-3-2 उपदेशेऽजनुनासिक इत् and 1-3-9 तस्य लोपः

(6) दुर्मेधा + असिँच् । By 5-4-122 नित्यमसिच् प्रजामेधयोः – Following a बहुव्रीहि: compound whose latter member is either ‘प्रजा’ or ‘मेधा’ and whose prior member is either (the negation particle) ‘नञ्’ or ‘दुस्’ or ‘सु’ the तद्धित: affix असिँच् is prescribed and this affix becomes the ending member of the compound.

(7) दुर्मेधा + अस् । अनुबन्ध-लोपः by 1-3-2 उपदेशेऽजनुनासिक इत्, 1-3-3 हलन्त्यम् and 1-3-9 तस्य लोपः।

Note: The अङ्गम् ‘दुर्मेधा’ has the भ-सञ्ज्ञा here as per the सूत्रम् 1-4-18 यचि भम्। This allows the सूत्रम् 6-4-148 to apply in the next step.

(8) दुर्मेध् + अस् । By 6-4-148 यस्येति च – When the letter ‘ई’ or a ‘तद्धित’ affix follows, the (ending) इ-वर्ण: (letter ‘इ’ or ‘ई’) or the (ending) अवर्ण: (letter ‘अ’ or ‘आ’) of a अङ्गम् with the भ-सञ्ज्ञा takes elision (लोपः)।

= दुर्मेधस् ।

The gender of a बहुव्रीहि: compound matches that of which it qualifies. In the present example वसुदेव: is being qualified. Hence we assign the masculine gender to the compound प्रातिपदिकम् ‘दुर्मेधस्’। It declines like ‘वेधस्’-शब्द:।

The विवक्षा is प्रथमा-एकवचनम् ।

(9) दुर्मेधस् + सुँ । By 4-1-2 स्वौजसमौट्छष्टाभ्याम्भिस्ङेभ्याम्भ्यस्ङसिँभ्याम्भ्यस्ङसोसाम्ङ्योस्सुप्

(10) दुर्मेधस् + स् । अनुबन्ध-लोपः by 1-3-2 उपदेशेऽजनुनासिक इत् and 1-3-9 तस्य लोपः

(11) दुर्मेधास् + स् । By 6-4-14 अत्वसन्तस्य चाधातोः – When the ‘सुँ’ affix which is not सम्बुद्धिः follows, a base that ends in ‘अतुँ’ or a base that ends in ‘अस्’ which is not of a verbal root, has its penultimate letter elongated.

(12) दुर्मेधास् । By 6-1-68 हल्ङ्याब्भ्यो दीर्घात्‌ सुतिस्यपृक्तं हल् – A single letter affix ‘सुँ’, ‘ति’ or ‘सि’ is dropped following a base ending in a consonant or in the long feminine affix ‘ङी’ or ‘आप्’।
Note: Now ‘दुर्मेधास्’ gets पद-सञ्ज्ञा by 1-4-14 सुप्तिङन्तं पदम् with the help of 1-1-62 प्रत्ययलोपे प्रत्ययलक्षणम् । This allows the सूत्रम् 8-2-66 to apply in the next step.

(13) दुर्मेधाः । रुँत्व-विसर्गौ – 8-2-66 ससजुषो रुः and 8-3-15 खरवसानयोर्विसर्जनीयः

Questions:

1. Where has the सूत्रम् 5-4-122 नित्यमसिच् प्रजामेधयोः (used in step 6) been used (by extension) in verses 20-25 of Chapter Seven of the गीता?

2. In which word in the verses has the affix ‘क’ been used?

3. Where has the सूत्रम् 6-3-82 वोपसर्जनस्य been used in the verses?

4. Which वार्तिकम् may be used to justify the use of the affix ‘ड’ in the compound परपक्षगः?

5. In the verses can you spot a compound in which the पूर्वपदम् (the first member) has taken पुंवद्भाव: (a masculine-like form)?

6. How would you say this in Sanskrit?
One hearing the words of Śrī Hanumān, the enraged Rāvaṇa ordered “Kill this evil-minded monkey.” Paraphrase to – One hearing the words of Śrī Hanumān, the enraged Rāvaṇa ordered “Let this evil-minded monkey be killed.” Use the verbal root √क्रुध् (क्रुधँ क्रोधे (कोपे) ४. ८६) preceded by the उपसर्ग: ‘सम्’ for ‘to be enraged’ and the verbal root √दिश् (दिशँ अतिसर्जने ६. ३) preceded by the उपसर्ग: ‘आङ्’ (‘आ’) for ‘to order.’

Easy questions:

1. Which सूत्रम् prescribes the substitution ‘आम्‌’ in the form हन्यताम्‌?

2. Where has the सूत्रम् 6-4-113 ई हल्यघोः been used in the verses?

सुप्रजाः mNs

Today we will look at the form सुप्रजाः mNs from रघुवंशम् 8.32.

स कदाचिदवेक्षितप्रजः सह देव्या विजहार सुप्रजाः । नगरोपवने शचीसखो मरुतां पालयितेव नन्दने ॥ ८-३२ ॥

मल्लिनाथ-टीका
इति । अवेक्षितप्रजोऽकुतोभयत्वेनानुसंहितप्रजः । न केवलं स्त्रैण इति भाव: । शोभना प्रजा यस्यासौ सुप्रजाः सुपुत्रवान् । ‘नित्यमसिच्प्रजामेधयोः’ इत्यसिच्प्रत्ययः । पुत्रन्यस्तभार इति भावः । सोऽजः कदाचिद्देव्या महिष्येन्दुमत्या सह नगरोपवनेनन्दने नन्दनाख्येऽमरावत्युपकण्ठवने शचीसखः । शच्या सहेत्यर्थः । मरुतां देवानां पालयितेन्द्र इव विजहार चिक्रीड ।। ३२ ।।

Translation – Once upon a time, he (the king Aja) who looked after his subjects, and who had a fine son, sported with his queen (Indumatī) in the city garden, like Indra (the protector of the gods) with Ṡaci in his company (sports) in the Nandana garden.

(1) सु (शोभना) प्रजा यस्य स: = सुप्रजा: – He whose offspring is good.

(2) सु + प्रजा सुँ । By 2-2-24 अनेकमन्यपदार्थे – Two or more terms having the designation पदम् and ending in the nominative case may optionally compound to yield a बहुव्रीहि: compound provided the terms are employed to denote the sense of another पदम् (which is not part of the compound.)

(3) The adjective ‘सु’ (meaning ‘शोभना’) is placed in the prior position in the compound as per the सूत्रम् 2-2-35 सप्तमीविशेषणे बहुव्रीहौ – In a बहुव्रीहि: compound the पदम् which ends in a seventh case affix or is an adjective takes the prior position.

Note: ‘सु + प्रजा सुँ’ gets the designation प्रातिपदिकम्‌ by 1-2-46 कृत्तद्धितसमासाश्च। This allows 2-4-71 to apply in the next step.

(4) सु + प्रजा । By 2-4-71 सुपो धातुप्रातिपदिकयोः – A सुँप् affix takes a लुक् elision when it is a part of a धातुः or a प्रातिपदिकम्।

(5) सुप्रजा + असिँच् । By 5-4-122 नित्यमसिच् प्रजामेधयोः – Following a बहुव्रीहि: compound whose latter member is either ‘प्रजा’ or ‘मेधा’ and whose prior member is either (the negation particle) ‘नञ्’ or ‘दुस्’ or ‘सु’ the तद्धित: affix असिँच् is prescribed and this affix becomes the ending member of the compound.

See questions 2 and 3.

(6) सुप्रजा + अस् । अनुबन्ध-लोपः by 1-3-2 उपदेशेऽजनुनासिक इत्, 1-3-3 हलन्त्यम् and 1-3-9 तस्य लोपः।

Note: The अङ्गम् ‘सुप्रजा’ has the भ-सञ्ज्ञा here as per the सूत्रम् 1-4-18 यचि भम्। This allows the सूत्रम् 6-4-148 to apply in the next step.

(7) सुप्रज् + अस् । By 6-4-148 यस्येति च – When the letter ‘ई’ or a ‘तद्धित’ affix follows, the (ending) इ-वर्ण: (letter ‘इ’ or ‘ई’) or the (ending) अवर्ण: (letter ‘अ’ or ‘आ’) of a अङ्गम् with the भ-सञ्ज्ञा takes elision (लोपः)।

= सुप्रजस् ।

The gender of a बहुव्रीहि: compound matches that of which it qualifies. In the present example स: (the king) is being qualified. Hence we assign the masculine gender to the compound प्रातिपदिकम् ‘सुप्रजस्’। It declines like ‘वेधस्’-शब्द:।

The विवक्षा is प्रथमा-एकवचनम् ।

(8) सुप्रजस् + सुँ । By 4-1-2 स्वौजसमौट्छष्टाभ्याम्भिस्ङेभ्याम्भ्यस्ङसिँभ्याम्भ्यस्ङसोसाम्ङ्योस्सुप्

(9) सुप्रजस् + स् । अनुबन्ध-लोपः by 1-3-2 उपदेशेऽजनुनासिक इत् and 1-3-9 तस्य लोपः

(10) सुप्रजास् + स् । By 6-4-14 अत्वसन्तस्य चाधातोः – When the ‘सुँ’ affix which is not सम्बुद्धिः follows, a base that ends in ‘अतुँ’ or a base that ends in ‘अस्’ which is not of a verbal root, has its penultimate letter elongated.

(11) सुप्रजास् । By 6-1-68 हल्ङ्याब्भ्यो दीर्घात्‌ सुतिस्यपृक्तं हल् – A single letter affix ‘सुँ’, ‘ति’ or ‘सि’ is dropped following a base ending in a consonant or in the long feminine affix ‘ङी’ or ‘आप्’।
Note: Now ‘सुप्रजास्’ gets पद-सञ्ज्ञा by 1-4-14 सुप्तिङन्तं पदम् with the help of 1-1-62 प्रत्ययलोपे प्रत्ययलक्षणम् । This allows the सूत्रम् 8-2-66 to apply in the next step.

(12) सुप्रजाः । रुँत्व-विसर्गौ – 8-2-66 ससजुषो रुः and 8-3-15 खरवसानयोर्विसर्जनीयः

Questions:

1. Where has the सूत्रम् 5-4-122 नित्यमसिच् प्रजामेधयोः (used in step 5) been used in verses 30-35 of Chapter Eighteen of the गीता?

2. Commenting on the सूत्रम् 5-4-122 नित्यमसिच् प्रजामेधयोः the तत्त्वबोधिनी says – अकारोच्चारणं भत्वसम्पादनार्थम्, तेन सुप्रजसावित्यादौ ‘यस्येति च’ इत्यकारलोपः सिध्यति। Please explain.

3. Commenting further on the same सूत्रम् the तत्त्वबोधिनी says – अस्वरितत्वादेव अन्यतरस्यांग्रहणाननुवृत्तिसिद्धौ नित्यग्रहणमन्यतो विधानार्थम्। तेन ‘अल्पमेधस:’ इति सिध्यतीति वृत्तिकारादयः। Please explain.

4. In which compound in the verse has the affix ‘टच्’ been used?

5. In which compound in the verse has the first member of the compound taken पुंवद्भाव: (a masculine-like form)?

6. How would you say this in Sanskrit?
“King Daśaratha, who had no offspring, performed a sacrifice for getting a son.” Construct a बहुव्रीहि: compound for ‘one who has no offspring’ = ‘अविद्यमाना प्रजा यस्य स:’। Use a causative form of the verbal root √वृत् (वृतुँ वर्तने १. ८६२) preceded by the उपसर्ग: ‘निर्’ for ‘to perform.’

Easy questions:

1. From which verbal root is the form विजहार derived?

2. Which सूत्रम् prescribes the substitution ‘च्’ in the form चिक्रीड used in the commentary?

गवाक्षाः mNp

Today we will look at the form गवाक्षाः mNp from रघुवंशम् 16.20.

रात्रावनाविष्कृतदीपभासः कान्तामुखश्रीवियुता दिवापि ।
तिरस्क्रियन्ते कृमितन्तुजालैर्विच्छिन्नधूमप्रसरा गवाक्षाः॥ 16-20॥

मल्लिनाथ-टीका
रात्रावनाविष्कृतदीपभासः । दीपप्रभाशून्या इत्यर्थः । दिवापि दिवसेऽपि कान्तामुखानां श्रिया कान्त्या वियुता रहिता विच्छिन्नो नष्टो धूमप्रसरो येषां ते गवाक्षाः कृमितन्तुजालैर्लूतातन्तुवितानैस्तिरस्क्रियन्ते छाद्यन्ते ।।

Translation – The round windows are displaying no light of lamps at night and are void of the luster of the faces of the beautiful ladies during the day too. Their diffusion of smoke has ended and they are (now) being covered by cob-webs (20).

(1) गवामक्षीव = गवाक्ष: – round window (which is like the bulls’ eye.)

(2) गो आम् + अक्षि सुँ । By 2-2-8 षष्ठी – A पदम् ending in a sixth case affix optionally compounds with a (syntactically related) पदम् ending in a सुँप् affix and the resulting compound gets the designation तत्पुरुष:।

(3) By the सूत्रम् 1-2-43 प्रथमानिर्दिष्टं समास उपसर्जनम् – ‘गो आम्’ (which ends in a sixth case affix) gets the designation उपसर्जनम् because in the सूत्रम् 2-2-8 षष्ठी (which prescribes the compounding) the term षष्ठी ends in the nominative case.
And hence as per 2-2-30 उपसर्जनं पूर्वम्‌ the term ‘गो आम्’ is placed in the prior position in the compound. Note: ‘गो आम् + अक्षि सुँ’ gets the designation प्रातिपदिकम्‌ by 1-2-46 कृत्तद्धितसमासाश्च । This allows the सूत्रम् 2-4-71 to apply in the next step.

(4) गो + अक्षि । By 2-4-71 सुपो धातुप्रातिपदिकयोः – A सुँप् affix takes a लुक् elision when it is a part of a धातुः or a प्रातिपदिकम्। Note: Now the term ‘गो’ has the designation पदम् by 1-4-14 सुप्तिङन्तं पदम् with the help of 1-1-62 प्रत्ययलोपे प्रत्ययलक्षणम्। This allows the सूत्रम् 6-1-123 to apply in the next step.

(5) ग् अवङ् + अक्षि । By 6-1-123 अवङ् स्फोटायनस्य – When followed by a vowel, the term ‘गो’ is optionally replaced by ‘अवङ्’ provided ‘गो’ ends in a letter belonging to the प्रत्याहार: ‘एङ्’ and this letter is at the end of a पदम्।
Note: The substitution ‘अवङ्’ takes place only in the opinion of the teacher स्फोटायन: (and not in the opinion of other teachers.) Hence it implies that the substitution is optional.
Note: As per the परिभाषा-सूत्रम् 1-1-53 ङिच्च the substitution ‘अवङ्’ comes in place of only the ending letter (‘ओ’) of ‘गो’।

See questions 1, 2 and 3.

(6) ग् अव + अक्षि । अनुबन्ध-लोपः by 1-3-3 हलन्त्यम् and 1-3-9 तस्य लोपः।

(7) गवाक्षि । By 6-1-101 अकः सवर्णे दीर्घः

(8) गवाक्षि + अच् । By 5-4-76 अक्ष्णोऽदर्शनात्‌ – Following a compound ending in ‘अक्षि’ – when not denoting an eye – the तद्धित: affix अच् is prescribed and this affix becomes the ending member of the compound.
Note: The प्रातिपदिकम् ‘दर्शन’ as used in this सूत्रम् is derived by using the affix ल्युट् (prescribed by the सूत्रम् 3-3-117 करणाधिकरणयोश्च) to denote the instrument of the action (of seeing.) दृश्यतेऽनेनेति दर्शनम् – that by means of which something is seen is called दर्शनम्। Hence it stands for an eye.

(9) गवाक्षि + अ । अनुबन्ध-लोपः by 1-3-3 हलन्त्यम् and 1-3-9 तस्य लोपः।

Note: The अङ्गम् ‘गवाक्षि’ has the भ-सञ्ज्ञा here as per the सूत्रम् 1-4-18 यचि भम्। This allows the सूत्रम् 6-4-148 to apply in the next step.

(10) गवाक्ष् + अ । By 6-4-148 यस्येति च – When the letter ‘ई’ or a ‘तद्धित’ affix follows, the (ending) इ-वर्ण: (letter ‘इ’ or ‘ई’) or the (ending) अवर्ण: (letter ‘अ’ or ‘आ’) of a अङ्गम् with the भ-सञ्ज्ञा takes elision (लोपः)।

= गवाक्ष ।

As per the सूत्रम् 2-4-26 परवल्लिङ्गं द्वन्द्वतत्पुरुषयोः, the compound प्रातिपदिकम् ‘गवाक्ष’ should have been neuter since the latter member ‘अक्षि’ of the compound is neuter. But पुंस्त्वं लोकात् – this compound is used in the masculine gender in the language. It declines like राम-शब्द:।

The विवक्षा is प्रथमा-बहुवचनम्।

(11) गवाक्ष + जस् । By 4-1-2 स्वौजसमौट्छष्टाभ्याम्भिस्ङेभ्याम्भ्यस्ङसिँभ्याम्भ्यस्ङसोसाम्ङ्योस्सुप्

(12) गवाक्ष + अस् । अनुबन्ध-लोपः by 1-3-7 चुटू and 1-3-9 तस्य लोपः। 1-3-4 न विभक्तौ तुस्माः prevents the ending letter ‘स्’ of ‘जस्’ from getting इत्-सञ्ज्ञा।

(13) गवाक्षास् । 6-1-102 प्रथमयो: पूर्वसवर्ण: – When a अक् letter is followed by a vowel (अच्) of the first (nominative) or second (accusative) case then for the two of them (अक् + अच्) there is a single substitute which is the elongated form of the first member (the अक् letter.)

(14) गवाक्षाः । रुँत्व-विसर्गौ by 8-2-66 ससजुषो रुः and 8-3-15 खरवसानयोर्विसर्जनीयः

Questions:

1. Commenting on the सूत्रम् 6-1-123 अवङ् स्फोटायनस्य (used in step 5) the तत्त्वबोधिनी says – विभाषानुवृत्तेः स्फोटायनग्रहणं पूजार्थम्। Please explain.

2. Commenting on the same सूत्रम् the सिद्धान्तकौमुदी says – अतीति निवृत्तम्। The तत्त्वबोधिनी expands on this by saying – अत्राचीत्यनुवर्तते। ‘अतीति तु निवृत्तम्’ इत्यत्र व्याख्यानमेव शरणम्। Please explain.

3. Commenting further on the same सूत्रम् the सिद्धान्तकौमुदी says – व्यवस्थितविभाषया गवाक्ष:। Please explain.

4. Which सूत्रम् prescribes the (optional) substitution ‘स्’ (in the place of the विसर्ग:) in the form तिरस्क्रियन्ते?

5. What is the विग्रह: of the compound विच्छिन्नधूमप्रसरा: used in the verse?

6. How would you say this in Sanskrit?
“In our village all the houses have beautiful round windows.” Paraphrase to – “In our village of all the houses there are beautiful round windows.”

Easy questions:

1. Can you spot the substitution ‘रिङ्’ in the verse?

2. Which सूत्रम् prescribes the elision of the affix ‘णिच्’ in the form छाद्यन्ते used in the commentary?

विशालाक्षी fNs

Today we will look at the form विशालाक्षी  fNs from श्रीमद्-वाल्मीकि-रामायणम् 3.34.15.

एका कथंचिन्मुक्ताहं परिभूय महात्मना | स्त्रीवधं शङ्कमानेन रामेण विदितात्मना ।। ३-३४-१२ ।।
भ्राता चास्य महातेजा गुणतस्तुल्यविक्रमः | अनुरक्तश्च भक्तश्च लक्ष्मणो नाम वीर्यवान् ।। ३-३४-१३ ।।
अमर्षी दुर्जयो जेता विक्रान्तो बुद्धिमान्बली | रामस्य दक्षिणो बाहुर्नित्यं प्राणो बहिष्चरः ।। ३-३४-१४ ।।
रामस्य तु विशालाक्षी पूर्णेन्दुसदृशानना | धर्मपत्नी प्रिया नित्यं भर्तुः प्रियहिते रता ।। ३-३४-१५ ।।

Gita Press translation – I alone was spared somehow, after disgracing me (in the form of mutilation), by the high-souled Rāma, who has realized the self, afraid as he was of (the sin of) killing a woman (12). Nay, his mighty brother, Lakṣmaṇa by name, who is possessed of exceptional glory and equally valorous, is attached and devoted too to him because of his (rare) virtues (13). Intolerant, hard to conquer, victorious (in battle), heroic, talented and strong, he is always the right hand of Rāma, (nay) his (very) life exteriorized (14). Rāma’s beloved wife, wedded according to religious rites, has large eyes and a countenance resembling the full moon. She is ever intent on doing what is pleasing and beneficial to her lord (15).

(1) विशाले अक्षिणी यस्या: सा = विशालाक्षी (सीता) – She (Sītā) who has large eyes.

(2) विशाल औ + अक्षि औ । By 2-2-24 अनेकमन्यपदार्थे – Two or more terms having the designation पदम् and ending in the nominative case may optionally compound to yield a बहुव्रीहि: compound provided the terms are employed to denote the sense of another पदम् (which is not part of the compound.)

(3) By the सूत्रम् 1-2-43 प्रथमानिर्दिष्टं समास उपसर्जनम् – the term ‘विशाल औ’ as well as ‘अक्षि औ’ gets the designation उपसर्जनम् because in the सूत्रम् 2-2-24 अनेकमन्यपदार्थे (which prescribes the compounding) the term अनेकम् ends in the nominative case. And hence 2-2-30 cannot help us in deciding which term to place in the prior position in the compound.

The adjective ‘विशाल औ’ is placed in the prior position in the compound as per the सूत्रम् 2-2-35 सप्तमीविशेषणे बहुव्रीहौ – In a बहुव्रीहि: compound the पदम् which ends in a seventh case affix or is an adjective takes the prior position.

Note: ‘विशाल औ + अक्षि औ’ gets the designation प्रातिपदिकम्‌ by 1-2-46 कृत्तद्धितसमासाश्च। This allows 2-4-71 to apply in the next step.

(4) विशाल + अक्षि । By 2-4-71 सुपो धातुप्रातिपदिकयोः – A सुँप् affix takes a लुक् elision when it is a part of a धातुः or a प्रातिपदिकम्।

(5) विशालाक्षि । By 6-1-101 अकः सवर्णे दीर्घः

(6) विशालाक्षि + षच् । By 5-4-113 बहुव्रीहौ सक्थ्यक्ष्णोः स्वाङ्गात्‌ षच् – Following a बहुव्रीहि: compound ending in either i) ‘सक्थि’ (when denoting a limb of one’s body) or ii) ‘अक्षि’ (when denoting a limb of one’s body) the तद्धित: affix षच् is prescribed and this affix becomes the ending member of the compound.
Note: In this सूत्रम् the seventh case affix used in बहुव्रीहौ actually stands for a fifth case affix. Hence बहुव्रीहौ should be interpreted as बहुव्रीहेः।
Note: In this सूत्रम् the sixth/seventh case affix used in सक्थ्यक्ष्णोः actually stands for a fifth case affix. Hence सक्थ्यक्ष्णोः should be interpreted as सक्थ्यक्षिभ्याम्। And since it is qualifying बहुव्रीहेः, as per 1-1-72 येन विधिस्तदन्तस्य we get सक्‍थ्‍यक्ष्यन्‍ताद् बहुव्रीहेः।
Note: The अनुवृत्ति: of बहुव्रीहौ runs from this सूत्रम् down to 5-4-160 निष्प्रवाणिश्च which is the last सूत्रम् in the Fifth Chapter of the अष्टाध्यायी।

(7) विशालाक्षि + अ । अनुबन्ध-लोपः by 1-3-3 हलन्त्यम्, 1-3-6 षः प्रत्ययस्य and 1-3-9 तस्य लोपः।
Note: The अङ्गम् ‘विशालाक्षि’ has the भ-सञ्ज्ञा here as per the सूत्रम् 1-4-18 यचि भम्। This allows the सूत्रम् 6-4-148 to apply in the next step.

(8) विशालाक्ष् + अ । By 6-4-148 यस्येति च – When the letter ‘ई’ or a ‘तद्धित’ affix follows, the (ending) इ-वर्ण: (letter ‘इ’ or ‘ई’) or the (ending) अवर्ण: (letter ‘अ’ or ‘आ’) of a अङ्गम् with the भ-सञ्ज्ञा takes elision (लोपः)।

= विशालाक्ष ।

The gender of a बहुव्रीहि: compound matches that of which it qualifies. In the present example सीता is being qualified. Hence we form the feminine प्रातिपदिकम् ‘विशालाक्षी’as follows –

(9) विशालाक्ष + ङीष् । By 4-1-41 षिद्गौरादिभ्यश्च – In the feminine gender the affix ‘ङीष्’ is prescribed following a प्रातिपदिकम् which either (i) contains the letter ‘ष्’ as a ‘इत्’ or (ii) belongs to the class of words beginning with ‘गौर’।

(10) विशालाक्ष + ई । अनुबन्ध-लोपः by 1-3-3 हलन्त्यम्, 1-3-8 लशक्वतद्धिते and 1-3-9 तस्य लोपः।
Note: The अङ्गम् ‘विशालाक्ष’ has the भ-सञ्ज्ञा here as per the सूत्रम् 1-4-18 यचि भम्। This allows the सूत्रम् 6-4-148 to apply in the next step.

(11) विशालाक्ष् + ई । By 6-4-148 यस्येति च – When the letter ‘ई’ or a ‘तद्धित’ affix follows, the (ending) इ-वर्ण: (letter ‘इ’ or ‘ई’) or the (ending) अवर्ण: (letter ‘अ’ or ‘आ’) of a अङ्गम् with the भ-सञ्ज्ञा takes elision (लोपः)।

= विशालाक्षी । Declines like नदी-शब्द:।

The विवक्षा is प्रथमा-एकवचनम्

(12) विशालाक्षी + सुँ । By 4-1-2 स्वौजसमौट्छष्टाभ्याम्भिस्ङेभ्याम्भ्यस्ङसिँभ्याम्भ्यस्ङसोसाम्ङ्योस्सुप्

(13) विशालाक्षी + स् । अनुबन्ध-लोपः by 1-3-2 उपदेशेऽजनुनासिक इत्, 1-3-9 तस्य लोपः

(14) विशालाक्षी । By 6-1-68 हल्ङ्याब्भ्यो दीर्घात्‌ सुतिस्यपृक्तं हल् – A single letter affix ‘सुँ’, ‘ति’ or ‘सि’ is dropped following a base ending in a consonant or in the long feminine affix ‘ङी’ or ‘आप्’।

Questions:

1. Where has the सूत्रम् 5-4-113 बहुव्रीहौ सक्थ्यक्ष्णोः स्वाङ्गात्‌ षच् (used in step 6) been used in the first five verses of Chapter Eleven of the गीता?

2. Commenting on the सूत्रम् 5-4-113 बहुव्रीहौ सक्थ्यक्ष्णोः स्वाङ्गात्‌ षच् the सिद्धान्तकौमुदी says – स्‍वाङ्गात्‍किम्? दीर्घसक्थि शकटम्। स्‍थूलाक्षा वेणुयष्‍टिः। ‘अक्ष्णोऽदर्शनात्‌’ इत्यच्। Please explain.

3. Commenting on (the affix षच् prescribed by) the same सूत्रम् the तत्त्वबोधिनी says – षो ङीषार्थ:। Please explain.

4. In which word in the verses has the affix खल् been used?

5. Which सूत्रम् prescribes the substitution ‘आ’ in the form महात्मना (प्रातिपदिकम् ‘महात्मन्’, पुंलिङ्गे तृतीया-एकवचनम्)?

6. How would you say this in Sanskrit?
“In Laṅkā Śrī Hanumān saw many demons with deformed eyes.” Construct a बहुव्रीहि: compound for ‘those who have deformed eyes’ = ‘विरूपाणि (विकृतरूपाणि) अक्षीणि येषां ते’।

Easy questions:

1. Which सूत्रम् prescribes the substitution ‘अनङ्’ in the form भ्राता (पुंलिङ्ग-प्रातिपदिकम् ‘भ्रातृ’, प्रथमा-एकवचनम्)?

2. Where has the सूत्रम् 6-1-111 ऋत उत्‌ been used in the verses?

दृढभक्तिः mNs

Today we will look at the form दृढभक्तिः mNs from रघुवंशम् 12.19.

दृढभक्तिरिति ज्येष्ठे राज्यतृष्णापराङ्मुखः । मातुः पापस्य भरतः प्रायश्चित्तमिवाकरोत्॥ १२-१९ ॥

मल्लिनाथ-टीका
ज्येष्ठे दृढभक्ती राज्यतृष्णापराङ्मुखो भरत इति पूर्वोक्तानुष्ठानेन मातुः पापस्य प्रायश्चित्तं तदपनोदकं कर्माकरोदिव इत्युत्प्रेक्षा । दृढभक्तिरित्यत्र दृढशब्दस्य ‘स्त्रियाः पुंवत्’ – इत्यादिना पुंवद्भावो दुर्घटः । ‘अप्रियादिषु’ इति निषेधात् । भक्तिशब्दस्य प्रियादिषु पाठात् । अतो दृढं भक्तिरस्येति नपुंसकपूर्वपदो बहुव्रीहिरिति गणव्याख्याने दृढभक्तिरित्येवमादिषु पूर्वपदस्य नपुंसकस्य विवक्षितत्वात्सिद्धमिति समाधेयम् । वृत्तिकारश्च दीर्घनिवृत्तिमात्रपरो दृढभक्तिशब्दो लिङ्गविशेषस्यानुपकारकत्वात् स्त्रीत्वमविवक्षितमेव, तस्मादस्त्रीलिङ्गत्वाद्दृढभक्तिशब्दस्यायं प्रयोग इत्यभिप्रायः । न्यासकारोऽप्येवम् । भोजराजस्तु – कर्मसाधनस्यैव भक्तिशब्दस्य प्रियादिपाठाद्भवानीभक्तिरित्यादौ कर्मसाधनत्वात् पुंवद्भावप्रतिषेधः, दृढभक्तिरित्यादौ भावसाधनत्वात् पुंवद्भावसिद्धिः पूर्वपदस्येत्याह ।। १९ ।।

Translation – Bharata, who had firm devotion to his elder [brother] and was averse to the greed for the kingdom, thus made, as it were, atonement for the sin of his mother.

(1) दृढं भक्तिर्यस्य सः = दृढभक्ति: (भरत:) – He (Bharata) who had firm devotion.

(2) दृढ सुँ + भक्ति सुँ । By 2-2-24 अनेकमन्यपदार्थे – Two or more terms having the designation पदम् and ending in the nominative case may optionally compound to yield a बहुव्रीहि: compound provided the terms are employed to denote the sense of another पदम् (which is not part of the compound.)

(3) By the सूत्रम् 1-2-43 प्रथमानिर्दिष्टं समास उपसर्जनम् – the term ‘दृढ सुँ’ as well as ‘भक्ति सुँ’ gets the designation उपसर्जनम् because in the सूत्रम् 2-2-24 अनेकमन्यपदार्थे (which prescribes the compounding) the term अनेकम् ends in the nominative case. And hence 2-2-30 cannot help us in deciding which term to place in the prior position in the compound.

The adjective ‘दृढ सुँ’ is placed in the prior position in the compound as per the सूत्रम् 2-2-35 सप्तमीविशेषणे बहुव्रीहौ – In a बहुव्रीहि: compound the पदम् which ends in a seventh case affix or is an adjective takes the prior position.

Note: ‘दृढ सुँ + भक्ति सुँ’ gets the designation प्रातिपदिकम्‌ by 1-2-46 कृत्तद्धितसमासाश्च। This allows 2-4-71 to apply in the next step.

(4) दृढ + भक्ति । By 2-4-71 सुपो धातुप्रातिपदिकयोः – A सुँप् affix takes a लुक् elision when it is a part of a धातुः or a प्रातिपदिकम्।

Note: By 6-3-34 स्त्रियाः पुंवद्भाषितपुंस्कादनूङ् समानाधिकरणे स्त्रियामपूरणीप्रियादिषु – A feminine adjective which does not end in the feminine affix ‘ऊङ्’ (ref. 4-1-66 ऊङुतः etc) and is formed from a masculine base denoting the same meaning becomes masculine-like when it is followed by a feminine final member (of a compound) which has समानाधिकरणम् (same locus/reference) but not if the final member denotes an ordinal number or belongs to the class of words ‘प्रिया’ etc.
In the present example the feminine final member ‘भक्ति’ of the compound belongs to the प्रियादि-गणः। Hence if we were to analyze the compound as दृढा भक्तिर्यस्य स: we would get the final form as ‘दृढाभक्ति’ (which is also a valid form) but not the form ‘दृढभक्ति’ used in the verse. The exclusion ‘अप्रियादिषु’ (mentioned in the सूत्रम् 6-3-34) would prevent ‘दृढा’ from taking its masculine-like form ‘दृढ’। This is the reason for analyzing the compound as दृढं भक्तिर्यस्य सः in order to get the form ‘दृढभक्ति’। The use of the neuter form दृढम् is justified by the maxim सामान्ये नपुंसकम् – the neuter gender is used to refer to something in general terms. In order words, neuter is the default gender. When a word is not intended to be gender-specific it is used in the neuter gender. That is how दृढम् has been used in the विग्रह: – दृढं भक्तिर्यस्य सः।

See question 2.

= दृढभक्ति ।

The gender of a बहुव्रीहि: compound matches that of which it qualifies. In the present example दृढभक्तिः is qualifying भरतः । Hence we assign the masculine gender to the compound प्रातिपदिकम् ‘दृढभक्ति’। It declines like हरि-शब्द:।

The विवक्षा is प्रथमा-एकवचनम् ।

(5) दृढभक्ति + सुँ । By 4-1-2 स्वौजसमौट्छष्टाभ्याम्भिस्ङेभ्याम्भ्यस्ङसिँभ्याम्भ्यस्ङसोसाम्ङ्योस्सुप्

(6) दृढभक्ति + स् । अनुबन्ध-लोपः by 1-3-2 उपदेशेऽजनुनासिक इत् and 1-3-9 तस्य लोपः।

(7) दृढभक्ति: । रुँत्व-विसर्गौ by 8-2-66 ससजुषो रुः and 8-3-15 खरवसानयोर्विसर्जनीयः

Questions:

1. In verses 5-10 of Chapter Six of the गीता can you spot a बहुव्रीहि: compound in which the पूर्वपदम् has taken पुंवद्भाव:?

2. Commenting on the use of the form दृढम् (in दृढं भक्तिर्यस्य सः) the तत्त्वबोधिनी says – अदार्ढ्यनिवृत्तिमात्रपरत्वेनात्र दृढशब्दप्रयोगान्न लिङ्गविशेषविवक्षा। Please explain.

3. The seventh case affix in the form ज्येष्ठे used in the verse is prescribed by the सूत्रम् 2-3-36 सप्तम्यधिकरणे च because ‘ज्येष्ठ’ has the designation अधिकरणम् as per the सूत्रम् 1-4-45 आधारोऽधिकरणम्। आधारः is of three kinds (i) औपश्लेषिक: involving contact or proximity (ii) वैषयिक: involving a subject matter (iii) अभिव्यापक: involving pervasion. Which one (of these three) is it here?

4. In which word in the commentary has the affix ‘खल्’ been used?

5. Where has the सूत्रम् 6-4-65 ईद्यति been used in the commentary?

6. How would you say this in Sanskrit?
“Renunciation and knowledge come to the one whose devotion is firm.” Use the verbal root √इ (इण् गतौ २. ४०) preceded by the उपसर्ग: ‘उप’ for ‘to come to (to approach.)’

Easy questions:

1. In which word in the verses has the सूत्रम् 6-1-111 ऋत उत्‌ been used?

2. Can you spot the affix ‘उ’ in the verses?

भ्रष्टमतिः mNs

Today we will look at the form भ्रष्टमतिः  mNs from श्रीमद्भागवतम् 3.13.14.

विधुन्वता वेदमयं निजं वपुर्जनस्तपःसत्यनिवासिनो वयम् । सटाशिखोद्धूतशिवाम्बुबिन्दुभिर्विमृज्यमाना भृशमीश पाविताः ।। ३-१३-४४ ।।
स वै बत भ्रष्टमतिस्तवैषते यः कर्मणां पारमपारकर्मणः । यद्योगमायागुणयोगमोहितं विश्वं समस्तं भगवन्विधेहि शम् ।। ३-१३-४५ ।।

श्रीधर-स्वामि-टीका
विस्मयं दर्शयन्तः प्रार्थयन्ते – विधुन्वतेति द्वाभ्याम् । सटानां शिखाभिरग्रैरुद्धूता उच्छलिता ये शिवा अम्बुबिन्दवस्तैः सिच्यमाना वयं पवित्रीकृताः ।। ४४ ।। तव कर्मणां पारं य एषतेऽवलोकयति ज्ञातुमिच्छतीत्यर्थः । यस्य तव योगमायया यो गुणैः सह योगस्तेन मोहितम् । अतो विश्वस्य शं मङ्गलं विधेहि । यथा त्वामचिन्त्यान्तशक्तिं ज्ञात्वा भजे तथाऽनुगृहाणेत्यर्थः ।। ४५ ।।

Gita Press translation – When You shook Your body composed of the Vedas, we, the inhabitants of the Janaloka, Tapoloka and Satyloka, got splashed and thoroughly depurated by the drops of holy water flying from the end of Your mane (44). Alas! he has verily lost his wits, who seeks to know Your endless exploits in their totality. O Lord, bring happiness to the whole universe, which stands deluded through contact with the objects of senses, brought about by Your Yogamāyā (45).

(1) भ्रष्टा मतिर्यस्य स: = भ्रष्टमति: (स:) – He (the man) who has lost his wits.

(2) भ्रष्टा सुँ + मति सुँ । By 2-2-24 अनेकमन्यपदार्थे – Two or more terms having the designation पदम् and ending in the nominative case may optionally compound to yield a बहुव्रीहि: compound provided the terms are employed to denote the sense of another पदम् (which is not part of the compound.)

(3) By सूत्रम् 1-2-43 प्रथमानिर्दिष्टं समास उपसर्जनम् – the term ‘भ्रष्टा सुँ’ as well as ‘मति सुँ’ gets the designation उपसर्जनम् because in the सूत्रम् 2-2-24 अनेकमन्यपदार्थे (which prescribes the compounding) the term अनेकम् ends in the nominative case. And hence 2-2-30 cannot help us in deciding which term to place in the prior position in the compound.

The adjective ‘भ्रष्टा सुँ’ is placed in the prior position in the compound as per the सूत्रम् 2-2-35 सप्तमीविशेषणे बहुव्रीहौ – In a बहुव्रीहि: compound the पदम् which ends in a seventh case affix or is an adjective takes the prior position.

Note: ‘भ्रष्टा सुँ + मति सुँ’ gets the designation प्रातिपदिकम्‌ by 1-2-46 कृत्तद्धितसमासाश्च। This allows 2-4-71 to apply in the next step.

(4) भ्रष्टा + मति । By 2-4-71 सुपो धातुप्रातिपदिकयोः – A सुँप् affix takes a लुक् elision when it is a part of a धातुः or a प्रातिपदिकम्।

(5) भ्रष्ट + मति । By 6-3-34 स्त्रियाः पुंवद्भाषितपुंस्कादनूङ् समानाधिकरणे स्त्रियामपूरणीप्रियादिषु – A feminine adjective which does not end in the feminine affix ‘ऊङ्’ (ref. 4-1-66 ऊङुतः etc) and is formed from a masculine base denoting the same meaning becomes masculine-like when it is followed by a feminine final member (of a compound) which has समानाधिकरणम् (same locus/reference) but not if the final member denotes an ordinal number or belongs to the class of words ‘प्रिया’ etc.
In the present example the feminine adjective ‘भ्रष्टा’ which does not end in the feminine affix ‘ऊङ्’ and is formed from the masculine base ‘भ्रष्ट’ denoting the same meaning becomes masculine-like (‘भ्रष्ट’) because it is followed by the feminine final member ‘मति’ which has समानाधिकरणम् (same locus/reference).

See question 2.

= भ्रष्टमति ।

The gender of a बहुव्रीहि: compound matches that of which it qualifies. In the present example भ्रष्टमतिः is qualifying सः (नरः) । Hence we assign the masculine gender to the compound प्रातिपदिकम् ‘भ्रष्टमति’। It declines like हरि-शब्द:।

The विवक्षा is प्रथमा-एकवचनम् ।

(6) भ्रष्टमति + सुँ । By 4-1-2 स्वौजसमौट्छष्टाभ्याम्भिस्ङेभ्याम्भ्यस्ङसिँभ्याम्भ्यस्ङसोसाम्ङ्योस्सुप्

(7) भ्रष्टमति + स् । अनुबन्ध-लोपः by 1-3-2 उपदेशेऽजनुनासिक इत् and 1-3-9 तस्य लोपः।

(8) भ्रष्टमति: । रुँत्व-विसर्गौ by 8-2-66 ससजुषो रुः and 8-3-15 खरवसानयोर्विसर्जनीयः

Questions:

1. Where has the सूत्रम् 6-3-34 स्त्रियाः पुंवद्भाषितपुंस्कादनूङ् समानाधिकरणे स्त्रियामपूरणीप्रियादिषु (used in step 5) been used in verses 20-24 of Chapter Five of the गीता?

2. Commenting on the term भाषितपुंस्कादनूङ्‌ used in the सूत्रम् 6-3-34 स्त्रियाः पुंवद्भाषितपुंस्कादनूङ् समानाधिकरणे स्त्रियामपूरणीप्रियादिषु the सिद्धान्तकौमुदी says – निपतनात्पञ्चम्या अलुक्‌, षष्ठ्याश्च लुक्‌। Please explain.

3. Commenting further on the सूत्रम् 6-3-34 the सिद्धान्तकौमुदी says – भाषितपुंस्कात्‌ किम्‌? गङ्‌गाभार्य:। Please explain.

4. Commenting further on the same सूत्रम् the सिद्धान्तकौमुदी says – समानाधिकरणे किम्‌? कल्याण्या: माता = कल्याणीमाता। Please explain.

5. Can you spot another बहुव्रीहि: compound (besides भ्रष्टमति:) in the verses?

6. How would you say this in Sanskrit?
“Only one who has a sharp intellect could become proficient in grammar.” Construct a बहुव्रीहि: compound for ‘one who has a sharp intellect’ = ‘तीक्ष्णा बुद्धिर्यस्य स:’। Construct a सप्तमी-तत्पुरुष: compound for ‘proficient in grammar’ = ‘व्याकरणे निपुण:’।

Easy questions:

1. Where has the सूत्रम् 6-4-119 घ्वसोरेद्धावभ्यासलोपश्च been used in the verses?

2. Which सूत्रम् prescribes the substitution ‘शानच्’ (in place of the affix ‘श्ना’) in the form अनुगृहाण used in the commentary?

सार्जुनः mNs

Today we will look at the form सार्जुनः  mNs from श्रीमद्भागवतम् 1.12.36.

आहूतो भगवान्राज्ञा याजयित्वा द्विजैर्नृपम् । उवास कतिचिन्मासान्सुहृदां प्रियकाम्यया ।। १-१२-३५ ।।
ततो राज्ञाभ्यनुज्ञातः कृष्णया सह बन्धुभिः । ययौ द्वारवतीं ब्रह्मन्सार्जुनो यदुभिर्वृतः ।। १-१२-३६ ।।

श्रीधर-स्वामि-टीका
No commentary on these verses.

Gita Press translation – Having enabled the king to perform the sacrifices with the help of the twice-born (the Brāhmaṇas), Lord Śrī Kṛṣṇa, who had been invited for the occasion, stayed with him for some months for the gratification of his friends and relations (35). Then, with the leave of the king and his younger brothers, as well as of Kṛṣṇā (queen Draupadī), O Śaunaka, He proceeded to Dwārāvatī (Dwārakā) accompanied by Arjuna and surrounded by the Yadu chiefs (Uddhava, Sātyaki and others) (36).

(1) अर्जुनेन सह (ययौ श्रीकृष्णः) = सार्जुन: (ययौ श्रीकृष्णः) – With Arjuna (Śrī Kṛṣṇa proceeded).
Note: The third case affix used in अर्जुनेन is as per the सूत्रम् 2-3-19 सहयुक्तेऽप्रधाने।

(2) सह + अर्जुन टा । As per the सूत्रम् 2-2-28 तेन सहेति तुल्ययोगे – The indeclinable सह when it denotes ‘equal connection (with an action)’ optionally compounds with a पदम् ending in a third case affix to yield a बहुव्रीहि: compound.

As per 1-2-43 प्रथमानिर्दिष्टं समास उपसर्जनम् the term सह gets the designation उपसर्जनम् because in the सूत्रम् 2-2-28 (which prescribes the compounding) the term सह ends in the nominative case. And hence as per 2-2-30 the term सह is placed in the prior position in the compound.

Note: ‘सह + अर्जुन टा’ gets the designation प्रातिपदिकम्‌ by 1-2-46 कृत्तद्धितसमासाश्च। This allows 2-4-71 सुपो धातुप्रातिपदिकयोः to apply in the next step.

(3) सह + अर्जुन । By 2-4-71 सुपो धातुप्रातिपदिकयोः – A सुँप् affix takes a लुक् elision when it is a part of a धातुः or a प्रातिपदिकम्।

(4) सह + अर्जुन / स + अर्जुन । By 6-3-82 वोपसर्जनस्य – When it is a part of a बहुव्रीहि: compound the indeclinable सह is optionally replaced by ‘स’।

(5) सहार्जुन / सार्जुन । By 6-1-101 अकः सवर्णे दीर्घः ।

The gender of a बहुव्रीहि: compound matches that of which it qualifies. In the present example सार्जुनः is qualifying श्रीकृष्णः । Hence we assign the masculine gender to the compound प्रातिपदिकम् ‘सार्जुन’। It declines like राम-शब्द:।

The विवक्षा is प्रथमा-एकवचनम् ।

(6) सार्जुन + सुँ । By 4-1-2 स्वौजसमौट्छष्टाभ्याम्भिस्ङेभ्याम्भ्यस्ङसिँभ्याम्भ्यस्ङसोसाम्ङ्योस्सुप्

(7) सार्जुन + स् । अनुबन्ध-लोपः by 1-3-2 उपदेशेऽजनुनासिक इत् and 1-3-9 तस्य लोपः।

(8) सार्जुन: । रुँत्व-विसर्गौ by 8-2-66 ससजुषो रुः and 8-3-15 खरवसानयोर्विसर्जनीयः

Questions:

1. Where has the सूत्रम् 6-3-82 वोपसर्जनस्य (used in step 3) been used in the first five verses of Chapter Seven of the गीता?

2. From which सूत्रम् does the अनुवृत्ति: of सहस्य सः come in to the सूत्रम् 6-3-82 वोपसर्जनस्य?

3. From which verbal root is the form आहूत: (प्रातिपदिकम् ‘आहूत’, पुंलिङ्गे प्रथमा-एकवचनम्) derived?

4. Can you spot the affix ‘अ’ in the verses?

5. How would you say this in Sanskrit?
“Knowledge shines only when accompanied by humility.” Construct a बहुव्रीहि: compound for ‘accompanied by humility’ (knowledge shines) = ‘विनयेन सह’ (ज्ञानं शोभते)।

6. How would you say this in Sanskrit?
“The gods along with the demons churned nectar from the ocean.” Construct a बहुव्रीहि: compound for ‘along with the demons’ (the gods churned) = ‘दानवै: सह’ (देवा ममन्थु:)।

Easy questions:

1. In which word in the verses has the सूत्रम् 6-1-17 लिट्यभ्यासस्योभयेषाम् been used?

2. Which सूत्रम् prescribes the substitution ‘औ’ (in place of the affix णल्) in the form ययौ?

सहबलः mNs

Today we will look at the form सहबलः  mNs from श्रीमद्भागवतम् 10.35.12.

सहबलः स्रगवतंसविलासः सानुषु क्षितिभृतो व्रजदेव्यः । हर्षयन्यर्हि वेणुरवेण जातहर्ष उपरम्भति विश्वम् ।। १०-३५-१२ ।।
महदतिक्रमणशङ्कितचेता मन्दमन्दमनु गर्जति मेघः । सुहृदमभ्यवर्षत्सुमनोभिश्छायया च विदधत्प्रतपत्रम् ।। १०-३५-१३ ।।

श्रीधर-स्वामि-टीका
मेघोऽपि हरिं सेवत इत्याहुः – सहबल इति । भो व्रजदेव्यो गोप्यः, सहबलः सरामः कृष्णः स्रग्भिर्निर्मिताभ्यामवतंसाभ्यां कर्णभूषणाभ्यां विलासो यस्य । यद्वा मुक्ताफलस्रगापीडेन विलासो यस्येति । क्षितिभृतः सानुषु गिरेस्तटेषु वर्तमानः । स्वयं जातहर्षो विश्वं हर्षयन्यदा वेणुरवेणोपरम्भति निनादयति । नादेन पूरयतीत्यर्थः ।। १२ ।। तदा मेघो महतः कृष्णस्यातिक्रमणे शङ्कितं चेतो यस्य स न पुरतो याति, न चोच्चैर्गर्जति, किंतु तत्रैव स्थितः सन् वेणुरवमनु मन्दं मन्दं गर्जति । किंच सुहृदं विश्वार्तिहरणादिसाम्यात्सुहृत्कृष्णस्तं सुमनोभिरभ्यवर्षत् । अदृश्यैर्देवैः क्रियमाणं कुसुमवर्षं मेघे कल्पयित्वोक्तम् । तुषारो वा कुसुमतया कल्पितः । स एव वा देवतारूपोऽभ्यवर्षदिति । प्रतपादातपात्त्रायत इति प्रतपत्रं छत्रं तच्छायया कुर्वन्निति ।। १३ ।।

Gita Press translation – When, accompanied by Bala and gracefully adorned with floral ear-rings, and standing on the summits of the mountain (Govardhana), O beauties of Vraja, Śrī Kṛṣṇa fills the universe with the sound of His flute, enrapturing all and filled with delight (Himself), the cloud rumbles in gentle tones (as if) keeping time with His tune, and afraid at heart (as it were) of showing disrespect to the Great One, and covers his Friend with a shower of flowers (in the form of spray), spreading over Him an umbrella with his shadow (12-13).

(1) बलेन सह (वर्तमान: श्रीकृष्णः) = सहबल: (वर्तमान: श्रीकृष्णः) – With Bala (Śrī Kṛṣṇa was present/standing).
Note: The third case affix used in बलेन is as per the सूत्रम् 2-3-19 सहयुक्तेऽप्रधाने।

(2) सह + बल टा । As per the सूत्रम् 2-2-28 तेन सहेति तुल्ययोगे – The indeclinable सह when it denotes ‘equal connection (with an action)’ optionally compounds with a पदम् ending in a third case affix to yield a बहुव्रीहि: compound.

As per 1-2-43 प्रथमानिर्दिष्टं समास उपसर्जनम् the term सह gets the designation उपसर्जनम् because in the सूत्रम् 2-2-28 (which prescribes the compounding) the term सह ends in the nominative case. And hence as per 2-2-30 the term सह is placed in the prior position in the compound.

Note: ‘सह + बल टा’ gets the designation प्रातिपदिकम्‌ by 1-2-46 कृत्तद्धितसमासाश्च। This allows 2-4-71 सुपो धातुप्रातिपदिकयोः to apply in the next step.

(3) सह + बल । By 2-4-71 सुपो धातुप्रातिपदिकयोः – A सुँप् affix takes a लुक् elision when it is a part of a धातुः or a प्रातिपदिकम्।

= सहबल

The gender of a बहुव्रीहि: compound matches that of which it qualifies. In the present example सहबलः is qualifying श्रीकृष्णः । Hence we assign the masculine gender to the compound प्रातिपदिकम् ‘सहबल’। It declines like राम-शब्द:।

The विवक्षा is प्रथमा-एकवचनम् ।

(4) सहबल + सुँ । By 4-1-2 स्वौजसमौट्छष्टाभ्याम्भिस्ङेभ्याम्भ्यस्ङसिँभ्याम्भ्यस्ङसोसाम्ङ्योस्सुप्

(5) सहबल + स् । अनुबन्ध-लोपः by 1-3-2 उपदेशेऽजनुनासिक इत् and 1-3-9 तस्य लोपः।

(6) सहबल: । रुँत्व-विसर्गौ by 8-2-66 ससजुषो रुः and 8-3-15 खरवसानयोर्विसर्जनीयः

Questions:

1. Where has the सूत्रम् 2-2-28 तेन सहेति तुल्ययोगे (used in step 2) been used in verses 5-10 of Chapter Three of the गीता?

2. Commenting on the सूत्रम् 2-2-28 तेन सहेति तुल्ययोगे the सिद्धान्तकौमुदी says – तुल्ययोगवचनं प्रायिकम्‌। सकर्मक:। Please explain.

3. What is the विग्रह: of the compound जातहर्ष: used in the verses?

4. In which word in the verses has the affix ‘क’ been used?

5. Which वार्तिकम् justifies the use of a third case affix in the form कुसुमतया used in the commentary?

6. How would you say this in Sanskrit?
“Rāvaṇa along with Mārica went to the Daṇḍaka forest to abduct Sītā.” Construct a बहुव्रीहि: compound for ‘along with Mārica’ (Rāvaṇa went) = मारीचेन सह (रावणो जगाम)। Use the verbal root √हृ (हृञ् हरणे १. १०४६) preceded by the उपसर्ग: ‘अप’ for ‘to abduct.’

Easy questions:

1. In which word in the verses has the सूत्रम् 7-1-78 नाभ्यस्ताच्छतुः been used?

2. Where has the सूत्रम् 2-4-72 अदिप्रभृतिभ्यः शपः been used in the commentary?

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