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Sep 182014
 

Today we will look at the form हरिणा mIs from श्रीमद्भागवतम् 7.1.40.

जज्ञाते तौ दितेः पुत्रौ दैत्यदानववन्दितौ । हिरण्यकशिपुर्ज्येष्ठो हिरण्याक्षोऽनुजस्ततः ।। ७-१-३९ ।।
हतो हिरण्यकशिपुर्हरिणा सिंहरूपिणा । हिरण्याक्षो धरोद्धारे बिभ्रता सौकरं वपुः ।। ७-१-४० ।।

श्रीधर-स्वामि-टीका
धरोद्धारनिमित्ते तत्प्रतिघाती हतः ।। ४० ।।

Gita Press translation – They were born as Hiraṇyakaśipu and Hiraṇyākṣa (the two sons of Diti), the adored of the Daityas and the Dānavas (alike). Hiraṇyakaśipu was the elder; while Hiraṇyākṣa, the younger, was born afterwards (39). Hiraṇyakaśipu was slain by Śrī Hari, who had taken the form of a lion (Lord Nṛsiṁha); and Hiraṇyākṣa was killed by Him even as He assumed the body of a boar for the sake of lifting up the earth (from water) (40).

हरिणा is तृतीया-एकवचनम् of the पुंलिङ्ग-प्रातिपदिकम् ‘हरि’।

(1) हरि + टा । By 4-1-2 स्वौजसमौट्छष्टाभ्याम्भिस्ङेभ्याम्भ्यस्ङसिभ्याम्भ्यस्ङसोसाम्ङ्योस्सुप्‌। As per 2-3-69 न लोकाव्ययनिष्ठाखलर्थतृनाम्‌ – A sixth case affix (‘ङस्’, ‘ओस्’, ‘आम्’) is not used (to denote कर्ता (the doer) or कर्म (the object)) of an action denoted by any one of the following -
(i) (a word ending in a substitute in place of) the affix ‘ल्’ (लँट्, लिँट् etc.)
(ii) (a word ending in) the affix ‘उ’ or an affix ending in ‘उ’
(iii) (a word ending in) the affix ‘उक’
(iv) an indeclinable
(v) (a word ending in) a निष्ठा affix (ref. 1-1-26 क्तक्तवतू निष्ठा।)
(vi) (a word ending in) the affix ‘खल्’ or any affix having the same meaning as that of ‘खल्’
(vii) (a word ending in) an affix from the प्रत्याहार: ‘तृन्’ which is formed starting from ‘तृ’ in 3-2-124 लटः शतृशानचावप्रथमासमानाधिकरणे down to 3-2-135 तृन्
हरिणा हिरण्यकशिपुर्हतः (Hiraṇyakaśipu was slain by Śrī Hari). ‘हत’ ends in the affix ‘क्त’ (prescribed by 3-2-102 निष्ठा।) The affix ‘क्त’ gets the designation निष्ठा by 1-1-26 क्तक्तवतू निष्ठा। Therefore the agent ‘हरि’ of the action (to slay) takes the third case affix ‘टा’ by the सूत्रम् 2-3-18 कर्तृकरणयोस्तृतीया and not the sixth case affix ‘ङस्’ (which would have been prescribed by the सूत्रम् 2-3-65 कर्तृकर्मणोः कृति)।

‘हरि’ gets the घि-सञ्ज्ञा by 1-4-7 शेषो घ्यसखि।

(2) हरि + आ । अनुबन्ध-लोपः by 1-3-7 चुटू and 1-3-9 तस्य लोपः।

(3) हरिना । By 7-3-120 आङो नाऽस्त्रियाम् – Following a अङ्गम् having घि-सञ्ज्ञा, the affix ‘आङ्’ is replaced by ‘ना’, but not in the feminine gender. ‘आङ्’ is an ancient name for the (instrumental singular) affix ‘टा’।

(4) हरिणा । By 8-4-2 अट्कुप्वाङ्नुम्व्यवायेऽपि

Questions:

1. Where has the सूत्रम् 2-3-69 न लोकाव्ययनिष्ठाखलर्थतृनाम्‌ been used in verses 14-17 of Chapter Sixteen of the गीता?

2. Where has the सूत्रम् 6-4-37 अनुदात्तोपदेशवनतितनोत्यादीनामनुनासिकलोपो झलि क्ङिति been used in the verses?

3. Where has the affix ‘ड’ been used in the verses?

4. Which सूत्रम् prescribes the substitution ‘इ’ in the form बिभ्रता?

5. Derive the compound तत्प्रतिघाती (प्रातिपदिकम् ‘तत्प्रतिघातिन्’, पुंलिङ्गे प्रथमा-एकवचनम्) used in the commentary.

6. How would you say this in Sanskrit?
“Rāvaṇa was slain by Śrī Rāma.”

Easy questions:

1. Where has the सूत्रम् 6-1-110 ङसिङसोश्च been used in the verses?

2. Derive the form जज्ञाते from the verbal root √जन् (जनीँ प्रादुर्भावे ४. ४४).

Sep 152014
 

Today we will look at the form गिरिशम् mAs from श्रीमद्भागवतम् 9.1.29.

श्रीशुक उवाच
एकदा गिरिशं द्रष्टुमृषयस्तत्र सुव्रताः । दिशो वितिमिराभासाः कुर्वन्तः समुपागमन् ।। ९-१-२९ ।।

श्रीधर-स्वामि-टीका
विगतं तिमिरमाभासः प्रकाशश्चान्यस्य यासु तथाभूता दिशः कुर्वन्तः ।। २९ ।।

Gita Press translation – Śrī Śuka continued : Once upon a time sages of sacred vows repaired to that land (Ilāvṛta) in order to see Lord Śiva (who ordinarily lives on Mount Kailāsa), driving away darkness as well as (all other) light from the quarters (by their superior splendor) (29).

गिरिशम् is पुंलिङ्गे द्वितीया-एकवचनम् of the प्रातिपदिकम् ‘गिरिश’।

(1) गिरिश + अम् । By 4-1-2 स्वौजसमौट्छष्टाभ्याम्भिस्ङेभ्याम्भ्यस्ङसिभ्याम्भ्यस्ङसोसाम्ङ्योस्सुप्‌। As per 2-3-69 न लोकाव्ययनिष्ठाखलर्थतृनाम्‌ – A sixth case affix (‘ङस्’, ‘ओस्’, ‘आम्’) is not used (to denote कर्ता (the doer) or कर्म (the object)) of an action denoted by any one of the following -
(i) (a word ending in a substitute in place of) the affix ‘ल्’ (लँट्, लिँट् etc.)
(ii) (a word ending in) the affix ‘उ’ or an affix ending in ‘उ’
(iii) (a word ending in) the affix ‘उक’
(iv) an indeclinable
(v) (a word ending in) a निष्ठा affix (ref. 1-1-26 क्तक्तवतू निष्ठा।)
(vi) (a word ending in) the affix ‘खल्’ or any affix having the same meaning as that of ‘खल्’
(vii) (a word ending in) an affix from the प्रत्याहार: ‘तृन्’ which is formed starting from ‘तृ’ in 3-2-124 लटः शतृशानचावप्रथमासमानाधिकरणे down to 3-2-135 तृन्
In the present example the object ‘गिरिश’ is associated with the indeclinable द्रष्टुम् (‘to see’), which ends in the affix ‘तुमुँन्’ (prescribed by the सूत्रम् 3-3-10 तुमुन्ण्वुलौ क्रियायां क्रियार्थायाम्‌।) ‘द्रष्टुम्’ gets the designation अव्ययम् by 1-1-39 कृन्मेजन्तः। Therefore ‘गिरिश’ takes the second case affix ‘अम्’ (prescribed by the सूत्रम् 2-3-2 कर्मणि द्वितीया) and not the sixth case affix ‘ङस्’ (which would have been prescribed by the सूत्रम् 2-3-65 कर्तृकर्मणोः कृति)।

(2) गिरिशम् । By 6-1-107 अमि पूर्वः – In place of a preceding अक् letter and the following vowel (अच्) belonging to the affix ‘अम्’ there is a single substitute of that preceding अक् letter.

Questions:

1. Where has the सूत्रम् 2-3-69 न लोकाव्ययनिष्ठाखलर्थतृनाम्‌ been used in verses 36-38 of Chapter One of the गीता?

2. Which कृत् affix is used to get the feminine प्रातिपदिकम् ‘दिश्’ (used in the form दिश: (द्वितीया-बहुवचनम्)) in the verses?

3. In which word in the verses has the substitution ‘शतृँ’ (in the place of ‘लँट्’) been used?

4. Can you spot the augment अम् in the verses?

5. Which सूत्रम् prescribes the elision of the letter ‘म्’ in the प्रातिपदिकम् ‘विगत’ (used in the form विगतम् in the commentary)?

6. How would you say this in Sanskrit?
“Many people come here to see this beautiful temple.”

Easy questions:

1. In which word in the verses has लुँङ् been used?

2. Where has the सूत्रम् 7-3-109 जसि च been used in the verses?

Sep 112014
 

Today we will look at the form सीताम् fAs from श्रीमद्वाल्मीकि-रामायणम् 6.4.4.

सीतां हृत्वा तु तद् यातु क्वासौ यास्यति जीवितः । सीता श्रुत्वाभियानं मे आशामेष्यति जीविते । जीवितान्तेऽमृतं स्पृष्ट्वा पीत्वामृतमिवातुरः ।। ६-४-४ ।।
उत्तराफल्गुनी ह्यद्य श्वस्तु हस्तेन योक्ष्यते । अभिप्रयाम सुग्रीव सर्वानीकसमावृताः ।। ६-४-५ ।।
निमित्तानि च पश्यामि यानि प्रादुर्भवन्ति वै । निहत्य रावणं सीतामानयिष्यामि जानकीम् ।। ६-४-६ ।।

Gita Press translation “Let that ogre for his part return (to his abode) after abducting Sītā; but he cannot escape alive. Hearing (from the mouth of Siddhas and others) of my march (to Laṅkā), Sītā (too) will regain her (lost) hope of survival, even as an ailing man would on touching an immortalizing herb or quaffing the drink of immortality at the close of his life.(4) The constellation of Uttarāphālgunī is actually in the ascendant today, while tomorrow the moon will be in conjunction with the constellation Hasta. Let us (therefore) march (this very day), accompanied by all the troops, O Sugrīva!(5) From the omens which actually appear on my person and which I behold I conclude that, killing Rāvaṇa, I shall bring back Sītā, Janaka’s daughter.(6)”

The above verses have been published previously in the following post – http://avg-sanskrit.org/2012/03/20/योक्ष्यते-3ps-लृँट्/

सीताम् is द्वितीया-एकवचनम् of the स्त्रीलिङ्ग-प्रातिपदिकम् ‘सीता’।

(1) सीता + अम् । By 4-1-2 स्वौजसमौट्छष्टाभ्याम्भिस्ङेभ्याम्भ्यस्ङसिभ्याम्भ्यस्ङसोसाम्ङ्योस्सुप्‌। As per 2-3-69 न लोकाव्ययनिष्ठाखलर्थतृनाम्‌ – A sixth case affix (‘ङस्’, ‘ओस्’, ‘आम्’) is not used (to denote कर्ता (the doer) or कर्म (the object)) of an action denoted by any one of the following -
(i) (a word ending in a substitute in place of) the affix ‘ल्’ (लँट्, लिँट् etc.)
(ii) (a word ending in) the affix ‘उ’ or an affix ending in ‘उ’
(iii) (a word ending in) the affix ‘उक’
(iv) an indeclinable
(v) (a word ending in) a निष्ठा affix (ref. 1-1-26 क्तक्तवतू निष्ठा।)
(vi) (a word ending in) the affix ‘खल्’ or any affix having the same meaning as that of ‘खल्’
(vii) (a word ending in) an affix from the प्रत्याहार: ‘तृन्’ which is formed starting from ‘तृ’ in 3-2-124 लटः शतृशानचावप्रथमासमानाधिकरणे down to 3-2-135 तृन्
In the present example the object ‘सीता’ is associated with the indeclinable हृत्वा (‘after abducting’), which ends in the affix ‘क्त्वा’ (prescribed by the सूत्रम् 3-4-21 समानकर्तृकयोः पूर्वकाले। ‘हृ्त्वा’ gets the designation अव्ययम् by 1-1-40 क्त्वातोसुन्कसुनः। Therefore ‘सीता’ takes the second case affix ‘अम्’ (prescribed by the सूत्रम् 2-3-2 कर्मणि द्वितीया) and not the sixth case affix ‘ङस्’ (which would have been prescribed by the सूत्रम् 2-3-65 कर्तृकर्मणोः कृति)।

(2) सीताम् । By 6-1-107 अमि पूर्वः – In place of a preceding अक् letter and the following vowel (अच्) belonging to the affix ‘अम्’ there is a single substitute of that preceding अक् letter.

Questions:

1. Where has the सूत्रम् 2-3-69 न लोकाव्ययनिष्ठाखलर्थतृनाम्‌ been used for the first time in the गीता?

2. In how many other places (besides in सीताम्) has the सूत्रम् 2-3-69 न लोकाव्ययनिष्ठाखलर्थतृनाम्‌ been used in the verses?

3. Can you spot the affix ल्युट् in the verses?

4. Is there an alternate form for निहत्य?

5. Why doesn’t the सूत्रम् 6-1-58 सृजिदृशोर्झल्यमकिति apply in the form स्पृष्ट्वा? (Which condition is not satisfied?)

6. How would you say this in Sanskrit?
“Seeing (having seen) Śrī Kṛṣṇa’s gentle form Arjuna was at ease again.” Paraphrase to “Seeing (having seen) Śrī Kṛṣṇa’s gentle form Arjuna obtained ease again.” Use the adjective प्रातिपदिकम् ‘सौम्य’ for ‘gentle’ and the neuter प्रातिपदिकम् ‘स्वास्थ्य’ for ‘ease.’

Easy questions:

1. Where has the सूत्रम् 3-4-86 एरुः been used in the verses?

2. Which सूत्रम् prescribes the affix ‘स्य’ in the form यास्यति?

Sep 082014
 

Today we will look at the form तद् nAs from श्रीमद्भागवतम् 1.6.20.

दिदृक्षुस्तदहं भूयः प्रणिधाय मनो हृदि । वीक्षमाणोऽपि नापश्यमवितृप्त इवातुरः ।। १-६-२० ।।
एवं यतन्तं विजने मामाहागोचरो गिराम् । गम्भीरश्लक्ष्णया वाचा शुचः प्रशमयन्निव ।। १-६-२१ ।।
हन्तास्मिञ्जन्मनि भवान्न मां द्रष्टुमिहार्हति । अविपक्वकषायाणां दुर्दर्शोऽहं कुयोगिनाम् ।। १-६-२२ ।।

श्रीधर-स्वामि-टीका
हृदि मनः प्रणिधाय स्थिरीकृत्यावितृप्तोऽहमातुर इवाभवमिति शेषः ।। २० ।। गिरामगोचरः संवेदनस्याविषयभूत ईश्वरः ।। २१ ।। हन्तेति सानुकम्पसंबोधने ।। २२ ।।

Gita Press translation – Longing to behold it once more, I fixed the mind on my heart and looked for it, but could not see it. Now I felt miserable like one whose desire had not been sated (20). To me thus struggling in that lonely forest, the Lord, who is beyond words, spoke in sublime yet soft words, as if to soothe my grief: (21) “Alas! in this birth you are unfit to behold Me; for I am difficult of perception for those who have not attained perfection in Yoga (Devotion), and the impurities of whose heart have not yet been wholly burnt (22).

These verses have appeared previously in the following post – http://avg-sanskrit.org/2013/06/26/प्रणिधाय-ind/

तद् is नपुंसकलिङ्गे द्वितीया-एकवचनम् of the सर्वनाम-प्रातिपदिकम् ‘तद्’।

(1) तद् + अम् । By 4-1-2 स्वौजसमौट्छष्टाभ्याम्भिस्ङेभ्याम्भ्यस्ङसिभ्याम्भ्यस्ङसोसाम्ङ्योस्सुप्‌। As per 2-3-69 न लोकाव्ययनिष्ठाखलर्थतृनाम्‌ – A sixth case affix (‘ङस्’, ‘ओस्’, ‘आम्’) is not used (to denote कर्ता (the doer) or कर्म (the object)) of an action denoted by any one of the following -
(i) (a word ending in a substitute in place of) the affix ‘ल्’ (लँट्, लिँट् etc.)
(ii) (a word ending in) the affix ‘उ’ or an affix ending in ‘उ’
(iii) (a word ending in) the affix ‘उक’
(iv) an indeclinable
(v) (a word ending in) a निष्ठा affix (ref. 1-1-26 क्तक्तवतू निष्ठा।)
(vi) (a word ending in) the affix ‘खल्’ or any affix having the same meaning as that of ‘खल्’
(vii) (a word ending in) an affix from the प्रत्याहार: ‘तृन्’ which is formed starting from ‘तृ’ in 3-2-124 लटः शतृशानचावप्रथमासमानाधिकरणे down to 3-2-135 तृन्
In the present example the object ‘तद्’ (‘it’) is associated with the word दिदृक्षु: (‘longing to behold’, प्रातिपदिकम् ‘दिदृक्षु’, पुंलिङ्गे प्रथमा-एकवचनम्), which ends in the affix ‘उ’ (prescribed by the सूत्रम् 3-2-168 सनाशंसभिक्ष उः)। Therefore ‘तद्’ takes the second case affix ‘अम्’ (prescribed by the सूत्रम् 2-3-2 कर्मणि द्वितीया) and not the sixth case affix ‘ङस्’ (which would have been prescribed by the सूत्रम् 2-3-65 कर्तृकर्मणोः कृति)।

(2) तद् । By 7-1-23 स्वमोर्नपुंसकात्‌, the affixes ‘सुँ’ and ‘अम्’ that follow a neuter अङ्गम् take the लुक् elision. Now ‘तद्’ gets the पद-सञ्ज्ञा by 1-4-14 सुप्तिङन्तं पदम् with the help of 1-1-62 प्रत्ययलोपे प्रत्ययलक्षणम्

Questions:

1. Where has the सूत्रम् 2-3-69 न लोकाव्ययनिष्ठाखलर्थतृनाम्‌ been used between verses 20-25 of Chapter Three of the गीता?

2. Commenting on the सूत्रम् 2-3-69 न लोकाव्ययनिष्ठाखलर्थतृनाम्‌ the तत्त्वबोधिनी says – उकारेण कृतो विशेषणात् तदन्तमपि लभ्यते। Please explain.

3. Which वार्तिकम् is used to construct the feminine प्रातिपदिकम् ‘वाच्’ (used in the form वाचा (तृतीया-एकवचनम्)) in the verses?

4. Can you spot the augment अम् in the verses?

5. Where has the सूत्रम् 3-2-175 स्थेशभासपिसकसो वरच् been used in the commentary?

6. How would you say this in Sanskrit?
“Longing to see king Daśaratha, the sage Viśwāmitra came to Ayodhyā.”

Easy questions:

1. Which सूत्रम् is used to perform the operation अस्मिन् + जन्मनि = अस्मिञ्जन्मनि?

2. Where has the सूत्रम् 7-3-78 पाघ्राध्मास्थाम्नादाण्दृश्यर्तिसर्तिशदसदां पिबजिघ्रधमतिष्ठमनयच्छपश्यर्च्छधौशीयसीदाः been used in the verses?

Sep 042014
 

Today we will look at the form वैरम् nAs from श्रीमद्भागवतम् 10.61.23.

श्रीशुक उवाच
वृतः स्वयंवरे साक्षादनङ्गोऽङ्गयुतस्तया । राज्ञः समेतान्निर्जित्य जहारैकरथो युधि ।। १०-६१-२२ ।।
यद्यप्यनुस्मरन्वैरं रुक्मी कृष्णावमानितः । व्यतरद्भागिनेयाय सुतां कुर्वन्स्वसुः प्रियम् ।। १०-६१-२३ ।।

श्रीधर-स्वामि-टीका -
तत्रोत्तरम् – स्वयंवरे रुक्मवत्या वृतः सन् राज्ञो निर्जित्य जहारेति ।। २२ ।। यद्यपि श्रीकृष्णावमानितस्तथापि वैरमनुस्मरन्नपि व्यतरत्प्रादात् । अन्वमोदतेत्यर्थः ।। २३ ।।

Gita Press translation – Śrī Śuka replied: Pradyumna (who was Love incarnate himself) was elected by Rukmavatī in a choice marriage. Having completely vanquished in battle – with none other to help him beyond the chariot he drove in – the kings assembled (there), he carried her away (22). Though constantly thinking of his hostility towards Śrī Kṛṣṇa, by whom he had been treated with contumely, yet seeking to oblige his sister (Rukmiṇī, who had been instrumental in saving his life), Rukmī gave away his daughter to his sister’s son (23).

वैरम् is द्वितीया-एकवचनम् of the नपुंसकलिङ्ग-प्रातिपदिकम् ‘वैर’।

(1) वैर + अम् । By 4-1-2 स्वौजसमौट्छष्टाभ्याम्भिस्ङेभ्याम्भ्यस्ङसिभ्याम्भ्यस्ङसोसाम्ङ्योस्सुप्‌। As per 2-3-69 न लोकाव्ययनिष्ठाखलर्थतृनाम्‌ – A sixth case affix (‘ङस्’, ‘ओस्’, ‘आम्’) is not used (to denote कर्ता (the doer) or कर्म (the object)) of an action denoted by any one of the following -
(i) (a word ending in a substitute in place of) the affix ‘ल्’ (लँट्, लिँट् etc.)
(ii) (a word ending in) the affix ‘उ’ or an affix ending in ‘उ’
(iii) (a word ending in) the affix ‘उक’
(iv) an indeclinable
(v) (a word ending in) a निष्ठा affix (ref. 1-1-26 क्तक्तवतू निष्ठा।)
(vi) (a word ending in) the affix ‘खल्’ or any affix having the same meaning as that of ‘खल्’
(vii) (a word ending in) an affix from the प्रत्याहार: ‘तृन्’ which is formed starting from ‘तृ’ in 3-2-124 लटः शतृशानचावप्रथमासमानाधिकरणे down to 3-2-135 तृन्
In the present example the object ‘वैर’ (‘hostility’) is associated with the word अनुस्मरन् (‘constantly thinking’, प्रातिपदिकम् ‘अनुस्मरत्’, पुंलिङ्गे प्रथमा-एकवचनम्), which ends in the affix ‘शतृँ’ (substituted in place of लँट्)। Therefore ‘वैर’ takes the second case affix ‘अम्’ (prescribed by the सूत्रम् 2-3-2 कर्मणि द्वितीया) and not the sixth case affix ‘ङस्’ (which would have been prescribed by the सूत्रम् 2-3-65 कर्तृकर्मणोः कृति)।

(2) वैर + अम् । By 7-1-24 अतोऽम् – The affixes ‘सुँ’ and ‘अम्’ that follow a neuter अङ्गम् ending in the short vowel ‘अ’ take ‘अम्’ as their replacement.
Note: 1-3-4 न विभक्तौ तुस्माः prevents the ending letter ‘म्’ of the affix ‘अम्’ from getting the इत्-सञ्ज्ञा ।
Note: 7-1-24 अतोऽम् is required here to prevent 7-1-23 स्वमोर्नपुंसकात्‌ from applying.

(3) वैरम् । By 6-1-107 अमि पूर्व: – In place of a preceding letter ‘अक्’ and the following vowel (‘अच्’) belonging to the affix ‘अम्’ there is a single substitute of that preceding अक् letter.

Questions:

1. Where has the सूत्रम् 2-3-69 न लोकाव्ययनिष्ठाखलर्थतृनाम्‌ been used between verses 47-49 of Chapter Eighteen of the गीता?

2. Commenting on the सूत्रम् 2-3-69 न लोकाव्ययनिष्ठाखलर्थतृनाम्‌ the तत्त्वबोधिनी says – जिघृक्षितरूपविनाशप्रसङ्गात् तृनामित्यत्र णत्वं न कृतम्। Please explain.

3. Can you spot the augment तुँक् in the verses?

4. Where has the verbal root (इण् गतौ २. ४०) been used in the verses?

5. Which सूत्रम् justifies the fourth case affix used in the form भागिनेयाय?

6. How would you say this in Sanskrit?
“Going to the temple I see your house on the way.”

Easy questions:

1. Can you spot the augment अट् in the verses?

2. Where has the सूत्रम् 2-4-77 गातिस्थाघुपाभूभ्यः सिचः परस्मैपदेषु been used in the commentary?

Sep 012014
 

Today we will look at the form मे mGs from रघुवंशम् verse 10-39.

विदितं तप्यमानं च तेन मे भुवनत्रयम्।
अकामोपनतेनेव साधोर्हृदयमेनसा।। १०-३९।।

टीका -
किञ्च । [अकामोपनतेन] अकामेनानिच्छयोपनतेन प्रमादादागतेन एनसा पापेन साधोः सज्जनस्य हृदयमिवतेन रक्षसा तप्यमानं संतप्यमानम्। तपेर्भौवादिकात्कर्मणि शानच्। भुवनत्रयं च मे विदितम्। मया ज्ञायत इत्यर्थः। ’3-2-188 मतिबुद्धिपूजार्थेभ्यश्च’ इत्यनेन वर्तमाने क्तः। ’2-3-67 क्तस्य च वर्तमाने’ इति षष्ठी ।।३९।।

Translation – And the three worlds are known to me as being harassed by him, like the heart of a good man by the sin unconsciously committed (39).

मे is षष्ठी-एकवचनम् of the सर्वनाम-प्रातिपदिकम् ‘अस्मद्’।

(1) अस्मद् + ङस् । By 4-1-2 स्वौजसमौट्छष्टाभ्याम्भिस्ङेभ्याम्भ्यस्ङसिँभ्याम्भ्यस्ङसोसाम्ङ्योस्सुप्। As per 2-3-67 क्तस्य च वर्तमाने – A sixth case affix (‘ङस्’, ‘ओस्’, ‘आम्’) is used (to denote कर्ता (the doer)) of an action denoted by (a word ending in) the affix ‘क्त’, provided the affix ‘क्त’ denotes the action in the present tense.
In the present example, as per the सूत्रम् 3-2-188 मतिबुद्धिपूजार्थेभ्यश्च the affix ‘क्त’ used in the form विदितम् denotes the action (of knowing) in the present tense. And since ‘अस्मद्’ (‘I’) denotes the कर्ता (the doer) of the action (of knowing) a sixth case affix is used with ‘अस्मद्’।

Note: The अनुवृत्ति: of ‘कर्तृकर्मणोः’ is coming down from 2-3-65 कर्तृकर्मणोः कृति in to this सूत्रम्। But since कर्म (the object) is already expressed by the affix ‘क्त’, the sixth case affix is used to denote only the कर्ता (the doer) and not the कर्म (the object.)

See question 2.

(2) मे । By 8-1-22 तेमयावेकवचनस्य – The प्रातिपदिके ‘युष्मद्’ and ‘अस्मद्’ along with a singular affix of the fourth or sixth case, get ‘ते’ and ‘मे’ as replacements respectively when the following conditions are satisfied:
1. There is a पदम् (which in the present example is तेन) in the same sentence preceding ‘युष्मद्’/’अस्मद्’।
2. ‘युष्मद्’/’अस्मद्’ is not at the beginning of a metrical पाद:।

Questions:

1. Where has the सूत्रम् 2-3-67 क्तस्य च वर्तमाने been used between verses 30 and 40 of Chapter Two of the गीता?

2. Commenting on the सूत्रम् 2-3-67 क्तस्य च वर्तमाने the सिद्धान्तकौमुदी says – ‘न लोकाव्यय-’ इति निषेधस्यापवाद:। Please explain.

3. Can you spot the augment मुँक् in the verse?

4. From which verbal root is the प्रातिपदिकम् ‘उपनत’ (used in the compound अकामोपनतेन) derived?

5. Which कृत् affix is used to derive the प्रातिपदिकम् ‘प्रमाद’ (used in the form प्रमादात् in the commentary)?

6. How would you say this in Sanskrit?
“I know the answer to this question.” Paraphrase to “The answer to this question is known to me.”

Easy questions:

1. Where has the सूत्रम् 6-1-110 ङसिङसोश्च been used in the verse?

2. Which सूत्रम् prescribes the affix यक् in the form ज्ञायते used in the commentary?

Aug 282014
 

Today we will look at the form अस्य nGs from श्रीमद्भागवतम् 5.19.12.

गायति चेदम् -
कर्तास्य सर्गादिषु यो न बध्यते न हन्यते देहगतोऽपि दैहिकैः । द्रष्टुर्न दृग्यस्य गुणैर्विदूष्यते तस्मै नमोऽसक्तविविक्तसाक्षिणे ।। ५-१९-१२ ।।
इदं हि योगेश्वर योगनैपुणं हिरण्यगर्भो भगवाञ्जगाद यत् । यदन्तकाले त्वयि निर्गुणे मनो भक्त्या दधीतोज्झितदुष्कलेवरः ।। ५-१९-१३ ।।

श्रीधर-स्वामि-टीका -
असक्तश्चासौ विविक्तश्च साक्षी च तस्मै नमः । असक्तत्वं दर्शयति । अस्य विश्वस्य सर्गादिषु कर्तापि यो न बध्यतेऽहं कर्तेति न मन्यते । विविक्तत्वमाह । देहगतोऽपि दैहिकैः क्षुत्पिपासादिभिर्यो न हन्यते नाभिभूयते । साक्षित्वमाह । यस्य द्रष्टुरपि सतो दृष्टिर्गुणैर्दृश्यैर्न विदूष्यते न विक्रियते ।। १२ ।। योगकौशलं निरूपयन्योगं प्रार्थयते – इदमिति त्रिभिः । हे योगेश्वर, हिरण्यगर्भो यद्योगनैपुणं जगाद इदमेव तत् । किम् । जन्मप्रभृति भक्त्यान्तकाले पुमांस्त्वयि मनो धारयेदिति यत् । कथंभूतः सन् । उज्झितं दुष्कलेवरं तदभिमानो येन ।। १३ ।।

Gita Press translation – Again, he sings the following (praises): – “Hail to Him who, though the Maker of this (universe), does not get bound to the functions of creation etc., (by recognizing Himself as the doer), who though invested with a body, is not affected by the attributes of a body (hunger, thirst and so on) and whose vision, though He is all-seeing, is not tainted by the qualities (of that which He sees) – (to sum up,) who is (absolutely) unattached, pure and a (mere) witness (12). Indeed herein, O Master of Yoga, lies the proficiency in Yoga (mind-control), of which the glorious Brahmā (who was born of a golden lotus sprung from the navel of Lord Viṣṇu) has spoke, viz., that, having given up (all) identification with the body, one should concentrate one’s mind on You, who are beyond the modes of Prakṛti (all material phenomena), at the last moment (of one’s life) through (the practice of) Devotion (continued from one’s very birth.) (13)

अस्य is नपुंसकलिङ्गे षष्ठी-एकवचनम् of the सर्वनाम-प्रातिपदिकम् ‘इदम्’।

(1) इदम् + ङस् । By 4-1-2 स्वौजसमौट्छष्टाभ्याम्भिस्ङेभ्याम्भ्यस्ङसिँभ्याम्भ्यस्ङसोसाम्ङ्योस्सुप्। As per the सूत्रम् 2-3-65 कर्तृकर्मणोः कृति – A sixth case affix (‘ङस्’, ‘ओस्’, ‘आम्’) is used to denote कर्ता (the doer) as well as कर्म (the object) of an action denoted by a (word ending in a) कृत् affix, provided the doer/object has not been expressed otherwise.
In the present example, ‘इदम्’ (‘this (universe)’) is the object of the action denoted by ‘कर्तृ’ (‘maker’) which ends in the कृत् affix तृच् (prescribed by the सूत्रम् 3-1-133 ण्वुल्तृचौ)। Hence ‘इदम्’ takes a sixth case affix.

Note: As per 1-4-104 विभक्तिश्च the affix ‘ङस्’ has the designation विभक्ति:। This allows 7-2-102 to apply in the next step.

(2) इद अ + ङस् । By 7-2-102 त्यदादीनामः – The ending letter of the pronouns, starting with ‘त्यद्’ and ending with ‘द्वि’, is replaced by ‘अ’ when followed by a विभक्ति: affix. As per 1-1-52 अलोऽन्त्यस्य, only the ending letter ‘म्’ of the अङ्गम् ‘इदम्’ is replaced by ‘अ’।

(3) इद + ङस् । By 6-1-97 अतो गुणे।

(4) इद + स्य । By 7-1-12 टाङसिङसामिनात्स्याः - Following a अङ्गम् ending in the letter ‘अ’, the affixes ‘टा’, ‘ङसिँ’ and ‘ङस्’ are replaced respectively by ‘इन’, ‘आत्’ and ‘स्य’। As per 1-1-55 अनेकाल्शित्सर्वस्य the entire affix ‘ङस्’ is replaced.

(5) अस्य । By 7-2-113 हलि लोपः, the ‘इद्’ of ‘इदम्’ that is without the letter ‘क्’ takes elision (लोपः), when the विभक्तिः affixes of the आप्-प्रत्याहारः, which begin with a consonant, follow. This rule is an अपवाद: (exception) to the prior rule 7-2-112 अनाप्यकः।
Only the letter ‘द्’ of ‘इद्’ would take लोपः by 1-1-52 अलोऽन्त्यस्य। But the following परिभाषा takes effect – नानर्थकेऽलोन्त्यविधिरनभ्यासविकारे।
This means that the rule 1-1-52 अलोऽन्त्यस्य does not apply in the case of a term that is devoid of meaning, except in the case which involves modification of an अभ्यास:।
In this example, the entire term ‘इदम्’ has meaning but the ‘इद्’ part does not. So 1-1-52 does not apply when it comes to operating on the ‘इद्’ part. Therefore, the ‘इद्’ part completely takes लोपः by 7-2-113.
Note: आप् is the प्रत्याहारः made of the सुँप् affixes from टा (तृतीया-एकवचनम्) until सुप् (सप्तमी-बहुवचनम्)।

Questions:

1. Where has the सूत्रम् 2-3-65 कर्तृकर्मणोः कृति been used in the first fifteen verses of Chapter Four of the गीता?

2. Under the सूत्रम् 2-3-65 कर्तृकर्मणोः कृति the सिद्धान्तकौमुदी gives the example – जगत: कर्ता कृष्ण:। Commenting on this example, the तत्त्वबोधिनी commentary says – कृष्णस्य तृचाभिहितत्वात् तत: षष्ठी न भवति। Please explain.

3. Which सूत्रम् prescribes the fourth case affix used in the form तस्मै used in the verses?

4. Can you spot the augment अम् in the verses?

5. Which कृत् affix is used to form the feminine प्रातिपदिकम् ‘पिपासा’ used in the compound क्षुत्पिपासादिभि: in the commentary?

6. How would you say this in Sanskrit?
“The Lord is the protector of everyone.”

Easy questions:

1. Which सूत्रम् prescribes the elision of the letter ‘न्’ in the form बध्यते?

2. Can you spot the augment सीयुट् in the verses?

Aug 252014
 

Today we will look at the form कवेः mGs from रघुवंशम् verse 15-69.

गेये को नु विनेता वां कस्य चेयं कृतिः कवेः ।
इति राज्ञा स्वयं पृष्टौ तौ वाल्मीकिमशंसताम्॥ १५-६९॥

टीका -
गेये गीते को नु वां युवयोः विनेता शिक्षकः । नुशब्दः प्रश्ने । ‘नु पृच्छायां वितर्के च’ (३-३-२४७) इत्यमरः । इयं च कस्य कवेः कृतिरिति राज्ञा स्वयं पृष्टौ तौ कुशलवौ वाल्मीकिमशंसताम् उक्तवन्तौ । विनेतारं कविं चेत्यर्थः । ‘गेये केन विनीतौ वाम्’ इति पाठे वामिति युष्मदर्थप्रतिपादकमव्ययं द्रष्टव्यम् । तथा चायमर्थः – केन पुंसा वां युवां गेये गीतविषये विनीतौ शिक्षितौ । कर्मणि निष्ठाप्रत्ययः ।।

Translation – “Who is your teacher in singing, and this composition is of which poet?” On being asked thus by the king himself, they pointed to Vālmīki (as the teacher and poet.) (69)

कवेः is षष्ठी-एकवचनम् of the पुंलिङ्ग-प्रातिपदिकम् ‘कवि’।

(1) कवि + ङस् । By 4-1-2 स्वौजसमौट्छष्टाभ्याम्भिस्ङेभ्याम्भ्यस्ङसिँभ्याम्भ्यस्ङसोसाम्ङ्योस्सुप्। As per the सूत्रम् 2-3-65 कर्तृकर्मणोः कृति – A sixth case affix (‘ङस्’, ‘ओस्’, ‘आम्’) is used to denote कर्ता (the doer) as well as कर्म (the object) of an action denoted by a (word ending in a) कृत् affix, provided the doer/object has not been expressed otherwise.
In the present example, ‘कवि’ (‘poet’) is the doer of the action denoted by ‘कृति’ (‘composition’) which ends in the कृत् affix क्तिन् (prescribed by the सूत्रम् 3-3-94 स्त्रियां क्तिन्)। Hence ‘कवि’ takes a sixth case affix.

Note: ‘कवि’ gets the घि-सञ्ज्ञा by 1-4-7 शेषो घ्यसखि – When a short ‘इ’ ending or short ‘उ’ ending term – except for ‘सखि’ – does not have the नदी-सञ्ज्ञा then it gets the घि-सञ्ज्ञा।

(2) कवि + अस् । अनुबन्ध-लोपः by 1-3-8 लशक्वतद्धिते and 1-3-9 तस्य लोपः1-3-4 न विभक्तौ तुस्माः prevents the ending letter ‘स्’ of the affix ‘ङस्’ from getting इत्-सञ्ज्ञा।

(3) कवे + अस् । By 7-3-111 घेर्ङिति – When a ङित् (having the letter ‘ङ्’ as a इत्) सुँप् affix follows, then a अङ्गम् having the घि-सञ्ज्ञा takes the गुण: substitution. Note: By 1-1-52 अलोऽन्त्यस्य, the गुण: substitution takes place only for the ending letter (in this case the letter ‘इ’) of the अङ्गम्।

(4) कवेस् । By 6-1-110 ङसिँङसोश्च – In place of a preceding एङ् (‘ए’, ‘ओ’) letter and the following short ‘अ’ of the affix ‘ङसिँ’ or ‘ङस्’, there is a single substitute of the former (एङ् letter.)

(5) कवेः । रुँत्व-विसर्गौ by 8-2-66 ससजुषो रुः and 8-3-15 खरवसानयोर्विसर्जनीयः

Questions:

1. Where has the सूत्रम् 2-3-65 कर्तृकर्मणोः कृति (used in step 1) been used for the last time in the गीता?

2. Commenting on the सूत्रम् 2-3-65 कर्तृकर्मणोः कृति the तत्त्वबोधिनी says – शेष इति निवृत्तम्। Please explain.

3. Commenting further on the same सूत्रम् the तत्त्वबोधिनी says – कर्तृकर्मणो: किम्? शस्त्रेण भेत्ता। Please explain.

4. Where has the सूत्रम् 3-1-133 ण्वुल्तृचौ been used in the verse?

5. Which कृत् affix is used to form the प्रातिपदिकम् ‘शिक्षक’ (used in the commentary?)

6. How would you say this in Sanskrit?
“The work/composition of Pāṇini is marvelous indeed.” Use the adjective प्रातिपदिकम् ‘अद्भुत’ for ‘marvelous.’ Use the अव्ययम् ‘हि’ for ‘indeed.’

Easy questions:

1. Where has the सूत्रम् 6-4-134 अल्लोपोऽनः been used in the verse?

2. Which सूत्रम् prescribes the substitution ताम् in the form अशंसताम्?

Aug 212014
 

Today we will look at the form तस्य nGs from श्रीमद्भागवतम् 6.8.39.

इमां विद्यां पुरा कश्चित्कौशिको धारयन्द्विजः । योगधारणया स्वाङ्गं जहौ स मरुधन्वनि ।। ६-८-३८ ।।
तस्योपरि विमानेन गन्धर्वपतिरेकदा । ययौ चित्ररथः स्त्रीभिर्वृतो यत्र द्विजक्षयः ।। ६-८-३९ ।।

श्रीधर-स्वामि-टीका -
एतद्विद्याप्रभावमितिहासेनाह – इमामिति सार्धैस्त्रिभिः । मरुधन्वनि निरुदके देशे । अनेन विद्यायाः क्षेत्रतीर्थानपेक्षत्वं दर्शितम् ।। ३८ ।। यत्र द्विजस्य क्षयो देहत्यागस्तस्योपरि ।। ३९ ।।

Gita Press translation – Of yore, a certain Brāhmaṇa, who was a scion of the sage Kauśika and had his mind fixed on this sacred text, cast off his body in a desert through concentration of mind accompanied by retention of breath (38). Surrounded by ladies, Citraratha, the chief of the Gandharvas once flew in his aerial car over the spot where the Brāhmaṇa had died (39).

तस्य is नपुंसकलिङ्गे षष्ठी-एकवचनम् of the सर्वनाम-प्रातिपदिकम् ‘तद्’।

(1) तद् + ङस् । By 4-1-2 स्वौजसमौट्छष्टाभ्याम्भिस्ङेभ्याम्भ्यस्ङसिँभ्याम्भ्यस्ङसोसाम्ङ्योस्सुप्। As per the 2-3-30 षष्ठ्यतसर्थप्रत्ययेन – A sixth case affix (‘ङस्’, ‘ओस्’, ‘आम्’) is used following a प्रातिपदिकम् (nominal stem) co-occurring with a word ending in an affix having the same meaning as that of the affix ‘अतसुँच्’ (ref. 5-3-28 दक्षिणोत्तराभ्यामतसुच्)।

See question 1.

Note: The section in which पाणिनि: prescribes affixes having the same meaning as that of the affix ‘अतसुँच्’ runs from 5-3-27 दिक्‌शब्देभ्यः सप्तमीपञ्चमीप्रथमाभ्यो दिग्देशकालेष्वस्तातिः down to 5-3-41 विभाषावरस्य

In the present example, the प्रातिपदिकम् ‘तद्’ co-occurs with the word ‘उपरि’ (prescribed by the सूत्रम् 5-3-31 उपर्युपरिष्टात्‌ which occurs in the section from 5-3-27 to 5-3-41.) Therefore ‘तद्’ takes the sixth case affix.

Note: As per 1-4-104 विभक्तिश्च the affix ‘ङस्’ has the designation विभक्ति:। This allows 7-2-102 to apply in the next step.

(2) त अ + ङस् । By 7-2-102 त्यदादीनामः – The ending letter of the pronouns, starting with ‘त्यद्’ and ending with ‘द्वि’, is replaced by ‘अ’ when followed by a विभक्ति: affix. As per 1-1-52 अलोऽन्त्यस्य, only the ending letter ‘द्’ of the अङ्गम् ‘तद्’ is replaced by ‘अ’।

(3) त + ङस् । By 6-1-97 अतो गुणे।

(4) तस्य । By 7-1-12 टाङसिङसामिनात्स्याः - Following a अङ्गम् ending in the letter ‘अ’, the affixes ‘टा’, ‘ङसिँ’ and ‘ङस्’ are replaced respectively by ‘इन’, ‘आत्’ and ‘स्य’। As per 1-1-55 अनेकाल्शित्सर्वस्य the entire affix ‘ङस्’ is replaced.

Questions:

1. The sixth case affix prescribed by the सूत्रम् 2-3-30 षष्ठ्यतसर्थप्रत्ययेन is a अपवाद: (exception) to which affix that would have been prescribed by which सूत्रम्?

2. Commenting on the सूत्रम् 2-3-30 षष्ठ्यतसर्थप्रत्ययेन the तत्त्वबोधिनी says – अतसुचोऽस्तात्यनन्तरत्वेऽपि लाघवानुरोधेन अस्तात्यर्थेति नोक्तमित्याहु:। Please explain.

3. Which कृत् affix is used to derive the feminine प्रातिपदिकम् ‘विद्या’ (used in the form विद्याम् (द्वितीया-एकवचनम्) in the verses)?

4. Which सूत्रम् prescribes the affix युच् used to derive the feminine प्रातिपदिकम् ‘धारणा’ (used in the compound योगधारणया in the verses)?

5. Where has the सूत्रम् 6-4-51 णेरनिटि been used in the commentary?

6. How would you say this in Sanskrit?
“Look at the plane flying over the mountains.” Use the verbal root √डी (डीङ् विहायसा गतौ १. ११२३, ४. ३०) for ‘to fly.’

Easy questions:

1. Where has the सूत्रम् 7-4-62 कुहोश्चुः been used in the verses?

2. Which सूत्रम् prescribes the substitution ‘औ’ in the form ययौ?

Aug 182014
 

Today we will look at the form हेतोः mGs from श्रीमद्भागवतम् verse 4-17-4.

विदुर उवाच
कस्माद्दधार गोरूपं धरित्री बहुरूपिणी । यां दुदोह पृथुस्तत्र को वत्सो दोहनं च किम् ।। ४-१७-३ ।।
प्रकृत्या विषमा देवी कृता तेन समा कथम् । तस्य मेध्यं हयं देवः कस्य हेतोरपाहरत् ।। ४-१७-४ ।।

श्रीधर-स्वामि-टीका -
दोहनं पात्रम् ।। ३ ।। मेध्यं यज्ञार्हम् ।। ४ ।।

Gita Press translation – Vidura said : Wherefore did Earth who could take any number of forms, (particularly) assume the form of a cow that Pṛthu milked? Who played the role of a calf for the time being and what served as the milk-pail? (3) Uneven (undulated) by nature, how was the earth made even (levelled) by him? And with what motive did the god (Indra) steal away his sacrificial horse? (4)

हेतोः is षष्ठी-एकवचनम् of the पुंलिङ्ग-प्रातिपदिकम् ‘हेतु’।

(1) हेतु + ङस् । By 4-1-2 स्वौजसमौट्छष्टाभ्याम्भिस्ङेभ्याम्भ्यस्ङसिँभ्याम्भ्यस्ङसोसाम्ङ्योस्सुप्। As per the वार्तिकम् (under 2-3-23 हेतौ in the महाभाष्यम्) निमित्तपर्यायप्रयोगे सर्वासां प्रायदर्शनम् – When the प्रातिपदिकम् ‘निमित्त’ (motive) or any of its synonyms – ‘कारण’ (reason), ‘हेतु’ (cause), ‘प्रयोजन’ (purpose) etc is used – generally any case affix may be assigned (following both the प्रातिपदिकम् ‘निमित्त’ etc as well as any प्रातिपदिकम् that is in apposition (has the same substratum) as ‘निमित्त’ etc.)

Note: नागेश: clarifies this वार्तिकम् as निमित्तादिप्रयोगे तेभ्यस्तत्समानाधिकरणशब्देभ्यश्चेत्यर्थ:।

Note: ‘हेतु’ gets the घि-सञ्ज्ञा by 1-4-7 शेषो घ्यसखि – When a short ‘इ’ ending or short ‘उ’ ending term – except for ‘सखि’ – does not have the नदी-सञ्ज्ञा then it gets the घि-सञ्ज्ञा।

(2) हेतु + अस् । अनुबन्ध-लोपः by 1-3-8 लशक्वतद्धिते and 1-3-9 तस्य लोपः1-3-4 न विभक्तौ तुस्माः prevents the ending letter ‘स्’ of the affix ‘ङस्’ from getting इत्-सञ्ज्ञा।

(3) हेतो + अस् । By 7-3-111 घेर्ङिति – When a ङित् (having the letter ‘ङ्’ as a इत्) सुँप् affix follows, then a अङ्गम् having the घि-सञ्ज्ञा takes the गुण: substitution. Note: By 1-1-52 अलोऽन्त्यस्य, the गुण: substitution takes place only for the ending letter (in this case the letter ‘उ’) of the अङ्गम्।

(4) हेतोस् । By 6-1-110 ङसिँङसोश्च – In place of a preceding एङ् (‘ए’, ‘ओ’) letter and the following short ‘अ’ of the affix ‘ङसिँ’ or ‘ङस्’, there is a single substitute of the former (एङ् letter.)

(5) हेतोः । रुँत्व-विसर्गौ by 8-2-66 ससजुषो रुः and 8-3-15 खरवसानयोर्विसर्जनीयः

Questions:

1. Where has the वार्तिकम् (under 2-3-23 हेतौ in the महाभाष्यम्) निमित्तपर्यायप्रयोगे सर्वासां प्रायदर्शनम् been used in Chapter One of the गीता?

2. Commenting on the वार्तिकम् ‘निमित्तपर्यायप्रयोगे सर्वासां प्रायदर्शनम्’ the सिद्धान्तकौमुदी says – प्रायग्रहणादसर्वनाम्न: प्रथमाद्वितीये न स्त:। Please explain.

3. Commenting on the same वार्तिकम् the तत्त्वबोधिनी says – एतद्वार्तिकेन ‘षष्ठी हेतुप्रयोगे’, ‘सर्वनाम्नस्तृतीया च’ इति सूत्रद्वयं गतार्थमिति बोध्यम्। Please explain.

4. Which कृत् affix is used to form the प्रातिपदिकम् ‘दोहन’ as used in the verses? Hint: The विग्रह: is दुह्यतेऽस्मिन्निति दोहनम्।

5. Which वार्तिकम् justifies the use of a third case affix in प्रकृत्या used in the verses?

6. How would you say this in Sanskrit?
“With what motive have you (sir) come here?”

Easy questions:

1. From which verbal root is दधार derived?

2. Can you spot the augment अट् in the verses?