Home » 2011 » August » 21

Daily Archives: August 21, 2011

दोग्धि 3As-लँट्

Today we will look at the form दोग्धि 3As-लँट् from श्रीमद्भागवतम् 3-32-1.

कपिल उवाच
अथ यो गृहमेधीयान्धर्मानेवावसन्गृहे ।
काममर्थं च धर्मान्स्वान्दोग्धि भूयः पिपर्ति तान् ।। ३-३२-१ ।।
स चापि भगवद्धर्मात्काममूढः पराङ्मुखः ।

Gita Press translation “Lord Kapila continued : As for the man who, while continuing at home, performs the duties of a householder and, earning wealth and the pleasures of sense through them resorts to those actions again, he too turns his face away from the Lord, deluded as he is by desire.”

दोग्धि is derived from the धातुः √दुह् (दुहँ प्रपूरणे, अदादि-गणः, धातु-पाठः #२. ४)

The विवक्षा is लँट्, कर्तरि प्रयोगः, प्रथम-पुरुषः, एकवचनम्।

In the धातु-पाठः, the √दुह्-धातुः has one इत् letter which is the अकार: following the हकार:। This इत् letter has a स्वरित-स्वर:। Therefore, as per the सूत्रम् 1-3-72 स्वरितञितः कर्त्रभिप्राये क्रियाफले, the √दुह्-धातुः will take आत्मनेपद-प्रत्ययाः when the fruit of the action (क्रियाफलम्) accrues to the doer (कर्त्रभिप्रायम् = कर्तृ-अभिप्रायम्)। In the remaining case – when the fruit of the action does not accrue to the doer – by 1-3-78 शेषात् कर्तरि परस्मैपदम् – the √दुह्-धातुः will take परस्मैपद-प्रत्ययाः।
In reality though, this distinction of the fruit of the action accruing to the doer or not, is rarely honored in the language. So as a practical matter, a verbal root such as “√दुह्” will take either आत्मनेपद-प्रत्ययाः or परस्मैपद-प्रत्ययाः regardless of whether the fruit of the action accrues to the doer or not. In short, √दुह्-धातुः will be उभयपदी। In this verse, it has taken a परस्मैपद-प्रत्यय:।

Since the विवक्षा is प्रथम-पुरुष-एकवचनम्, the प्रत्यय: will be “तिप्”।

(1) दुह् + लँट् । By 3-2-123 वर्तमाने लट्, the affix लँट् comes after a धातुः when denoting an action in the present tense.

(2) दुह् + ल् । अनुबन्ध-लोपः by 1-3-2 उपदेशेऽजनुनासिक इत्, 1-3-3 हलन्त्यम्, 1-3-9 तस्य लोपः

(3) दुह् + तिप् । 3-4-78 तिप्तस्झिसिप्थस्थमिब्वस्मस् तातांझथासाथांध्वमिड्वहिमहिङ् mandates the प्रत्ययः “तिप्” as the substitute for the लकारः। “तिप्” gets the सार्वधातुक-सञ्ज्ञा by 3-4-113 तिङ्शित्सार्वधातुकम् – The affixes of the तिङ्-प्रत्याहारः and the affixes that have शकारः as an इत् get the designation of सार्वधातुकम् if they are prescribed in the “धातो:” अधिकार:।

(4) दुह् + शप् + तिप् । By 3-1-68 कर्तरि शप्‌, the शप्-प्रत्यय: is placed after a verbal root, when followed by a सार्वधातुक-प्रत्यय: that is used signifying the agent. The शप्-प्रत्यय: which is a शित्, gets सार्वधातुक-सञ्ज्ञा by 3-4-113 तिङ्शित्सार्वधातुकम्

(5) दुह् + तिप् । By 2-4-72 अदिप्रभृतिभ्यः शपः, the शप्-प्रत्ययः takes the लुक् elision when following a verbal root belonging to अदादि-गणः।

(6) दुह् + ति । अनुबन्ध-लोपः by 1-3-3 हलन्त्यम्, 1-3-9 तस्य लोपः

(7) दोह् + ति । By 7-3-86 पुगन्‍तलघूपधस्‍य च, when a अङ्गम् is followed by a सार्वधातुक-प्रत्ययः or an आर्धधातुक-प्रत्ययः, then its इक्-letter takes गुण-आदेशः in the following two cases: i) The अङ्गम् ends in a पुक्-आगमः। or ii) The penultimate letter of the अङ्गम् has the लघु-सञ्ज्ञा।

(8) दोघ् + ति । By 8-2-32 दादेर्धातोर्घः, the हकारः of a धातु: that begins with a दकारः in the उपदेशः (धातु-पाठ:), gets घकारः as its replacement when followed by a झल् letter or at the end of a पदम्।

(9) दोघ् + धि । By 8-2-40 झषस्तथोर्धोऽधः, a तकारः or थकारः gets धकारः as the replacement, when preceded by a letter of the झष्-प्रत्याहारः with the exception of the धकारः belonging to the धातुः √धा (डुधाञ् धारणपोषणयोः | दान इत्यप्येके ३. ११)।

(10) दोग्धि । By 8-4-53 झलां जश् झशि, the झल् letters are replaced by जश् letters when they are followed by a झश् letter.


1. In Chapter 12 of the गीता can you spot a तिङन्तं पदम् (लँट्, प्रथम-पुरुष-एकवचनम्) in which a धातु: (like “दुह्”) belonging to the अदादि-गण: and beginning with a दकार: has been used? (As in the present example, 7-3-86 पुगन्‍तलघूपधस्‍य च has been used there also.)

2. 8-2-32 दादेर्धातोर्घः is an अपवाद: for which सूत्रम्?

3. After step 8, why didn’t 8-2-37 एकाचो बशो भष् झषन्तस्य स्ध्वोः apply? (Which condition was not satisfied?)

4. In the nine items in the conjugation table of √दुह् (दुहँ प्रपूरणे, धातु-पाठः #२. ४) with लँट् in परस्मैपदम् in which form does 8-2-37 एकाचो बशो भष् झषन्तस्य स्ध्वोः apply?

5. In the nine items in the conjugation table of √दुह् (दुहँ प्रपूरणे, धातु-पाठः #२. ४) with लँट् in परस्मैपदम् which form is repeated twice?

6. How would you say this in Sanskrit?
“Let us extract the secret of the Upanishads from the Geeta.” Use the neuter प्रातिपदिकम् “रहस्य” for “secret”, use √दुह् (दुहँ प्रपूरणे, धातु-पाठः #२. ४) for “to extract.” Note: पञ्चमी विभक्ति: or द्वितीया विभक्ति: can be used with “गीता”। (ref. 1-4-51 अकथितं च।)

Easy questions:

1. In terms of the 5×5 matrix of the five वर्गा: (क-वर्ग:, च-वर्ग:, ट-वर्ग:, त-वर्ग: and प-वर्ग:), which column(s) does the प्रत्याहार: “झश्” (used in the सूत्रम् 8-4-53 झलां जश् झशि) correspond to? Which column(s) does the प्रत्याहार: “जश्” (used in the same सूत्रम्) correspond to? Which column(s) does the प्रत्याहार: “झष्” (used in the सूत्रम् 8-2-40 झषस्तथोर्धोऽधः) correspond to?

2. In how many places has 6-1-103 तस्माच्छसो नः पुंसि been used in the verse?

Recent Posts