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सम्पद्भ्यः f-Ab-p

Today we will look at the form सम्पद्भ्यः f-Ab-p from श्रीमद्भागवतम् 10.27.16.

श्रीभगवानुवाच
मया तेऽकारि मघवन्मखभङ्गोऽनुगृह्णता । मदनुस्मृतये नित्यं मत्तस्येन्द्रश्रिया भृशम् ।। १०-२७-१५ ।।
मामैश्वर्यश्रीमदान्धो दण्डपाणिं न पश्यति । तं भ्रंशयामि सम्पद्भ्यो यस्य चेच्छाम्यनुग्रहम् ।। १०-२७-१६ ।।

श्रीधर-स्वामि-टीका
इन्द्रेण स्वाभिप्राये निवेदिते भगवानपि तथैवाह – मयेति । इन्द्रश्रिया देवराज्येन ।। १५ ।। १६ ।।

Gita Press translation – The glorious Lord said: It was in order to shower My grace on you and to put you incessantly in mind of Me, highly intoxicated as you were with the fortune of Indra, that the interruption of your worship was brought about by Me, O god of rain (15). Blinded with the pride of power and wealth, one takes no notice of Me, who wield the rod of punishment. Him (alone) do I cast down from an affluent state, on whom I intend to shower My grace (16).

सम्पदनम्। सम्पद्यतेऽनयेति वा सम्पत्।

The compound प्रातिपदिकम् ‘सम्पद्’ is derived from the verbal root  √पद् (पदँ गतौ ४. ६५) preceded by the उपसर्ग: ‘सम्’।

(1) सम् पद् + क्विँप् । By the वार्तिकम् (under 3-3-94 स्त्रियां क्तिन्) सम्पदादिभ्यः क्विप् (क्तिन्नपीष्यते) – The affix क्विँप् (as well as क्तिन्) maybe used following the verbal root सम्पद् (√पद् (पदँ गतौ ४. ६५) preceded by the उपसर्ग: ‘सम्’) etc to denote in the feminine gender either (i) the sense of the verbal root as having attained to a completed state or (ii) any कारक: except the agent of the action, provided the word so derived is a proper name.

(2) सम्पद् + व् । अनुबन्ध-लोप: by 1-3-2 उपदेशेऽजनुनासिक इत्, 1-3-3 हलन्त्यम्, 1-3-8 लशक्वतद्धिते and 1-3-9 तस्य लोपः

(3) सम्पद् । By 6-1-67 वेरपृक्तस्य – The वकारः which is अपृक्तः (a single letter affix) takes लोपः।
Note: “वे:” in the सूत्रम् is षष्ठी विभक्ति: of the प्रातिपदिकम् “वि”। The इकार: in “वि” is only for the sake of pronunciation (उच्चारणार्थ:) – so only वकार: is implied by “वि”।

‘सम्पद्’ gets प्रातिपदिक-सञ्ज्ञा by 1-2-46 कृत्तद्धितसमासाश्च – A word form that ends in a कृत्-प्रत्ययः or a तद्धित-प्रत्ययः and so also compounds gets the name प्रातिपदिकम्।

The विवक्षा is पञ्चमी-बहुवचनम् ।

(4) सम्पद् + भ्यस् । By 4-1-2 स्वौजसमौट्छष्टाभ्याम्भिस्ङेभ्याम्भ्यस्ङसिँभ्याम्भ्यस्ङसोसाम्ङ्योस्सुप्1-3-4 न विभक्तौ तुस्माः prevents the ending सकारः of ‘भ्यस्’ from getting the इत्-सञ्ज्ञा।

(5) सम्पद्भ्यः । रुँत्व-विसर्गौ by 8-2-66 ससजुषो रुः and 8-3-15 खरवसानयोर्विसर्जनीयः

Questions:

1. Where has the वार्तिकम् (under 3-3-94 स्त्रियां क्तिन्) सम्पदादिभ्यः क्विप् been used in the first five verses of Chapter One of the गीता?

2. Commenting on the वार्तिकम् – क्तिन्नपीष्यते the तत्त्वबोधिनी says – अस्त्रियामिति प्रतिषेधेन स्त्रियां वासरूपविधेरभावादिदमुक्तम्। Please explain. Hint: Refer to the सूत्रम् 3-1-94 वासरूपोऽस्त्रियाम्

3. Can you spot the substitution ‘चिण्’ (in place of ‘च्लि’) in the verses?

4. Which सूत्रम् prescribes the affix अप् in the form अनुग्रहम्?

5. Where has the सूत्रम् 3-2-124 लटः शतृशानचावप्रथमासमानाधिकरणे been used in the verses?

6. How would you say this in Sanskrit?
“One should remember the Lord in prosperity as well as adversity.” Use the वार्तिकम् – सम्पदादिभ्यः क्विप् to form a प्रातिपदिकम् for ‘adversity.’

Easy questions:

1. Is there an alternate form for (हे) मघवन्?

2. Which सूत्रम् prescribes the substitution ‘छ्’ in the form इच्छामि?

दृष्टिम् fAs

Today we will look at the form दृष्टिम् fAs from श्रीमद्भागवतम् 8.7.1.

दृष्टिं ततः प्रतिनिवर्त्य निवृत्ततृष्णस्तूष्णीं भवेन्निजसुखानुभवो निरीहः । संदृश्यते क्व च यदीदमवस्तुबुद्ध्या त्यक्तं भ्रमाय न भवेत्स्मृतिरानिपातात् ।। ११-१३-३५ ।।
देहं च नश्वरमवस्थितमुत्थितं वा सिद्धो न पश्यति यतोऽध्यगमत्स्वरूपम् । दैवादपेतमुत दैववशादुपेतं वासो यथा परिकृतं मदिरामदान्धः ।। ११-१३-३६ ।।

श्रीधर-स्वामि-टीका
तस्मात्ततो दृश्याद्दृष्टिं प्रतिनिवर्त्य निजसुखानुभवो भवेत् । तन्नैश्चल्यार्थं च निवृत्ततृष्णस्तूष्णीं निरीहश्च भवेत् । मनोवाक्कायव्यापाररहित इत्यर्थः । ननु देहवतः सर्वथा द्वैतदृष्टिप्रतिनिवर्तनायोगात्पुनः संसारः स्यादेव तत्राह – संदृश्यत इति । क्वचिदावश्यकाहारादिषु यद्यपीदं संदृश्यते तथापि पूर्वमवस्तुबुद्ध्यात्त्यक्तं तत्पुनर्मोहाय न भवेदेव किंतु देहपातपर्यन्तं स्मृतिरिव स्मृतिः संस्कारमात्रेणावभासो भवेदित्यर्थः ।। ३५ ।। एतदेवोपपादयति – देहमिति । आसनादुत्थितमुत्थाय तत्रैव स्थितं ततः क्वचिदपेतं निर्गतं पुनस्तत्रैवोपेतं वा देहमपि नानुसंधत्ते, कुतोऽन्यत् । यतो येन देहेन स्वरूपमध्यगमज्ज्ञातवांस्तं देहम्यतः कारणादिति वा । परिकृतं परिहितं वासो गतं स्थितं वा यथा न वेत्ति तद्वत् ।। ३६ ।।

Translation – (Therefore,) diverting one’s vision (mind) from the body etc., (which are all superimposed on the Self), one should remain absorbed in the realization of one’s own blissful nature. His thirst for enjoyment having ceased (once for all), he should keep quiet and effortless. Even if this body etc., is perceived (as a distinct reality) at times (while taking one’s meals, answering the calls of nature and so on), what has been dismissed as unreal (other than the Self) can no longer delude us, although its impression on the mind may continue till death (35). Nay, a man established in the Self no longer cognizes (even) his perishable body, by means of which he realized his self, as risen (from his seat), or settled (again), gone out (to some other place) or come (back) by chance, any more than a man blinded by intoxication caused by wine cognizes the garment worn by him as (still) on his person or fallen therefrom (36).

दर्शनं दृष्टिः।

The स्त्रीलिङ्ग-प्रातिपदिकम् ‘दृष्टि’ is derived from the verbal root  √दृश् (दृशिँर् प्रेक्षणे १. ११४३).

The ending ‘इर्’ of ‘दृशिँर्’ gets the इत्-सञ्ज्ञा by the वार्त्तिकम् ‘इर इत्सञ्ज्ञा वाच्या’ and takes लोपः by 1-3-9 तस्य लोपः

(1) दृश् + क्तिन् । By 3-3-94 स्त्रियां क्तिन् – The affix क्तिन् may be used following a verbal root to denote in the feminine gender either (i) the sense of the verbal root as having attained to a completed state or (ii) any कारक: except the agent of the action, provided the word so derived is a proper name.
Note: घञोऽपवादः । The affix क्तिन् prescribed by this सूत्रम् is a अपवाद: (exception) to the affix ‘घञ्’ prescribed by 3-3-18 भावे and 3-3-19 अकर्तरि च कारके संज्ञायाम्।

See question 2.

(2) दृश् + ति । अनुबन्ध-लोप: by 1-3-3 हलन्त्यम्, 1-3-8 लशक्वतद्धिते and 1-3-9 तस्य लोपः

Note: The affix क्तिन् is prohibited from taking the augment इट् by 7-2-9 तितुत्रतथसिसुसरकसेषु च। In addition, 7-2-10 एकाच उपदेशेऽनुदात्तात्‌ also blocks the augment इट् here because √दृश् (दृशिँर् प्रेक्षणे १. ११४३) is अनुदात्तोपदश:।
Note: 1-1-5 क्क्ङिति च stops the गुण: substitution (in the place of the penultimate letter ‘ऋ’ of the अङ्गम् ‘दृश्’) which would have been done by 7-3-86 पुगन्तलघूपधस्य च

(3) दृष् + ति । By 8-2-36 व्रश्च-भ्रस्ज-सृज-मृज-यज-राज-भ्राजच्छशां षः, the seven verbal roots listed (“व्रश्च्”, “भ्रस्ज्”, “सृज्”, “मृज्”, “यज्”, “राज्”, “भ्राज्”) and terms ending in a छकारः or शकारः get षकारः as a replacement, when they are at the end of a पदम् or are followed by a झल् letter. As per 1-1-52 अलोऽन्त्यस्य only the ending letter ‘श्’ of ‘दृश्’ is replaced by ‘ष्’।

(4) दृष्टि । By 8-4-41 ष्टुना ष्टुः

‘दृष्टि’ gets प्रातिपदिक-सञ्ज्ञा by 1-2-46 कृत्तद्धितसमासाश्च – A word form that ends in a कृत्-प्रत्ययः or a तद्धित-प्रत्ययः and so also compounds gets the name प्रातिपदिकम्।

The विवक्षा is द्वितीया-एकवचनम्

(5) दृष्टि + अम् । By 4-1-2 स्वौजसमौट्छष्टाभ्याम्भिस्ङेभ्याम्भ्यस्ङसिँभ्याम्भ्यस्ङसोसाम्ङ्योस्सुप्1-3-4 न विभक्तौ तुस्माः prevents the ending मकारः of ‘अम्’ from getting the इत्-सञ्ज्ञा।

(6) दृष्टिम् । By 6-1-107 अमि पूर्वः – In place of a preceding अक् letter and the following vowel (अच्) belonging to the affix ‘अम्’ there is a single substitute of that preceding अक् letter.

Questions:

1. Where has दृष्टिम् been used in the गीता?

2. Commenting on the सूत्रम् 3-3-94 स्त्रियां क्तिन् (used in step 1), the सिद्धान्त-कौमुदी says – अजपौ तु परत्वाद्बाधते । And on this the तत्त्वबोधिनी clarifies – तयोरवकाशः – चयः। लवः। क्तिनोऽवकाशः – कृतिः। दृतिः। चिनोतिस्तौतिभ्यां तु स्त्रियामुभयप्रसङ्गे परत्वात् क्तिन्नित्यर्थः। Please explain.

3. Where else (besides in दृष्टिम्) has the affix क्तिन् been used in the verses?

4. Which सूत्रम् prescribes the affix क्वरप्‌ in नश्वरम्?

5. Where has the सूत्रम् 3-1-55 पुषादिद्युताद्यॢदितः परस्मैपदेषु been used in the verses?

6. How would you say this in Sanskrit?
“Śrī Kṛṣṇa granted divine vision to Arjuna.” Use the adjective प्रातिपदिकम् ‘दिव्य’ (feminine ‘दिव्या’) for ‘divine.’ Use चतुर्थी विभक्ति: with ‘Arjuna.’

Easy questions:

1. Can you spot the affix यक् in the verses?

2. What would be an alternate form for वेत्ति (used in the commentary)?

उदधिः mNs

Today we will look at the form उदधिः mNs from श्रीमद्-वाल्मीकि-रामायणम् 6.22.47.

एवमुक्त्वोदधिर्नष्टः समुत्थाय नलस्ततः । अब्रवीद्वानरश्रेष्ठो वाक्यं रामं महाबलः ।। ६-२२-४७ ।।
अहं सेतुं करिष्यामि विस्तीर्णे मकरालये । पितुः सामर्थ्यमासाद्य तत्त्वमाह महोदधिः ।। ६-२२-४८ ।।
दण्ड एव परो लोके पुरुषस्येति मे मतिः । धिक् क्षमामकृतज्ञेषु सान्त्वं दानमथापि वा ।। ६-२२-४९ ।।
अयं हि सागरो भीमः सेतुकर्मदिदृक्षया । ददौ दण्डभयाद् गाधं राघवाय महोदधिः ।। ६-२२-५० ।।

Gita Press translation – Having spoken as aforesaid, the sea-god went out of sight. Springing on his feet, Nala, the foremost of the monkeys, thereupon submitted as follows to Śrī Rāma, who was endowed with extraordinary might :- (47) “Acquiring the skill of my father (by virtue of the boon granted by him), I shall build a bridge over the extensive deep (the abode of alligators). Ocean has spoken the (bare) truth (48). Punishment is the best course open to a man in the world in relation to the ungrateful: such is my mind. A plague on forbearance and conciliation and even so on gift (in relation to such people)! (49) This formidable Ocean, excavated and expanded by Sāgara (a forbear of yours), has actually allowed a passage to Śrī Rāma (yourself) in fear of punishment (rather than from gratitude) actuated as he was by a desire to witness the construction of a bridge (across it) (50).

उदकं धीयतेऽस्मिन् = उदधि: (समुद्र:)।

The compound प्रातिपदिकम् ‘उदधि’ is derived from the verbal root  √धा (डुधाञ् धारणपोषणयोः | दान इत्यप्येके ३. ११) in composition with the object ‘उदक’।

The “डु” at the beginning of this धातुः gets इत्-सञ्ज्ञा by 1-3-5 आदिर्ञिटुडवः। The ञकारः at the end gets इत्-सञ्ज्ञा by 1-3-3 हलन्त्यम्। Both take लोप: by 1-3-9 तस्य लोपः

(1) उदक + ङस् (ref: 2-3-65 कर्तृकर्मणोः कृति) + धा + कि । By 3-3-93 कर्मण्यधिकरणे च – To denote the locus of the action, the affix ‘कि’ may be used following a verbal root which has the designation ‘घु’ (ref. 1-1-20 दाधा घ्वदाप्) when in composition with a पदम् which denotes the object (of the action.)

(2) उदक + ङस् + धा + इ । अनुबन्ध-लोप: by 1-3-8 लशक्वतद्धिते and 1-3-9 तस्य लोपः

(3) उदक + ङस् + ध् + इ । By 6-4-64 आतो लोप इटि च – The ending आकार: of an अङ्गम् takes लोप: when followed by a vowel-beginning आर्धधातुक-प्रत्यय: that has either:
(i) a “इट्”-आगम: or
(ii) a ककार: or ङकार: as an इत्।

= उदक + ङस् + धि

We form a compound between ‘उदक ङस्’ (which is the उपपदम्) and ‘धि’ by using the सूत्रम् 2-2-19 उपपदमतिङ् – A सुबन्तम् (term ending in a सुँप् affix) having the designation ‘उपपद’ (in this case ‘उदक ङस्’) invariably compounds with a syntactically related term (in this case ‘धि’) as long as the compound does not end in a तिङ् affix.

In the compound, ‘उदक ङस्’ is placed in the prior position as per 2-2-30 उपसर्जनं पूर्वम्‌ – In a compound a term which has the designation ‘उपसर्जन’ should be placed in the prior position. Note: Here ‘उदक ङस्’ is the उपपदम् and hence it gets the उपसर्जन-सञ्ज्ञा by 1-2-43 प्रथमानिर्दिष्टं समास उपसर्जनम् – A term denoted by a word (in this case ‘उपपदम्’) ending in a nominative case in a सूत्रम् (in this case 2-2-19 उपपदमतिङ्) which prescribes a compound gets the designation ‘उपसर्जन’।

‘उदक + ङस् + धि’ gets प्रातिपदिक-सञ्ज्ञा by 1-2-46 कृत्तद्धितसमासाश्च – A word form that ends in a कृत्-प्रत्ययः or a तद्धित-प्रत्ययः and so also compounds gets the name प्रातिपदिकम्।

(4) उदकधि । By 2-4-71 सुपो धातुप्रातिपदिकयोः – A सुँप् affix takes a लुक् elision when it is a part of a धातुः or a प्रातिपदिकम्।

(5) उदधि । By 6-3-57 उदकस्योदः संज्ञायाम् – When followed by a उत्तरपदम् (latter member of the compound), the word ‘उदक’ is substituted by ‘उद’ provided the compound denotes a proper name. As per 1-1-55 अनेकाल्शित्सर्वस्य the entire term ‘उदक’ is replaced by ‘उद’।

Note: In the case where उदधि: does not denote a proper name – for example उदधिर्घट: – we have to use the next सूत्रम् in the अष्टाध्यायी which is 6-3-58 पेषंवासवाहनधिषु च।

See question 2.

‘उदधि’ meaning ‘समुद्र’ is used in the masculine gender.

The विवक्षा is प्रथमा-एकवचनम्

(6) उदधि + सुँ । By 4-1-2 स्वौजसमौट्छष्टाभ्याम्भिस्ङेभ्याम्भ्यस्ङसिँभ्याम्भ्यस्ङसोसाम्ङ्योस्सुप्

(7) उदधि + स् । अनुबन्ध-लोपः by 1-3-2 उपदेशेऽजनुनासिक इत् and 1-3-9 तस्य लोपः।

(8) उदधि: । रुँत्व-विसर्गौ by 8-2-66 ससजुषो रुः and 8-3-15 खरवसानयोर्विसर्जनीयः

Questions:

1. Where has the affix ‘कि’ been used in the first two verses of Chapter Ten of the गीता?

2. Commenting on the सूत्रम् 6-3-58 पेषंवासवाहनधिषु च (referred to in step 5) the सिद्धान्तकौमुदी says – समुद्रे तु पूर्वेण सिद्धम्। Please explain.

3. Which सूत्रम् prescribes the substitution ‘क्’ in the form वाक्यम्?

4. Where has the सूत्रम् 8-2-77 हलि च been used in the verses?

5. Which वार्तिकम् is used to derive the प्रातिपदिकम् ‘भय’ (used in the compound दण्डभयाद् in the verses)?

6. How would you say this in Sanskrit?
“The circuit of worldly life is like a formidable ocean. The Name of the Lord is like a boat by which a person may be able to cross that (ocean.)” Use the masculine प्रातिपदिकम् ‘संसार’ for ‘the circuit of worldly life.’ Use a word from the verses for ‘formidable.’

Easy questions:

1. Where has the सूत्रम् 6-1-111 ऋत उत्‌ been used in the verses?

2. Which सूत्रम् prescribes the augment ईट् in the form अब्रवीत्?

अब्धिम् mAs

Today we will look at the form अब्धिम् mAs from श्रीमद्भागवतम् 8.7.1.

श्रीशुक उवाच
ते नागराजमामन्त्र्य फलभागेन वासुकिम् । परिवीय गिरौ तस्मिन्नेत्रमब्धिं मुदान्विताः ।। ८-७-१ ।।
आरेभिरे सुसंयत्ता अमृतार्थे कुरूद्वह । हरिः पुरस्ताज्जगृहे पूर्वं देवास्ततोऽभवन् ।। ८-७-२ ।।

श्रीधर-स्वामि-टीका
फलभागेन तवाप्यमृते भागो भविष्यतीत्यामन्त्र्य संमन्त्र्य वासुकिं नेत्रं गिरौ परिवीय संवेष्ट्याब्धिं मथितुमारेभिरे ।। १ ।। वासुकेर्मुखं तीव्रं दैत्यान् ग्राहयितुमेव पूर्वं हरिः पुरस्तान्मुखे जगृहेततोऽभवन्मुखं जगृहुः ।। २ ।।

Gita Press translation – Śrī Śuka resumed : Summoning Vāsuki, the king of serpents, by assuring him of his (due) share in the rewards (in the form of nectar) and twining him round that mountain as a cord (for whirling it round), the gods and the demons, full of joy, commenced churning the ocean (of milk) for the sake of nectar, fully prepared (for the uphill task), O scion of Kuru! Śrī Hari, first of all, grasped the serpent in the fore part (at its head) and the gods (too) ranged on that side (1-2).

आपो धीयन्तेऽस्मिन् = अब्धिः ।

The compound प्रातिपदिकम् ‘अब्धि’ is derived from the verbal root  √धा (डुधाञ् धारणपोषणयोः | दान इत्यप्येके ३. ११) in composition with the object ‘अप्’।

(1) अप् + आम् (ref: 2-3-65 कर्तृकर्मणोः कृति) + धा + कि । By 3-3-93 कर्मण्यधिकरणे च – To denote the locus of the action, the affix ‘कि’ may be used following a verbal root which has the designation ‘घु’ (ref. 1-1-20 दाधा घ्वदाप्) when in composition with a पदम् which denotes the object (of the action.)

(2) अप् + आम् + धा + इ । अनुबन्ध-लोप: by 1-3-8 लशक्वतद्धिते and 1-3-9 तस्य लोपः

(3) अप् + आम् + ध् + इ । By 6-4-64 आतो लोप इटि च – The ending आकार: of an अङ्गम् takes लोप: when followed by a vowel-beginning आर्धधातुक-प्रत्यय: that has either:
(i) a “इट्”-आगम: or
(ii) a ककार: or ङकार: as an इत्।

= अप् + आम् + धि ।

We form a compound between ‘अप् आम्’ (which is the उपपदम्) and ‘धि’ by using the सूत्रम् 2-2-19 उपपदमतिङ् – A सुबन्तम् (term ending in a सुँप् affix) having the designation ‘उपपद’ (in this case ‘अप् आम्’) invariably compounds with a syntactically related term (in this case ‘धि’) as long as the compound does not end in a तिङ् affix.

In the compound, ‘अप् आम्’ is placed in the prior position as per 2-2-30 उपसर्जनं पूर्वम्‌ – In a compound a term which has the designation ‘उपसर्जन’ should be placed in the prior position. Note: Here ‘अप् आम्’ is the उपपदम् and hence it gets the उपसर्जन-सञ्ज्ञा by 1-2-43 प्रथमानिर्दिष्टं समास उपसर्जनम् – A term denoted by a word (in this case ‘उपपदम्’) ending in a nominative case in a सूत्रम् (in this case 2-2-19 उपपदमतिङ्) which prescribes a compound gets the designation ‘उपसर्जन’।

(4) अप् + धि । By 2-4-71 सुपो धातुप्रातिपदिकयोः – A सुँप् affix takes a लुक् elision when it is a part of a धातुः or a प्रातिपदिकम्।

(5) अब्धि । By 8-2-39 झलां जशोऽन्ते

‘अब्धि’ is used in the masculine gender.

The विवक्षा is द्वितीया-एकवचनम्

(6) अब्धि + अम् । By 4-1-2 स्वौजसमौट्छष्टाभ्याम्भिस्ङेभ्याम्भ्यस्ङसिँभ्याम्भ्यस्ङसोसाम्ङ्योस्सुप्1-3-4 न विभक्तौ तुस्माः prevents the ending मकारः of ‘अम्’ from getting the इत्-सञ्ज्ञा।

(7) अब्धिम् । By 6-1-107 अमि पूर्वः – In place of a preceding अक् letter and the following vowel (अच्) belonging to the affix ‘अम्’ there is a single substitute of that preceding अक् letter.

Questions:

1. Where has the प्रातिपदिकम् ‘अप्’ been used in Chapter Seven of the गीता?

2. Commenting on the सूत्रम् 3-3-93 कर्मण्यधिकरणे च (used in step 1) the काशिका says – अधिकरणग्रहणमर्थान्तरनिरासार्थम्। Please explain.

3. Commenting further on the same सूत्रम् the काशिका says – चकारः प्रत्ययानुकर्षणार्थः। Please explain.

4. Which सूत्रम् justifies the use of the affix ‘तुमुँन्’ in the form मथितुम् used in the commentary? Which सूत्रम् justifies it in ग्राहयितुम्?

5. Which कृत् affix is used to form the प्रातिपदिकम् ‘उद्वह’ (used as part of the compound कुरूद्वह in the verses)? Hint: The विग्रह-वाक्यम् is उद्वहतीति (उद्वहति इति) उद्वह:।

6. How would you say this in Sanskrit?
“The ocean is called a mine of jewels.” Use the masculine प्रातिपदिकम् ‘आकर’ for ‘mine.’

Easy questions:

1. Where has the सूत्रम् 6-4-120 अत एकहल्मध्येऽनादेशादेर्लिटि been used in the verses?

2. Which सूत्रम् prescribes the affix ‘स्य’ in the form भविष्यति used in the commentary?

सन्धिः mNs

Today we will look at the form सन्धिः mNs from श्रीमद्-वाल्मीकि-रामायणम् 6.35.9.

विद्यास्वभिविनीतो यो राजा राजन्नयानुगः । स शास्ति चिरमैश्वर्यमरींश्च कुरुते वशे ।। ६-३५-७ ।।
संदधानो हि कालेन विगृह्णंश्चारिभिः सह । स्वपक्षे वर्धनं कुर्वन्महदैश्वर्यमश्नुते ।। ६-३५-८ ।।
हीयमानेन कर्तव्यो राज्ञा संधिः समेन च । न शत्रुमवमन्येत ज्यायान्कुर्वीत विग्रहम् ।। ६-३५-९ ।।
तन्मह्यं रोचते संधिः सह रामेण रावण । यदर्थमभियुक्तोऽसि सीता तस्मै प्रदीयताम् ।। ६-३५-१० ।।
तस्य देवर्षयः सर्वे गन्धर्वाश्च जयैषिणः । विरोधं मा गमस्तेन संधिस्ते तेन रोचताम् ।। ६-३५-११ ।।

Gita Press translation – “That monarch, O king, who is well-versed in the (fourteen) sciences and follows the path of prudence enjoys sovereignty for a long time and brings his enemies under subjection (7). Concluding peace or contending with his enemies as occasion demands, and strengthening his own party, a ruler enjoys great power (8). Peace should be concluded by a ruler who is ruling strength as well as by him who is equally matched (in strength with his enemy). He should in no case under-rate his enemy and should wage war (against him) if he is superior (in strength to his enemy) (9). Therefore, O Rāvaṇa alliance with Rāma finds favor with me. Let Sītā, for whose sake you have been attacked (by him), be restored to him (10). Celestial sages as well as Gandharvas (heavenly musicians) all wish him victory. (Therefore) do not antagonize him; let an alliance with him find favor with you (11).

सन्धानं सन्धि:/संधि:।

The प्रातिपदिकम् ‘सन्धि/संधि’ is derived from the verbal root √धा (डुधाञ् धारणपोषणयोः | दान इत्यप्येके ३. ११) with the उपसर्ग: ‘सम्’।

The “डु” at the beginning of this धातुः gets इत्-सञ्ज्ञा by 1-3-5 आदिर्ञिटुडवः। The ञकारः at the end gets इत्-सञ्ज्ञा by 1-3-3 हलन्त्यम्। Both take लोप: by 1-3-9 तस्य लोपः

(1) सम् धा + कि । By 3-3-92 उपसर्गे घोः किः – Following a verbal root which has the designation ‘घु’ (ref. 1-1-20 दाधा घ्वदाप्) and is in conjunction with a उपसर्ग:, the affix ‘कि’ may be used to denote either (i) the sense of the verbal root as having attained to a completed state or (ii) any कारक: except the agent of the action, provided the word so derived is a proper name.

(2) सम् धा + इ । अनुबन्ध-लोप: by 1-3-8 लशक्वतद्धिते and 1-3-9 तस्य लोपः

(3) सम् ध् + इ । By 6-4-64 आतो लोप इटि च – The ending आकार: of an अङ्गम् takes लोप: when followed by a vowel-beginning आर्धधातुक-प्रत्यय: that has either:
(i) a “इट्”-आगम: or
(ii) a ककार: or ङकार: as an इत्।

(4) संधि । By 8-3-23 मोऽनुस्वारः

(5) सन्धि/संधि । By 8-4-59 वा पदान्तस्य

‘सन्धि/संधि’ gets प्रातिपदिक-सञ्ज्ञा by 1-2-46 कृत्तद्धितसमासाश्च – A word form that ends in a कृत्-प्रत्ययः or a तद्धित-प्रत्ययः and so also compounds gets the name प्रातिपदिकम्।

Note: Words ending in the affix ‘कि’ derived using the सूत्रम् 3-3-92 are used in the masculine gender. The विवक्षा here is प्रथमा-एकवचनम्

(6) सन्धि/संधि + सुँ । By 4-1-2 स्वौजसमौट्छष्टाभ्याम्भिस्ङेभ्याम्भ्यस्ङसिँभ्याम्भ्यस्ङसोसाम्ङ्योस्सुप्

(7) सन्धि/संधि + स् । अनुबन्ध-लोपः by 1-3-2 उपदेशेऽजनुनासिक इत् and 1-3-9 तस्य लोपः।

(8) सन्धि:/संधि: । रुँत्व-विसर्गौ by 8-2-66 ससजुषो रुः and 8-3-15 खरवसानयोर्विसर्जनीयः

Questions:

1. Where has the सूत्रम् 3-3-92 उपसर्गे घोः किः been used in the last twenty verses of Chapter Two of the गीता?

2. Commenting on the affix ‘कि’ (used in step 1) the काशिका says – कित्करणमातो लोपार्थम्। Please explain.

3. Can you spot the affix ‘णिनिँ’ in the verses?

4. Which वार्तिकम् prescribes the affix अप् in the form वशे?

5. Where has the सूत्रम् 3-1-55 पुषादिद्युताद्यॢदितः परस्मैपदेषु been used in the verses?

6. How would you say this in Sanskrit?
“Śrī Rāma made an alliance with Sugrīva.”

Easy questions:

1. Where has the सूत्रम् 6-4-66 घुमास्थागापाजहातिसां हलि been used in a तिङन्तं पदम् in the verses?

2. Which सूत्रम् prescribes the affix ‘श्नु’ in अश्नुते?

स्वप्नात् m-Ab-s

Today we will look at the form स्वप्नात् m-Ab-s from श्रीमद्भागवतम् 11.11.13.

एवं विरक्तः शयन आसनाटनमज्जने । दर्शनस्पर्शनघ्राणभोजनश्रवणादिषु ।। ११-११-११ ।।
न तथा बध्यते विद्वांस्तत्र तत्रादयन्गुणान् । प्रकृतिस्थोऽप्यसंसक्तो यथा खं सवितानिलः ।। ११-११-१२ ।।
वैशारद्येक्षयासङ्गशितया छिन्नसंशयः । प्रतिबुद्ध इव स्वप्नान्नानात्वाद्विनिवर्तते ।। ११-११-१३ ।।

श्रीधर-स्वामि-टीका
वैलक्षण्यान्तरं वदन् ‘किं भुञ्जीत’ इत्यादिप्रश्नोत्तरमाह – एवमिति त्रिभिः । अन्यगतमेव कर्म मां बध्नातीत्येवं विरक्तो विद्वान् । तथा अविद्वानिव शयनासनादिषु न बध्यते । कुतः । तत्र तत्र विषयेषु गुणानिन्द्रियाण्यादयन् भोजयंस्तत्साक्षित्वेन वर्तमानो न तु स्वयमदन् । एतदेव कुतस्तत्राह – प्रकृतिस्थोऽपीति सार्धेन । यथा खं सर्वत्र स्थितमपि न सज्जते । यथा सविता जले प्रतिबिम्बितोऽपि । यथानिलः सर्वत्र संचरन्नपि तद्वत् ।। ११ ।। ।।१२ ।। असङ्गेन वैराग्येण शितया तीक्ष्णया छिन्नाः संशया असंभावनादयो यस्य सः । नानात्वाद्देहादिप्रपञ्चात् ।। १३ ।।

Gita Press translation – Thus remaining free from passion while (lying) in bed, sitting, moving about, bathing, seeing, touching, smelling, eating and hearing etc., and allowing the (three) Guṇas (in the form of the senses) to enjoy the various objects of the senses, the enlightened soul does not get bound (by such actions) like the ignorant man. Though continuing in his psycho-physical organism (which is a modification of Prakṛti) he remains unattached to it like the sky, the sun (which remains unattached to the water in which it is reflected) or the wind (which remains unattached even though blowing everywhere) (11-12). With (all) his doubts resolved by (the sword of) his penetrating intellect whetted by (all-round) detachment he turns away from the sense of diversity, even as one who has woke up from a dream turns away from it (13).

स्वपनं स्वप्न:।

The प्रातिपदिकम् ‘स्वप्न’ is derived from the verbal root √स्वप् (ञिष्वपँ शये २. ६३).

(1) स्वप् + नन् । By 3-3-91 स्वपो नन् – Following the verbal root √स्वप् (ञिष्वपँ शये २. ६३) the affix ‘नन्’ may be used to denote either (i) the sense of the verbal root as having attained to a completed state or (ii) any कारक: except the agent of the action, provided the word so derived is a proper name.

(2) स्वप् + न । अनुबन्ध-लोप: by 1-3-3 हलन्त्यम् and 1-3-9 तस्य लोपः

Note: The affix नन् is prohibited from taking the augment इट् by 7-2-8 नेड् वशि कृति। In addition, 7-2-10 एकाच उपदेशेऽनुदात्तात्‌ also blocks the augment इट् here because √स्वप् (ञिष्वपँ शये २. ६३) is अनुदात्तोपदश:।

= स्वप्न । ‘स्वप्न’ gets प्रातिपदिक-सञ्ज्ञा by 1-2-46 कृत्तद्धितसमासाश्च – A word form that ends in a कृत्-प्रत्ययः or a तद्धित-प्रत्ययः and so also compounds gets the name प्रातिपदिकम्।

‘स्वप्न’ is a पुंलिङ्ग-प्रातिपदिकम्। The विवक्षा is पञ्चमी-एकवचनम्

(3) स्वप्न + ङसिँ । By 4-1-2 स्वौजसमौट्छष्टाभ्याम्भिस्ङेभ्याम्भ्यस्ङसिभ्याम्भ्यस्ङसोसाम्ङ्योस्सुप्‌

(4) स्वप्न + आत् । By 7-1-12 टाङसिङसामिनात्स्याः – Following a अङ्गम् ending in a अकार:, the affixes ‘टा’, ‘ङसिँ’ and ‘ङस्’ are replaced respectively by ‘इन’, ‘आत्’ and ‘स्य’। As per 1-1-55 अनेकाल्शित्सर्वस्य the entire affix ‘ङसिँ’ is replaced by ‘आत्’। 1-3-4 न विभक्तौ तुस्माः prevents the ending तकार: of ‘आत्’ from getting the इत्-सञ्ज्ञा।

(5) स्वप्नात् । By 6-1-101 अकः सवर्णे दीर्घः

Questions:

1. Where has the प्रातिपदिकम् ‘स्वप्न’ been used in Chapter Eighteen of the गीता?

2. Can you recall another सूत्रम् (besides 3-3-91 स्वपो नन्) in which पाणिनि: specifically mentions the verbal root √स्वप् (ञिष्वपँ शये २. ६३)?

3. Can you spot affix तृच् in the verses?

4. What would be an alternate form for विद्वान्?

5. Where has the सूत्रम् 3-1-26 हेतुमति च been used in the verses?

6. How would you say this in Sanskrit?
“I saw you in a dream.” Use लुँङ् to express the past tense.

Easy questions:

1. Which सूत्रम् prescribes the elision of the letter ‘न्’ in the form बध्यते?

2. Can you spot the affix श्नम् in the commentary?

धौतानि nAp

Today we will look at the form धौतानि nAp from श्रीमद्भागवतम् 10.41.32.

रजकं कञ्चिदायान्तं रङ्गकारं गदाग्रजः । दृष्ट्वायाचत वासांसि धौतान्यत्युत्तमानि च ।। १०-४१-३२ ।।
देह्यावयोः समुचितान्यङ्ग वासांसि चार्हतोः । भविष्यति परं श्रेयो दातुस्ते नात्र संशयः ।। १०-४१-३३ ।।
स याचितो भगवता परिपूर्णेन सर्वतः । साक्षेपं रुषितः प्राह भृत्यो राज्ञः सुदुर्मदः ।। १०-४१-३४ ।।

श्रीधर-स्वामि-टीका
रजको वस्त्रनिर्णेजकः स एव वस्त्राणां रङ्गमपि कुर्वन् रङ्गकारः ।। ३२ ।। ।।३३।। रुषितः कुपितः ।। ३४ ।।

Gita Press translation – Seeing a certain washerman, who was (also) a dyer (of clothes), coming (that way), Śrī Kṛṣṇa (the elder Brother of Gada) asked of him the very best and well-washed clothes (in the following words) – (32) “(Please) give Us both – who deserve the gift (from you) – eminently suitable clothes, O dear one! The highest blessing will be yours if you make the gift: there is no doubt about it.” (33) Solicited (thus) by the Lord, who was most perfect in every way, that extremely arrogant servant of Kaṁsa (the king of Mathurā,) angrily and tauntingly replied (as follows): – (34)

The प्रातिपदिकम् ‘धौत’ is derived from the verbal root √धाव् (धावुँ गतिशुद्ध्योः १. ६८५). The ending उकार: of ‘धावुँ’ gets the इत्-सञ्ज्ञा by 1-3-2 उपदेशेऽजनुनासिक इत् and takes लोप: by 1-3-9 तस्य लोपः। Hence the verbal root ‘धावुँ’ is उदित्।

(1) धाव् + क्त । By 3-2-102 निष्ठा – The affix “निष्ठा” (ref. 1-1-26) may be used following a verbal root when denoting an action in the past tense. As per 3-4-70 तयोरेव कृत्यक्तखलर्थाः – The affixes having the designation “कृत्य”, the affix “क्त” and the affixes that have the sense of “खल्” (ref: 3-3-126 ईषद्दुःसुषु कृच्छ्राकृच्छ्रार्थेषु खल्) are only used to denote the action (भावः) or the object (कर्म)

(2) धाव् + त । अनुबन्ध-लोप: by 1-3-8 लशक्वतद्धिते and 1-3-9 तस्य लोपः
Note: The affix ‘त’ is prevented from taking the augment ‘इट्’ (which would have been done by 7-2-35 आर्धधातुकस्येड् वलादेः) by 7-2-15 यस्य विभाषा – If a verbal root optionally allows an augment इट् in some case, then following that verbal root a निष्ठा affix (ref. 1-1-26) is prohibited from taking the augment इट्। Note: 7-2-15 is applicable here because as per 7-2-56 उदितो वा – When following a verbal root which is उदित् (has उकार: as a इत्), the affix ‘क्त्वा’ optionally takes the augment इट्।

(3) धा ऊठ् + त । By 6-4-19 च्छ्वोः शूडनुनासिके च – The letter ‘छ्’ (along with the augment ‘तुँक्’) and the letter ‘व्’ is replaced respectively by the letter ‘श्’ and ‘ऊठ्’ when followed by either –
(i) any affix which begins with a nasal or
(ii) the affix ‘क्विँ’ or
(iii) any affix which begins with a letter of the ‘झल्’-प्रत्याहार: and is marked by either the letter ‘क्’ or ‘ङ्’।

(4) धा ऊ + त । अनुबन्ध-लोप: by 1-3-3 हलन्त्यम् and 1-3-9 तस्य लोपः

(5) धौत । By 6-1-89 एत्येधत्यूठ्सु – वृद्धिः is the single substitute in place of the ending अवर्ण: (letter ‘अ’ or ‘आ’) of a उपसर्गः and the following either –
(i) a एच् letter belonging to √इ (इण् गतौ २. ४०) or √एध् (एधँ वृद्धौ १. २) or
(ii) the term ‘ऊठ्’।

‘धौत’ gets प्रातिपदिक-सञ्ज्ञा by 1-2-46 कृत्तद्धितसमासाश्च – A word form that ends in a कृत्-प्रत्ययः or a तद्धित-प्रत्ययः and so also compounds gets the name प्रातिपदिकम्।

The विवक्षा is नपुंसकलिङ्गे द्वितीया-बहुवचनम् ।

(6) धौत + शस् । By 4-1-2 स्वौजसमौट्छष्टाभ्याम्भिस्ङेभ्याम्भ्यस्ङसिँभ्याम्भ्यस्ङसोसाम्ङ्योस्सुप्

(7) धौत + शि । By 7-1-20 जश्शसोः शिः – The affixes ‘जस्’ and ‘शस्’ get ‘शि’ as the replacement when they follow a neuter अङ्गम्। ‘शि’ gets सर्वनामस्थानसंज्ञा by 1-1-42 शि सर्वनामस्थानम्

(8) धौत + इ । अनुबन्ध-लोप: by 1-3-8 लशक्वतद्धिते and takes लोपः by 1-3-9 तस्य लोपः

(9) धौत नुँम् + इ । By 7-1-72 नपुंसकस्य झलचः – When a सर्वनामस्थानम् affix follows, the neuter bases that end in a झल् letter or an अच् (vowel) get the नुँम् augment. As per 1-1-47 मिदचोऽन्त्यात्परः, the ‘नुँम्’-आगम: is placed after the last अच् (the अकार: after the तकार:) in ‘धौत’।

(10) धौत न् + इ । अनुबन्ध-लोप: by 1-3-2 उपदेशेऽजनुनासिक इत्, 1-3-3 हलन्त्यम् and 1-3-9 तस्य लोपः।

(11) धौतान् + इ = धौतानि । By 6-4-8 सर्वनामस्थाने चासम्बुद्धौ – The penultimate letter of the अङ्गम् (base) ending in a नकार: gets elongated if it is followed by a non-vocative affix having the designation सर्वनामस्थानम्।

Questions:

1. The वृत्ति: of the सूत्रम् 6-4-19 च्छ्वोः शूडनुनासिके च (used in step 3) says – सतुक्‍कस्‍य छस्‍य वस्‍य च क्रामात् ‘श्’ ‘ऊठ्’ इत्‍यादेशौ स्‍तोऽनुनासिके क्‍वौ झलादौ च क्ङिति। Commenting on this the तत्त्वबोधिनी says – सतुक्कस्य किम्? विच्छप्रच्छाभ्यां नङ्प्रत्यये छकारस्य शकारे कृते तुकोऽश्रवणं यथा स्यात्। Please explain.

2. Commenting further on the सूत्रम् 6-4-19 च्छ्वोः शूडनुनासिके च the तत्त्वबोधिनी says – सूत्रस्थेन चशब्देन क्विझलोः क्ङितीत्यनुकृष्यते। Please explain.

3. In the verses can you spot two words in which the सूत्रम् 3-2-124 लटः शतृशानचावप्रथमासमानाधिकरणे has been used?

4. Which सूत्रम् prescribes the affix ‘अण्’ in रङ्गकारम्?

5. From which verbal root is the प्रातिपदिकम् ‘निर्णेजक’ (used as part of the compound वस्त्रनिर्णेजकः in the commentary) derived?

6. How would you say this in Sanskrit?
“I just (now) washed my hands.” Use the combination of the अव्ययम् ‘अधुना + एव’ for ‘just now.’ Use the affix ‘क्तवतुँ’ for expressing the past tense.

Easy questions:

1. Can you spot the augment अट् in the verses?

2. Which सूत्रम् prescribes the substitution ‘ए’ in देहि?

प्रश्नः mNs

Today we will look at the form प्रश्नः mNs from श्रीमद्भागवतम् 11.13.22.

दृष्ट्वा मां त उपव्रज्य कृत्वा पादाभिवन्दनम् । ब्रह्माणमग्रतः कृत्वा पप्रच्छुः को भवानिति ।। ११-१३-२० ।।
इत्यहं मुनिभिः पृष्टस्तत्त्वजिज्ञासुभिस्तदा । यदवोचमहं तेभ्यस्तदुद्धव निबोध मे ।। ११-१३-२१ ।।
वस्तुनो यद्यनानात्वमात्मनः प्रश्न ईदृशः । कथं घटेत वो विप्रा वक्तुर्वा मे क आश्रयः ।। ११-१३-२२ ।।

श्रीधर-स्वामि-टीका
इत्यहं मुनिभिः पृष्ट इति पृथग्वाक्यम् । यदवोचमिति च पृथक् । अतोऽस्मच्छब्दावृत्तिरदोषः । तेभ्यो यदवोचं तन्मे वचनं निबोध ।। २१ ।। देहादिविविक्तात्मज्ञाने सति तन्निष्ठस्य रागाद्यसंभवात्स्वयमेव विषयचेतसोर्विश्लेषो भवतीति वक्तुं प्रश्नखण्डनमिषेणैव तावदात्मानात्मविवेकमाह – वस्तुन इति त्रिभिः । किमात्मनोऽयं प्रश्नस्तदुपाधेर्भूतसङ्घस्य वा । यद्यात्मनस्तर्हि तस्य वस्तुनः परमार्थरूपस्यानानात्वे सति हे विप्राः, वो युष्माभिः कृतः प्रश्न ईदृशो बहुषु निर्धारणरूपः कथं घटेत वक्तुरुत्तरदातुर्वा मे मम क आश्रयः । अविशेषे आत्मनि कं जातिगुणादिविशेषमाश्रित्योत्तरं वक्ष्यामीत्यर्थः ।। २२ ।।

Gita Press translation – Beholding Me and placing Brahmā at their head, they (Sanaka and others) came up to Me and, bowing at My feet, asked Me as to who I was (20). In these words was I interrogated on the said occasion by the sages, keen as they were to know the Truth. (Now) hear from Me, O Uddhava, what I spoke to them (in reply) (21). If there is unity of the substance known as the Self (and if your question relates to the Self in Me), how can such a question on your part (as you have asked Me, calling upon Me to specify Myself out of many) be relevant, O Brāhmaṇa sages! Or (even) if I (proceed to) speak (in reply), what (distinctive quality) can be My basis (for an answer) ? (22)

प्रच्छनं प्रश्न:।

The प्रातिपदिकम् ‘प्रश्न’ is derived from the verbal root  √प्रच्छ् (प्रच्छँ ज्ञीप्सायाम् ६.१४९).

(1) प्रच्छ् + नङ् । By 3-3-90 यजयाचयतविच्छप्रच्छरक्षो नङ् – Following the verbal root √यज् (यजँ देवपूजासङ्गतिकरणदानेषु १. ११५७) or √याच् (टुयाचृँ याच्ञायाम् १. १००१) or √यत् (यतीँ प्रयत्ने १. ३०) or √विच्छ् (विच्छँ गतौ ६. १५९) or √प्रच्छ् (प्रच्छँ ज्ञीप्सायाम् ६.१४९) or √रक्ष् (रक्षँ पालने १. ७४६) the affix ‘नङ्’ may be used to denote either (i) the sense of the verbal root as having attained to a completed state or (ii) any कारक: except the agent of the action, provided the word so derived is a proper name.

(2) प्रच्छ् + न । अनुबन्ध-लोप: by 1-3-3 हलन्त्यम् and 1-3-9 तस्य लोपः

Note: The affix नङ् is prohibited from taking the augment इट् by 7-2-8 नेड् वशि कृति। In addition, 7-2-10 एकाच उपदेशेऽनुदात्तात्‌ also blocks the augment इट् because √प्रच्छ् (प्रच्छँ ज्ञीप्सायाम् ६.१४९) is अनुदात्तोपदश:। Also note that 6-1-16 ग्रहिज्यावयिव्यधिवष्टिविचतिवृश्चतिपृच्छतिभृज्जतीनां ङिति च should have applied here. But it is not applied because पाणिनि: has himself used the form ‘प्रश्न’ in 3-2-117 प्रश्ने चासन्नकाले etc and we would not get the form ‘प्रश्न’ if we were to apply 6-1-16.

(3) प्रश् + न । By 6-4-19 च्छ्वोः शूडनुनासिके च – The letter ‘छ्’ (along with the augment ‘तुँक्’) and the letter ‘व्’ is replaced respectively by the letter ‘श्’ and ‘ऊठ्’ when followed by either –
(i) any affix which begins with a nasal or
(ii) the affix ‘क्विँ’ or
(iii) any affix which begins with a letter of the ‘झल्’-प्रत्याहार: and is marked by either the letter ‘क्’ or ‘ङ्’।

= प्रश्न । ‘प्रश्न’ gets प्रातिपदिक-सञ्ज्ञा by 1-2-46 कृत्तद्धितसमासाश्च – A word form that ends in a कृत्-प्रत्ययः or a तद्धित-प्रत्ययः and so also compounds gets the name प्रातिपदिकम्।

Note: Words (except याच्ञा which is used in the feminine) derived by using the सूत्रम् 3-3-90 are used in the masculine gender in the language.

The विवक्षा here is प्रथमा-एकवचनम्

(4) प्रश्न + सुँ । By 4-1-2 स्वौजसमौट्छष्टाभ्याम्भिस्ङेभ्याम्भ्यस्ङसिँभ्याम्भ्यस्ङसोसाम्ङ्योस्सुप्

(5) प्रश्न + स् । अनुबन्ध-लोपः by 1-3-2 उपदेशेऽजनुनासिक इत् and 1-3-9 तस्य लोपः।

(6) प्रश्न: । रुँत्व-विसर्गौ by 8-2-66 ससजुषो रुः and 8-3-15 खरवसानयोर्विसर्जनीयः

See easy question 2.

Questions:

1. In which Chapter of the गीता has ‘प्रश्न’ been used (as part of a compound)?

2. Commenting on the affix ‘नङ्’ prescribed by the सूत्रम् 3-3-90 यजयाचयतविच्छप्रच्छरक्षो नङ् (used in step 1), the सिद्धान्तकौमुदी says – ङित्त्वं तु ‘विश्न’ इत्यत्र गुणनिषेधाय। Please explain.

3. Which सूत्रम् prescribes the augment उम् in अवोचम्?

4. Can you spot the affix तृच् in the verses?

5. How would you say this in Sanskrit?
“I should make an effort to study grammar.” Paraphrase to “An effort should be made by me in the matter of the study of grammar.” Use the सूत्रम् 3-3-90 यजयाचयतविच्छप्रच्छरक्षो नङ् to derive a प्रातिपदिकम् in the meaning ‘effort.’ Use a कृत्य-प्रत्यय: with the verbal root √कृ (डुकृञ् करणे ८. १०) to derive a प्रातिपदिकम् meaning ‘should be made.’ Use the सप्तमी विभक्ति: to express the meaning of ‘in the matter of.’

6. How would you say this in Sanskrit?
“I wonder who would give me the answer to this question.” Use the अव्ययम् ‘नु’ to express the meaning ‘I wonder.’ Use चतुर्थी विभक्ति: with ‘me.’ (प्रातिपदिकम् ‘अस्मद्’)।

Easy questions:

1. Can you spot the augment सीयुट् in the verses?

2. What prevents the सूत्रम् 8-4-40 स्तोः श्चुना श्चुः from applying (to replace the letter ‘न्’ by ‘ञ्’) in the form ‘प्रश्न’?

यज्ञे mLs

Today we will look at the form यज्ञे mLs from श्रीमद्भागवतम् 2.7.21.

धन्वन्तरिश्च भगवान्स्वयमेव कीर्तिर्नाम्ना नृणां पुरुरुजां रुज आशु हन्ति । यज्ञे च भागममृतायुरवावरुन्ध आयुश्च वेदमनुशास्त्यवतीर्य लोके ।। २-७-२१ ।। क्षत्रं क्षयाय विधिनोपभृतं महात्मा ब्रह्मध्रुगुज्झितपथं नरकार्तिलिप्सु । उद्धन्त्यसाववनिकण्टकमुग्रवीर्यस्त्रिःसप्तकृत्व उरुधारपरश्वधेन ।। २-७-२२ ।।

श्रीधर-स्वामि-टीका
धन्वन्तर्यवतारमाह । लोकेऽवतीर्य धन्वन्तरिः सन् पुरुरुजां महारोगिणां स्वनाम्नैव रुजो रोगान् हन्तिस्यमेव कीर्तिरिति कीर्त्यतिशयोक्तिः । अमृतं मरणशून्यमायुर्यस्मात्सः । अव अवसन्नं पूर्वं दैत्यैः प्रतिबद्धं यज्ञे भागमवरुन्धे लभते । ‘अवाप रुद्धम्’ इति पाठेऽप्ययमेवार्थः । आयुर्विषयं वेदं चानुशास्ति प्रवर्तयति ।। २१ ।। परशुरामावतारमाह । जगतः क्षयाय विधिना दैवेनोपभृतं संवर्धितं, मृत्यवे समर्पितमिति वा । ब्राह्मणेभ्यो द्रुह्यतीति तथा अत उज्झितः पन्था वेदमार्गो येन । अत एव नरकार्तिं लिप्सतीव । एवंभूतमवनेः कण्टकतुल्यं क्षत्रमसौ महात्मा हरिरुद्धन्त्युत्पाटयति, दीर्घतीक्ष्णधारेण परशुना ।। २२ ।।

Translation – And, descending into the worlds as Dhanvantari (a king of Kāśī,) who is glory personified, the Lord, on the very utterance of His name, immediately cures the diseases of men who suffer from numerous ailments. Nay, He won the rank of immortals and got a share in the sacrificial offerings. Again, it was He who taught (to the world) Āyurveda (the science of healthy and long life) (21). When the Kṣatriya race turns out to be the enemy (rather than the protector) of the Brāhmaṇas and abandons the path of virtue, as if courting the tortures of hell, nay, when it becomes a veritable thorn in the side of the world and is exalted by Providence only for its destruction, the Supreme Spirit appears as Paraśurāma of tremendous prowess and exterminates it thrice seven times with His sharp-edged axe (22).

यजनं यज्ञ:।

The प्रातिपदिकम् ‘यज्ञ’ is derived from the verbal root  √यज् (यजँ देवपूजासङ्गतिकरणदानेषु १. ११५७).

(1) यज् + नङ् । By 3-3-90 यजयाचयतविच्छप्रच्छरक्षो नङ् – Following the verbal root √यज् (यजँ देवपूजासङ्गतिकरणदानेषु १. ११५७) or √याच् (टुयाचृँ याच्ञायाम् १. १००१) or √यत् (यतीँ प्रयत्ने १. ३०) or √विच्छ् (विच्छँ गतौ ६. १५९) or √प्रच्छ् (प्रच्छँ ज्ञीप्सायाम् ६.१४९) or √रक्ष् (रक्षँ पालने १. ७४६) the affix ‘नङ्’ may be used to denote either (i) the sense of the verbal root as having attained to a completed state or (ii) any कारक: except the agent of the action, provided the word so derived is a proper name.

(2) यज् + न । अनुबन्ध-लोप: by 1-3-3 हलन्त्यम् and 1-3-9 तस्य लोपः

Note: The affix नङ् is prohibited from taking the augment इट् by 7-2-8 नेड् वशि कृति। Also note that 6-1-15 वचिस्वपियजादीनां किति cannot apply here because the affix नङ् is a ङित् and not a कित्।

(3) यज् + ञ । By 8-4-40 स्तोः श्चुना श्चु: – When the letter “स्” or a letter of the त-वर्ग: (“त्”, “थ्”, “द्”, “ध्”, “न्”) comes in contact with either the letter “श्” or a letter of the च-वर्ग: (“च्”, “छ्”, “ज्”, “झ्”, “ञ्”), then it is replaced respectively by “श्”, च-वर्ग: (“च्”, “छ्”, “ज्”, “झ्”, “ञ्”)।

= यज्ञ । ‘यज्ञ’ gets प्रातिपदिक-सञ्ज्ञा by 1-2-46 कृत्तद्धितसमासाश्च – A word form that ends in a कृत्-प्रत्ययः or a तद्धित-प्रत्ययः and so also compounds gets the name प्रातिपदिकम्।

Note: Words (except याच्ञा which is used in the feminine) derived by using the सूत्रम् 3-3-90 are used in the masculine gender in the language.

The विवक्षा is सप्तमी-एकवचनम्

(4) यज्ञ + ङि । By 4-1-2 स्वौजसमौट्छष्टाभ्याम्भिस्ङेभ्याम्भ्यस्ङसिभ्याम्भ्यस्ङसोसाम्ङ्योस्सुप्‌

(5) यज्ञ + इ । अनुबन्ध-लोपः by 1-3-8 लशक्वतद्धिते and 1-3-9 तस्य लोपः।

(6) यज्ञे । By 6-1-87 आद्गुणः

Questions:

1. In which two chapters of the गीता has यज्ञे been used?

2. Commenting on the सूत्रम् 3-3-90 यजयाचयतविच्छप्रच्छरक्षो नङ् (used in step 1) the काशिका says – प्रच्छेरसम्प्रसारणं ज्ञापकात् ‘प्रश्ने चासन्नकाले’ इति। Please explain.

3. Where has the सूत्रम् 8-2-37 एकाचो बशो भष् झषन्तस्य स्ध्वोः been used in the verses?

4. Which सूत्रम् prescribes the substitution ‘इस्’ in the form लिप्सति (used in the commentary)?

5. How would you say this in Sanskrit?
“Chanting the Lord’s Names itself is the best sacrifice.”

6. How would you say this in Sanskrit?
“One who performs a hundred sacrifices becomes Indra.” Use the प्रातिपदिकम् ‘शत’ (in the neuter singular) for ‘hundred’ and use a causative form of the verbal root √वृत् (वृतुँ वर्तने १. ८६२) preceded by the उपसर्ग: ‘नि’ for ‘to perform.’

Easy questions:

1. Can you spot the affix श्नम् in the verses?

2. Which सूत्रम् prescribes the substitution ‘ध्’ in the form उद्धन्ति?

वेपथुः mNs

Today we will look at the form वेपथुः mNs from श्रीमद्भागवतम् 3.19.23.

तदा दितेः समभवत्सहसा हृदि वेपथुः । स्मरन्त्या भर्तुरादेशं स्तनाच्चासृक्प्रसुस्रुवे ।। ३-१९-२३ ।।
विनष्टासु स्वमायासु भूयश्चाव्रज्य केशवम् । रुषोपगूहमानोऽमुं ददृशेऽवस्थितं बहिः ।। ३-१९-२४ ।।
तं मुष्टिभिर्विनिघ्नन्तं वज्रसारैरधोक्षजः । करेण कर्णमूलेऽहन्यथा त्वाष्ट्रं मरुत्पतिः ।। ३-१९-२५ ।।

श्रीधर-स्वामि-टीका
भर्तुरादेशं त्वत्पुत्रौ भगवान्हनिष्यतीत्येवंभूतम् ।। २३ ।। उपगूहमानो बाह्वोरन्तर्निधाय सङ्घट्टयन् ।। २४ ।। अहन् जघान । त्वाष्ट्रं वृत्रम् । मरुत्पतिरिन्द्रः ।। २६ ।।

Gita Press translation – That very moment, all of a sudden, a shudder ran through the heart of Diti (Hiraṇyākṣa’s mother) as she recalled the words of her lord (the sage Kaśyapa); and blood flowed from her breasts (23). When he saw his magic forces dispelled, he went into the presence of Lord Keśava once more and, full of rage, encompassed Him with his arms (in order to crush Him; but to his great amazement and chagrin) he found the Lord standing outside the circle of his arms (24). As he (now) began to strike the Lord with his fists, which were harder than adamant, Lord Adhokṣaja (who is beyond sense-perception) slapped him in the root of his ear, even as Indra (the lord of the Maruts or gods of winds) hit the demon Vṛtra (son of Twaṣṭā, the architect of gods) (25).

वेपनं वेपथु:।

The प्रातिपदिकम् ‘वेपथु’ is derived from the verbal root √वेप् (टुवेपृँ कम्पने १. ४२५).

In the verbal root ‘टुवेपृँ’ the beginning ‘टु’ is a इत् by 1-3-5 आदिर्ञिटुडवः and the ending ‘ऋ’ is a इत् by 1-3-2 उपदेशेऽजनुनासिक इत्। Both take लोप: by 1-3-9 तस्य लोपः

(1) वेप् + अथुच् । By 3-3-89 ट्वितोऽथुच् – To denote the sense of the verbal root as having attained to a completed state, the affix ‘अथुच्’ may be used following a verbal root which is marked with ‘टु’।

(2) वेपथु । अनुबन्ध-लोप: by 1-3-3 हलन्त्यम् and 1-3-9 तस्य लोपः

Note: Words derived by using the affix अथुच् are used in the masculine gender in the language.

The विवक्षा here is प्रथमा-एकवचनम्

(3) वेपथु + सुँ । By 4-1-2 स्वौजसमौट्छष्टाभ्याम्भिस्ङेभ्याम्भ्यस्ङसिँभ्याम्भ्यस्ङसोसाम्ङ्योस्सुप्

(4) वेपथु + स् । अनुबन्ध-लोपः by 1-3-2 उपदेशेऽजनुनासिक इत् and 1-3-9 तस्य लोपः।

(5) वेपथु: । रुँत्व-विसर्गौ by 8-2-66 ससजुषो रुः and 8-3-15 खरवसानयोर्विसर्जनीयः

Questions:

1. Where has वेपथु: been used in the गीता?

2. The वृत्ति: of the सूत्रम् 3-3-89 ट्वितोऽथुच् (used in step 1) in the काशिका says – टु इद् यस्य, तस्माट् ट्वितो धातोरथुच् प्रत्ययो भवति भावादौ। But the सिद्धान्तकौमुदी says – अयमपि स्वभावाद् भाव एव। Please explain.

3. Why doesn’t the affix ‘क्त’ take the augment ‘इट्’ in the form ‘नष्ट’ (used in विनष्टासु)?

4. Where has the सूत्रम् 6-4-98 गमहनजनखनघसां लोपः क्ङित्यनङि been used in the verses?

5. Which सूत्रम् is used for the derivation of the प्रातिपदिकम् ‘सार’ used in वज्रसारै:?

6. How would you say this in Sanskrit?
“When Mārīca heard the word ‘Rāma’ a tremor arose in his body.” Use the verbal root √जन् (जनीँ प्रादुर्भावे ४. ४४) for ‘to arise.’

Easy questions:

1. The form अहन् used in the verses is derived from the verbal root √हन् (हनँ हिंसागत्योः २. २). Here it is लँङ्, प्रथम-पुरुष:, एकवचनम्। Which other combination of पुरुष:/वचनम् has the same form अहन्?

2. Where has the pronoun प्रातिपदिकम् ‘अदस्’ been used in the verses?

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