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Daily Archives: August 23, 2011

कुरुत 2Ap-लोँट्

Today we will look at the form कुरुत 2Ap-लोँट् from श्रीमद्भागवतम् Sb4-21-25.

तत्प्रजा भर्तृपिण्डार्थं स्वार्थमेवानसूयवः ।
कुरुताधोक्षजधियस्तर्हि मेऽनुग्रहः कृतः ।। ४-२१-२५ ।।

Gita Press translation “Free from a carping spirit and with your mind fixed on Lord Viṣṇu (who is above sense-perception), therefore, my (beloved) subjects, do your own duty for the good in the other world of your ruler (myself); (for) therein lies your own interest and thereby you will have done a (great) favor to me.”

कुरुत is derived from the धातुः √कृ (डुकृञ् करणे, तनादि-गणः, धातु-पाठः #८. १०)

The विवक्षा is लोँट्, कर्तरि प्रयोग:, मध्यम-पुरुषः, बहुवचनम्।

The “डु” at the beginning of this धातुः gets इत्-सञ्ज्ञा by 1-3-5 आदिर्ञिटुडवः। The ञकारः at the end gets इत्-सञ्ज्ञा by 1-3-3 हलन्त्यम्। Both take लोप: by 1-3-9 तस्य लोपः

Since the √कृ-धातुः has ञकारः as इत् in the धातु-पाठः by 1-3-72 स्वरितञितः कर्त्रभिप्राये क्रियाफले, the √कृ-धातुः will take आत्मनेपद-प्रत्ययाः when the fruit of the action (क्रियाफलम्) accrues to the doer (कर्त्रभिप्रायम् = कर्तृ-अभिप्रायम्)। In the remaining case – when the fruit of the action does not accrue to the doer – by 1-3-78 शेषात् कर्तरि परस्मैपदम् – the √कृ-धातुः will take परस्मैपद-प्रत्ययाः।

In reality though, this distinction of the fruit of the action accruing to the doer or not, is rarely honored in the language. So as a practical matter, a verbal root such as “√कृ” will take either आत्मनेपद-प्रत्ययाः or परस्मैपद-प्रत्ययाः regardless of whether the fruit of the action accrues to the doer or not. In short, √कृ-धातुः will be उभयपदी। In this verse, it has taken a परस्मैपद-प्रत्यय:।

Since the विवक्षा is लोँट्, कर्तरि प्रयोग:, मध्यम-पुरुष-बहुवचनम्, the प्रत्ययः is “थ”।

(1) कृ + लोँट् । By 3-3-162 लोट् च, the affix लोँट् comes after a धातुः when used in the sense of command/request.

(2) कृ + ल् । अनुबन्ध-लोपः by 1-3-2 उपदेशेऽजनुनासिक इत्, 1-3-3 हलन्त्यम्, 1-3-9 तस्य लोपः

(3) कृ + थ । 3-4-78 तिप्तस्झिसिप्थस्थमिब्वस्मस् तातांझथासाथांध्वमिड्वहिमहिङ् mandates the प्रत्ययः “थ” as the substitute for the लकारः। “थ” gets the सार्वधातुक-सञ्ज्ञा by 3-4-113 तिङ्शित्सार्वधातुकम्

(4) कृ + त । By 3-4-85 लोटो लङ्वत्‌, लोँट् is treated like लँङ्। लँङ् is a ङित्-लकार: (it has ङकार: as an इत्)। The तिङ्-प्रत्ययाः तस्, थस्, थ and मिप् of a लकारः which is a ङित्, are replaced by ताम्, तम्, त and अम् respectively by 3-4-101 तस्थस्थमिपां तांतंतामः । Since लोँट् is treated like लँङ्, the थ-प्रत्ययः of लोँट् also is replaced by “त”। “त” gets the सार्वधातुक-सञ्ज्ञा by 1-1-56 स्थानिवदादेशोऽनल्विधौ

(5) कृ + उ + त । By 3-1-79 तनादिकृञ्भ्य उः, when a सार्वधातुक-प्रत्ययः signifying the agent follows, the affix “उ” is placed after the verbal root √कृ (डुकृञ् करणे ८. १०) and also after a verbal root belonging to the तनादि-गणः। “उ” gets आर्धधातुक-सञ्ज्ञा by 3-4-114 आर्द्धधातुकं शेषः

(6) कर् + उ + त । By 7-3-84 सार्वधातुकार्धधातुकयोः, an अङ्गम् whose final letter is an इक् gets गुण-आदेशः, when a सार्वधातुक-प्रत्यय: or an आर्धधातुक-प्रत्यय: follows. By 1-1-51 उरण् रपरः, in the place of ऋवर्ण: if an अण् letter (अ, इ, उ) comes as a substitute, it is always followed by a रँ letter.
Since the प्रत्यय: “त” has the सार्वधातुक-सञ्ज्ञा and is अपित् (does not have पकार: as a इत्) it becomes ङिद्वत् (as if it has ङकार: as a इत्) by 1-2-4 सार्वधातुकमपित्। Hence 1-1-5 ग्क्ङिति च prevents the गुणादेश: for the उकार: which would have taken place by 7-3-84 सार्वधातुकार्धधातुकयोः

(7) कुरुत । By 6-4-110 अत उत्‌ सार्वधातुके, when √कृ (डुकृञ् करणे ८. १०) ends in the “उ”-प्रत्यय: and is followed by a सार्वधातुक-प्रत्ययः which is a कित् or a ङित्, then there is a substitution of उकारः in place of the अकारः (which is a result of गुणादेशः) of √कृ।


1. The सूत्रम् 6-4-110 अत उत्‌ सार्वधातुके has been used many times in the गीता। Where has it been used for the first time? Where has it been used for the last time?

2. Which अव्ययम् used in the verse translates to “therefore”?

3. After step 7, why doesn’t the “उ”-प्रत्यय: cause the गुणादेश: for the उकार: in the अङ्गम् “कुर्” by 7-3-86 पुगन्तलघूपधस्य च?

4. Commenting on the सूत्रम् 6-4-110 अत उत्‌ सार्वधातुके, the काशिका says क्ङिति इत्येव, करोति। Please explain.

5. Where has 6-4-77 अचि श्नुधातुभ्रुवां य्वोरियङुवङौ been used?

6. How would you say this in Sanskrit?
“Do me a favor.” Use a word from the verse for “favor.”

Easy questions:

1. Which प्रातिपदिकम् used in the verse has the घि-सञ्ज्ञा?

2. Where has 8-3-22 हलि सर्वेषाम् been used?

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