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ब्रह्मावर्तम् mAs

Today we will look at the form ब्रह्मावर्तम् mAs from श्रीमद्भागवतम् 3.21.25

प्रजापतिसुतः सम्राण्मनुर्विख्यातमङ्गलः । ब्रह्मावर्तं योऽधिवसञ्शास्ति सप्तार्णवां महीम् ।। ३-२१-२५ ।।
स चेह विप्र राजर्षिर्महिष्या शतरूपया । आयास्यति दिदृक्षुस्त्वां परश्वो धर्मकोविदः ।। ३-२१-२६ ।।
आत्मजामसितापाङ्गीं वयःशीलगुणान्विताम् । मृगयन्तीं पतिं दास्यत्यनुरूपाय ते प्रभो ।। ३-२१-२७ ।।

श्रीधर-स्वामि-टीका
विख्यातं मङ्गलमभ्युदयः सदाचारादिलक्षणं यस्य ।। २५ ।। हे विप्रमहिष्या सह ।। २६ ।।। २७ ।।

Gita Press translation “(You know) Emperor Swāyambhuva Manu (son of Brahmā), who is celebrated for his righteous acts, rules over the earth bounded by the seven oceans, having his seat in Brahmāvarta (79). Accompanied by his spouse, Queen Śatarūpā, that royal sage, who knows the secret of Dharma (right conduct), will come to see you, O holy Brāhmaṇa, the day after tomorrow and will give away his dark-eyed daughter – who has attained the marriageable age, is possessed of a noble character and commendable virtues and is on the look-out for a match – to you, who are (in everyway) worthy of her, O lord of created beings (26-27).”

Verse 25 has previously appeared in the following post – http://avg-sanskrit.org/2011/01/10/सम्राट्-mns/

ब्रह्मावर्तम् is द्वितीया-एकवचनम् of the masculine प्रातिपदिकम् ‘ब्रह्मावर्त’।

‘ब्रह्मावर्त’ gets the कर्म-सञ्ज्ञा by 1-4-48 उपान्वध्याङ्वसः – That कारकम् (participant in the action) which is the location of the action denoted by the verbal root √वस् (वसँ निवासे १. ११६०) along with the prefix ‘उप’ or ‘अनु’ or ‘अधि’ or ‘आङ्’ is designated as कर्म।

See question 2.

In the current example verbal root √वस् along with the prefix ‘अधि’ (in the form अधिवसन्) is associated with the प्रातिपदिकम् ‘ब्रह्मावर्त’। This allows ‘ब्रह्मावर्त’ to get the कर्म-सञ्ज्ञा by 1-4-48.

(1) ब्रह्मावर्त + अम् । By 4-1-2 स्वौजसमौट्छष्टाभ्याम्भिस्ङेभ्याम्भ्यस्ङसिभ्याम्भ्यस्ङसोसाम्ङ्योस्सुप्‌। Since ‘ब्रह्मावर्त’ has the कर्म-सञ्ज्ञा by 1-4-48 उपान्वध्याङ्वसः, it takes a second case affix by 2-3-2 कर्मणि द्वितीया – A second case affix (‘अम्’, ‘औट्’, ‘शस्’) is used to denote कर्म (object of the action) provided it has not been expressed otherwise.
Note: 1-3-4 न विभक्तौ तुस्माः prevents the ending letter ‘म्’ of ‘अम्’ from getting the इत्-सञ्ज्ञा।

(2) ब्रह्मावर्तम् । By 6-1-107 अमि पूर्व: – In place of a preceding letter ‘अक्’ and the following vowel (‘अच्’) belonging to the affix ‘अम्’ there is a single substitute of that preceding अक् letter.

Questions:

1. The सूत्रम् 1-4-48 उपान्वध्याङ्वसः is a अपवाद: (exception) to which सूत्रम्?

2. In the सिद्धान्तकौमुदी the वृत्ति: of the सूत्रम् 1-4-48 says – उपादिपूर्वस्य वसतेराधार: कर्म स्यात्। Commenting on the वृत्ति: the तत्त्वबोधिनी says – लुग्विकरणादलुग्विकरणं बलीय इति ‘वस निवासे’ इति भौवादिक एव गृह्यते, न तु ‘वस आच्छादने’ इत्यादादिक इत्यभिप्रेत्य शपा निर्देशमाह – उपादिपूर्वस्य वसतेरिति। Please explain.

3. Can you spot the affix ‘ड’ in the verses?

4. Why is मृगयन्तीम् a आर्ष-प्रयोग: (an irregular grammatical usage)?

5. Where has the सूत्रम् 3-2-168 सनाशंसभिक्ष उः been used in the verses?

6. How would you say this in Sanskrit?
“The Lord rules over the entire world, having his seat in everyone’s heart.”

Easy questions:

1. Where has the सूत्रम् 2-4-72 अदिप्रभृतिभ्यः शपः been used in the verses?

2. Which सूत्रम् prescribes the affix ‘स्य’ in आयास्यति and दास्यति?

पुरीम् fAs

Today we will look at the form पुरीम् fAs from श्रीमद्भागवतम् 4.25.37.

दिष्ट्यागतोऽसि भद्रं ते ग्राम्यान्कामानभीप्ससे । उद्वहिष्यामि तांस्तेऽहं स्वबन्धुभिररिन्दम ।। ४-२५-३६ ।।
इमां त्वमधितिष्ठस्व पुरीं नवमुखीं विभो । मयोपनीतान्गृह्णानः कामभोगाञ्छतं समाः ।। ४-२५-३७ ।।

श्रीधर-स्वामि-टीका
आस्तां नामगोत्रादि, यदत्रागतोऽसि एतद्दिष्ट्या भद्रं तावत् । ग्राम्यानिन्द्रियग्रामार्हान् । उद्वहिष्यामि संपादयिष्यामि । स्वबन्धुभिः सखिभिः सखीभिश्च ।। ३६ ।। समाः संवत्सरान् । मनुष्यदेहप्रवेशाच्छतमित्युक्तम् ।। ३७ ।।

Gita Press translation – Thank heaven, you have come; may all be well with you! With the help of my kinsfolk I shall secure for you (all) the sensuous pleasures you long to obtain, O vanquisher of foes ! (36) Occupy you this city with nine gates, O lord, enjoying for a hundred years the sensuous pleasures made available by me (37).

पुरीम् is द्वितीया-एकवचनम् of the स्त्रीलिङ्ग-प्रातिपदिकम् ‘पुरी’।

‘पुरी’ gets the कर्म-सञ्ज्ञा by 1-4-46 अधिशीङ्स्थासां कर्म – That कारकम् (participant in the action) which is the location of the action denoted by any one of the following verbal roots preceded by the prefix ‘अधि’ is designated as कर्म –
(i) √शी (शीङ् स्वप्ने २. २६)
(ii) √स्था (ष्ठा गतिनिवृत्तौ १. १०७७)
(iii) √आस् (आसँ उपवेशने २. ११)

See question 2.

In the current example ‘पुरी’ is associated with the verbal root √स्था preceded by the prefix ‘अधि’ (in the form अधितिष्ठस्व)।

(1) पुरी + अम् । By 4-1-2 स्वौजसमौट्छष्टाभ्याम्भिस्ङेभ्याम्भ्यस्ङसिभ्याम्भ्यस्ङसोसाम्ङ्योस्सुप्‌। Since ‘पुरी’ has the कर्म-सञ्ज्ञा by 1-4-46 अधिशीङ्स्थासां कर्म, it takes a second case affix by 2-3-2 कर्मणि द्वितीया – A second case affix (‘अम्’, ‘औट्’, ‘शस्’) is used to denote कर्म (object of the action) provided it has not been expressed otherwise.
Note: 1-3-4 न विभक्तौ तुस्माः prevents the ending letter ‘म्’ of ‘अम्’ from getting the इत्-सञ्ज्ञा।

(2) पुरीम् । By 6-1-107 अमि पूर्व: – In place of a preceding letter ‘अक्’ and the following vowel (‘अच्’) belonging to the affix ‘अम्’ there is a single substitute of that preceding अक् letter.

Questions:

1. Where has the सूत्रम् 1-4-46 अधिशीङ्स्थासां कर्म been used in the first ten verses of Chapter Four of the गीता?

2. The सूत्रम् 1-4-46 अधिशीङ्स्थासां कर्म is a अपवाद: (exception) to which सूत्रम्?

3. Why is उद्वहिष्यामि a आर्ष-प्रयोग: (irregular grammatical usage)?

4. Can you spot the augment मुँम् in the verses?

5. Where has the सूत्रम् 6-4-37 अनुदात्तोपदेशवनतितनोत्यादीनामनुनासिकलोपो झलि क्ङिति been used in the verses?

6. How would you say this in Sanskrit?
“Lord Viṣṇu occupies (presides over) Vaikuṇṭha.”

Easy questions:

1. Which सूत्रम् prescribes the substitution आम् in आस्ताम्?

2. Where has the सूत्रम् 7-4-50 तासस्त्योर्लोपः been used in the verses?

नलम् mAs

Today we will look at the form नलम् mAs from श्रीमद्-वाल्मीकि-रामायणम् 1.1.80.

ततः सुग्रीवसहितो गत्वा तीरं महोदधेः । समुद्रं क्षोभयामास शरैरादित्यसंनिभैः ।। १-१-७९ ।।
दर्शयामास चात्मानं समुद्रः सरितां पतिः । समुद्रवचनाच्चैव नलं सेतुमकारयत् ।। १-१-८० ।।

Gita Press translation – Moving to the shore of the (Indian) ocean (in the extreme south,) accompanied by Sugrīva, Śrī Rāma then shook the ocean to its lowest depths (in Pātāla, the nethermost subterranean plane) by his arrows glorious as the sun (on the latter refusing to allow pasage to the army of monkeys, that sought to march across it in order to reach Laṅkā in their bid to recover Sītā) (79). (At this) Ocean, the lord of the rivers, not only revealed himself (in person to Śrī Rāma) but also apologized to him (for his refractoriness) and only at the intercession of Ocean Śrī Rāma caused Nala to build a bridge (across the sea) (80).

Note: The above verses have been discussed in detail in the Saturday Ramayanam class #22, recorded on Dec 11th 2010 Video

नलम् is द्वितीया-एकवचनम् of the पुंलिङ्ग-प्रातिपदिकम् ‘नल’।

‘नल’ optionally gets the कर्म-सञ्ज्ञा by 1-4-53 हृक्रोरन्यतरस्याम्– A कर्ता (agent) of the non-causal verbal root √हृ (हृञ् हरणे १. १०४६) or √कृ (डुकृञ् करणे ८. १०) optionally becomes the कर्म (object) of the causal verbal root.

Note: As per the सूत्रम् 1-4-55 तत्प्रयोजको हेतुश्च we know that रामः (सुग्रीवसहितः) is the हेतु: (cause) in the sentence रामो नलं सेतुमकारयत्। On removing the हेतु: we get the non-causative form of the sentence as नलः सेतुमकरोत् । नलः is प्रथमा-एकवचनम् of the पुंलिङ्ग-प्रातिपदिकम् ‘नल’। Hence ‘नल’ is the अणौ कर्ता (agent of the non-causal verbal root √कृ (डुकृञ् करणे ८. १०)). This अणौ कर्ता becomes the कर्म (object) णौ (of the causal form of the verbal root √कृ) since the conditions for applying the सूत्रम् 1-4-53 are satisfied here.

(1) नल + अम् । By 4-1-2 स्वौजसमौट्छष्टाभ्याम्भिस्ङेभ्याम्भ्यस्ङसिभ्याम्भ्यस्ङसोसाम्ङ्योस्सुप्‌। Since ‘नल’ has the कर्म-सञ्ज्ञा by 1-4-53 हृक्रोरन्यतरस्याम्, it takes a second case affix by 2-3-2 कर्मणि द्वितीया – A second case affix (‘अम्’, ‘औट्’, ‘शस्’) is used to denote कर्म (object of the action) provided it has not been expressed otherwise.
Note: 1-3-4 न विभक्तौ तुस्माः prevents the ending letter ‘म्’ of ‘अम्’ from getting the इत्-सञ्ज्ञा।

(2) नल + अम् = नलम् । By 6-1-107 अमि पूर्व: – In place of a preceding letter ‘अक्’ and the following vowel (‘अच्’) belonging to the affix ‘अम्’ there is a single substitute of that preceding अक् letter.

Questions:

1. Consider the following verse from the गीता –
न हि कश्चित्क्षणमपि जातु तिष्ठत्यकर्मकृत्‌ |
कार्यते ह्यवशः कर्म सर्वः प्रकृतिजैर्गुणैः || 3-5||
Please change the sentence प्रकृतिजैर्गुणैः सर्वः कर्म कार्यते to active voice (कर्तरि प्रयोग:)।

2. If ‘नल’ were not to (optionally) get the कर्म-सञ्ज्ञा by 1-4-53 हृक्रोरन्यतरस्याम् which विभक्ति: would it take?

3. Please change the sentence रामो नलं सेतुमकारयत् to passive voice (कर्मणि प्रयोग:)।

4. Where has the सूत्रम् 6-4-37 अनुदात्तोपदेशवनतितनोत्यादीनामनुनासिकलोपो झलि क्ङिति been used in the verses?

5. How would you say this in Sanskrit?
“(You) don’t make me do what I don’t want to do.”

6. How would you say this in Sanskrit?
i) “Mārīca assumed the form of a deer.”
ii) “Rāvaṇa made Mārīca assume the form of a deer.”
Use the verbal root √कृ (डुकृञ् करणे ८. १०) for ‘to assume (put on.)’

Easy questions:

1. Why doesn’t the सूत्रम् 2-4-52 अस्तेर्भूः apply in the forms क्षोभयामास and दर्शयामास?

2. Where has the सूत्रम् 7-3-111 घेर्ङिति been used in the verses?

स्वान् mAp

Today we will look at the form स्वान् mAp from the सिद्धान्त-कौमुदी।

शत्रूनगमयत्स्वर्गं वेदार्थं स्वानवेदयत् ।
आशयच्चामृतं देवान् वेदमध्यापयद्विधिम् ।
आसयत्सलिले पृथ्वीं य: स मे श्रीहरिर्गति: ॥

तत्त्वबोधिनी
शत्रवः स्वर्गमगच्छन्, तान् श्रीहरिः स्वर्गमगमयदिति – गमेरण्यन्तावस्थायां शत्रवः कर्तारस्ते ण्यन्तावस्थायां कर्म अभवन्।
वेदार्थमिति । स्वे = स्वकीया वेदार्थमविदुः, तान् श्रीहरिर्वेदार्थमवेदयत्। तथा देवा अमृतम् आश्नन्, तानाशयत्। विधिः वेदमध्यैत, तं ब्रह्माणं वेदमध्यापयत् – अपाठयत्। सलिले पृथ्वी आस्त, तां यो हरिरासयत्स्थापयति स्म स हरिर्मे गतिरित्यन्वयः।

Translation – That Lord Viṣṇu is my goal who i) made (even) enemies go to heaven, ii) made his own (devotees) understand the meaning of the Vedas, iii) made the gods consume nectar, iv) made Lord Brahma study the Veda and v) made the Earth sit on water.

स्वान् is पुंलिङ्गे द्वितीया-बहुवचनम् of the सर्वनाम-प्रातिपदिकम् ‘स्व’।

‘स्व’ gets the कर्म-सञ्ज्ञा by 1-4-52 गतिबुद्धिप्रत्यवसानार्थशब्दकर्माकर्मकाणामणि कर्ता स णौ – A कर्ता (agent) of a non-causal verbal root becomes the कर्म (object) of the causal verbal root provided the verbal root either –
(i) denotes either गति: (movement) or बुद्धि: (perception) or प्रत्यवसानम् (consuming) or
(ii) has शब्द: (sound) as its object or
(iii) has no object at all.

Note: As per the सूत्रम् 1-4-55 तत्प्रयोजको हेतुश्च we know that श्रीहरिः is the हेतु: (cause) in the sentence श्रीहरिः स्वान् वेदार्थमवेदयत्। On removing the हेतु: we get the non-causative form of the sentence as स्वे वेदार्थमविदुः । स्वे is प्रथमा-बहुवचनम् of the सर्वनाम-प्रातिपदिकम् ‘स्व’। Hence ‘स्व’ is the अणौ कर्ता (agent of the non-causal verbal root √विद् (विदँ ज्ञाने २. ५९). This अणौ कर्ता becomes the कर्म (object) णौ (of the causal form of the verbal root √विद्) since the conditions for applying the सूत्रम् 1-4-52 are satisfied here.

(1) स्व + शस् । By 4-1-2 स्वौजसमौट्छष्टाभ्याम्भिस्ङेभ्याम्भ्यस्ङसिभ्याम्भ्यस्ङसोसाम्ङ्योस्सुप्‌। Since ‘स्व’ has the कर्म-सञ्ज्ञा by 1-4-52 गतिबुद्धिप्रत्यवसानार्थशब्दकर्माकर्मकाणामणि कर्ता स णौ, it takes a second case affix by 2-3-2 कर्मणि द्वितीया – A second case affix (‘अम्’, ‘औट्’, ‘शस्’) is used to denote कर्म (object of the action) provided it has not been expressed otherwise.

(2) स्व + अस् । अनुबन्ध-लोपः by 1-3-8 लशक्वतद्धिते and 1-3-9 तस्य लोपः1-3-4 न विभक्तौ तुस्माः prevents the ending letter ‘स्’ of ‘शस्’ from getting the इत्-सञ्ज्ञा ।

(3) स्वास् । By 6-1-102 प्रथमयोः पूर्वसवर्णः – When a अक् letter is followed by a vowel (अच्) of the first (nominative) or second (accusative) case then for the two of them (अक् + अच्) there is a single substitute which is the elongated form of the first member (the अक् letter.)

(4) स्वान् । By 6-1-103 तस्माच्छसो नः पुंसि – In the masculine gender, when the letter ‘स्’ of the affix ‘शस्’ follows a vowel which has been elongated by 6-1-102 then it is replaced by the letter ‘न्’।

Questions:

1. In which other words (besides in स्वान्) in the verse does the सूत्रम् 1-4-52 गतिबुद्धिप्रत्यवसानार्थशब्दकर्माकर्मकाणामणि कर्ता स णौ find application?

2. Which सूत्रम् justifies the use of the affix लँट् in the form स्थापयति in the commentary?

3. Which कृत् affix is used to form the प्रातिपदिकम् ‘अवस्था’ (used in the compounds ण्यन्तावस्थायाम् and अण्यन्तावस्थायाम् in the commentary)?

4. How would you say this in Sanskrit?
“Śrī Kṛṣṇa imparted the meaning of the Upaniṣads to Arjuna.” Paraphrase to “Śrī Kṛṣṇa made Arjuna understand the meaning of the Upaniṣads.”

5. How would you say this in Sanskrit?
“The sage Viśwāmitra sent Triśaṅku to heaven.” Paraphrase to “The sage Viśwāmitra made Triśaṅku go to heaven.”

6. How would you say this in Sanskrit?
“Pūtanā fed poison to Śrī Kṛṣṇa.”

Easy questions:

1. In the verses, can you spot two other words (besides स्वान्) in which the सूत्रम् 6-1-103 तस्माच्छसो नः पुंसि has been used?

2. Which सूत्रम् prescribes the वृद्धि: substitution in आशयत् and आसयत्?

शैलम् mAs

Today we will look at the form शैलम् mAs from श्रीमद्भागवतम् 10.25.28.

भगवानपि तं शैलं स्वस्थाने पूर्ववत्प्रभुः । पश्यतां सर्वभूतानां स्थापयामास लीलया ।। १०-२५-२८ ।।
तं प्रेमवेगान्निभृता व्रजौकसो यथा समीयुः परिरम्भणादिभिः । गोप्यश्च सस्नेहमपूजयन्मुदा दध्यक्षताद्भिर्युयुजुः सदाशिषः ।। १०-२५-२९ ।।

श्रीधर-स्वामि-टीका
निभृताः पूर्णाः । यथा यथोचितं परिरम्भणादिभिः समीयुरुपजग्मुः । सदाशिषः श्रेष्ठानाशीर्वादान् ।। २९ ।।

Gita Press translation – The almighty Lord too sportfully set down the mountain as before in its own place, all the creatures looking on (with wonder) (28). Overflowing with an uprush of love, the people of Vraja approached Him with embraces and other appropriate (loving) gestures and the Gopis joyously exhibited their loving regard for Him by sprinkling Him with curds and unbroken rice and showered their choice blessings (on Him) (29).

शैलम् is द्वितीया-एकवचनम् of the पुंलिङ्ग-प्रातिपदिकम् ‘शैल’।

‘शैल’ gets the कर्म-सञ्ज्ञा by 1-4-52 गतिबुद्धिप्रत्यवसानार्थशब्दकर्माकर्मकाणामणि कर्ता स णौ – A कर्ता (agent) of a non-causal verbal root becomes the कर्म (object) of the causal verbal root provided the verbal root either –
(i) denotes either गति: (movement) or बुद्धि: (perception) or प्रत्यवसानम् (consuming) or
(ii) has शब्द: (sound) as its object or
(iii) has no object at all.

Note: As per the सूत्रम् 1-4-55 तत्प्रयोजको हेतुश्च we know that भगवान् is the हेतु: (cause) in the sentence भगवाञ्शैलं स्थापयामास। On removing the हेतु: we get the non-causative form of the sentence as शैलस्तस्थौ । शैलः is प्रथमा-एकवचनम् of the प्रातिपदिकम् ‘शैल’। Hence ‘शैल’ is the अणौ कर्ता (agent of the non-causal verbal root √स्था (ष्ठा गतिनिवृत्तौ १. १०७७). This अणौ कर्ता becomes the कर्म (object) णौ (of the causal form of the verbal root √स्था) since the conditions for applying the सूत्रम् 1-4-52 are satisfied here.

(1) शैल + अम् । By 4-1-2 स्वौजसमौट्छष्टाभ्याम्भिस्ङेभ्याम्भ्यस्ङसिभ्याम्भ्यस्ङसोसाम्ङ्योस्सुप्‌। Since ‘शैल’ has the कर्म-सञ्ज्ञा by 1-4-52 गतिबुद्धिप्रत्यवसानार्थशब्दकर्माकर्मकाणामणि कर्ता स णौ, it takes a second case affix by 2-3-2 कर्मणि द्वितीया – A second case affix (‘अम्’, ‘औट्’, ‘शस्’) is used to denote कर्म (object of the action) provided it has not been expressed otherwise.
Note: 1-3-4 न विभक्तौ तुस्माः prevents the ending letter ‘म्’ of ‘अम्’ from getting the इत्-सञ्ज्ञा।

(2) शैलम् । By 6-1-107 अमि पूर्व: – In place of a preceding letter ‘अक्’ and the following vowel (‘अच्’) belonging to the affix ‘अम्’ there is a single substitute of that preceding अक् letter.

Questions:

1. Where has the वार्तिकम् (under 3-3-94 स्त्रियां क्तिन्) सम्पदादिभ्‍यः क्विप् been used in the verses?

2. Can you spot the affix ‘डु’ in the verses?

3. In which word in the verses has the substitution ‘शतृँ’ (in place of ‘लँट्’) been used?

4. Which सूत्रम् prescribes the उपधा-लोप: (elision of the penultimate letter) of the verbal root √गम् (गमॢँ गतौ १. ११३७) in the form उपजग्मुः used in the commentary?

5. How would you say this in Sanskrit?
i) “Lord Vāmana’s foot stood on Bali’s head.”
ii) “Lord Vāmana placed his (own) foot on Bali’s head.”

6. How would you say this in Sanskrit?
i) “Kumbhakarṇa woke up.”
ii) “Rāvaṇa woke up Kumbhakarṇa.”
Use the verbal root √बुध् (बुधँ अवगमने ४. ६८) with the उपसर्ग: ‘प्र’ for ‘to wake up.’

Easy questions:

1. Where has the सूत्रम् 6-1-105 दीर्घाज्जसि च been used in the verses?

2. Where has the verbal root √इ (इण् गतौ २. ४०) been used in the verses?

शिष्यम् mAs

Today we will look at the form शिष्यम् mAs from श्रीमद्भागवतम् 12.7.1.

सूत उवाच
अथर्ववित्सुमन्तुश्च शिष्यमध्यापयत्स्वकाम् । संहितां सोऽपि पथ्याय वेददर्शाय चोक्तवान् ।। १२-७-१ ।।
शौक्लायनिर्ब्रह्मबलिर्मोदोषः पिप्पलायनिः । वेददर्शस्य शिष्यास्ते पथ्यशिष्यानथो शृणु ।। १२-७-२ ।।

श्रीधर-स्वामि-टीका
क्रमप्राप्तमथर्ववेदविभागमाह – अथर्वविदिति। शिष्यं कबन्धनामानम् । स्वकां स्वकीयां संहिताम्सोऽपि शिष्योऽपि तां द्विधा विभज्य । तदुक्तं वैष्णवे – ‘अथर्ववेदं स मुनिः सुमन्तुरमितद्युतिः ।। शिष्यमध्यापयामास कबन्धं सोऽपि च द्विधा । कृत्वा तु वेददर्शाय तथा पथ्याय दत्तवान् ।।’ इति ।। १ ।। तत्र वेददर्शः स्वसंहितां चतुर्धा विभज्य चतुरः शिष्यानध्यापयामास । पथ्यश्च त्रिधा विभज्य त्रीनित्याह सार्धेन – शौक्लायनिरिति ।। २ ।।

Gita Press translation – Sūta began again : Sumantu versed in Atharva-Veda, taught his collection to his pupil (Kabandha) who in his turn taught it (in two parts) to (his pupils) Pathya and Vedadarśa (1). Śauklāyani, Brahmabali, Modoṣa and Pippalāyani were the pupils of Vedadarśa (who taught them his collection in four parts); now hear the names of Pathya’s pupils -(2).

शिष्यम् is पुंलिङ्गे द्वितीया-एकवचनम् of the प्रातिपदिकम् ‘शिष्य’।

‘शिष्य’ gets the कर्म-सञ्ज्ञा by 1-4-52 गतिबुद्धिप्रत्यवसानार्थशब्दकर्माकर्मकाणामणि कर्ता स णौ – A कर्ता (agent) of a non-causal verbal root becomes the कर्म (object) of the causal verbal root provided the verbal root either –
(i) denotes either गति: (movement) or बुद्धि: (perception) or प्रत्यवसानम् (consuming) or
(ii) has शब्द: (sound) as its object or
(iii) has no object at all.

Note: As per the सूत्रम् 1-4-55 तत्प्रयोजको हेतुश्च we know that सुमन्तुः is the हेतु: (cause) in the sentence सुमन्तुः शिष्यं संहितामध्यापयत्। On removing the हेतु: we get the non-causative form of the sentence as शिष्यः संहितामध्यैत । शिष्यः is पुंलिङ्गे प्रथमा-एकवचनम् of the प्रातिपदिकम् ‘शिष्य’। Hence ‘शिष्य’ is the अणौ कर्ता (agent of the non-causal verbal root √इ (इङ् अध्ययने | नित्यमधिपूर्वः २. ४१). This अणौ कर्ता becomes the कर्म (object) णौ (of the causal form of the verbal root √इ) since the conditions for applying the सूत्रम् 1-4-52 are satisfied here.

(1) शिष्य + अम् । By 4-1-2 स्वौजसमौट्छष्टाभ्याम्भिस्ङेभ्याम्भ्यस्ङसिभ्याम्भ्यस्ङसोसाम्ङ्योस्सुप्‌। Since ‘शिष्य’ has the कर्म-सञ्ज्ञा by 1-4-52 गतिबुद्धिप्रत्यवसानार्थशब्दकर्माकर्मकाणामणि कर्ता स णौ, it takes a second case affix by 2-3-2 कर्मणि द्वितीया – A second case affix (‘अम्’, ‘औट्’, ‘शस्’) is used to denote कर्म (object of the action) provided it has not been expressed otherwise.
Note: 1-3-4 न विभक्तौ तुस्माः prevents the ending letter ‘म्’ of ‘अम्’ from getting the इत्-सञ्ज्ञा।

(2) शिष्यम् । By 6-1-107 अमि पूर्व: – In place of a preceding letter ‘अक्’ and the following vowel (‘अच्’) belonging to the affix ‘अम्’ there is a single substitute of that preceding अक् letter.

Questions:

1. Where has the सूत्रम् 1-4-52 गतिबुद्धिप्रत्यवसानार्थशब्दकर्माकर्मकाणामणि कर्ता स णौ been used in the last twenty verses of Chapter Eighteen of the गीता?

2. From which verbal root is the प्रातिपदिकम् ‘शिष्य’ derived?

3. Can you spot the affix ‘क्तवतुँ’ in the verses?

4. Which सूत्रम् prescribes the substitution ल्यप् in विभज्य (used in the commentary)?

5. Where has the सूत्रम् 7-4-46 दो दद् घोः been used in the commentary?

6. How would you say this in Sanskrit?
“My father taught me grammar.”

Easy questions:

1. Where has the सूत्रम् 6-4-106 उतश्च प्रत्ययादसंयोगपूर्वात्‌ been used in the verses?

2. Which सूत्रम् prescribes the substitution ‘आ’ in अध्यापयत्?

हयान् mAp

Today we will look at the form हयान् mAp from श्रीमद्-वाल्मीकि-रामायणम् 2.91.55.

हयान्गजान्खरानुष्ट्रांस्तथैव सुरभेः सुतान् । अभोजयन् वाहनपास्तेषां भोज्यं यथाविधि ।। २-९१-५५ ।।
इक्षूंश्च मधुलाजांश्च भोजयन्ति स्म वाहनान् । इक्ष्वाकुवरयोधानां चोदयन्तो महाबलाः ।। २-९१-५६ ।।

Gita Press translation – The keepers (created and detailed by Bharadwāja) of the animals carrying Bharata’s men on their backs duly fed the horses, elephants, donkeys, camels as well as bullocks with articles fit for their consumption (55). Coaxing the animals carrying the gallant warriors of Ikṣwāku’s race on their back, the (aforesaid) very mighty keepers fed them with pieces of sugarcane as well as with fried grains of paddy soaked in honey (56).

हयान् is द्वितीया-बहुवचनम् of the पुंलिङ्ग-प्रातिपदिकम् ‘हय’।

‘हय’ gets the कर्म-सञ्ज्ञा by 1-4-52 गतिबुद्धिप्रत्यवसानार्थशब्दकर्माकर्मकाणामणि कर्ता स णौ – A कर्ता (agent) of a non-causal verbal root becomes the कर्म (object) of the causal verbal root provided the verbal root either –
(i) denotes either गति: (movement) or बुद्धि: (perception) or प्रत्यवसानम् (consuming) or
(ii) has शब्द: (sound) as its object or
(iii) has no object at all.

Note: As per the सूत्रम् 1-4-55 तत्प्रयोजको हेतुश्च we know that वाहनपा: is the हेतु: (cause) in the sentence वाहनपा हयान् भोज्यमभोजयन्। On removing the हेतु: we get the non-causative form of the sentence as हया भोज्यमभुञ्जत। हया: is प्रथमा-बहुवचनम् of the पुंलिङ्ग-प्रातिपदिकम् ‘हय’। Hence ‘हय’ is the अणौ कर्ता (agent of the non-causal verbal root √भुज् (भुजँ पालनाभ्यवहारयोः ७. १७)). This अणौ कर्ता becomes the कर्म (object) णौ (of the causal form of the verbal root √भुज्) since the conditions for applying the सूत्रम् 1-4-52 are satisfied here.

(1) हय + शस् । By 4-1-2 स्वौजसमौट्छष्टाभ्याम्भिस्ङेभ्याम्भ्यस्ङसिभ्याम्भ्यस्ङसोसाम्ङ्योस्सुप्‌। Since ‘हय’ has the कर्म-सञ्ज्ञा by 1-4-52 गतिबुद्धिप्रत्यवसानार्थशब्दकर्माकर्मकाणामणि कर्ता स णौ, it takes a second case affix by 2-3-2 कर्मणि द्वितीया – A second case affix (‘अम्’, ‘औट्’, ‘शस्’) is used to denote कर्म (object of the action) provided it has not been expressed otherwise.

(2) हय + अस् । अनुबन्ध-लोपः by 1-3-8 लशक्वतद्धिते and 1-3-9 तस्य लोपः1-3-4 न विभक्तौ तुस्माः prevents the ending letter ‘स्’ of ‘शस्’ from getting the इत्-सञ्ज्ञा ।

(3) हयास् । By 6-1-102 प्रथमयोः पूर्वसवर्णः – When an अक् letter is followed by a vowel (अच्) of the first (nominative) or second (accusative) case then for the two of them (अक् + अच्) there is a single substitute which is the elongated form of the first member (the अक् letter.)

(4) हयान् । By 6-1-103 तस्माच्छसो नः पुंसि – In the masculine gender, when the letter ‘स्’ of the affix ‘शस्’ follows a vowel which has been elongated by 6-1-102 then it is replaced by the letter ‘न्’।

Note: We can similarly derive the forms गजान्, खरान्, उष्ट्रान् and सुतान्।

Questions:

1. Where has the सूत्रम् 1-4-52 गतिबुद्धिप्रत्यवसानार्थशब्दकर्माकर्मकाणामणि कर्ता स णौ been used for the first time in Chapter Two of the गीता?

2. Where has the substitution ‘शतृँ’ been used (in place of ‘लँट्’) in the verses?

3. Which कृत् affix is used to derive the प्रातिपदिकम् ‘योध’ (used as part of the compound इक्ष्वाकुवरयोधानाम्)?

4. On the basis of which ज्ञापकम् (indication) is the दीर्घादेश: (elongation) done in the प्रातिपदिकम् ‘वाहन’?

5. By which सूत्रम् in the अष्टाध्यायी does पाणिनि: give भोज्यम् as a ready-made form?

6. How would you say this in Sanskrit?
i) “The cows drank water of the Yamunā river.”
ii) “Śrī Kṛṣṇa fed the cows water of the Yamunā river.”

Easy questions:

1. Which सूत्रम् prescribes the augment अट् in अभोजयन्?

2. In the verses can you spot two places where the सूत्रम् 8-3-7 नश्छव्यप्रशान् has been used?

वः mAp

Today we will look at the form वः mAp from श्रीमद्-वाल्मीकि-रामायणम् 6.88.8.

तीक्ष्णसायकनिर्भिन्नाञ्शूलशक्त्यृष्टितोमरैः | अद्य वो गमयिष्यामि सर्वानेव यमक्षयम् || ६-८८-८ ||
सृजतः शरवर्षाणि क्षिप्रहस्तस्य संयुगे | जीमूतस्येव नदतः कः स्थास्यति ममाग्रतः || ६-८८-९ ||

Gita Press translation – Armed with pikes, javelins and lances, I shall dispatch you all, once you are pierced with my sharp arrows, to the abode of Yama (the god of retribution) today (8). Who dare stand before me as I loose hails of shafts on the battlefield with a swift hand, thundering like a cloud? (9)

वः is पुंलिङ्गे द्वितीया-बहुवचनम् of the प्रातिपदिकम् ‘युष्मद्’।

‘युष्मद्’ gets the कर्म-सञ्ज्ञा by 1-4-52 गतिबुद्धिप्रत्यवसानार्थशब्दकर्माकर्मकाणामणि कर्ता स णौ – A कर्ता (agent) of a non-causal verbal root becomes the कर्म (object) of the causal verbal root provided the verbal root either –
(i) denotes either गति: (movement) or बुद्धि: (perception) or प्रत्यवसानम् (consuming) or
(ii) has शब्द: (sound) as its object or
(iii) has no object at all.

Note: As per the सूत्रम् 1-4-55 तत्प्रयोजको हेतुश्च we know that अहम् is the हेतु: (cause) in the sentence (अहं) सर्वान् वो यमक्षयं गमयिष्यामि। On removing the हेतु: we get the non-causative form of the sentence as सर्वे यूयं यमक्षयं गमिष्यथ। यूयम् is प्रथमा-बहुवचनम् of the प्रातिपदिकम् ‘युष्मद्’। Hence ‘युष्मद्’ is the अणौ कर्ता (agent of the non-causal verbal root √गम् (गमॢँ गतौ १. ११३७)). This अणौ कर्ता becomes the कर्म (object) णौ (of the causal form of the verbal root √गम्) since the conditions for applying the सूत्रम् 1-4-52 are satisfied here.

And since सर्वान् is a pronoun qualifying व: it has the same gender/number/case (पुंलिङ्गे द्वितीया-बहुवचनम्) as व:। Recall that –
यल्लिङ्गं यद्वचनं या च विभक्तिर्विशेष्यस्य ।
तल्लिङ्गं तद्वचनं सैव विभक्तिर्विशेषणस्यापि ॥

(1) युष्मद् + शस् । By 4-1-2 स्वौजसमौट्छष्टाभ्याम्भिस्ङेभ्याम्भ्यस्ङसिभ्याम्भ्यस्ङसोसाम्ङ्योस्सुप्‌। Since ‘युष्मद्’ has the कर्म-सञ्ज्ञा by 1-4-52 गतिबुद्धिप्रत्यवसानार्थशब्दकर्माकर्मकाणामणि कर्ता स णौ, it takes a second case affix by 2-3-2 कर्मणि द्वितीया – A second case affix (‘अम्’, ‘औट्’, ‘शस्’) is used to denote कर्म (object of the action) provided it has not been expressed otherwise.

(2) वस् । By 8-1-21 बहुवचनस्य वस्नसौ – The प्रातिपदिके ‘युष्मद्’ and ‘अस्मद्’ along with a plural affix of the second, fourth or sixth case, get ‘वस्’ and ‘नस्’ as replacements respectively when the following two conditions are satisfied:
i) There is a पदम् in the same sentence preceding ‘युष्मद्’/’अस्मद्’।
ii) ‘युष्मद्’/’अस्मद्’ is not at the beginning of a metrical पाद:।

(3) वः । रुँत्व-विसर्गौ by 8-2-66 ससजुषो रुः and 8-3-15 खरवसानयोर्विसर्जनीयः
Note: As per the वार्त्तिकम् – एते वान्नावादयोऽनन्वादेशे वा वक्तव्याः, here व: is an alternate form for युष्मान्।

Questions:

1. Where has the सूत्रम् 1-4-52 गतिबुद्धिप्रत्यवसानार्थशब्दकर्माकर्मकाणामणि कर्ता स णौ been used for the first time in the गीता?

2. Commenting on the सूत्रम् 1-4-52 गतिबुद्धिप्रत्यवसानार्थशब्दकर्माकर्मकाणामणि कर्ता स णौ the सिद्धान्तकौमुदी says – गत्यादि किम्? पाचयत्योदनं देवदत्तेन। Please explain.

3. Commenting further on the सूत्रम् the सिद्धान्तकौमुदी says – अण्यन्तानां किम्? गमयति देवदत्तो यज्ञदत्तम्, तमपर: प्रयुङ्क्ते, गमयति देवदत्तेन यज्ञदत्तं विष्णुमित्र:। Please explain.

4. In the verses can you spot two words in which the सूत्रम् 3-2-124 लटः शतृशानचावप्रथमासमानाधिकरणे has been used?

5. How would you say this in Sanskrit?
i) “I went to the market.”
ii) “(My) mother made me go to the market.”
Use the masculine प्रातिपदिकम् ‘आपण’ for ‘market.’

6. How would you say this in Sanskrit?
i) “Sītā cried.”
ii) “Rāvaṇa made Sītā cry.”

Easy questions:

1. Which सूत्रम् is used to perform the following operation –
तीक्ष्णसायकनिर्भिन्नान् शूलशक्त्यृष्टितोमरैः = तीक्ष्णसायकनिर्भिन्नाञ्शूलशक्त्यृष्टितोमरैः।

2. Where has the सूत्रम् 6-4-92 मितां ह्रस्वः been used in the verses?

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