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गृहवर्जम् ind

Today we will look at the form गृहवर्जम् ind from रघुवंशम् 15.98.

स निवेश्य कुशावत्यां रिपुनागाङ्कुशं कुशम् । शरावत्यां सतां सूक्तैर्जनिताश्रुलवं लवम् ॥ १५-९७ ॥
उदक्प्रतस्थे स्थिरधीः सानुजोऽग्निपुरःसरः । अन्वितः पतिवात्सल्याद्गृहवर्जमयोध्यया ॥ १५-९८ ॥

मल्लिनाथ-टीका
इति । उदगिति च ।। युग्मम् । स्थिरधीः स रामः । रिपव एव नागा गजास्तेषामङ्कुशं निवारकं कुशं कुशावत्यां पुर्यां निवेश्य स्थापयित्वा । सूक्तैः समीचीनवचनैः सतां जनिता अश्रुलवा अश्रुलेशा येन तं लवं लवाख्यं पुत्रम् । ‘लवो लेशे विलासे च छेदने रामनन्दने’ इति विश्वः । शरावत्यां पुर्याम् । ‘6-3-120 शरादीनां च’ इति शरकुशशब्दयोर्दीर्घः । निवेश्यसानुजोऽग्निपुरःसरः सन् । पत्यौ भर्तरि वात्सल्यादनुरागात् । गृहान् वर्जयित्वा गृहवर्जम् । ‘3-4-53 द्वितीयायां च’ इति णमुल् । अयं क्वचिदपरीप्सायामपीष्यते ‘6-1-158 अनुदात्तं पदमेकवर्जम्‌’ इत्येकाचः शेषतया व्याख्यातत्वात् । परीप्सा त्वरा । अयोध्ययान्वितोऽनुगत उदक्प्रतस्थे ।। ९७-९८ ।।

Translation – Having established Kuśa – who was like a goad unto the elephants in the form of enemies – in Kuśāvatī, and Lava – who by his good words brought tears to the eyes of the good – in Śarāvatī, he (Śrī Rāma) – who was of firm intellect – placed the fire in front and set out towards the north along with his younger brothers. He was followed by (all the people of) Ayodhya abandoning their homes out of love for their master.

The प्रातिपदिकम् ‘वर्जम्’ is derived from a causative form of the verbal root √वृज् (वृजीँ वर्जने १०. ३४४).

(1) वृज् + णिच् । By 3-1-25 सत्यापपाशरूपवीणातूलश्लोकसेनालोमत्वचवर्मवर्णचूर्णचुरादिभ्यो णिच् – The affix णिच् is used after these words – “सत्य” ‘truth’ (which then takes the form of “सत्याप्” as exhibited in the सूत्रम्), “पाश” ‘fetter’, “रूप” ‘form’, “वीणा” ‘lute’, “तूल” ‘cotton’, “श्लोक” ‘celebration’, “सेना” ‘army’, “लोमन्” ‘hair of the body’, “त्वच” ‘skin’, “वर्मन्” ‘mail’, “वर्ण” ‘color’, “चूर्ण” ‘powder’ and the verbal roots belonging to the चुरादि-गणः

(2) वृज् + इ । अनुबन्ध-लोपः by 1-3-3 हलन्त्यम्, 1-3-7 चुटू, 1-3-9 तस्य लोपः

(3) वर्ज् + इ । By 7-3-86 पुगन्तलघूपधस्य च -When a अङ्गम् is followed by a सार्वधातुक-प्रत्ययः or an आर्धधातुक-प्रत्ययः, then its इक्-letter takes गुण-आदेशः in the following two cases:
i) The अङ्गम् ends in a ‘पुक्’-आगमः।
or
ii) The penultimate letter of the अङ्गम् has the लघु-सञ्ज्ञा।
As per 1-1-51 उरण् रपरः, in the place of ऋवर्ण: if an अण् letter (‘अ’, ‘इ’, ‘उ’) comes as a substitute, it is always followed by a ‘रँ’ (‘र्’, ‘ल्’) letter.

= वर्जि । ‘वर्जि’ gets धातु-सञ्ज्ञा by 3-1-32 सनाद्यन्ता धातवः।

The (compound) प्रातिपदिकम् ‘गृहवर्जम्’ is derived as follows:

(4) गृह + शस् + वर्जि + णमुँल् । By 3-4-53 द्वितीयायां च – To express haste, the affix ‘णमुँल्’ may be used following a verbal root when in conjunction with a पदम् which ends in the accusative case. Note: Here परीप्सा means त्वरा (haste.)

Note: The पदमञ्जरी commentary says – परीप्सायामिति प्रायिकम् meaning that the condition परीप्सायाम् (to express haste) is not strictly required to use the सूत्रम् 3-4-53. This is inferred from the fact that पाणिनि: himself has used 3-4-53 in deriving the word एकवर्जम् (in the सूत्रम् 6-1-158 अनुदात्तं पदमेकवर्जम्) even though ‘haste’ is not apparent. Similarly here in the word गृहवर्जम् 3-4-53 has been used even though the condition of परीप्सायाम् is not strictly satisfied.

(5) गृह + शस् + वर्जि + अम् । अनुबन्ध-लोप: by 1-3-2 उपदेशेऽजनुनासिक इत्, 1-3-3 हलन्त्यम्, 1-3-7 चुटू and 1-3-9 तस्य लोपः

(6) गृह शस् + वर्ज् + अम् । By 6-4-51 णेरनिटि – The affix ‘णि’ is elided when followed by an आर्धधातुक-प्रत्यय: which does not have the augment इट्।

= गृह शस् + वर्जम् ।

In the सूत्रम् 3-4-53 द्वितीयायां च, the term द्वितीयायाम् ends in the seventh (locative) case. Hence ‘गृह शस्’ gets the उपपद-सञ्ज्ञा here by 3-1-92 तत्रोपपदं सप्तमीस्थम्‌

Compounding between ‘गृह शस्’ and ‘वर्जम्’ would have been compulsory as per 2-2-19 उपपदमतिङ् (with the permission of 2-2-20 अमैवाव्ययेन), but it is made optional by the सूत्रम् 2-2-21 तृतीयाप्रभृतीन्यन्यतरस्याम्‌ – The उपपदानि (ref. 3-1-92) mentioned in 3-4-47 उपदंशस्तृतीयायाम् etc (up to 3-4-66 पर्याप्तिवचनेष्वलमर्थेषु) compound optionally with a अव्ययम् provided the अव्ययम् ends in the affix ‘अम्’।

समास-पक्षे – In the case where compounding is done –

We form a compound between ‘गृह शस्’ (which is the उपपदम्) and ‘वर्जम्’ by using the सूत्रम् 2-2-19 उपपदमतिङ् – A सुबन्तम् (term ending in a सुँप् affix) having the designation ‘उपपद’ (in this case ‘गृह शस्’) invariably compounds with a syntactically related term (in this case ‘वर्जम्’) as long as the compound does not end in a तिङ् affix.

In the compound, ‘गृह शस्’ is placed in the prior position as per 2-2-30 उपसर्जनं पूर्वम्‌ – In a compound a term which has the designation ‘उपसर्जन’ should be placed in the prior position. Note: Here ‘गृह शस्’ is the उपपदम् and hence it gets the उपसर्जन-सञ्ज्ञा by 1-2-43 प्रथमानिर्दिष्टं समास उपसर्जनम् – A term denoted by a word (in this case ‘उपपदम्’) ending in a nominative case in a सूत्रम् (in this case 2-2-19 उपपदमतिङ्) which prescribes a compound gets the designation ‘उपसर्जन’।

‘गृह शस् + वर्जम्’ gets प्रातिपदिक-सञ्ज्ञा by 1-2-46 कृत्तद्धितसमासाश्च – A word form that ends in a कृत्-प्रत्ययः or a तद्धित-प्रत्ययः and so also compounds gets the name प्रातिपदिकम्।

(7) गृह + वर्जम् । By 2-4-71 सुपो धातुप्रातिपदिकयोः – A सुँप् affix takes a लुक् elision when it is a part of a धातुः or a प्रातिपदिकम्।

= गृहवर्जम् ।

‘गृहवर्जम्’ gets the अव्यय-सञ्ज्ञा by 1-1-39 कृन्मेजन्तः – A term ending in a ‘कृत्’ affix ending in the letter ‘म्’ or एच् (‘ए’, ‘ओ’, ‘ऐ’, ‘औ’) is also designated as an indeclinable.

समासाभाव-पक्षे – In the case where the compounding is not done –

(7) गृह + अस् + वर्जम् । अनुबन्ध-लोपः by 1-3-8 लशक्वतद्धिते, 1-3-9 तस्य लोपः1-3-4 न विभक्तौ तुस्माः prevents the ending सकार: of ‘शस्’ from getting the इत्-सञ्ज्ञा।

(8) गृहास् + वर्जम् । By 6-1-102 प्रथमयोः पूर्वसवर्णः

(9) गृहान् वर्जम् । By 6-1-103 तस्माच्छसो नः पुंसि

Thus there are two optional forms गृहवर्जम् or गृहान् वर्जम्।

Questions:

1. Where has 3-4-53 द्वितीयायां च (used in step 4) been used in Chapter Two of the गीता?

2. Commenting on the सूत्रम् 2-2-21 तृतीयाप्रभृतीन्यन्यतरस्याम्‌ (used after step 6) the काशिका says – उभयत्रविभाषेयम्। यदमैव तुल्यविधानमुपपदं तस्य प्राप्ते, यथा “3-4-47 उपदंशस्तृतीयायाम्” इति। यत्पुनरमा चान्येन च तुल्यविधानं तस्याप्राप्ते, यथा “3-4-59 अव्ययेऽयथाभिप्रेताख्याने कृञः क्त्वाणमुलौ” इति। Please explain.

3. The वृत्ति: of the सूत्रम् 2-2-21 तृतीयाप्रभृतीन्यन्यतरस्याम्‌ in the सिद्धान्त-कौमुदी says – “3-4-47 उपदंशस्तृतीयायाम्” इत्यादीन्युपपदान्यमन्तेनाव्ययेन सह वा समस्यन्ते । Commenting on the word अमन्तेन used in the वृत्ति: the तत्त्वबोधिनी says – अमेत्यनुवर्तत इत्याह – अमन्तेनेति। तेनेह न – पर्याप्तो भोक्तुम्। ‘पर्याप्तिवचनेषु -’ इति तुमुन्। Please explain.

4. Where has the सूत्रम् 6-4-51 णेरनिटि been used in the verses?

5. How would you say this in Sanskrit?
“Śrī Hanumān burnt entire Laṅkā excepting Sītā.”

Advanced question:

1. The अनुवृत्ति: of नलोप: runs from the सूत्रम् 6-4-23 श्नान्नलोपः down to 6-4-33 भञ्जेश्च चिणि। In this section can you find a सूत्रम् which prescribes the elision of the letter ‘न्’ in the प्रातिपदिकम् ‘अनुराग’ (used in अनुरागात् in the commentary)?

Easy questions:

1. Where has the सूत्रम् 7-3-118 औत्‌ been used in the commentary?

2. Which सूत्रम् prescribes the use of a आत्मनेपदम् affix in प्रतस्थे?

स्थायं स्थायम्

Today we will look at the form स्थायं स्थायम् ind from भट्टिकाव्यम् 5.51.

स्थायं स्थायं क्वचिद् यान्तं क्रान्त्वा क्रान्त्वा स्थितं क्वचित् । वीक्षमाणो मृगं रामश्चित्रवृत्तिं विसिष्मिये ।। ५-५१ ।।

Translation – Watching a deer of amusing movements going after stopping repeatedly in some place and stopping after walking repeatedly in some place, Śrī Rāma was amazed.

स्थायम् is derived from the verbal root √स्था (ष्ठा गतिनिवृत्तौ १. १०७७).

(1) स्था + णमुँल् । By 3-4-22 आभीक्ष्ण्ये णमुल् च – To denote repetition of action, the affix ‘णमुँल्’ or ‘क्‍त्‍वा’ may be used following a verbal root which denotes a prior action relative to that of another verbal root, provided the agent of both the actions is the same. Note: The अनुवृत्ति: of the entire prior सूत्रम् 3-4-21 समानकर्तृकयोः पूर्वकाले comes down in to this सूत्रम् 3-4-22.
Note: The common agent of the actions स्थायम् (after stopping) and यान्तम् (going) is मृगम् (deer.) The earlier of the two actions is the action ‘stopping’ which is denoted by √स्था and hence √स्था takes the affix ‘णमुँल्’।

(2) स्था + अम् । अनुबन्ध-लोपः by 1-3-2 उपदेशेऽजनुनासिक इत्, 1-3-3 हलन्त्यम्, 1-3-7 चुटू and 1-3-9 तस्य लोपः

(3) स्था युक् + अम् । By 7-3-33 आतो युक् चिण्कृतोः – A अङ्गम् ending in the letter ‘आ’ takes the augment युक् when followed by the affix चिण् or a कृत् affix which is either ञित् (has the letter ‘ञ्’ as a इत्) or णित् (has the letter ‘ण्’ as a इत्)। 1-1-46 आद्यन्तौ टकितौ places the augment युक् at the end of the अङ्गम्।

(4) स्था य् + अम् । अनुबन्ध-लोपः by 1-3-3 हलन्त्यम्, 1-3-9 तस्य लोपः। Note: The letter ‘उ’ in ‘युक्’ is उच्चारणार्थ: (for pronunciation only.)

= स्थायम् । ‘स्थायम्’ gets the प्रातिपदिक-सञ्ज्ञा by 1-2-46 कृत्तद्धितसमासाश्च – A word form that ends in a ‘कृत्’ affix or a ‘तद्धित’ affix and so also compounds get the name प्रातिपदिकम्।
‘स्थायम्’ also gets the अव्यय-सञ्ज्ञा by 1-1-39 कृन्मेजन्तः – A term ending in a ‘कृत्’ affix ending in the letter ‘म्’ or एच् (‘ए’, ‘ओ’, ‘ऐ’, ‘औ’) is also designated as an indeclinable.

(5) स्थायम् + सुँ (default) । By 4-1-2 स्वौजसमौट्छष्टाभ्याम्भिस्ङेभ्याम्भ्यस्ङसिँभ्याम्भ्यस्ङसोसाम्ङ्योस्सुप्

(6) स्थायम् । By 2-4-82 अव्ययादाप्सुपः – The feminine affix आप् and सुँप् affixes that are prescribed after a अव्ययम् take the लुक् elision.

(7) स्थायम् स्थायम् । By 8-1-4 नित्यवीप्सयोः – To express repetition of action or pervasion of a thing by a property or action, a पदम् (ref. 1-4-14) is duplicated.
Note: The affix ‘णमुँल्’ or ‘क्‍त्‍वा’ is capable of expressing repetition of action only after duplication (by 8-1-4).

(8) स्थायं स्थायम् । By 8-3-23 मोऽनुस्वारः

Questions:

1. Where has 8-1-4 नित्यवीप्सयोः (used in step 7) been used for the last time in the गीता?

2. Commenting on the सूत्रम् 7-3-33 आतो युक् चिण्कृतोः (used in step 3) the तत्त्वबोधिनी says – ञ्णितीति किम्? पानीयम्। Please explain.

3. What would have been the final form in this example if the affix ‘क्‍त्‍वा’ were to be used (instead of ‘णमुँल्’)?

4. Which सूत्रम् prescribes the augment ‘मुँक्’ in वीक्षमाण:?

5. How would you say this in Sanskrit?
“After repeatedly reading the Gītā a person becomes purified.” Use the निष्ठा affix ‘क्त’ with the verbal root √पू (पूङ् पवने १. ११२१) to form a प्रातिपदिकम् meaning ‘purified.’

Advanced questions:

1. What are the two alternate forms for क्रान्त्वा? You will need to use the following सूत्रम् (which we have not studied) –
6-4-18 क्रमश्च क्त्वि – When followed by the affix ‘क्त्वा’ which begins with a letter of the ‘झल्’-प्रत्याहार:, the penultimate letter (the vowel ‘अ’) of a base (अङ्गम्) consisting of the verbal root √क्रम् (क्रमुँ पादविक्षेपे १. ५४५) is optionally elongated.

Easy questions:

1. From which verbal root is विसिष्मिये derived?

2. Where has the सूत्रम् 7-1-70 उगिदचां सर्वनामस्थानेऽधातोः been used in the verses?

भूत्वा भूत्वा ind

Today we will look at the form भूत्वा भूत्वा ind from श्रीमद्भागवतम् 7.15.55.

अग्निः सूर्यो दिवा प्राह्णः शुक्लो राकोत्तरं स्वराट् । विश्वोऽथ तैजसः प्राज्ञस्तुर्य आत्मा समन्वयात् ।। ७-१५-५४ ।।
देवयानमिदं प्राहुर्भूत्वा भूत्वानुपूर्वशः । आत्मयाज्युपशान्तात्मा ह्यात्मस्थो न निवर्तते ।। ७-१५-५५ ।।

श्रीधर-स्वामि-टीका
अग्निरिति । तत्तदभिमानिन्यो देवतास्ताः । प्राप्नोतीति पूर्ववत् । दिवाऽहः । प्राह्णस्तस्यैवान्तः । राका शुक्लपक्षस्यान्तः । यद्वा प्राह्णो राका इति च पुराणमतम् । उत्तरं त्वयनम् । स्वराट् ब्रह्मा । एवं ब्रह्मलोकं गतस्य भोगावसाने मोक्षप्रकरणमाह – विश्व इति । विश्वः स्थूलोपाधिः स स्थूलं सूक्ष्मे विलाप्य सूक्ष्मोपाधिस्तैजसो भवति । सूक्ष्मं कारणे विलाप्य कारणोपाधिः प्राज्ञो भवति । कारणं च सर्वसाक्षित्वेनान्वयात्साक्षिस्वरूपे विलाप्य तुर्यो भवति । तेषां च व्यभिचारिणां साक्ष्याणां लये शुद्ध आत्मा भवति । मुच्यत इत्यर्थः ।। ५४ ।। यथेतरो भूत्वा निवर्तते तथा न निवर्तत इत्यर्थः ।। ५५ ।।

Translation – (The deities presiding over) fire, the sun, the day-time, the close of day (eventide), the bright fortnight, the full moon (the closing day of a bright fortnight), the summer half-year (representing the progress of the sun to the north of the equator) and Brahmā (that mark the ascent of the departed soul to Brahmaloka, the realm of Brahmā, the uppermost and the subtlest sphere of this material universe and representing the climax of material enjoyment), the Viśwa (the soul identifying itself with gross matter), Taijasa (the soul identified with subtle matter), the Prājña (the soul identified with the causal matter), the Turya (the soul standing as a witness of all these states), so-called because of its being associated with each of these states (as its witness), and Ātmā (the pure Spirit) – the Vedas speak of these as (marking) the path of the gods (also known by the name of Arcirmārga or the Bright Path, which culminates in Liberation). The tranquil-minded votary of the (supreme) Spirit (God), established in the Self, never returns (to this world) like another who having successively and repeatedly come in to being returns (to this world.) (54-55).

भूत्वा is derived from the verbal root √भू (भू सत्तायाम् १. १).

(1) भू + क्त्वा । By 3-4-22 आभीक्ष्ण्ये णमुल् च – To denote repetition of action, the affix ‘णमुँल्’ or ‘क्‍त्‍वा’ may be used following a verbal root which denotes a prior action relative to that of another verbal root, provided the agent of both the actions is the same. Note: The अनुवृत्ति: of the entire prior सूत्रम् 3-4-21 समानकर्तृकयोः पूर्वकाले comes down in to this सूत्रम् 3-4-22.
Note: (As per the commentary) The common agent of the actions भूत्वा (becoming) and निवर्तते (returns) is इतर: (another.) The earlier of the two actions is the action ‘becoming’ which is denoted by √भू and hence √भू takes the affix ‘क्त्वा’।

(2) भू + त्वा । अनुबन्ध-लोपः by 1-3-8 लशक्वतद्धिते and 1-3-9 तस्य लोपः

See question 2.

= भूत्वा । 1-1-5 क्क्ङिति च stops 7-3-84 सार्वधातुकार्धधातुकयोः।

‘भूत्वा’ gets the प्रातिपदिक-सञ्ज्ञा by 1-2-46 कृत्तद्धितसमासाश्च – A word form that ends in a कृत्-प्रत्ययः or a तद्धित-प्रत्ययः and so also compounds gets the name प्रातिपदिकम्।
‘भूत्वा’ also gets the अव्यय-सञ्ज्ञा by 1-1-40 क्त्वातोसुन्कसुनः – Words ending in the affixes ‘क्त्वा’, ‘तोसुन्’ and ‘कसुन्’ are designated as indeclinables.

(4) भूत्वा + सुँ (default) । By 4-1-2 स्वौजसमौट्छष्टाभ्याम्भिस्ङेभ्याम्भ्यस्ङसिँभ्याम्भ्यस्ङसोसाम्ङ्योस्सुप्

(5) भूत्वा । By 2-4-82 अव्ययादाप्सुपः – The feminine affix आप् and सुँप् affixes that are prescribed after a अव्ययम् take the लुक् elision.

(6) भूत्वा भूत्वा । By 8-1-4 नित्यवीप्सयोः – To express repetition of action or pervasion of a thing by a property or action, a पदम् (ref. 1-4-14) is duplicated.
Note: The affix ‘णमुँल्’ or ‘क्‍त्‍वा’ is capable of expressing repetition of action only after duplication (by 8-1-4).

Questions:

1. Where has भूत्वा भूत्वा been used in (Chapter Eight of) the गीता?

2. What prevents the सूत्रम् 7-2-35 आर्धधातुकस्येड् वलादेः from applying after step 2?

3. Can you spot the affix ‘णिनिँ’ in the verses?

4. Which सूत्रम् prescribes the affix ‘कि’ in ‘उपाधि’ (used as part of the compounds स्थूलोपाधिः etc in the commentary)?

5. How would you say this in Sanskrit?
“Remembering again and again the amorous pastimes of Śrī Kṛṣṇa, the gopīs experienced great joy.” Use the verbal root √भू (भू सत्तायाम् १. १) with the उपसर्ग: ‘अनु’ for ‘to experience.’ Use the feminine प्रातिपदिकम् ‘लीला’ for ‘amorous pastime.’

6. How would you say this in Sanskrit?
“In this school every student is intelligent.” Paraphrase to “In this school student after student is intelligent.” Use the feminine (compound) प्रातिपदिकम् ‘पाठशाला’ for ‘school.’ Use the adjective प्रातिपदिकम् ‘धीमत्’ (ending in the affix ‘मतुँप्’) for ‘intelligent.’

Easy questions:

1. From which verbal root is the प्रातिपदिकम् ‘वीप्सा’ (used in the सूत्रम् 8-1-4 नित्यवीप्सयोः) derived?

2. Which सूत्रम् prescribes the substitution ‘ए’ in निवर्तते?

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