Home » 2015 » November

Monthly Archives: November 2015

दण्डपाणिम् mAs

Today we will look at the form दण्डपाणिम्  mAs from श्रीमद्भागवतम् 1.17.35.

यस्मिन्हरिर्भगवानिज्यमान इज्यात्ममूर्तिर्यजतां शं तनोति । कामानमोघान्स्थिरजङ्गमानामन्तर्बहिर्वायुरिवैष आत्मा ।। १-१७-३४ ।।
सूत उवाच
परीक्षितैवमादिष्टः स कलिर्जातवेपथुः । तमुद्यतासिमाहेदं दण्डपाणिमिवोद्यतम् ।। १-१७-३५ ।।

श्रीधर-स्वामि-टीका
इज्या यागस्तद्रूपा मूर्तिर्यस्य । शं क्षेमं कामांश्च । नन्विन्द्रादयो देवा इज्यन्ते नतु हरिस्तत्राह – स्थिरेति । एष स्थावरादीनामात्मेति । तथापि जीववन्न परिछिन्न इत्याह – अन्तर्बहिरिति । यथा वायुः प्राणरूपेणान्त:स्थोऽपि बहिरप्यस्ति तद्वत्सर्वान्तर्यामीश्वरोऽपीति ।। ३४ ।। उद्यतासिमुद्धृतखड्गम् । दण्डपाणिं यमम् । उद्युतमुद्युक्तम् ।। ३५ ।।

Gita Press translation – In this land (of Brahmāvarta) Lord Śrī Hari abides in the form of sacrifices and blesses His votaries. Nay, moving inside as well as outside all animate and inanimate beings like the air, that Universal Soul grants all their desires (34). Sūta continued: Kali trembled to hear this command of king Parikṣit. He made the following request to the king, who stood ready to strike with his uplifted sword, as Yama with his rod of punishment (35).

(1) दण्ड: पाणौ यस्य स: = दण्डपाणि: (यम:) – He (Yama) in whose hand there is the rod of punishment

(2) दण्ड सुँ + पाणि ङि । As per the सूत्रम् 2-2-35 सप्तमीविशेषणे बहुव्रीहौ the term ‘पाणि ङि’ which ends in a seventh case affix should be placed in the prior position in this बहुव्रीहिः compound. But as per the वार्तिकम् (under 2-2-37 वाहिताग्न्यादिषु in the सिद्धान्तकौमुदी) प्रहरणार्थेभ्य: परे निष्ठासप्तम्यौ the term ‘पाणि ङि’ which ends in a seventh case affix is placed in the latter position in the compound because it follows the term ‘दण्ड सुँ’ which denotes a weapon.
Note: Which सूत्रम् justifies the formation of a बहुव्रीहि: compound using a पदम् ending in a seventh case affix? We cannot use 2-2-24 अनेकमन्यपदार्थे because that सूत्रम् only prescribes compounding of terms (having the designation पदम् and) ending in the nominative case. Hence अत एव ज्ञापकाद्व्यधिकरणपदो बहुव्रीहिः – The सूत्रम् 2-2-35 itself serves as an indication (ज्ञापकम्) that a बहुव्रीहिः compound may be formed using terms that do not have समानाधिकरणम् (same locus) and hence do not all end in the nominative case. Otherwise there would be no point in mentioning ‘सप्तमी’ in the सूत्रम् 2-2-35 सप्तमीविशेषणे बहुव्रीहौ।

Note: ‘दण्ड सुँ + पाणि ङि’ gets the designation प्रातिपदिकम्‌ by 1-2-46 कृत्तद्धितसमासाश्च। This allows 2-4-71 to apply in the next step.

(3) दण्ड + पाणि । By 2-4-71 सुपो धातुप्रातिपदिकयोः – A सुँप् affix takes a लुक् elision when it is a part of a धातुः or a प्रातिपदिकम्।

= दण्डपाणि ।

The gender of a बहुव्रीहि: compound matches that of which it qualifies. In the present example दण्डपाणिः is qualifying यमः। Hence we assign the masculine gender to the compound प्रातिपदिकम् ‘दण्डपाणि’। It declines like हरि-शब्द:।

The विवक्षा is द्वितीया-एकवचनम्।

(4) दण्डपाणि + अम् । By 4-1-2 स्वौजसमौट्छष्टाभ्याम्भिस्ङेभ्याम्भ्यस्ङसिभ्याम्भ्यस्ङसोसाम्ङ्योस्सुप्‌।
Note: 1-3-4 न विभक्तौ तुस्माः prevents the ending letter ‘म्’ of the affix ‘अम्’ from getting इत्-सञ्ज्ञा।

(5) दण्डपाणिम् । By 6-1-107 अमि पूर्वः – In place of a preceding अक् letter and the following vowel (अच्) belonging to the affix ‘अम्’ there is a single substitute of that preceding अक् letter.

Questions:

1. How may we justify the placement of the term ‘असि’ (which denotes a weapon) in the latter position in the बहुव्रीहि: compound ‘उद्यतासि’ in spite of the वार्तिकम् (under 2-2-37 वाहिताग्न्यादिषु in the सिद्धान्तकौमुदी) प्रहरणार्थेभ्य: परे निष्ठासप्तम्यौ?

2. In which word in the verses has the कृत् affix उण् been used?

3. Can you spot a नञ्-तत्पुरुष: compound in the verses?

4. Which कृत् affix is used to form the feminine प्रातिपदिकम् ‘इज्या’ (used in the compound इज्यात्ममूर्ति: in the verses)?

5. Where has the सूत्रम् 3-2-124 लटः शतृशानचावप्रथमासमानाधिकरणे been used in the verses?

6. How would you say this in Sanskrit?
“Lord Viṣṇu (in whose hand there is the (bow named) Śārṅga) always protects his (own) devotees.” Construct a बहुव्रीहि: compound for ‘He (the Lord) in whose hand there is the (bow named) Śārṅga’ = शार्ङ्गः पाणौ यस्य स:।

Easy questions:

1. Which सूत्रम् prescribes the affix ‘उ’ in the form तनोति?

2. In which word in the commentary has the सूत्रम् 3-1-67 सार्वधातुके यक् been used?

उद्यतास्त्राः mNp

Today we will look at the form उद्यतास्त्राः  mNp from श्रीमद्भागवतम् 6.11.17.

ह्रीश्रीदयाकीर्तिभिरुज्झितं त्वां स्वकर्मणा पुरुषादैश्च गर्ह्यम् । कृच्छ्रेण मच्छूलविभिन्नदेहमस्पृष्टवह्निं समदन्ति गृध्राः ।। ६-११-१६ ।।
अन्येऽनु ये त्वेह नृशंसमज्ञा ये ह्युद्यतास्त्राः प्रहरन्ति मह्यम् । तैर्भूतनाथान्सगणान्निशातत्रिशूलनिर्भिन्नगलैर्यजामि ।। ६-११-१७ ।।

श्रीधर-स्वामि-टीका
तं त्वामस्पृष्टवह्निमदग्धदेहं समदन्ति । वर्तमानसामीप्ये वर्तमानवन्निर्देशः ।। १६ ।। अन्येऽपि ये अज्ञा इह त्वा त्वां नृशंसमनु मह्यमुद्यतास्त्राः सन्तो यदि प्रहरन्ति तैर्भूतनाथान्भैरवादीन्यक्ष्यामि । कथंभूतैः । निशातं तीक्ष्णीकृतं यन्मम त्रिशूलं तेन निर्भिन्नो गलो येषां तैः ।। १७ ।।

Gita Press translation – When your body has been torn asunder by my trident, vultures will feast (before long) on you – forsaken as you are by shame, grace, compassion and glory and fit to be censured (even) by Rākṣasas (who devour human beings) because of your sinful deeds – since you will get no fire (to burn you) (16). Nay, I shall indeed propitiate the god Bhairava and others (the leaders of ghosts) with their retinue through (the blood of) those other foolish gods who, following (the lead of) your cruel self, have raised their missiles to strike me on this field of battle and whose neck will be (presently) pierced through with my sharpened trident (17).

(1) उद्यतमस्त्रं येन स: = उद्यतास्त्र: (देव:) – He (the god) by whom a missile has been raised.

(2) उद्यत सुँ + अस्त्र सुँ । By 2-2-24 अनेकमन्यपदार्थे – Two or more terms having the designation पदम् and ending in the nominative case may optionally compound to yield a बहुव्रीहि: compound provided the terms are employed to denote the sense of another पदम् (which is not part of the compound.)

(3) By 1-2-43 प्रथमानिर्दिष्टं समास उपसर्जनम् – the term ‘उद्यत सुँ’ as well as ‘अस्त्र सुँ’ gets the designation उपसर्जनम् because in the सूत्रम् 2-2-24 अनेकमन्यपदार्थे (which prescribes the compounding) the term अनेकम् ends in the nominative case. And hence 2-2-30 cannot help us in deciding which term to place in the prior position in the compound.
Since ‘उद्यत’ ends in the affix ‘क्त’ (prescribed by the सूत्रम् 3-2-102 निष्ठा) it should be placed in the prior position in the compound as per the सूत्रम् 2-2-36 निष्ठा – In a बहुव्रीहि: compound a term which ends in a निष्ठा affix (prescribed by the सूत्रम् 3-2-102 निष्ठा) takes the prior position.
But as per the वार्तिकम् (under 2-2-37 वाहिताग्न्यादिषु in the सिद्धान्तकौमुदी) प्रहरणार्थेभ्य: परे निष्ठासप्तम्यौ the term ‘उद्यत’ which ends in a निष्ठा affix should be placed in the latter position in the compound because it follows the term ‘अस्त्र’ which denotes a weapon.
Then how do we justify the compound ‘उद्यतास्त्र’ wherein the term ‘उद्यत’ which ends in a निष्ठा affix has actually taken the prior position in the बहुव्रीहि: compound in spite of the above वार्तिकम्? One way is to consider this compound to be part of the आहिताग्न्यादि-गण: (ref. 2-2-37 वाहिताग्न्यादिषु।)
Note: The आहिताग्न्यादि-गण: is a आकृति-गण: – which is a class or group of words in which some words are actually mentioned and room is left to include others which are found undergoing the same operations. Hence when we see an accepted usage – such as ‘उद्यतास्त्र’ – in which a term which should have been placed in the prior position is actually found to be in the latter position in a बहुव्रीहि: compound we can justify the usage by considering the compound to be included in the आहिताग्न्यादि-गण:।

Note: ‘उद्यत सुँ + अस्त्र सुँ’ gets the designation प्रातिपदिकम्‌ by 1-2-46 कृत्तद्धितसमासाश्च। This allows 2-4-71 to apply in the next step.

(6) उद्यत + अस्त्र । By 2-4-71 सुपो धातुप्रातिपदिकयोः – A सुँप् affix takes a लुक् elision when it is a part of a धातुः or a प्रातिपदिकम्।

(7) = उद्यतास्त्र । By 6-1-101 अकः सवर्णे दीर्घः

The gender of a बहुव्रीहि: compound matches that of which it qualifies. In the present example उद्यतास्त्राः is qualifying ये (देवा:)। Hence we assign the masculine gender to the compound प्रातिपदिकम् ‘उद्यतास्त्र’। It declines like राम-शब्द:।

The विवक्षा is प्रथमा-बहुवचनम्।

(8) उद्यतास्त्र + जस् । By 4-1-2 स्वौजसमौट्छष्टाभ्याम्भिस्ङेभ्याम्भ्यस्ङसिँभ्याम्भ्यस्ङसोसाम्ङ्योस्सुप्

(9) उद्यतास्त्र + अस् । अनुबन्ध-लोपः by 1-3-7 चुटू and 1-3-9 तस्य लोपः। 1-3-4 न विभक्तौ तुस्माः prevents the ending letter ‘स्’ of ‘जस्’ from getting इत्-सञ्ज्ञा।

(10) उद्यतास्त्रास् । 6-1-102 प्रथमयो: पूर्वसवर्ण: – When a अक् letter is followed by a vowel (अच्) of the first (nominative) or second (accusative) case then for the two of them (अक् + अच्) there is a single substitute which is the elongated form of the first member (the अक् letter.)

(11) उद्यतास्त्राः । रुँत्व-विसर्गौ by 8-2-66 ससजुषो रुः and 8-3-15 खरवसानयोर्विसर्जनीयः

Questions:

1. Where has the वार्तिकम् (under 2-2-37 वाहिताग्न्यादिषु in the सिद्धान्तकौमुदी) प्रहरणार्थेभ्य: परे निष्ठासप्तम्यौ (referred to in step 3) being used in the last five verses of Chapter One of the गीता?

2. What is the विग्रह: of the compound निशातत्रिशूलनिर्भिन्नगलै: (प्रातिपदिकम् ‘निशातत्रिशूलनिर्भिन्नगल’, पुंलिङ्गे तृतीया-बहुवचनम्) used in the verses?

3. Which सूत्रम् justifies the formation of the compound अज्ञा: (प्रातिपदिकम् ‘अज्ञ’, पुंलिङ्गे प्रथमा-बहुवचनम्) used in the verses?

4. In which two words in the verses has the affix अण् been used?

5. Which type of compound is भैरवादीन् (प्रातिपदिकम् ‘भैरवादि’, पुंलिङ्गे द्वितीया-बहुवचनम्) used in the commentary?
i. कर्मधारय:
ii. षष्ठी-तत्पुरुष:
iii. बहुव्रीहि:
iv. अव्ययीभाव:

6. How would you say this in Sanskrit?
“Many demons with raised weapons attacked the army of the monkeys.” Construct a बहुव्रीहि: compound for ‘those (demons) with raised weapons’ = ‘those (demons) by whom weapons have been raised’ = उद्यतान्यायुधानि यैस्ते (रक्षसा:)। Use the verbal root √क्रम् (क्रमुँ पादविक्षेपे १. ५४५) preceded by the उपसर्ग: ‘आङ्’ (‘आ’) for ‘to attack.’

Easy questions:

1. In which two words in the verses does the सूत्रम् 3-3-131 वर्तमानसामीप्ये वर्तमानवद्वा find application?

2. Which सूत्रम् prescribes the substitution ‘क्’ in the form यक्ष्यामि used in the commentary?

देहबद्धम् mAs

Today we will look at the form देहबद्धम् mAs from रघुवंशम् 5.26.

राघवान्वितमुपस्थितं मुनिं तं निशम्य जनको जनेश्वरः ।
अर्थकामसहितं सपर्यया देहबद्धमिव धर्ममभ्यगात् ॥ 11-35॥

टीका –
[राघवान्वितम्] राघवाभ्यामन्वितम् युक्तम् उपस्थितम् आगतं तं मुनिं जनको जनेश्वरो निशम्य । अर्थकामाभ्यां सहितं [अर्थकामसहितं] देहबद्धं बद्धदेहम् । मूर्तिमन्तमित्यर्थः । वाहिताग्न्यादिवात् (२-२-३७) साधुः । धर्ममिव । सपर्ययाभ्यगात् प्रत्युद्गतवान् ।।

Translation – When king Janaka heard of the sage’s coming along with the princes of the Raghu family, he went forth to welcome him with worship as if the sage was embodied virtue, attended by wealth and pleasure (35).

(1) बद्धो देहो येन सः = देहबद्ध: (धर्म:) – One (virtue) who has fastened a body. Hence it means one (virtue) who is embodied.

(2) बद्ध सुँ + देह सुँ । By 2-2-24 अनेकमन्यपदार्थे – Two or more terms having the designation पदम् and ending in the nominative case may optionally compound to yield a बहुव्रीहि: compound provided the terms are employed to denote the sense of another पदम् (which is not part of the compound.)

(3) By 1-2-43 प्रथमानिर्दिष्टं समास उपसर्जनम् – the term ‘बद्ध सुँ’ as well as ‘देह सुँ’ gets the designation उपसर्जनम् because in the सूत्रम् 2-2-24 अनेकमन्यपदार्थे (which prescribes the compounding) the term अनेकम् ends in the nominative case. And hence 2-2-30 cannot help us in deciding which term to place in the prior position in the compound.

(4) देह सुँ + बद्ध सुँ । By 2-2-37 वाहिताग्न्यादिषु – In the बहुव्रीहि: compounds ‘आहिताग्नि’ etc. a term which ends in a निष्ठा affix (prescribed by the सूत्रम् 3-2-102 निष्ठा) optionally takes the prior position.
Note: For a term which ends in a निष्ठा affix the पूर्वनिपात: (placement in the prior position) which would have been obligatory in all बहुव्रीहि: compounds as per the prior सूत्रम् 2-2-36 निष्ठा is now made optional (by the present सूत्रम् 2-2-37) in certain बहुव्रीहि: compounds ‘आहिताग्नि’ etc.
Note: The आहिताग्न्यादि-गण: is a आकृति-गण: – which is a class or group of words in which some words are actually mentioned and room is left to include others which are found undergoing the same operations. Hence when we see an accepted usage – such as ‘बद्धदेह’ – in which a term which should have been placed in the prior position (as per the सूत्रम् 2-2-35 सप्तमीविशेषणे बहुव्रीहौ or 2-2-36 निष्ठा) is actually found to be in the latter position in a बहुव्रीहि: compound we can justify the usage by considering the compound to be included in the आहिताग्न्यादि-गण:।

See question 2.

Note: ‘देह सुँ + बद्ध सुँ’ gets the designation प्रातिपदिकम्‌ by 1-2-46 कृत्तद्धितसमासाश्च। This allows 2-4-71 to apply in the next step.

(5) देह + बद्ध । By 2-4-71 सुपो धातुप्रातिपदिकयोः – A सुँप् affix takes a लुक् elision when it is a part of a धातुः or a प्रातिपदिकम्।

= देहबद्ध ।

The gender of a बहुव्रीहि: compound matches that of which it qualifies. In the present example ‘धर्म’ is being qualified. Hence we assign the masculine gender to the compound प्रातिपदिकम् ‘देहबद्ध’। It declines like राम-शब्द:।
Note: ‘धर्म’ may also be used in the neuter gender, but such usage is rare.

The विवक्षा is द्वितीया-एकवचनम्।

(6) देहबद्ध + अम् । By 4-1-2 स्वौजसमौट्छष्टाभ्याम्भिस्ङेभ्याम्भ्यस्ङसिभ्याम्भ्यस्ङसोसाम्ङ्योस्सुप्‌।
Note: 1-3-4 न विभक्तौ तुस्माः prevents the ending letter ‘म्’ of the affix ‘अम्’ from getting इत्-सञ्ज्ञा।

(7) देहबद्धम् । By 6-1-107 अमि पूर्वः – In place of a preceding अक् letter and the following vowel (अच्) belonging to the affix ‘अम्’ there is a single substitute of that preceding अक् letter.

Questions:

1. In verses 18-23 of Chapter One of the गीता can you spot a बहुव्रीहि: compound in which the पूर्वनिपात: (placement in the prior position) may be justified using the सूत्रम् 2-2-37 वाहिताग्न्यादिषु?

2. What is the alternate form for the compound ‘देहबद्ध’?

3. Why type of compound is ‘राघवान्वित’ used in the verses?
i. तृतीया-तत्पुरुष:
ii. षष्ठी-तत्पुरुष:
iii. बहुव्रीहि:
iv. कर्मधारय:

4. In which word in the verses has the सूत्रम् 3-3-102 अ प्रत्ययात्‌ been used?

5. Which कृत् affix is used to form the प्रातिपदिकम् ‘जनक’?

6. How would you say this in Sanskrit?
“Today, even in India, it is difficult to find a man who has consecrated/installed the sacrificial fires.” Use the affix ‘खल्’ (prescribed by the सूत्रम् 3-3-126 ईषद्दुःसुषु कृच्छ्राकृच्छ्रार्थेषु खल्) to form a उपपद-तत्पुरुष: compound for ‘difficult to find’ = ‘found with difficulty’ = दु:खेन लभ्यते। Form a बहुव्रीहि: compound for ‘a man who has consecrated/installed the sacrificial fires’ = आहिता अग्नयो येन स: (नर:)।

Easy questions:

1. From which verbal root is the form अभ्यगात् derived?

2. Which term used in the verses has the designation ‘घि’?

कृतकृत्यम् mAs

Today we will look at the form कृतकृत्यम्  mAs from श्रीमद्भागवतम् 3.20.49.

येऽहीयन्तामुतः केशा अहयस्तेऽङ्ग जज्ञिरे । सर्पाः प्रसर्पतः क्रूरा नागा भोगोरुकन्धराः ।। ३-२०-४८ ।।
स आत्मानं मन्यमानः कृतकृत्यमिवात्मभूः । तदा मनून्ससर्जान्ते मनसा लोकभावनान् ।। ३-२०-४९ ।।

श्रीधर-स्वामि-टीका
अमुतोऽमुष्माद्देहाद्ये केशा अहीयन्त प्रच्युतास्तेऽहयो जाताः । प्रसर्पतः पादाद्याकुञ्चनैः प्रचलतोऽमुष्मात्सर्पाः । अत एव अगा न भवन्तीति नागाः । अतिवेगवन्त इत्यर्थः । भोगवतो जातत्वाद्भोगेन फणेनोरुर्विस्तीर्णा कन्धरा येषाम् । सर्वे चैते तत्क्रोधयोगात्क्रूराः । तेषामवान्तरजातिभेदः सर्पसिद्धान्ते प्रसिद्धः ।। ४८ ।। यदा मन्यमानोऽभूत्तदा मनून्ससर्ज ।। ४९ ।।

Gita Press translation – The hair that dropped from that body (as he apparently pulled them in a fit of excitement) were transformed into snakes, dear Vidura; while, even as the body crawled along (with its hands and feet contracted), there sprang from it ferocious serpents and Nāgas with their necks dilated in the form of hood (48). One day, Brahmā (the self-born creator) felt as if the object of his life had been accomplished; at that time he evolved out of his mind, last of all, the Manus, who promote the welfare of the world (49).

(1) कृतं कृत्यं येन स: = कृतकृत्य: – The one by whom that which is fit to be done has been done. (Hence it means one who is fulfilled/accomplished.)

(2) कृत सुँ + कृत्य सुँ । By 2-2-24 अनेकमन्यपदार्थे – Two or more terms having the designation पदम् and ending in the nominative case may optionally compound to yield a बहुव्रीहि: compound provided the terms are employed to denote the sense of another पदम् (which is not part of the compound.)

(3) By 1-2-43 प्रथमानिर्दिष्टं समास उपसर्जनम् – the term ‘कृत सुँ’ as well as ‘कृत्य सुँ’ gets the designation उपसर्जनम् because in the सूत्रम् 2-2-24 अनेकमन्यपदार्थे (which prescribes the compounding) the term अनेकम् ends in the nominative case. And hence 2-2-30 cannot help us in deciding which term to place in the prior position in the compound.

The सूत्रम् 2-2-35 सप्तमीविशेषणे बहुव्रीहौ also cannot help us here in determining which term should be placed in the prior position in the compound because both ‘कृत’ and ‘कृत्य’ are adjectives. Since ‘कृत’ ends in the affix ‘क्त’ (prescribed by the सूत्रम् 3-2-102 निष्ठा) it is placed in the prior position in the compound as per the सूत्रम् 2-2-36 निष्ठा – In a बहुव्रीहि: compound a term which ends in a निष्ठा affix (prescribed by the सूत्रम् 3-2-102 निष्ठा) takes the prior position.
Note: This सूत्रम् 2-2-36 निष्ठा is not to be confused with the identically worded सूत्रम् 3-2-102 निष्ठा।
Note: With the help of the परिभाषा-सूत्रम् 1-1-72 येन विधिस्तदन्तस्य we understand that the term निष्ठा used in this सूत्रम् 2-2-36 stands for निष्ठान्तम् (a term ending in a निष्ठा affix.)

Note: ‘कृत सुँ + कृत्य सुँ’ gets the designation प्रातिपदिकम्‌ by 1-2-46 कृत्तद्धितसमासाश्च। This allows 2-4-71 to apply in the next step.

(4) कृत + कृत्य । By 2-4-71 सुपो धातुप्रातिपदिकयोः – A सुँप् affix takes a लुक् elision when it is a part of a धातुः or a प्रातिपदिकम्।

= कृतकृत्य ।

The gender of a बहुव्रीहि: compound matches that of which it qualifies. In the present example ‘आत्मन्’ is being qualified. Hence we assign the masculine gender to the compound प्रातिपदिकम् ‘कृतकृत्य’। It declines like राम-शब्द:।

The विवक्षा is द्वितीया-एकवचनम्।

(5) कृतकृत्य + अम् । By 4-1-2 स्वौजसमौट्छष्टाभ्याम्भिस्ङेभ्याम्भ्यस्ङसिभ्याम्भ्यस्ङसोसाम्ङ्योस्सुप्‌।
Note: 1-3-4 न विभक्तौ तुस्माः prevents the ending letter ‘म्’ of the affix ‘अम्’ from getting इत्-सञ्ज्ञा।

(6) कृतकृत्यम् । By 6-1-107 अमि पूर्वः – In place of a preceding अक् letter and the following vowel (अच्) belonging to the affix ‘अम्’ there is a single substitute of that preceding अक् letter.

Questions:

1. Where does the बहुव्रीहि: compound ‘कृतकृत्य’ occur in the गीता?

2. Commenting on the सूत्रम् 2-2-36 निष्ठा (used in step 3) the काशिका says – ननु च विशेषणमेवात्र निष्ठा? नैष नियमः, विशेषणविशेष्यभावस्य विवक्षानिबन्धनत्वात्। Please explain.

3. What type of समास: is लोकभावनान् (प्रातिपदिकम् ‘लोकभावन’, पुंलिङ्गे द्वितीया-बहुवचनम्) used in the verses?
i. कर्मधारय:
ii. षष्ठी-तत्पुरुष:
iii. बहुव्रीहि:
iv. उपपद-तत्पुरुष:

4. In which word in the verses has the substitution ‘शतृँ’ (in place of ‘लँट्’) been used?

5. Which सूत्रम् justifies the use of a fifth case affix in the form भोगवत: used in the commentary? Which one justifies in जातत्वात्?

6. How would you say this in Sanskrit?
“No one can become fulfilled without the grace of the Lord.”

Easy questions:

1. Which सूत्रम् prescribes the substitution ‘ई’ in the form अहीयन्त used in the verses?

2. Where has the सूत्रम् 3-4-81 लिटस्तझयोरेशिरेच् been used in the verses?

अनन्तम् mAs

Today we will look at the form अनन्तम्  mAs from श्रीमद्भागवतम् 10.6.8.

बालग्रहस्तत्र विचिन्वती शिशून्यदृच्छया नन्दगृहेऽसदन्तकम् । बालं प्रतिच्छन्ननिजोरुतेजसं ददर्श तल्पेऽग्निमिवाहितं भसि ।। १०-६-७ ।।
विबुध्य तां बालकमारिकाग्रहं चराचरात्मा स निमीलितेक्षणः । अनन्तमारोपयदङ्कमन्तकं यथोरगं सुप्तमबुद्धिरज्जुधीः ।। १०-६-८ ।।

श्रीधर-स्वामि-टीका
बालग्रहः पूतना असदन्तकं बालं ददर्श । असतामन्तकं दृष्ट्वा कथं न बिभेति तत्राह । प्रतिच्छन्ननिजोरुतेजसम्, बालनाट्येन प्रतिच्छन्नं तिरोहितं निजमुरु तेजो येन तम् । कमिव । भसि भस्मन्याहितमग्निमिवेति ।। ७ ।। चराचरात्मत्वादेव तां विबुध्य निमीलितेक्षण आस । स्वयमनन्तं दुष्टानामन्तकं बालं मत्वा सा अङ्कमारोपयत्यथोरगं सुप्तमबुद्धिश्चासौ रज्जुधीश्च सोऽज्ञानतो रज्जुबुद्ध्या गृह्णाति तद्वत् ।। ८ ।।

Gita Press translation – Hunting for infants and propelled by Providence, Pūtanā (lit., an evil spirit seizing infants and causing their death) saw lying in that palace of Nanda, the Babe (Śrī Kṛṣṇa), the Destroyer of the wicked, with His immeasurable glory veiled, like fire buried under ashes (7). Recognizing her to be an evil spirit given to the destruction of infants, Śrī Kṛṣṇa (the Soul of the mobile and immobile creation) lay with His eyes utterly closed. She placed the infinite Lord, her very death, in her lap (even) as an ignorant man would a sleeping serpent, mistaking it for a rope (8).

(1) अविद्यमानोऽन्तो यस्य स: = अनन्त: (भगवान्) – He (the Lord) whose end does not exist.
Note: The लौकिक-विग्रह: for the compound अनन्त: may also be stated as नास्त्यन्तो यस्य स:।

(2) अविद्यमान सुँ + अन्त सुँ । By 2-2-24 अनेकमन्यपदार्थे – Two or more terms having the designation पदम् and ending in the nominative case may optionally compound to yield a बहुव्रीहि: compound provided the terms are employed to denote the sense of another पदम् (which is not part of the compound.)
Note: The compound ‘अविद्यमान’ (which is the prior member of the बहुव्रीहि: compound) is a तत्पुरुष: compound formed using the सूत्रम् 2-2-6 नञ्‌। The elision of the letter ‘न्’ is done by the सूत्रम् 6-3-73 नलोपो नञः

(3) By 1-2-43 प्रथमानिर्दिष्टं समास उपसर्जनम् – the term ‘अविद्यमान सुँ’ as well as ‘अन्त सुँ’ gets the designation उपसर्जनम् because in the सूत्रम् 2-2-24 अनेकमन्यपदार्थे (which prescribes the compounding) the term अनेकम् ends in the nominative case. And hence 2-2-30 cannot help us in deciding which term to place in the prior position in the compound.

The adjective ‘अविद्यमान सुँ’ is placed in the prior position in the compound as per the सूत्रम् 2-2-35 सप्तमीविशेषणे बहुव्रीहौ – In a बहुव्रीहि: compound the पदम् which ends in a seventh case affix or is an adjective takes the prior position.
Note: ‘अविद्यमान सुँ + अन्त सुँ’ gets the designation प्रातिपदिकम्‌ by 1-2-46 कृत्तद्धितसमासाश्च। This allows 2-4-71 to apply in the next step.

(4) अविद्यमान + अन्त । By 2-4-71 सुपो धातुप्रातिपदिकयोः – A सुँप् affix takes a लुक् elision when it is a part of a धातुः or a प्रातिपदिकम्।

(5) अ + अन्त । By वार्तिकम् (under 2-2-24 अनेकमन्यपदार्थे) नञोऽस्त्यर्थानां वाच्यो वा चोत्तरपदलोपः – A compound पदम् in which the negation particle नञ् is followed by a उत्तर-पदम् (final member) that denotes the sense of ‘exists’ optionally drops this उत्तर-पदम् when it combines with another पदम् to yield a बहुव्रीहि: compound.

See question 2.

Note: Compounding is already prescribed by the सूत्रम् 2-2-24 itself. It is only for the elision of the उत्तरपदम् (of the compound पूर्वपदम्) that this वार्तिकम् is necessary.

(6) अ + नुँट् अन्त । By 6-3-74 तस्मान्नुडचि – When preceded by the particle नञ्‌ whose letter ‘न्’ has been elided (by the prior सूत्रम् 6-3-73 नलोपो नञः), a final member (of a compound) which begins with a vowel takes the augment नुँट्।
Note: As per the परिभाषा ‘उभयनिर्देशे पञ्चमीनिर्देशो बलीयान्’ the fifth case affix used in तस्मात् has greater force than the seventh case affix used in अचि। Hence the operation (of attaching the augment नुँट्) takes place on the उत्तरपदम् and not on the particle नञ्‌।
Note: As per the परिभाषा-सूत्रम् 1-1-46 आद्यन्तौ टकितौ the augment नुँट् attaches at the beginning of the final member (of a compound) which begins with a vowel.

(7) अ + न् अन्त । अनुबन्ध-लोपः by 1-3-2 उपदेशेऽजनुनासिक इत्, 1-3-3 हलन्त्यम् and 1-3-9 तस्य लोपः।

= अनन्त ।

The gender of a बहुव्रीहि: compound matches that of which it qualifies. In the present example ‘श्रीकृष्ण’ is being qualified. Hence we assign the masculine gender to the compound प्रातिपदिकम् ‘अनन्त’। It declines like राम-शब्द:।

The विवक्षा is द्वितीया-एकवचनम्।

(8) अनन्त + अम् । By 4-1-2 स्वौजसमौट्छष्टाभ्याम्भिस्ङेभ्याम्भ्यस्ङसिभ्याम्भ्यस्ङसोसाम्ङ्योस्सुप्‌।
Note: 1-3-4 न विभक्तौ तुस्माः prevents the ending letter ‘म्’ of the affix ‘अम्’ from getting इत्-सञ्ज्ञा।

(9) अनन्तम् । By 6-1-107 अमि पूर्वः – In place of a preceding अक् letter and the following vowel (अच्) belonging to the affix ‘अम्’ there is a single substitute of that preceding अक् letter.

Questions:

1. In the first verse of which Chapter of the गीता has the वार्तिकम् (under 2-2-24 अनेकमन्यपदार्थे) नञोऽस्त्यर्थानां वाच्यो वा चोत्तरपदलोपः (used in step 5) been used?

2. What is the alternate form for ‘अनन्त’?

3. Which कृत् affix is used to form the प्रातिपदिकम् ‘अन्तक’ (used as part of the compound ‘असदन्तक’ in the verses)?

4. What is the विग्रह: of the compound ‘प्रतिच्छन्ननिजोरुतेजस्’ used in the verses?

5. In which word in the verses has सम्प्रसारणम् taken place?

6. How would you say this in Sanskrit?
“In Śrī Rāma’s kingdom all people were free of ailments.” Construct a बहुव्रीहि: compound for ‘one who has no ailments’ = न सन्ति रोगा यस्य स:।

Easy questions:

1. From which verbal root is the form आरोपयत् derived?

2. In which word in the commentary has the सूत्रम् 6-1-10 श्लौ been used?

विधवा fNs

Today we will look at the form विधवा fNs from श्रीमद्भागवतम् 9.10.28.

नैवं वेद महाभाग भवान्कामवशं गतः । तेजोऽनुभावं सीताया येन नीतो दशामिमाम् ।। ९-१०-२७ ।।
कृतैषा विधवा लङ्का वयं च कुलनन्दन । देहः कृतोऽन्नं गृध्राणामात्मा नरकहेतवे ।। ९-१०-२८ ।।

श्रीधर-स्वामि-टीका
गृध्राणामन्नं भक्ष्यः । नरकहेतवे नरकभोगाय ।। २८ ।।

Gita Press translation – Swayed by passion, you did not realize, O highly blessed one, such (extraordinary) power of Sītā’s glory, by which you have been reduced to this (miserable) plight! (27) Widowed is this Lañkā as well as we, O delight of your race! (Nay,) your body has been made the food of vultures and your soul rendered fit for hell (28).

(1) विगतो धवो यस्या: सा = विधवा (नारी) – She (a woman) whose husband has passed away.

Note: The compound ‘विगत’ is a गति-समास: formed using the सूत्रम् 2-2-18 कुगतिप्रादयः – The indeclinable ‘कु’, terms having the designation ‘गति’ (ref. 1-4-60 गतिश्च etc) as well as the terms ‘प्र’ etc. (ref. 1-4-58 प्रादयः) invariably compound with a syntactically related term and the resulting compound gets the designation तत्पुरुष:।

(2) विगत सुँ + धव सुँ । By 2-2-24 अनेकमन्यपदार्थे – Two or more terms having the designation पदम् and ending in the nominative case may optionally compound to yield a बहुव्रीहि: compound provided the terms are employed to denote the sense of another पदम् (which is not part of the compound.)

(3) By 1-2-43 प्रथमानिर्दिष्टं समास उपसर्जनम् – the term ‘विगत सुँ’ as well as ‘धव सुँ’ gets the designation उपसर्जनम् because in the सूत्रम् 2-2-24 अनेकमन्यपदार्थे (which prescribes the compounding) the term अनेकम् ends in the nominative case. And hence 2-2-30 cannot help us in deciding which term to place in the prior position in the compound.

The adjective ‘विगत सुँ’ is placed in the prior position in the compound as per the सूत्रम् 2-2-35 सप्तमीविशेषणे बहुव्रीहौ – In a बहुव्रीहि: compound the पदम् which ends in a seventh case affix or is an adjective takes the prior position.
Note: ‘विगत सुँ + धव सुँ’ gets the designation प्रातिपदिकम्‌ by 1-2-46 कृत्तद्धितसमासाश्च। This allows 2-4-71 to apply in the next step.

(4) विगत + धव । By 2-4-71 सुपो धातुप्रातिपदिकयोः – A सुँप् affix takes a लुक् elision when it is a part of a धातुः or a प्रातिपदिकम्।

(5) विधव । By वार्तिकम् (under 2-2-24 अनेकमन्यपदार्थे) प्रादिभ्यो धातुजस्य वाच्यो वा चोत्तरपदलोपः – A compound पदम् in which a ‘प्र’ etc term (ref. 1-4-58 प्रादयः) is followed by a उत्तर-पदम् (final member) that is a कृदन्तम् (a participle formed by adding a कृत् affix to a verbal root) optionally drops this उत्तर-पदम् when it combines with another पदम् to yield a बहुव्रीहि: compound.
Note: Compounding is already prescribed by the सूत्रम् 2-2-24 itself. It is only for the elision of the उत्तरपदम् (of the compound पूर्वपदम्) that this वार्तिकम् is necessary.

See question 2.

The gender of a बहुव्रीहि: compound matches that of which it qualifies. In the present example ‘लङ्का’ is being qualified. Hence we form the feminine प्रातिपदिकम् ‘विधवा’ by adding the feminine affix टाप्।

(6) विधव + टाप् । By 4-1-4 अजाद्यतष्टाप्‌ – The प्रातिपदिकानि ‘अज’ etc. and प्रातिपदिकानि ending in the letter ‘अ’ get the टाप् affix in the feminine gender.

(7) विधव + आ । अनुबन्ध-लोपः by 1-3-3 हलन्त्यम्, 1-3-7 चुटू, 1-3-9 तस्य लोपः

(8) विधवा । By 6-1-101 अकः सवर्णे दीर्घः

The विवक्षा is प्रथमा-एकवचनम्।

(9) विधवा + सुँ । By 4-1-2 स्वौजसमौट्छष्टाभ्याम्भिस्ङेभ्याम्भ्यस्ङसिँभ्याम्भ्यस्ङसोसाम्ङ्योस्सुप्

(10) विधवा + स् । अनुबन्ध-लोपः by 1-3-2 उपदेशेऽजनुनासिक इत्, 1-3-9 तस्य लोपः

(11) विधवा । By 6-1-68 हल्ङ्याब्भ्यो दीर्घात्‌ सुतिस्यपृक्तं हल् – A single letter affix ‘सुँ’, ‘ति’ or ‘सि’ is dropped following a base ending in a consonant or in the long feminine affix ‘ङी’ or ‘आप्’।

Questions:

1. In the first verse of which Chapter of the गीता has the वार्तिकम् (under 2-2-24 अनेकमन्यपदार्थे) प्रादिभ्यो धातुजस्य वाच्यो वा चोत्तरपदलोपः (used in step 5) been used?

2. What is the alternate form for विधवा?

3. Which कृत् affix is used to form the प्रातिपदिकम् ‘नन्दन’ (used as part of the compound ‘कुलनन्दन’ in the verses)?

4. Which सूत्रम् justifies the use of the affix ‘क्त’ in the active voice (कर्तरि) in the form गतः used in the verses?

5. In which word used in the verses does the सूत्रम् 1-4-51 अकथितं च find application?

6. How would you say this in Sanskrit?
“I don’t want to live in this lonely place.” Paraphrase to “I don’t want to live in this place from which people have departed.” Construct a बहुव्रीहि: compound for ‘that (place) from which people have departed’ = निर्गता जना यस्मात् स: (देश:)।

Easy questions:

1. What is the alternate form for वेद (लँट्, प्रथम-पुरुष:, एकवचनम्) derived from the verbal root √विद् (विदँ ज्ञाने २. ५९)?

2. Where has the सूत्रम् 7-2-109 दश्च been used in the verses?

ऋष्यशृङ्गः mNs

Today we will look at the form ऋष्यशृङ्गः mNs from श्रीमद्भागवतम् 11.8.18.

ग्राम्यगीतं न शृणुयाद्यतिर्वनचरः क्वचित् । शिक्षेत हरिणाद्बद्धान्मृगयोर्गीतमोहितात् ।। ११-८-१७ ।।
नृत्यवादित्रगीतानि जुषन्ग्राम्याणि योषिताम् । आसां क्रीडनको वश्य ऋष्यशृङ्गो मृगीसुतः ।। ११-८-१८ ।।

श्रीधर-स्वामि-टीका
हरिणाच्छिक्षितमाह – ग्राम्येति । भगवद्गीतं तु श्रुणुयादेव । मृगयोर्लुब्धकस्य ।। १७ ।। हरिणशब्दादेव हरिणीसुतः ऋष्यशृङ्गोऽपि गुरुर्ज्ञातव्य इत्याह – नृत्येति । वश्यो बभूवेति शेषः ।। १८ ।।

Gita Press translation – An ascetic, living in a forest, should never hear vulgar songs. He should take this lesson from the deer, which attracted by the music of the hunter gets snared (17). Enjoying the vulgar dance, instrumental music and songs of women, Ṛṣyaśṛṅga, born of a deer, became a plaything in the hands of women (18).

(1) ऋष्यस्य शृङ्गमिव शृङ्गं यस्य स: = ऋष्यशृङ्ग: (मुनि:) – He (the sage) who had a horn like the horn of an antelope.

अलौकिक-विग्रह: –
(2) ऋष्यशृङ्ग सुँ + शृङ्ग सुँ । By 2-2-24 अनेकमन्यपदार्थे – Two or more terms having the designation पदम् and ending in the nominative case may optionally compound to yield a बहुव्रीहि: compound provided the terms are employed to denote the sense of another पदम् (which is not part of the compound.)
Note: The compound ऋष्यस्य शृङ्गम् = ऋष्यशृङ्गम् (used in this step) is a षष्ठी-समास: formed using the सूत्रम् 2-2-8 षष्ठी।

(3) By 1-2-43 प्रथमानिर्दिष्टं समास उपसर्जनम् – the term ‘ऋष्यशृङ्ग सुँ’ as well as ‘शृङ्ग सुँ’ gets the designation उपसर्जनम् because in the सूत्रम् 2-2-24 अनेकमन्यपदार्थे (which prescribes the compounding) the term अनेकम् ends in the nominative case. And hence 2-2-30 cannot help us in deciding which term to place in the prior position in the compound.

The adjective ‘ऋष्यशृङ्ग सुँ’ is placed in the prior position in the compound as per the सूत्रम् 2-2-35 सप्तमीविशेषणे बहुव्रीहौ – In a बहुव्रीहि: compound the पदम् which ends in a seventh case affix or is an adjective takes the prior position.
Note: ‘ऋष्यशृङ्ग’ serves as an adjective here because it stands for ‘ऋष्यशृङ्गसदृश’ (like the horn of an antelope.)
Note: ‘ऋष्यशृङ्ग सुँ + शृङ्ग सुँ’ gets the designation प्रातिपदिकम्‌ by 1-2-46 कृत्तद्धितसमासाश्च। This allows 2-4-71 to apply in the next step.

(4) ऋष्यशृङ्ग + शृङ्ग । By 2-4-71 सुपो धातुप्रातिपदिकयोः – A सुँप् affix takes a लुक् elision when it is a part of a धातुः or a प्रातिपदिकम्।

(5) ऋष्यशृङ्ग । By वार्तिकम् (under 2-2-24 अनेकमन्यपदार्थे) सप्तम्युपमानपूर्वपदस्योत्तरपदलोपश्च – A compound पदम् which contains either a पदम् ending in the seventh case or a पदम् which denotes a standard of comparison drops its उत्तर-पदम् (final member) when it combines with another पदम् to yield a बहुव्रीहि: compound.
Note: Compounding is already prescribed by the सूत्रम् 2-2-24 itself. It is only for the elision of the उत्तरपदम् (of the compound पूर्वपदम्) that this वार्तिकम् is necessary.

The gender of a बहुव्रीहि: compound matches that of which it qualifies. In the present example ‘ऋषि’ is being qualified. Hence we assign the masculine gender to the compound प्रातिपदिकम् ‘ऋष्यशृङ्ग’। It declines like राम-शब्द:।

The विवक्षा is प्रथमा-एकवचनम् ।

(6) ऋष्यशृङ्ग + सुँ । By 4-1-2 स्वौजसमौट्छष्टाभ्याम्भिस्ङेभ्याम्भ्यस्ङसिँभ्याम्भ्यस्ङसोसाम्ङ्योस्सुप्

(7) ऋष्यशृङ्ग + स् । अनुबन्ध-लोपः by 1-3-2 उपदेशेऽजनुनासिक इत् and 1-3-9 तस्य लोपः।

(8) ऋष्यशृङ्ग: । रुँत्व-विसर्गौ by 8-2-66 ससजुषो रुः and 8-3-15 खरवसानयोर्विसर्जनीयः

Questions:

1. In verses 15-20 of Chapter One of the गीता can you spot a compound (like ‘ऋष्यशृङ्ग’) composed using the वार्तिकम् (under 2-2-24 अनेकमन्यपदार्थे) सप्तम्युपमानपूर्वपदस्योत्तरपदलोपश्च (used in step 5)?

2. Which compound used in the verses is a तृतीया-तत्पुरुष: compound?

3. In which word in the verses has the letter ‘न्’ been elided?

4. Can you spot the affix ‘ट’ in the verses?

5. Which कृत् affix is used to derive the masculine प्रातिपदिकम् ‘शेष’ (used in the form शेषः (प्रथमा-एकवचनम्) in the commentary)?

6. How would you say this in Sanskrit?
“Rāvaṇa’s son, whose sound was like the sound (thunder) of a cloud, was killed by Lakṣmaṇa.” Construct a बहुव्रीहि: compound for ‘one whose sound is like the sound (thunder) of a cloud’ – मेघस्य नाद इव नादो यस्य स:।

Easy questions:

1. Which सूत्रम् prescribes the substitution ‘शृ’ in the form शृणुयात्?

2. Can you spot the augment ‘वुँक्’ in the commentary?

अग्रजन्मा mNs

Today we will look at the form अग्रजन्मा mNs from रघुवंशम् 5.26.

तथेति तस्यावितथं प्रतीतः प्रत्यग्रहीत्संगरमग्रजन्मा ।
गामात्तसारां रघुरप्यवेक्ष्य निष्क्रष्टुमर्थं चकमे कुबेरात् ॥ 5-26॥

मल्लिनाथ-टीका
अग्रजन्मा ब्राह्मणः प्रतीतः प्रीतः सन् तस्य रघोः अवितथम् अमोघं संगरं प्रतिज्ञाम् । ‘अथ प्रतिज्ञाजिसंविदापत्सु संगरः ।’ इत्यमरः । ‘तां गिरम्’ इति केचित्पठन्ति । तथेति प्रत्यग्रहीत्रघुः अपि गां भूमिम् आत्तसारां गृहीतधनां अवेक्ष्य कुबेरात् अर्थं निष्क्रष्टुम् आहर्तुं चकमे इयेष ।।

Translation – With the words ‘Be it so’ the Brāhmaṇa, being delighted, accepted his unfailing promise. Raghu, on his part, seeing that the earth was drained of all its wealth, wished to wrench (thought of procuring by force) money from Kubera (26).

(1) अग्रे जन्म यस्य स: = अग्रजन्मा (भ्राता) – He (Brāhmaṇa) who is born first.

अलौकिक-विग्रह: –
(2) अग्र ङि + जन्मन् सुँ । The पदम् ‘अग्र ङि’ which ends in the seventh case is placed in the prior position in the compound as per the सूत्रम् 2-2-35 सप्तमीविशेषणे बहुव्रीहौ – In a बहुव्रीहि: compound the पदम् which ends in a seventh case affix or is an adjective takes the prior position.
But which सूत्रम् justifies the formation of a बहुव्रीहि: compound using a पदम् ending in a seventh case affix? We cannot use 2-2-24 अनेकमन्यपदार्थे because that सूत्रम् only prescribes compounding of terms (having the designation पदम् and) ending in the nominative case. Hence अत एव ज्ञापकाद्व्यधिकरणपदो बहुव्रीहिः – The सूत्रम् 2-2-35 itself serves as an indication (ज्ञापकम्) that a बहुव्रीहिः compound may be formed using terms that do not have समानाधिकरणम् (same locus) and hence do not all end in the nominative case. Otherwise there would be no point in mentioning ‘सप्तमी’ in the सूत्रम् 2-2-35 सप्तमीविशेषणे बहुव्रीहौ।
Note: ‘अग्र ङि + जन्मन् सुँ’ gets the designation प्रातिपदिकम्‌ by 1-2-46 कृत्तद्धितसमासाश्च। This allows 2-4-71 to apply in the next step.

(3) अग्रजन्मन् । By 2-4-71 सुपो धातुप्रातिपदिकयोः – A सुँप् affix takes a लुक् elision when it is a part of a धातुः or a प्रातिपदिकम्।

The gender of a बहुव्रीहि: compound matches that of which it qualifies. In the present example ब्राह्मण: is being qualified. Hence we assign the masculine gender to the compound प्रातिपदिकम् ‘अग्रजन्मन्’। It declines like राजन्-शब्द:।

The विवक्षा is प्रथमा-एकवचनम्।

(4) अग्रजन्मन् + सुँ । By 4-1-2 स्वौजसमौट्छष्टाभ्याम्भिस्ङेभ्याम्भ्यस्ङसिँभ्याम्भ्यस्ङसोसाम्ङ्योस्सुप्। Note: As per 1-1-43 सुडनपुंसकस्य, the affix ‘सुँ ‘ has the designation सर्वनामस्थानम् here. This allows 6-4-8 to apply in the next step.

(5) अग्रजन्मन् + सुँ । By 6-4-8 सर्वनामस्थाने चासम्बुद्धौ, the penultimate letter of the अङ्गम् (base) ending in the letter ‘न्’ gets elongated if it is followed by a non-vocative affix having the designation सर्वनामस्थानम्।

(6) अग्रजन्मान् + स् । अनुबन्ध-लोपः by 1-3-2 उपदेशेऽजनुनासिक इत् and 1-3-9 तस्य लोपः

(7) अग्रजन्मान् । By 6-1-68 हल्ङ्याब्भ्यो दीर्घात्‌ सुतिस्यपृक्तं हल्। Now ‘अग्रजन्मान्’ gets पद-सञ्ज्ञा by 1-4-14 सुप्तिङन्तं पदम् with the help of 1-1-62 प्रत्ययलोपे प्रत्ययलक्षणम्

(8) अग्रजन्मा । By 8-2-7 नलोपः प्रातिपदिकान्तस्य, the ending letter ‘न्’ of a पदम् is dropped when the पदम् also has the designation प्रातिपदिकम् ।

Questions:

1. Which other compound (besides अग्रजन्मा) used in the verses is a बहुव्रीहि: compound?

2. Can you spot a व्यधिकरणपदो बहुव्रीहिः compound in verse 26-31 of Chapter Nine of the गीता?

3. In which word in the verses has the particle नञ् been used?

4. What is an alternate form for निष्क्रष्टुम्?

5. Which सूत्रम् justifies the use of a fifth case affix in the form कुबेरात् used in the verses?

6. How would you say this in Sanskrit?
“All of Kubera’s wealth has been obtained only by the grace of Lord Śiva (the God who has the moon on his forehead.)” Construct a बहुव्रीहि: compound for ‘He (the God) who has the moon on his forehead’ = भाले चन्द्रो यस्य स: (देव:)। Use the masculine प्रातिपदिकम् ‘अनुग्रह’ for ‘grace.’

Easy questions:

1. Can you spot the augment ईट् in the verses?

2. Where has the सूत्रम् 6-4-78 अभ्यासस्यासवर्णे been used in the commentary?

बहुसवम् mAs

Today we will look at the form बहुसवम्  mAs from श्रीमद्भागवतम् 4.12.14.

षट्त्रिंशद्वर्षसाहस्रं शशास क्षितिमण्डलम् । भोगैः पुण्यक्षयं कुर्वन्नभोगैरशुभक्षयम् ।। ४-१२-१३ ।।
एवं बहुसवं कालं महात्माविचलेन्द्रियः । त्रिवर्गौपयिकं नीत्वा पुत्रायादान्नृपासनम् ।। ४-१२-१४ ।।

श्रीधर-स्वामि-टीका
भोगैरैश्वर्यादिभिः । अभोगैर्यज्ञाद्यनुष्ठानैः ।। १३ ।। बहवः सवा यागाः संवत्सरा वा यस्मिंस्तं कालं त्रिवर्गसाधकं नीत्वा । अविचलानि संयतानीन्द्रियाणि यस्य ।। १४ ।।

Gita Press translation – Exhausting (the stock of) his merit through luxuries (permitted by the Śāstras) and neutralizing evil by practicing self-denial (in the form of charity and the performance of sacrifices etc.), he ruled over the terrestrial globe for thirty-six thousand years (the span of life of a god) (13). Having thus spent a long period as a means to (the attainment of) the three objects of human pursuit, (viz., religious merit, worldly prosperity and sensuous enjoyment) with his senses fully controlled, the high-souled Dhruva (eventually) made over the throne to his son (Utkala) (14).

(1) बहवो सवा यस्मिन् स: (काल:) – that (time period) in which there were many sacrificial performances or many years. Hence it means a long time period.

अलौकिक-विग्रह: –
(2) बहु जस् + सव जस् । By 2-2-24 अनेकमन्यपदार्थे – Two or more terms having the designation पदम् and ending in the nominative case may optionally compound to yield a बहुव्रीहि: compound provided the terms are employed to denote the sense of another पदम् (which is not part of the compound.)
Note: The word बहुव्रीहि: itself is an example of a बहुव्रीहि: compound. It is analyzed as बहवो व्रीहयो यस्य स: – A person who has (owns) a lot of rice.
Note: अप्रथमाविभक्त्यर्थे बहुव्रीहिरिति समानाधिकरणानामिति च फलितम् – We can conclude that i) a बहुव्रीहि: compound denotes the sense of a पदम् (which is not part of the compound) whose case ending is other than the nominative and ii) the constituent members of a बहुव्रीहि: compound denote a common item.

(3) By 1-2-43 प्रथमानिर्दिष्टं समास उपसर्जनम् – the term ‘बहु जस्’ as well as ‘सव जस्’ gets the designation उपसर्जनम् because in the सूत्रम् 2-2-24 अनेकमन्यपदार्थे (which prescribes the compounding) the term अनेकम् ends in the nominative case. And hence 2-2-30 cannot help us in deciding which term to place in the prior position in the compound.

As per 2-2-35 सप्तमीविशेषणे बहुव्रीहौ the adjective ‘बहु जस्’ is placed in the prior position in the compound. Note: ‘बहु जस् + सव जस्’ gets the designation प्रातिपदिकम्‌ by 1-2-46 कृत्तद्धितसमासाश्च। This allows 2-4-71 to apply in the next step.

(4) बहुसव । By 2-4-71 सुपो धातुप्रातिपदिकयोः – A सुँप् affix takes a लुक् elision when it is a part of a धातुः or a प्रातिपदिकम्।

The gender of a बहुव्रीहि: compound matches that of which it qualifies. In the present example ‘काल’ is being qualified. Hence we assign the masculine gender to the compound प्रातिपदिकम् ‘बहुसव’। It declines like राम-शब्द:।

The विवक्षा is द्वितीया-एकवचनम्।

(5) बहुसव + अम् । By 4-1-2 स्वौजसमौट्छष्टाभ्याम्भिस्ङेभ्याम्भ्यस्ङसिभ्याम्भ्यस्ङसोसाम्ङ्योस्सुप्‌।
Note: 1-3-4 न विभक्तौ तुस्माः prevents the ending letter ‘म्’ of the affix ‘अम्’ from getting इत्-सञ्ज्ञा।

See question 3.

(6) बहुसवम् । By 6-1-107 अमि पूर्वः – In place of a preceding अक् letter and the following vowel (अच्) belonging to the affix ‘अम्’ there is a single substitute of that preceding अक् letter.

Questions:

1. Which other compounds (besides बहुसवम्) used in the verses are बहुव्रीहि: compounds?

2. Can you spot a बहुव्रीहि: compound in verses 10-16 of Chapter Five of the गीता?

3. Which सूत्रम् justifies the use of a second case affix in the form बहुसवम्?

4. Where has the सूत्रम् 2-3-13 चतुर्थी सम्प्रदाने been used in the verses?

5. How many times has the negation particle नञ् been used in the verses?

6. How would you say this in Sanskrit?
“I lived in India for a period of many years.”

Easy questions:

1. In which word in the verses has लिँट् been used?

2. Which सूत्रम् prescribes the लुक् elision of the affix सिँच् in the form अदात्?

Recent Posts

November 2015
M T W T F S S
« Oct   Dec »
 1
2345678
9101112131415
16171819202122
23242526272829
30  

Topics