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पञ्चवट्याम् fLs

Today we will look at the form पञ्चवट्याम् fLs from रघुवंशम् 12.31.

पञ्चवट्यां ततो रामः शासनात्कुम्भजन्मनः । अनपोढस्थितिस्तस्थौ विन्ध्याद्रिः प्रकृताविव॥ 12-31॥
रावणावरजा तत्र राघवं मदनातुरा । अभिपेदे निदाघार्ता व्यालीव मलयद्रुमम्॥ 12-32॥

टीका
ततः रामः कुम्भजन्मनः अगस्त्यस्य शासनात् । पञ्चानां वटानां समाहारः पञ्चवटी । ‘2-1-51 तद्धितार्थ-‘ इति तत्पुरुषः । ‘2-1-52 संख्यापूर्वो द्विगुः’ इति द्विगुसंज्ञायाम् ‘4-1-21 द्विगोः’ इति ङीप् । ‘2-4-1 द्विगुरेकवचनम्‌’ इत्येकवचनम् । तस्यां पञ्चवट्याम्विन्ध्याद्रिः प्रकृतौ वृद्धेः पूर्वावस्थायाम् इवअनपोढस्थितिः अनतिक्रान्तमर्यादः तस्थौ ।। ३१ ।। तत्र पञ्चवट्यां मदनातुरा रावणावरजा शूर्पणखा । ‘8-4-3 पूर्वपदात्‌ संज्ञायामगः’ इति णत्वम् । राघवम्निदाघार्ता घर्मतप्ता व्याकुला व्याली भुजंगा मलयद्रुमं चन्दनद्रुमम् इवअभिपेदे प्राप ।। ३२ ।।

Translation – Then at Agastya’s bidding, Rāma lived in Pañcavaṭī, observing the bounds of right, like Vindhyā remaining in his normal state (31). Rāvaṇa’s sister, faint with love, came to Rāma there, as a female-snake, oppressed with heat, seeks the Sandal-tree (32).

(1) पञ्चानां वटानां समाहारः = पञ्चवटी – a collection of five fig trees.

अलौकिक-विग्रह: –
(2) पञ्चन् आम् + वट आम् । By 2-1-51 तद्धितार्थोत्तरपदसमाहारे च – In the following three situations a सुबन्तं (ending in a सुँप् affix) पदम् denoting either a direction of the compass or a numeral combines with another सुबन्तं (ending in a सुँप् affix) पदम् referring to the same item and the resulting compound is a तत्पुरुष: –
i) in the context where the sense of a तद्धित: affix is to be expressed
ii) when a उत्तरपदम् (a final member) of a compound follows
iii) when the compound denotes a समाहार: (aggregate.)

See questions 1 and 2.

(3) As per 1-2-43 प्रथमानिर्दिष्टं समास उपसर्जनम् the term ‘पञ्चन् आम्’ – which denotes a numeral – gets the designation उपसर्जनम् because in the सूत्रम् 2-1-51 (which prescribes the compounding) the term दिक्संख्ये (which comes as अनुवृत्ति: from the सूत्रम् 2-1-50 दिक्संख्ये संज्ञायाम्‌) ends in the nominative case. And hence the term ‘पञ्चन् आम्’ is placed in the prior position in the compound as per the सूत्रम् 2-2-30 उपसर्जनं पूर्वम्‌ – In a compound a term which has the designation ‘उपसर्जन’ should be placed in the prior position.
Note: ‘पञ्चन् आम् + वट आम्’ gets the designation प्रातिपदिकम्‌ by 1-2-46 कृत्तद्धितसमासाश्च। This allows 2-4-71 to apply in the next step.

(4) पञ्चन् + वट । By 2-4-71 सुपो धातुप्रातिपदिकयोः – A सुँप् affix takes a लुक् elision when it is a part of a धातुः or a प्रातिपदिकम्। Note: ‘ पञ्चन्’ has the designation पदम् here by the सूत्रम् 1-4-14 सुप्तिङन्तं पदम् with the help of the परिभाषा-सूत्रम् 1-1-62 प्रत्ययलोपे प्रत्ययलक्षणम्। This allows the सूत्रम् 8-2-7 to apply in the next step.

(5) पञ्चवट । By 8-2-7 नलोपः प्रातिपदिकान्तस्य – The ending letter ‘न्’ of a पदम् is dropped when the पदम् also has the designation प्रातिपदिकम्।

(6) This compound would have been used only in the neuter gender as per the सूत्रम् 2-4-17 स नपुंसकम्‌ – A द्विगुः/द्वन्द्व: compound which expresses a समाहार: (aggregation) is used (only) in the neuter gender.
But instead this compound is used only in the feminine gender as per the वार्तिकम् (under 2-4-17 स नपुंसकम्‌) अकारान्तोत्तरपदो द्विगु: स्त्रियामिष्ट: – A द्विगुः compound which expresses a समाहार: (aggregation) and whose final member ends in the letter ‘अ’ is used (only) in the feminine gender.

(7) पञ्चवट + ङीप् । By 4-1-21 द्विगोः – Following a द्विगुः compound that ends in the letter ‘अ’ the affix ‘ङीप्’ is added in the feminine gender.
Note: The अनुवृत्ति: of अत: (which comes down from the सूत्रम् 4-1-4 अजाद्यतष्टाप्‌ in to this सूत्रम्) qualifies द्विगोः and hence as per the परिभाषा-सूत्रम् 1-1-72 येन विधिस्तदन्तस्य we get the meaning अदन्ताद् द्विगो: – following a द्विगुः compound that ends in the letter ‘अ’।

See question 3.

(8) पञ्चवट + ई । अनुबन्ध-लोपः by 1-3-8 लशक्वतद्धिते, 1-3-3 हलन्त्यम् and 1-3-9 तस्य लोपः। Note: The अङ्गम् ‘पञ्चवट’ has the भ-सञ्ज्ञा here as per the सूत्रम् 1-4-18 यचि भम्। This allows the सूत्रम् 6-4-148 to apply in the next step.

(9) पञ्चवट् + ई । By 6-4-148 यस्येति च – When the letter ‘ई’ or a ‘तद्धित’ affix follows, the (ending) इ-वर्ण: (letter ‘इ’ or ‘ई’) or the (ending) अवर्ण: (letter ‘अ’ or ‘आ’) of a अङ्गम् with the भ-सञ्ज्ञा takes elision (लोपः)।

= पञ्चवटी ।

This compound is used only in the singular as per the सूत्रम् 2-4-1 द्विगुरेकवचनम्‌ – A द्विगुः compound which expresses a समाहार: (aggregation) is used (only) in the singular.

The विवक्षा is सप्तमी-एकवचनम्।

(10) पञ्चवटी + ङि । By 4-1-2 स्वौजसमौट्छष्टाभ्याम्भिस्ङेभ्याम्भ्यस्ङसिभ्याम्भ्यस्ङसोसाम्ङ्योस्सुप्‌

(11) पञ्चवटी + आम् । By 7-3-116 ङेराम्नद्याम्नीभ्यः – The affix ‘ङि’, following a base ending in ‘नदी’ (ref. 1-4-3 यू स्त्र्याख्यौ नदी) or ‘आप्’ or following the term ‘नी’, gets ‘आम्’ as the substitute. 1-3-4 न विभक्तौ तुस्माः prevents the ending letter ‘म्’ of ‘आम्’ from getting the इत्-सञ्ज्ञा।

(12) पञ्चवट्याम् । By 6-1-77 इको यणचि

Questions:

1. Commenting on the सूत्रम् 2-1-51 तद्धितार्थोत्तरपदसमाहारे च (used in step 2) the सिद्धान्तकौमुदी says – दिक्षु समाहारो नास्त्यनभिधानात्‌। Please explain.

2. Commenting on the same सूत्रम् the तत्त्वबोधिनी says – असञ्ज्ञार्थं वचनम्। Please explain.

3. The affix ङीप् prescribed by the सूत्रम् 4-1-21 द्विगोः (used in step 7) is an exception (अपवाद:) to which affix?

4. Which सूत्रम् justifies the use of a fifth case affix in the form शासनात् used in the verses?

5. Why doesn’t the नियम-सूत्रम् (restriction rule) 2-1-50 दिक्संख्ये संज्ञायाम्‌ prevent the formation of the compound ‘पूर्वावस्था’ (used in the form पूर्वावस्थायाम् (सप्तमी-एकवचनम्) in the commentary) which is not a proper name?

6. How would you say this in Sanskrit?
“Yesterday we studied a set of five aphorisms.” Construct a तत्पुरुष: compound for ‘set of five aphorisms’ = पञ्चानां सूत्राणां समाहार:।

Easy questions:

1. Where has the सूत्रम् 7-4-61 शर्पूर्वाः खयः been used in the verses?

2. Which सूत्रम् prescribes the लोप: (elision) of the अभ्यास: (first portion of the reduplication) in the form अभिपेदे used in the verses?

पूर्वर्षयः mNp

Today we will look at the form पूर्वर्षयः mNp from श्रीमद्भागवतम् 7.3.19.

अद्राक्षमहमेतत्ते हृत्सारं महदद्भुतम् । दंशभक्षितदेहस्य प्राणा ह्यस्थिषु शेरते ।। ७-३-१८ ।।
नैतत्पूर्वर्षयश्चक्रुर्न करिष्यन्ति चापरे । निरम्बुर्धारयेत्प्राणान्को वै दिव्यसमाः शतम् ।। ७-३-१९ ।।

श्रीधर-स्वामि-टीका
हृत्सारं धैर्यम् । दंशैर्मक्षिकादिविशेषैर्भक्षितो देहो यस्य ।। १८ ।। निरम्बुर्निषिद्धमम्बु येन सः । त्यक्तोदक इत्यर्थः ।। १९ ।।

Gita Press translation – I have witnessed this extraordinary and marvelous stamina of yours, that your body having been eaten away by gnats, your life actually hangs on your bones (alone) (18). Neither did the former sages practice such asceticism nor will the coming ones do it. Indeed, who can support life without water for a hundred celestial years (or 36,000 human years)? (19)

(1) पूर्वश्चासावृषिः = पूर्वर्षिः – Former sage.

अलौकिक-विग्रह: –
(2) पूर्व सुँ + ऋषि सुँ । By 2-1-58 पूर्वापरप्रथमचरमजघन्यसमानमध्यमध्यमवीराश्च – A सुबन्तं (ending in a सुँप् affix) पदम् which is (composed by adding a सुँप् affix to) ‘पूर्व’/’अपर’/’प्रथम’/’चरम’/’जघन्य’/’समान’/’मध्य’/’मध्यम’/’वीर’ optionally compounds with another सुबन्तं (ending in a सुँप् affix) पदम् – provided both the सुबन्त-पदे refer to the same item – and the resulting compound is a तत्पुरुष:।
Note: पूर्वनिपातनियमार्थमिदम्‌। The compounds prescribed by this सूत्रम् 2-1-58 could also be constructed using the सूत्रम् 2-1-57 विशेषणं विशेष्येण बहुलम्‌। The सूत्रम् 2-1-58 is composed for the purpose of placing the terms पूर्वापरप्रथमचरमजघन्यसमानमध्यमध्यमवीरा: in the prior position in the compound.

Note: As per 2-1-50 दिक्संख्ये संज्ञायाम्‌ – In a तत्पुरुष: compound, a सुबन्तं (ending in a सुँप् affix) पदम् denoting either a direction of the compass or a numeral combines with another सुबन्तं (ending in a सुँप् affix) पदम् referring to the same item only if the resulting compound denotes a proper name.
This नियम-सूत्रम् (restriction rule) does not prohibit the formation of the compound ‘पूर्वर्षि’ because here the term ‘पूर्व’ means earlier in time and not the direction east. Hence the restriction imposed by the सूत्रम् 2-1-50 does not apply here.

(3) By 1-2-43 प्रथमानिर्दिष्टं समास उपसर्जनम् – the term ‘पूर्व सुँ’ gets the designation उपसर्जनम् because in the सूत्रम् 2-1-58 (which prescribes the compounding) the term पूर्वापरप्रथमचरमजघन्यसमानमध्यमध्यमवीराः ends in the nominative case. Hence the adjective ‘पूर्व सुँ’ is placed in the prior position in the compound as per the सूत्रम् 2-2-30 उपसर्जनं पूर्वम्‌ – In a compound a term which has the designation ‘उपसर्जन’ should be placed in the prior position.

Note: ‘पूर्व सुँ + ऋषि सुँ’ gets the designation प्रातिपदिकम्‌ by 1-2-46 कृत्तद्धितसमासाश्च। This allows 2-4-71 to apply in the next step.

(4) पूर्व + ऋषि । By 2-4-71 सुपो धातुप्रातिपदिकयोः – A सुँप् affix takes a लुक् elision when it is a part of a धातुः or a प्रातिपदिकम्।

(5) पूर्वर्षि । By 6-1-87 आद्गुणः – In place of a preceding अवर्ण: letter (‘अ’ or ‘आ’) and a following अच् letter, there is a single substitute of a गुण: letter (‘अ’, ‘ए’, ‘ओ’)। As per 1-1-51 उरण् रपरः, in the place of ऋवर्ण: if an अण् letter (‘अ’, ‘इ’, ‘उ’) comes as a substitute, it is always followed by a ‘रँ’ (‘र्’, ‘ल्’) letter.

Note: As per the सूत्रम् 2-4-26 परवल्लिङ्गं द्वन्द्वतत्पुरुषयोः, the compound प्रातिपदिकम् ‘पूर्वर्षि’ is masculine since the latter member ‘ऋषि’ of the compound is masculine.

The विवक्षा is प्रथमा-बहुवचनम्।

(6) पूर्वर्षि + जस् । By 4-1-2 स्वौजसमौट्छष्टाभ्याम्भिस्ङेभ्याम्भ्यस्ङसिँभ्याम्भ्यस्ङसोसाम्ङ्योस्सुप्

(7) पूर्वर्षि + अस् । अनुबन्ध-लोपः by 1-3-7 चुटू and 1-3-9 तस्य लोपः। 1-3-4 न विभक्तौ तुस्माः prevents the ending letter ‘स्’ of ‘जस्’ from getting इत्-सञ्ज्ञा।

(8) पूर्वर्षे + अस् । 7-3-109 जसि च – When the affix ‘जस्’ follows, there is a गुण: substitute for the (ending letter of) of an अङ्गम् ending in a short vowel.

(9) पूर्वर्षयस् । By 6-1-78 एचोऽयवायावः ।

(10) पूर्वर्षयः । रुँत्व-विसर्गौ by 8-2-66 ससजुषो रुः and 8-3-15 खरवसानयोर्विसर्जनीयः

Questions:

1. In the last five verses of Chapter Six of the गीता can you spot a कर्मधारय: compound which is not prohibited by the नियम-सूत्रम् (restriction rule) 2-1-50 दिक्संख्ये संज्ञायाम्‌ because the prior member of the compound is ‘पूर्व’ meaning earlier in time and not the direction east?

2. Which other compound (besides पूर्वर्षयः) used in the verses is a कर्मधारय: compound?

3. Which कृत् affix is used to form the प्रातिपदिकम् ‘देह’ (used as part of the compound दंशभक्षितदेहस्य in the verses)? Hint: The विग्रह-वाक्यम् is ‘दिह्यते’ इति देह:।

4. Where has the सूत्रम् 2-3-5 कालाध्वनोरत्यन्तसंयोगे been used in the verses?

5. How would you say this in Sanskrit?
“Among the former residents of this village many were grammarians.” Use the कृत् affix ‘णिनिँ’ (ref.3-2-78 सुप्यजातौ णिनिस्ताच्छील्ये) to construct a उपपद-समास: for ‘resident’ = निवसति तच्छील:। Use this compound to construct a कर्मधारय: compound for ‘former resident.’

6. How would you say this in Sanskrit?
“I’ll go to India in the following month.” Construct a कर्मधारय: compound for ‘following month’ = उत्तरश्चासौ मास:।

Easy questions:

1. Where has the सूत्रम् 7-2-70 ऋद्धनोः स्ये been used in the verses?

2. Which सूत्रम् prescribes the वृद्धि: substitution in the form अद्राक्षम्?

सप्तर्षिभिः mIp

Today we will look at the form सप्तर्षिभिः mIp from श्रीमद्भागवतम् 8.24.34.

त्वं तावदोषधीः सर्वा बीजान्युच्चावचानि च । सप्तर्षिभिः परिवृतः सर्वसत्त्वोपबृंहितः ।। ८-२४-३४ ।।
आरुह्य बृहतीं नावं विचरिष्यस्यविक्लवः । एकार्णवे निरालोके ऋषीणामेव वर्चसा ।। ८-२४-३५ ।।

श्रीधर-स्वामि-टीका
ओषधीः आदायेति शेषः ।। ३४ ।। ऋषीणामेवालोकेन विचरिष्यसि ।। ३५ ।।

Gita Press translation – Take (with you) in the meanwhile all the herbs and annual plants as well as seeds of all types (both great and small) and, surrounded by the seven seers, and accompanied by all (varieties of) animals, you shall board that commodious vessel and sail about undaunted in that undivided expanse of water devoid of light, guided by the effulgence of the Ṛṣis alone (34-35).

(1) सप्तर्षयः – The seven sages ‘मरीचि’, ‘अत्रि’, ‘अङ्गिरस्’, ‘पुलस्त्य’, ‘पुलह’, ‘क्रतु’, and ‘वसिष्ठ’ by name.
Note: We cannot form a लौकिक-विग्रह: for this compound because सप्तर्षयः is a proper name and a proper name cannot be expressed via a sentence.

अलौकिक-विग्रह: –
(2) सप्तन् जस् + ऋषि जस् । By 2-1-50 दिक्संख्ये संज्ञायाम्‌ – In a तत्पुरुष: compound, a सुबन्तं (ending in a सुँप् affix) पदम् denoting either a direction of the compass or a numeral combines with another सुबन्तं (ending in a सुँप् affix) पदम् referring to the same item only if the resulting compound denotes a proper name.
Note: सञ्ज्ञायामेवेति नियमार्थं सूत्रम्‌ – This is a नियम-सूत्रम् – a restriction rule. Compounding is already available by the सूत्रम् 2-1-57 विशेषणं विशेष्येण बहुलम्‌। All this सूत्रम् does is that (if the prior member of the compound denotes either a direction of the compass or a numeral) it allows 2-1-57 to apply only if the resulting compound denotes a proper name.

(3) By 1-2-43 प्रथमानिर्दिष्टं समास उपसर्जनम् – the term ‘सप्तन् जस्’ – which denotes a numeral –  gets the designation उपसर्जनम् because in the सूत्रम् 2-1-50 (which prescribes the compounding) the term दिक्संख्ये ends in the nominative case. Hence ‘सप्तन् जस्’ is placed in the prior position in the compound as per the सूत्रम् 2-2-30 उपसर्जनं पूर्वम्‌ – In a compound a term which has the designation ‘उपसर्जन’ should be placed in the prior position.

Note: ‘सप्तन् जस् + ऋषि जस्’ gets the designation प्रातिपदिकम्‌ by 1-2-46 कृत्तद्धितसमासाश्च। This allows 2-4-71 to apply in the next step.

(4) सप्तन् + ऋषि । By 2-4-71 सुपो धातुप्रातिपदिकयोः – A सुँप् affix takes a लुक् elision when it is a part of a धातुः or a प्रातिपदिकम्। Note: ‘सप्तन्’ has the designation पदम् here by the सूत्रम् 1-4-14 सुप्तिङन्तं पदम् with the help of the परिभाषा-सूत्रम् 1-1-62 प्रत्ययलोपे प्रत्ययलक्षणम्। This allows the सूत्रम् 8-2-7 to apply in the next step.

(5) सप्त + ऋषि । By 8-2-7 नलोपः प्रातिपदिकान्तस्य – The ending letter ‘न्’ of a पदम् is dropped when the पदम् also has the designation प्रातिपदिकम्।

(6) सप्तर्षि । By 6-1-87 आद्गुणः – In place of a preceding अवर्ण: letter (‘अ’ or ‘आ’) and a following अच् letter, there is a single substitute of a गुण: letter (‘अ’, ‘ए’, ‘ओ’)। As per 1-1-51 उरण् रपरः, in the place of ऋवर्ण: if an अण् letter (‘अ’, ‘इ’, ‘उ’) comes as a substitute, it is always followed by a ‘रँ’ (‘र्’, ‘ल्’) letter.

Note: 8-2-2 नलोपः सुप्स्वरसंज्ञातुग्विधिषु कृति limits the authority of 8-2-1 पूर्वत्रासिद्धम् and says that the elision of the letter ‘न्’ (done by 8-2-7) is not visible only to those rules that are in the four categories mentioned below – others do see the elision of the letter ‘न्’।
The four categories are:
1. सुँब्विधौ – rules relating to सुँप् affixes
2. स्वरविधौ – rules relating to accents (in the वेद:)
3. सञ्ज्ञाविधौ – rules that give names or designations
4. कृति तुँग्विधौ – rules that prescribe a तुँक् augment in connection with a कृत्-प्रत्यय:।
The operation (substitution of a गुण: letter) prescribed by the सूत्रम् 6-1-87 does not fall under any of the above categories. Hence the elision of the letter ‘न्’ (done by 8-2-7) is visible to 6-1-87 allowing it to apply.

See question 1.

Note: As per the सूत्रम् 2-4-26 परवल्लिङ्गं द्वन्द्वतत्पुरुषयोः, the compound प्रातिपदिकम् ‘सप्तर्षि’ is masculine since the latter member ‘ऋषि’ of the compound is masculine.

The विवक्षा is तृतीया-बहुवचनम्।

(7) सप्तर्षि + भिस् । By 4-1-2 स्वौजसमौट्छष्टाभ्याम्भिस्ङेभ्याम्भ्यस्ङसिँभ्याम्भ्यस्ङसोसाम्ङ्योस्सुप्
Note: 1-3-4 न विभक्तौ तुस्माः prevents the ending letter ‘स्’ of the affix ‘भिस्’ from getting the इत्-सञ्ज्ञा।

(8) सप्तर्षिभिः । रुँत्व-विसर्गौ by 8-2-66 ससजुषो रुः and 8-3-15 खरवसानयोर्विसर्जनीयः

Questions:

1. What would be the optional form of the compound प्रातिपदिकम् if we were to apply the सूत्रम् 6-1-128 ऋत्यकः in step 6?

2. Consider verse 46 of Chapter Eleven of the गीता –
किरीटिनं गदिनं चक्रहस्तमिच्छामि त्वां द्रष्टुमहं तथैव |
तेनैव रूपेण चतुर्भुजेन सहस्रबाहो भव विश्वमूर्ते || 11-46||
Why doesn’t the नियम-सूत्रम् (restriction rule) 2-1-50 दिक्संख्ये संज्ञायाम्‌ stop the formation of the compound ‘चतुर्भुज’ which does not denote a proper name? Hint: Is the compound ‘चतुर्भुज’ used in this verse a कर्मधारय: compound?

3. Where has the सूत्रम् 2-1-49 पूर्वकालैकसर्वजरत्पुराणनवकेवलाः समानाधिकरणेन been used in the verses?

4. Which सूत्रम् prescribes the substitution ‘ल्यप्’ (in place of the affix ‘क्त्वा’) in the form आरुह्य used in the verses?

5. How would you say this in Sanskrit?
“Tell me the names of the seven sages.”

6. How would you say this in Sanskrit?
“Among these five students who is the most intelligent?” Use the adjective प्रातिपदिकम् ‘धीमत्तम’ for ‘most intelligent.’

Easy questions:

1. Where has the सूत्रम् 3-1-33 स्यतासी लृलुटोः been used in the verses?

2. From which प्रातिपदिकम् is the form नावम् (द्वितीया-एकवचनम्) used in the verses derived?

दक्षिणपञ्चालान् mAp

Today we will look at the form दक्षिणपञ्चालान् mAp from महाभारतम् 1.185.1.

वैशम्पायन उवाच
एवमुक्ताः प्रयातास्ते पाण्डवा जनमेजय । राज्ञा दक्षिणपञ्चालान्द्रुपदेनाभिरक्षितान् ।। १-१८५-१ ।।
ततस्ते सुमहात्मानं शुद्धात्मानमकल्मषम् । ददृशुः पाण्डवा वीरा मुनिं द्वैपायनं तदा ।। १-१८५-२ ।।
तस्मै यथावत्सत्कारं कृत्वा तेन च सत्कृताः । कथान्ते चाभ्यनुज्ञाताः प्रययुर्द्रुपदक्षयम् ।। १-१८५-३ ।।
पश्यन्तो रमणीयानि वनानि च सरांसि च । तत्र तत्र वसन्तश्च शनैर्जग्मुर्महारथाः ।। १-१८५-४ ।।

Translation – O Janamejaya, having been thus addressed, the Pāṇḍavas set out towards the Southern Pañcāla territories, which were ruled over by the king Drupada (1). Then those heroic Pāṇḍavas saw the very high-souled, pure-minded and sinless sage Dwaipāyana (2). Duly honoring the sage and in turn being honored by him, when their conversation came to a close, they proceeded with his approval to the residence of Drupada (3). Observing lovely forests and lakes, those great car warriors went slowly, staying at various places along the way (4).

(1) दक्षिणपञ्चाला: – The Southern Pañcāla territories
Note: We cannot form a लौकिक-विग्रह: for this compound because दक्षिणपञ्चाला: is a proper name and a proper name cannot be expressed via a sentence.

अलौकिक-विग्रह: –
(2) दक्षिण जस् + पञ्चाल जस् । By 2-1-50 दिक्संख्ये संज्ञायाम्‌ – In a तत्पुरुष: compound, a सुबन्तं (ending in a सुँप् affix) पदम् denoting either a direction of the compass or a numeral combines with another सुबन्तं (ending in a सुँप् affix) पदम् referring to the same item only if the resulting compound denotes a proper name.
Note: सञ्ज्ञायामेवेति नियमार्थं सूत्रम्‌ – This is a नियम-सूत्रम् – a restriction rule. Compounding is already available by the सूत्रम् 2-1-57 विशेषणं विशेष्येण बहुलम्‌। All this सूत्रम् does is that (if the prior member of the compound denotes either a direction of the compass or a numeral) it allows 2-1-57 to apply only if the resulting compound denotes a proper name.

See questions 1 and 2.

(3) By 1-2-43 प्रथमानिर्दिष्टं समास उपसर्जनम् – the term ‘दक्षिण जस्’ – which denotes a direction of the compass –  gets the designation उपसर्जनम् because in the सूत्रम् 2-1-50 (which prescribes the compounding) the term दिक्संख्ये ends in the nominative case. Hence ‘दक्षिण जस्’ is placed in the prior position in the compound as per the सूत्रम् 2-2-30 उपसर्जनं पूर्वम्‌ – In a compound a term which has the designation ‘उपसर्जन’ should be placed in the prior position.

Note: ‘दक्षिण जस् + पञ्चाल जस्’ gets the designation प्रातिपदिकम्‌ by 1-2-46 कृत्तद्धितसमासाश्च। This allows 2-4-71 to apply in the next step.

(4) दक्षिणपञ्चाल । By 2-4-71 सुपो धातुप्रातिपदिकयोः – A सुँप् affix takes a लुक् elision when it is a part of a धातुः or a प्रातिपदिकम्।

Note: As per the सूत्रम् 2-4-26 परवल्लिङ्गं द्वन्द्वतत्पुरुषयोः, the compound प्रातिपदिकम् ‘दक्षिणपञ्चाल’ is masculine since the latter member ‘पञ्चाल’ of the compound is masculine.

The विवक्षा is द्वितीया-बहुवचनम्।

(5) दक्षिणपञ्चाल + शस् । By 4-1-2 स्वौजसमौट्छष्टाभ्याम्भिस्ङेभ्याम्भ्यस्ङसिभ्याम्भ्यस्ङसोसाम्ङ्योस्सुप्‌

(6) दक्षिणपञ्चाल + अस् । अनुबन्ध-लोपः by 1-3-8 लशक्वतद्धिते and 1-3-9 तस्य लोपः1-3-4 न विभक्तौ तुस्माः prevents the ending letter ‘स्’ of ‘शस्’ from getting the इत्-सञ्ज्ञा ।

(7) दक्षिणपञ्चालास् । By 6-1-102 प्रथमयोः पूर्वसवर्णः – When a अक् letter is followed by a vowel (अच्) of the first (nominative) or second (accusative) case then for the two of them (अक् + अच्) there is a single substitute which is the elongated form of the first member (the अक् letter.)

(8) दक्षिणपञ्चालान् । By 6-1-103 तस्माच्छसो नः पुंसि – In the masculine gender, when the letter ‘स्’ of the affix ‘शस्’ follows a vowel which has been elongated by 6-1-102 then it is replaced by the letter ‘न्’।

Questions:

1. Commenting on the सूत्रम् 2-1-50 दिक्संख्ये संज्ञायाम्‌ (used in step 2) the काशिका says – सञ्ज्ञायामिति किम्? उत्तरा वृक्षा:। पञ्च ब्राह्मणा:। Please explain.

2. Why doesn’t the नियम-सूत्रम् (restriction rule) 2-1-50 दिक्संख्ये संज्ञायाम्‌ prevent the construction of compounds like पूर्वसूत्रम्, उत्तरमास: etc which do not denote any proper name?

3. Can you spot the कृत् affix ‘खश्’ in the verses?

4. Where has the सूत्रम् 3-4-72 गत्यर्थाकर्मकश्लिषशीङ्स्थासवसजनरुहजीर्यतिभ्यश्च been used in the verses?

5. Which सूत्रम् prescribes the affix ‘अनीयर्’ in the form रमणीयानि (प्रातिपदिकम् ‘रमणीय’, नपुंसकलिङ्गे द्वितीया-बहुवचनम्) used in the verses?

6. How would you say this in Sanskrit?
“The residents of the Northern Pañcāla territories were wealthier than the residents of the Southern Pañcāla territories.” Use the adjective प्रातिपदिकम् ‘आढ्यतर’ for ‘wealthier.’ Use the कृत् affix ‘णिनिँ’ (ref.3-2-78 सुप्यजातौ णिनिस्ताच्छील्ये) to compose a उपपद-समास: for ‘resident’ = निवसति तच्छील:।

Easy questions:

1. Which सूत्रम् prescribes the दीर्घादेश: (elongation) in the form सरांसि (नपुंसकलिङ्ग-प्रातिपदिकम् ‘सरस्’, द्वितीया-बहुवचनम्) used in the verses?

2. Where has the सूत्रम् 6-4-98 गमहनजनखनघसां लोपः क्ङित्यनङि been used in the verses?

सर्वयोगिनाम् mGp

Today we will look at the form सर्वयोगिनाम् mGp from श्रीमद्भागवतम् 3.25.2.

न ह्यस्य वर्ष्मणः पुंसां वरिम्णः सर्वयोगिनाम् । विश्रुतौ श्रुतदेवस्य भूरि तृप्यन्ति मेऽसवः ।। ३-२५-२ ।।
यद्यद्विधत्ते भगवान्स्वच्छन्दात्मात्ममायया । तानि मे श्रद्दधानस्य कीर्तन्यान्यनुकीर्तय ।। ३-२५-३ ।।

श्रीधर-स्वामि-टीका
पुंसां मध्ये वर्ष्मणो वृद्धस्योत्तमस्येत्यर्थः । सर्वयोगिनां मध्ये वरिम्णः, वरस्य भावो वरिमा, भवितृप्रधानोऽयं निर्देशः । वरिष्ठस्येत्यर्थः । यद्वा वरीयस्त्वादित्यर्थः । विश्रुतौ कीर्तौ । असव इन्द्रियाणि भूर्यलं न तृप्यन्ति । श्रुतेन श्रवणेन दीव्यति द्योतत इति तथा तस्य । यद्वा भूरि बहुशः श्रुतो देवो येन तस्यापि मेऽसव इति संबन्धः ।। २ ।। स्वानां पुंसां छन्देनेच्छया आत्मा देहो यस्य सः । यद्यत्कर्म विधत्ते तानि कर्माणि कीर्तनार्हाण्यनुकीर्तय ।। ३ ।।

Translation – Although I have often heard the stories of the Lord, my senses are not sated with hearing the glory of Lord Kapila, the best of all men and the foremost of all Yogīs (2). Having assumed by His own Māyā a personality conforming to the will of His devotees, whatever the Lord does is all worth signing. Therefore, kindly narrate all those doings to me, full of reverence as I am (3).

(1) सर्वे च ते योगिनः = सर्वयोगिन: – all Yogīs.

अलौकिक-विग्रह: –
(2) सर्व जस् + योगिन् जस् । By 2-1-49 पूर्वकालैकसर्वजरत्पुराणनवकेवलाः समानाधिकरणेन – A सुबन्तं (ending in a सुँप् affix) पदम् which either i) denotes an action which naturally precedes in time or ii) is (composed by adding a सुँप् affix to) ‘एक’/‘सर्व’/’जरत्’/’पुराण’/’नव’/’केवल’ optionally compounds with another सुबन्तं (ending in a सुँप् affix) पदम् – provided both the सुबन्त-पदे refer to the same item – and the resulting compound is a तत्पुरुष:।

(3) By 1-2-43 प्रथमानिर्दिष्टं समास उपसर्जनम् – the term ‘सर्व जस्’ gets the designation उपसर्जनम् because in the सूत्रम् 2-1-49 (which prescribes the compounding) the term पूर्वकालैकसर्वजरत्पुराणनवकेवलाः ends in the nominative case. Hence ‘सर्व जस्’ is placed in the prior position in the compound as per the सूत्रम् 2-2-30 उपसर्जनं पूर्वम्‌ – In a compound a term which has the designation ‘उपसर्जन’ should be placed in the prior position.

Note: ‘सर्व जस् + योगिन् जस्’ gets the designation प्रातिपदिकम्‌ by 1-2-46 कृत्तद्धितसमासाश्च। This allows 2-4-71 to apply in the next step.

(4) सर्व + योगिन् । By 2-4-71 सुपो धातुप्रातिपदिकयोः – A सुँप् affix takes a लुक् elision when it is a part of a धातुः or a प्रातिपदिकम्।

= सर्वयोगिन् ।

Note: As per the सूत्रम् 2-4-26 परवल्लिङ्गं द्वन्द्वतत्पुरुषयोः, the compound प्रातिपदिकम् ‘सर्वयोगिन्’ is masculine since the latter member ‘योगिन्’ of the compound is used in the masculine here.

The विवक्षा is षष्ठी-बहुवचनम्।

(5) सर्वयोगिन् + आम् । By 4-1-2 स्वौजसमौट्छष्टाभ्याम्भिस्ङेभ्याम्भ्यस्ङसिँभ्याम्भ्यस्ङसोसाम्ङ्योस्सुप्
1-3-4 न विभक्तौ तुस्माः prevents the ending letter ‘म्’ of the affix ‘आम्’ from getting इत्-सञ्ज्ञा।

See question 2.

= सर्वयोगिनाम् ।

Questions:

1. Where has the सूत्रम् 2-1-49 पूर्वकालैकसर्वजरत्पुराणनवकेवलाः समानाधिकरणेन been used in verses 5-10 of Chapter Fourteen of the गीता?

2. Which सूत्रम् justifies the use of a sixth case affix in the form सर्वयोगिनाम् here?

3. Can you spot the कृत् affix क्तिन् in the verses?

4. What type of compound is आत्ममायया (feminine compound प्रातिपदिकम् ‘आत्ममाया’, तृतीया-एकवचनम्) used in the verses?
i) तृतीया-तत्पुरुष:
ii) कर्मधारय:
iii) षष्ठी-तत्पुरुष:
iv) अव्ययीभाव:

5. Where has the सूत्रम् 3-3-97 ऊतियूतिजूतिसातिहेतिकीर्तयश्च been used in the commentary?

6. How would you say this in Sanskrit?
“All the warriors in our army are brave.” Form a compound for ‘all the warriors’ = सर्वे च ते योधा:।

Easy questions:

1. Where has the सूत्रम् 8-2-38 दधस्तथोश्च been used in the verses?

2. Can you spot the affix श्यन् in the verses?

एकराट् mNs

Today we will look at the form एकराट् mNs from श्रीमद्भागवतम् 7.4.12.

तस्मिन्महेन्द्रभवने महाबलो महामना निर्जितलोक एकराट् । रेमेऽभिवन्द्याङ्घ्रियुगः सुरादिभिः प्रतापितैरूर्जितचण्डशासनः ।। ७-४-१२ ।।
तमङ्ग मत्तं मधुनोरुगन्धिना विवृत्तताम्राक्षमशेषधिष्ण्यपाः । उपासतोपायनपाणिभिर्विना त्रिभिस्तपोयोगबलौजसां पदम् ।। ७-४-१३ ।।

श्रीधर-स्वामि-टीका
ऊर्जितमधिकं चण्डं तीव्रं शासनं यस्य ।। १२ ।। अङ्ग हे राजन्, उरुगन्धिनोग्रगन्धेन मधुना सुरया मत्तम् । अत एव विवृत्ते विघूर्णिते ताम्रे अक्षिणी यस्य तम् । अशेषधिष्ण्यपाः सर्वलोकपाला उपायनयुक्तैः पाणिभिरुपासत सेवन्ते । त्रिभिर्ब्रह्मविष्णुरुद्रैर्विना । पदमाश्रयभूतम् ।। १३ ।।

Translation – In that palace of the great Indra reveled the mighty and proud Hiraṇyakaśipu, who had conquered (all) the worlds and was (now) their sole monarch, (nay,) whose feet were respectfully tended by gods and others severely oppressed by him and who ruled with a strong and iron hand (12). Upon him, O dear one – who remained inebriate with a strong-smelling wine and whose coppery eyes ever kept rolling (through intoxication), (nay,) who was a reservoir of austerity, Yoga (concentration of mind) and strength of body and acuteness of the senses – waited with presents (of various kinds) in their hands all the protectors of the worlds barring (of course) three (viz., Brahmā, Viṣṇu and Śiva) (13).

(1) एकश्चासौ राट् = एकराट् – sole monarch.
Note: Due to the restriction imposed by the सूत्रम् 2-1-50 दिक्संख्ये संज्ञायाम्‌ we would be able to construct the compound एकराट् only if it were to be a proper name. But the specific mention of ‘एक’ in the सूत्रम् 2-1-49 पूर्वकालैकसर्वजरत्पुराणनवकेवलाः समानाधिकरणेन now allows us to construct this compound even though it is not a proper name.

अलौकिक-विग्रह: –
(2) एक सुँ + राज् सुँ । By 2-1-49 पूर्वकालैकसर्वजरत्पुराणनवकेवलाः समानाधिकरणेन – A सुबन्तं (ending in a सुँप् affix) पदम् which either i) denotes an action which naturally precedes in time or ii) is (composed by adding a सुँप् affix to) ‘एक’/’सर्व’/’जरत्’/’पुराण’/’नव’/’केवल’ optionally compounds with another सुबन्तं (ending in a सुँप् affix) पदम् – provided both the सुबन्त-पदे refer to the same item – and the resulting compound is a तत्पुरुष:।

(3) By 1-2-43 प्रथमानिर्दिष्टं समास उपसर्जनम् – the term ‘एक सुँ’ gets the designation उपसर्जनम् because in the सूत्रम् 2-1-49 (which prescribes the compounding) the term पूर्वकालैकसर्वजरत्पुराणनवकेवलाः ends in the nominative case. Hence the adjective ‘एक सुँ’ is placed in the prior position in the compound as per the सूत्रम् 2-2-30 उपसर्जनं पूर्वम्‌ – In a compound a term which has the designation ‘उपसर्जन’ should be placed in the prior position.

Note: ‘एक सुँ + राज् सुँ’ gets the designation प्रातिपदिकम्‌ by 1-2-46 कृत्तद्धितसमासाश्च। This allows 2-4-71 to apply in the next step.

(4) एक + राज् । By 2-4-71 सुपो धातुप्रातिपदिकयोः – A सुँप् affix takes a लुक् elision when it is a part of a धातुः or a प्रातिपदिकम्।

= एकराज् ।

Note: As per the सूत्रम् 2-4-26 परवल्लिङ्गं द्वन्द्वतत्पुरुषयोः, the compound प्रातिपदिकम् ‘ एकराज्’ is masculine since the latter member ‘राज्’ of the compound is masculine.

The विवक्षा is प्रथमा-एकवचनम्।

(5) एकराज् + सुँ । By 4-1-2 स्वौजसमौट्छष्टाभ्याम्भिस्ङेभ्याम्भ्यस्ङसिँभ्याम्भ्यस्ङसोसाम्ङ्योस्सुप्

(6) एकराज् + स् । अनुबन्ध-लोपः by 1-3-2 उपदेशेऽजनुनासिक इत् and 1-3-9 तस्य लोपः।

(7) एकराज् । By 6-1-68 हल्ङ्याब्भ्यो दीर्घात्‌ सुतिस्यपृक्तं हल् – A single letter affix ‘सुँ’, ‘ति’ or ‘सि’ is dropped following a base ending in a consonant or in the long feminine affix ‘ङी’ or ‘आप्’। Now ‘एकराज्’ gets the designation पदम् by 1-4-14 सुप्तिङन्तं पदम् with the help of 1-1-62 प्रत्ययलोपे प्रत्ययलक्षणम्। This allows the सूत्रम् 8-2-36 to apply in the next step.

(8) एकराष् । By 8-2-36 व्रश्चभ्रस्जसृजमृजयजराजभ्राजच्छशां षः – The seven verbal roots listed – √व्रश्च् (ओँव्रश्चूँ छेदने ६. १२), √भ्रस्ज् (भ्रस्जँ पाके ६. ४), √सृज् (सृजँ विसर्गे ६. १५०), √मृज् (मृजूँ शुद्धौ २. ६१), √यज् (यजँ देवपूजासङ्गतिकरणदानेषु १. ११५७), √राज् (राजृँ दीप्तौ १. ९५६) and √भ्राज् (टुभ्राजृँ दीप्तौ १. ९५७) – and terms ending in the letter ‘छ्’ or the letter ‘श्’ get the letter ‘ष्’ as a replacement, when they are at the end of a पदम् or are followed by a झल् letter.
Note: As per 1-1-52 अलोऽन्त्यस्य only the ending letter is replaced by the letter ‘ष्’।

(9) एकराड् । By 8-2-39 झलां जशोऽन्ते, a झल् letter occurring at the end of a पदम् it is replaced by a जश् letter.

(10) एकराड् / एकराट् । By 8-4-56 वाऽवसाने, a झल् letter is optionally replaced by a चर् letter when nothing follows.

Questions:

1. Commenting on the सूत्रम् 2-1-49 पूर्वकालैकसर्वजरत्पुराणनवकेवलाः समानाधिकरणेन (used in step 2) the काशिका says – समानाधिकरणेनेति किम्? एकस्याः शाटी। Please explain.

2. Which सूत्रम् justifies the use of a third case affix in the word त्रिभि: used in the verses?

3. In which word in the verses has the सूत्रम् 6-4-52 निष्ठायां सेटि been used?

4. Why doesn’t the सूत्रम् 8-2-42 रदाभ्यां निष्ठातो नः पूर्वस्य च दः apply in the form मत्तम् (प्रातिपदिकम् ‘मत्त’, पुंलिङ्गे द्वितीया-एकवचनम्) used in the verses?

5. Can you spot a तृतीया-तत्पुरुष: compound in the commentary?

6. How would you say this in Sanskrit?
“In Laṅkā, Vibhīṣaṇa was the sole devotee of Śrī Rāma.” Construct a compound for ‘sole devotee’ (एकश्चासौ भक्त:।)

Easy questions:

1. Where has the सूत्रम् 6-4-120 अत एकहल्मध्येऽनादेशादेर्लिटि been used in the verses?

2. Which सूत्रम् prescribes the substitution ‘अत्’ in the form उपासत used in the verses?

क्षणलक्षितव्यवहिता fNs

Today we will look at the form क्षणलक्षितव्यवहिता fNs from शिशुपालवधम् verse 6-28.

द्रुतसमीरचलैः क्षणलक्षितव्यवहिता विटपैरिव मञ्जरी । नवतमालनिभस्य नभस्तरोरचिररोचिररोचत वारिदैः ।। ६-२८ ।।

टीका
द्रुतेति ।। द्रुतसमीरेण शीघ्रमारुतेन चलैर्वारिदैः क्षणं लक्षिता च व्यवहिता च सा क्षणलक्षितव्यवहिता क्षणिकाविर्भावतिरोधानेत्यर्थः । स्नातानुलिप्तवत् ‘2-1-49 पूर्वकालैक-‘ इत्यादिना समासः । अचिरं रोचिर्यस्याः सा अचिररोचिर्विद्‍युत् द्रुतसमीरचलैर्विटपैः शाखाभिः क्षणलक्षितव्यवहिता नवतमालनिभस्य नवतमालेन सदृशस्य तद्वन्नीलस्येत्यर्थः । नित्यसमासः । नभस्तरुरिव तस्य नभस्तरोर्मञ्जरी गुच्छ इवारोचत । उपमालङ्कारः । अत्र नभस्तरोर्नभःश्रेष्ठस्येति व्याख्याने तरुशब्दस्य व्याघ्रादित्वाच्छ्रेष्ठार्थगोचरत्वात्तमालशब्देन विशेषवाचिना तन्नीलसामान्येन पौनरुक्त्यमिति वल्लभः । तमालशब्दस्येन्द्रनीलवन्नैल्यमात्रोपमानत्वात्तरुशब्दस्य स्वार्थवृत्तित्वेऽपि न पौनरुक्त्यमित्यन्ये ।

Translation – Lightning (whose splendor is short-lived) which was (earlier) seen for a moment and then concealed by the clouds moving due to the swift wind shone as if it were a cluster of blossoms – of the tree in the form of the sky which appeared (dark) like a young Tamāla tree – which was (earlier) seen for a moment and then concealed by the branches moving due to the swift wind.

लौकिक-विग्रह: –
(1) पूर्वं क्षणलक्षिता पश्चाद्व्यवहिता = क्षणलक्षितव्यवहिता – (earlier) seen for a moment and then concealed.
Note: क्षणलक्षिता itself is a compound. It is a द्वितीया-तत्पुरुष: compound analyzed as क्षणं लक्षिता = क्षणलक्षिता। The derivation is similar to that of the compound मुहूर्तसेवा shown in the following post – http://avg-sanskrit.org/2015/01/29/

अलौकिक-विग्रह: –
(2) क्षणलक्षिता सुँ + व्यवहिता सुँ । By 2-1-49 पूर्वकालैकसर्वजरत्पुराणनवकेवलाः समानाधिकरणेन – A सुबन्तं (ending in a सुँप् affix) पदम् which either i) denotes an action which naturally precedes in time or ii) is (composed by adding a सुँप् affix to) ‘एक’/’सर्व’/’जरत्’/’पुराण’/’नव’/’केवल’ optionally compounds with another सुबन्तं (ending in a सुँप् affix) पदम् – provided both the सुबन्त-पदे refer to the same item – and the resulting compound is a तत्पुरुष:।

(3) By 1-2-43 प्रथमानिर्दिष्टं समास उपसर्जनम् – the term ‘क्षणलक्षिता सुँ’ gets the designation उपसर्जनम् because in the सूत्रम् 2-1-49 (which prescribes the compounding) the term पूर्वकालैकसर्वजरत्पुराणनवकेवलाः ends in the nominative case. Hence ‘क्षणलक्षिता सुँ’ – which denotes the action occurring earlier in time – is placed in the prior position in the compound as per the सूत्रम् 2-2-30 उपसर्जनं पूर्वम्‌ – In a compound a term which has the designation ‘उपसर्जन’ should be placed in the prior position.

Note: ‘क्षणलक्षिता सुँ + व्यवहिता सुँ’ gets the designation प्रातिपदिकम्‌ by 1-2-46 कृत्तद्धितसमासाश्च। This allows 2-4-71 to apply in the next step.

(4) क्षणलक्षिता + व्यवहिता । By 2-4-71 सुपो धातुप्रातिपदिकयोः – A सुँप् affix takes a लुक् elision when it is a part of a धातुः or a प्रातिपदिकम्।

(5) क्षणलक्षितव्यवहिता । By 6-3-42 पुंवत्‌ कर्मधारयजातीयदेशीयेषु – A feminine adjective which does not end in the feminine affix ‘ऊङ्’ (ref. 4-1-66 ऊङुतः etc) and is formed from a masculine base denoting the same meaning becomes masculine-like when it is either the prior member of a कर्मधारय: compound or is followed by the affix ‘जातीय’ (ref. 5-3-69 प्रकारवचने जातीयर्) or ‘देशीय’ (ref. 5-3-67 ईषदसमाप्तौ कल्पब्देश्यदेशीयरः)।

As per the सूत्रम् 2-4-26 परवल्लिङ्गं द्वन्द्वतत्पुरुषयोः, the compound प्रातिपदिकम् ‘क्षणलक्षितव्यवहिता’ is feminine since the latter member ‘व्यवहिता’ of the compound is feminine. The compound declines like रमा-शब्द:।

The विवक्षा is प्रथमा-एकवचनम्।

(6) क्षणलक्षितव्यवहिता + सुँ । By 4-1-2 स्वौजसमौट्छष्टाभ्याम्भिस्ङेभ्याम्भ्यस्ङसिँभ्याम्भ्यस्ङसोसाम्ङ्योस्सुप्

(7) क्षणलक्षितव्यवहिता + स् । अनुबन्ध-लोपः by 1-3-2 उपदेशेऽजनुनासिक इत्, 1-3-9 तस्य लोपः

(8) क्षणलक्षितव्यवहिता । By 6-1-68 हल्ङ्याब्भ्यो दीर्घात्‌ सुतिस्यपृक्तं हल् – A single letter affix ‘सुँ’, ‘ति’ or ‘सि’ is dropped following a base ending in a consonant or in the long feminine affix ‘ङी’ or ‘आप्’।

Questions:

1. Commenting on the सूत्रम् 2-1-49 पूर्वकालैकसर्वजरत्पुराणनवकेवलाः समानाधिकरणेन (used in step 2) the सिद्धान्तकौमुदी says – ‘2-1-57 विशेषणं विशेष्येण बहुलम्‌’ इति सिद्धे पूर्वनिपातनियमार्थं सूत्रम्‌। एकशब्दस्य ‘2-1-50 दिक्संख्ये संज्ञायाम्‌’ इति नियमबाधनार्थं च। Please explain.

2. Commenting on the same सूत्रम् the काशिका says – पूर्वकाल इत्यर्थनिर्देशः, परिशिष्टानां स्वरूपग्रहणम्। Please explain.

3. The अनुवृत्ति: of ‘समानाधिकरणेन’ runs from the सूत्रम् 2-1-49 पूर्वकालैकसर्वजरत्पुराणनवकेवलाः समानाधिकरणेन down to which सूत्रम्?

4. Derive the compound ‘द्रुतसमीरचल’ (used in the form द्रुतसमीरचलैः (पुंलिङ्गे तृतीया-बहुवचनम्) in the verse.) Hint: First form the कर्मधारय: compound ‘द्रुतसमीर’ and use that to form the तृतीया-तत्पुरुष: compound ‘द्रुतसमीरचल’।

5. Can you spot the कृत् affix ‘क’ in the verse?

6. How would you say this in Sanskrit?
“Look at the beautiful idol which has been (earlier) cleaned and then decorated.” Use the feminine प्रातिपदिकम् ‘मूर्ति’ for ‘idol.’ Form a compound for ‘(earlier) cleaned and then decorated’ = पूर्वं मार्जिता पश्चाद्‍भूषिता।

Easy questions:

1. Can you spot the augment अट् in the verse?

2. Where has the सूत्रम् 7-1-17 जसः शी been used in the commentary?

श्वेतच्छत्रम् nAs

Today we will look at the form श्वेतच्छत्रम् nAs from श्रीमद्भागवतम् 9.10.43.

पादुके भरतोऽगृह्णाच्चामरव्यजनोत्तमे । विभीषणः ससुग्रीवः श्वेतच्छत्रं मरुत्सुतः ।। ९-१०-४३ ।।
धनुर्निषङ्गाञ्छत्रुघ्नः सीता तीर्थकमण्डलुम् । अबिभ्रदङ्गदः खड्गं हैमं चर्मर्क्षराण्नृप ।। ९-१०-४४ ।।

श्रीधर-स्वामि-टीका
अयोध्याप्रवेशप्रकारमाह – पादुके इति सार्धैस्त्रिभिः ।। ४३ ।। धनुश्च निषङ्गौ च तान् । ऋक्षराट् जाम्बवान् ।। ४४ ।।

Translation – Bharata took His pair of wooden sandals; Vibhīṣaṇa along with Sugrīva (who stood severally on His right and left), a cowrie and an excellent fan (respectively); and Hanumān (son of the wind-god, who stood behind the Lord) held the white umbrella (over Him) (43). Śatrughna (the youngest brother of Śrī Rāma) bore His bow and the pair of quivers; Sītā held the Kamaṇḍalu (water-pot of coconut-shell) containing the water of sacred lakes and rivers; Aṅgada carried His sword and Jāmbavān (the king of the bears), His shield of gold, O protector of men! (44)

(1) श्वेतं च तच् छत्रम् = श्वेतच्छत्रम् – white umbrella.
श्वेतच्छत्रम् is a कर्मधारयः compound. पाणिनि: defines the term कर्मधारयः by the सूत्रम् 1-2-42 तत्पुरुषः समानाधिकरणः कर्मधारयः – A तत्पुरुषः compound in which both the members refer to the same item – and hence have the same case ending – gets the designation कर्मधारयः।
Note: पाणिनि: has placed this सूत्रम् outside the अधिकार: ‘1-4-1 आ कडारादेका संज्ञा‘ in order to allow the designation कर्मधारयः to co-exist with the designation तत्पुरुषः prescribed by the सूत्रम् 2-1-22 तत्पुरुषः।
Note: It is hard to come up with a satisfactory explanation for the designation कर्मधारयः। One way would be to take कर्म = भेदकक्रिया – the action of differentiating/qualifying. Then the word कर्मधारयः could mean कर्म भेदकक्रिया, तां धारयत्यसौ कर्मधारयः – a compound which gives a specification of the thing at hand.

अलौकिक-विग्रह: –
(2) श्वेत सुँ + छत्र सुँ । By 2-1-57 विशेषणं विशेष्येण बहुलम्‌ – A सुबन्तं (ending in a सुँप् affix) पदम् denoting a qualifier (adjective) variously compounds with another सुबन्तं (ending in a सुँप् affix) पदम् which denotes that which is qualified – provided both the सुबन्त-पदे refer to the same item – and the resulting compound is a तत्पुरुष:।

(3) By 1-2-43 प्रथमानिर्दिष्टं समास उपसर्जनम् – the term ‘श्वेत सुँ’ gets the designation उपसर्जनम् because in the सूत्रम् 2-1-57 (which prescribes the compounding) the term विशेषणम्‌ ends in the nominative case. Hence the adjective ‘श्वेत सुँ’ is placed in the prior position in the compound as per the सूत्रम् 2-2-30 उपसर्जनं पूर्वम्‌ – In a compound a term which has the designation ‘उपसर्जन’ should be placed in the prior position.

Note: ‘श्वेत सुँ + छत्र सुँ’ gets the designation प्रातिपदिकम्‌ by 1-2-46 कृत्तद्धितसमासाश्च। This allows 2-4-71 to apply in the next step.

(4) श्वेत + छत्र । By 2-4-71 सुपो धातुप्रातिपदिकयोः – A सुँप् affix takes a लुक् elision when it is a part of a धातुः or a प्रातिपदिकम्।

(5) श्वेत तुँक् + छत्र । By 6-1-73 छे च – A short vowel (ह्रस्वः) gets the तुँक् augment when the letter ‘छ्’ follows in संहितायाम् (immediate sequence.) As per 1-1-46 आद्यन्तौ टकितौ the तुँक् augment follows the short vowel.

(6) श्वेत त् + छत्र । अनुबन्ध-लोपः by 1-3-2 उपदेशेऽजनुनासिक इत्, 1-3-3 हलन्त्यम् and 1-3-9 तस्य लोपः।

(7) श्वेत च् + छत्र । By 8-4-40 स्तोः श्चुना श्चुः – When the letter ‘स्’ or a letter of the त-वर्ग: (‘त्’, ‘थ्’, ‘द्’, ‘ध्’, ‘न्’) comes in contact with either the letter ‘श्’ or a letter of the च-वर्ग: (‘च्’, ‘छ्’, ‘ज्’, ‘झ्’, ‘ञ्’), then it is replaced respectively by ‘श्’, च-वर्ग: (‘च्’, ‘छ्’, ‘ज्’, ‘झ्’, ‘ञ्’)।
Note: As per the सूत्रम् 1-3-10 यथासंख्यमनुदेशः समानाम्, the substitutions take place respectively.

= श्वेतच्छत्र ।

Note: As per the सूत्रम् 2-4-26 परवल्लिङ्गं द्वन्द्वतत्पुरुषयोः, the compound प्रातिपदिकम् ‘श्वेतच्छत्र’ is neuter since the latter member ‘छत्र’ of the compound is neuter here.

The विवक्षा is द्वितीया-एकवचनम् ।

(8) श्वेतच्छत्र + अम् । By 4-1-2 स्वौजसमौट्छष्टाभ्याम्भिस्ङेभ्याम्भ्यस्ङसिभ्याम्भ्यस्ङसोसाम्ङ्योस्सुप्‌।

(9) श्वेतच्छत्र + अम् । By 7-1-24 अतोऽम् – The affixes ‘सुँ’ and ‘अम्’ that follow a neuter अङ्गम् ending in the short vowel ‘अ’ take ‘अम्’ as their replacement. Note: 7-1-24 is required here to prevent 7-1-23 स्वमोर्नपुंसकात्‌ from applying.
1-3-4 न विभक्तौ तुस्माः prevents the ending letter ‘म्’ of the affix ‘अम्’ from getting इत्-सञ्ज्ञा।

(10) श्वेतच्छत्रम् । By 6-1-107 अमि पूर्वः – In place of a preceding अक् letter and the following vowel (अच्) belonging to the affix ‘अम्’ there is a single substitute of that preceding अक् letter.

Questions:

1. Can you spot a कर्मधारयः compound in verses 13-18 of Chapter Fifteen of the गीता?

2. Commenting on the सूत्रम् 2-1-57 विशेषणं विशेष्येण बहुलम्‌ (used in step 2) the सिद्धान्तकौमुदी says – बहुलग्रहणात्‌ क्वचिन्नित्यम्‌। कृष्णसर्प:। क्वचिन्न। रामो जामदग्न्य:। Please explain.

3. Commenting on the same सूत्रम् the तत्त्वबोधिनी says – जातिशब्दस्य गुणक्रियाशब्दसमभिव्याहारे विशेष्यसमर्पकतैव। तेन नीलोत्पलं पाचकब्राह्मण इति व्यवस्थित एव प्रयोग:। गुणशब्दयोः क्रियाशब्दयोर्गुणक्रियाशब्दयोश्चानियम एव। खञ्जकुब्जः, कुब्जखञ्जः। पाचकपाठकः, पाठकपाचकः। खञ्जपाचकः, पाचकखञ्ज इति। Please explain.

4. Which कृत् affix is used to form the compound प्रातिपदिकम् ‘शत्रुघ्न’ (used in the form शत्रुघ्नः (पुंलिङ्गे प्रथमा-एकचवनम्) in the verses)?

5. How would you say this in Sanskrit?
“One should worship Gaṇeśa with red flowers.” Form a compound for ‘red flowers.’

6. How would you say this in Sanskrit?
“Arjuna’s chariot was yoked with white horses.” Form a compound for ‘white horses.’

Easy questions:

1. Which सूत्रम् prescribes the सम्प्रसारणम् in the form अगृह्णात्?

2. The form अबिभ्रत् used in the verses is a आर्ष-प्रयोग: (grammatically irregular form.) What is the grammatically correct form?

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