Today we will look at the form रमया fIs from श्रीमद्भागवतम् 3.9.23.

एष प्रपन्नवरदो रमयात्मशक्त्या यद्यत्करिष्यति गृहीतगुणावतारः । तस्मिन्स्वविक्रममिदं सृजतोऽपि चेतो युञ्जीत कर्मशमलं च यथा विजह्याम् ।। ३-९-२३ ।।
नाभिह्रदादिह सतोऽम्भसि यस्य पुंसो विज्ञानशक्तिरहमासमनन्तशक्तेः । रूपं विचित्रमिदमस्य विवृण्वतो मे मा रीरिषीष्ट निगमस्य गिरां विसर्गः ।। ३-९-२४ ।।

श्रीधर-स्वामि-टीका
आत्मशक्त्या रमया सह यद्यत्कर्म करिष्यतिस्वविक्रमं स्वस्य विष्णोरेव विक्रमः प्रभावो यस्मिंस्तदिदं विश्वं तदाज्ञया सृजतोऽपि मे चेतः स एव युञ्जीत प्रवर्तयतु । कर्मासक्तिं तत्कृतं शमलं च वैषम्यादिपापं यथा विजह्यां त्यक्ष्यामि ।। २३ ।। अम्भसि सतो यस्य नाभिह्रदादिहासम् । विज्ञाने शक्तिर्यस्य महत्तत्त्वात्मकस्य चित्तस्य तदभिमानी अस्य रूपमिदं विस्तारयतो मे निगमस्यावयवभूतानां गिरां विसर्ग उच्चारणं मा रीरिषीष्ट । हलान्तं ब्रह्मवर्चसमिति न्यायेन मा लुप्यतामित्यर्थः ।। २४ ।।

Translation – You grant the wishes of those who take refuge in You. Therefore, when I proceed to create the universe, which will be nothing but an exhibition of Your own creative power, be pleased to fill my mind with (the thought of) each and every exploit You may perform in course of the descents You take along with Your own divine Energy, Goddess Ramā, manifesting many a divine virtue, so that I may remain untainted by the impurities (in the shape of egotism etc.) attaching to the work of creation (23). I am the deity presiding over the Mahat-tattva, which represents Your power of understanding, one of the innumerable powers possessed by You, and sprang from the pool of Your navel even while You, the Supreme Person, slept on these waters. Therefore, as I proceed to bring to light the wonderful creation, which will be Your own manifestation, let not my utterance of the words of the Veda fail (24).

These verses have appeared previously in the following post – http://avg-sanskrit.org/2013/06/06/निगमस्य-mgs/

रमया is तृतीया-एकवचनम् of the स्त्रीलिङ्ग-प्रातिपदिकम् ‘रमा’।

(1) रमा + टा । By 4-1-2 स्वौजसमौट्छष्टाभ्याम्भिस्ङेभ्याम्भ्यस्ङसिँभ्याम्भ्यस्ङसोसाम्ङ्योस्सुप्। As per 2-3-19 सहयुक्तेऽप्रधाने – A third case affix (‘टा’, ‘भ्याम्’, ‘भिस्’) is used following a प्रातिपदिकम् (nominal stem) co-occurring with सह or a synonym of सह, provided the प्रातिपदिकम् does not denote the primary (agent.)

See question 1.

(2) रमा + आ । अनुबन्ध-लोपः by 1-3-7 चुटू, 1-3-9 तस्य लोपः

(3) रमे + आ । By 7-3-105 आङि चापः – ‘आप्’ ending bases get the letter ‘ए’ as the substitute when followed by the affix ‘आङ्’ (‘टा’) or ‘ओस्’। Note: As per the परिभाषा-सूत्रम् 1-1-52 अलोऽन्त्यस्य only the ending letter ‘आ’ of the base ‘रमा’ is replaced by ‘ए’।

(4) रमया । By 6-1-78 एचोऽयवायावः

Questions:

1. Commenting on the सूत्रम् 2-3-19 सहयुक्तेऽप्रधाने the सिद्धान्तकौमुदी says – विनापि तद्योगं तृतीया। ’1-2-65 वृद्धो यूना तल्लक्षणश्चेदेव विशेषः’ इत्यादिनिर्देशात्। Please explain.

2. Which कृत् affix is used to derive the प्रातिपदिकम् ‘रमा’? (Hint: The विग्रह-वाक्यम् is रमयतीति रमा।)

3. Which सूत्रम् prescribes the दीर्घादेश: (elongation) in the प्रातिपदिकम् ‘गृहीत’ (used as part of the compound गृहीतगुणावतारः)?

4. What prevents the सूत्रम् 7-2-116 अत उपधायाः from applying in the derivation of the प्रातिपदिकम् ‘विक्रम’ (used as part of the compound स्वविक्रमम्)?

5. In how many places in the verses has the substitution ‘शतृँ’ (in place of ‘लँट्’) been used?

6. How would you say this in Sanskrit?
“For how many years have you lived here with your family?”

Easy questions:

1. Which सूत्रम् prescribes the augment इट् in करिष्यति?

2. Can you spot the augment सीयुट् in the verses?

 

Today we will look at the form ऋषिभिः-mIp from from श्रीमद्भागवतम् 3.24.9.

तत्कर्दमाश्रमपदं सरस्वत्या परिश्रितम् । स्वयम्भूः साकमृषिभिर्मरीच्यादिभिरभ्ययात् ।। ३-२४-९ ।।
भगवन्तं परं ब्रह्म सत्त्वेनांशेन शत्रुहन् । तत्त्वसङ्ख्यानविज्ञप्त्यै जातं विद्वानजः स्वराट् ।। ३-२४-१० ।।

परिश्रितं परिवेष्टितम् ।। ९ ।। आगत्य किं कृतवांस्तदाह – भगवन्तमिति द्वाभ्याम् । तत्त्वानां संख्यानं यस्मिंस्तस्य सांख्यस्य विज्ञप्त्यै विशेषेण ज्ञापनाय भगवन्तं जातं विद्वानजो ब्रह्मा स्वराट् स्वतःसिद्धज्ञानस्तस्य चिकीर्षितं सभाजयन् पूजयन् प्रहृष्यमाणैरसुभिरिन्द्रियैरुपलक्षितः कर्दमं चेदमभ्यधादिति द्वयोरन्वयः । चकाराद्देवहूतिं च ।। १० ।।

Gita Press translation – Brahmā (the self-born) went along with Marīci and the other sages to that (celebrated) hermitage of Kardama surrounded by the river Saraswatī (9). Brahmā, who is naturally possessed of true wisdom, already knew that the Lord, who is no other than the supreme Brahma, had descended through pure Sattva for imparting the knowledge of the Sāṅkhya system of philosophy (which determines the nature of the fundamental principles), O vanquisher of foes (10).

ऋषिभिः is तृतीया-बहुवचनम् of the पुंलिङ्ग-प्रातिपदिकम् ‘ऋषि’।

(1) ऋषि + भिस् । By 4-1-2 स्वौजसमौट्छष्टाभ्याम्भिस्ङेभ्याम्भ्यस्ङसिँभ्याम्भ्यस्ङसोसाम्ङ्योस्सुप्। As per 2-3-19 सहयुक्तेऽप्रधाने – A third case affix (‘टा’, ‘भ्याम्’, ‘भिस्’) is used following a प्रातिपदिकम् (nominal stem) co-occurring with सह or a synonym of सह, provided the प्रातिपदिकम् does not denote the primary (agent.) Note: ‘सहेनाप्रधाने’ इत्येव वाच्ये युक्तग्रहणादर्थग्रहणम्। सहार्थकशब्दा: सह–साकं–सार्धमित्यादय:। If पाणिनि: did not want to include the synonyms of सह he could have composed the सूत्रम् as सहेनाप्रधाने। The fact that he has included युक्ते in the सूत्रम् tells us that it applies not only when सह itself is used but also when a synonym of सह is used. The synonyms of सह are साकम्, सार्धम्, समम् etc. In the present example ऋषिभिः is co-occurring with साकम् which is a synonym of सह।

Note: 1-3-4 न विभक्तौ तुस्माः prevents the ending letter ‘स्’ of the affix ‘भिस्’ from getting the इत्-सञ्ज्ञा।

(2) ऋषिभिः । रुँत्व-विसर्गौ by 8-2-66 ससजुषो रुः and 8-3-15 खरवसानयोर्विसर्जनीयः

Questions:

1. Where has the सूत्रम् 2-3-19 सहयुक्तेऽप्रधाने been used in Chapter Thirteen of the गीता?

2. Which सूत्रम् prescribes the substitution ‘वसुँ’ (in place of ‘शतृँ’) in the form विद्वान्?

3. Can you spot the affix ‘क्तवतुँ’ in the commentary?

4. In which word in the commentary has the affix सिँच् taken the लुक् elision?

5. What is an alternate form for आगत्य (used in the commentary)?

6. How would you say this in Sanskrit?
“Śrī Kṛṣṇa sported with the gopīs on the bank of the Yamunā.”

Easy questions:

1. What prevents the सूत्रम् 8-2-7 नलोपः प्रातिपदिकान्तस्य from deleting the letter ‘न्’ at the end of (हे) शत्रुहन्?

2. Where has the सूत्रम् 8-2-36 व्रश्चभ्रस्जसृजमृजयजराजभ्राजच्छशां षः been applied in the verses?

 

Today we will look at the form वैदेह्या fIs from रघुवंशम् verse 12-20.

रामोऽपि सह वैदेह्या वने वन्येन वर्तयन् ।
चचार सानुजः शान्तो वृद्धेक्ष्वाकुव्रतं युवा॥ 12-20॥

टीका -
सानुजः शान्तः रामोऽपि वैदेह्या सह वने वन्येन वनभवेन कन्दमूलादिना वर्तयन् वृत्तिं कुर्वञ्जीवन् वृद्धेक्ष्वाकूणां व्रतं वनवासात्मकं [वृद्धक्ष्वाकुव्रतं ] युवा यौवनस्थ: एव चचार ।।

Translation – Rāma, too with Sītā, sustaining there in the forest on forest-food, took up with his younger brother, with a mind becalmed even while in youth, the vows that bind the Ikṣvākus in their old age (20).

The above verse has been discussed in detail in the Thursday class on September 8, 2011 –  Video

वैदेह्या is तृतीया-एकवचनम् of the स्त्रीलिङ्ग-प्रातिपदिकम् ‘वैदेही’।

(1) वैदेही + टा । By 4-1-2 स्वौजसमौट्छष्टाभ्याम्भिस्ङेभ्याम्भ्यस्ङसिँभ्याम्भ्यस्ङसोसाम्ङ्योस्सुप्। As per 2-3-19 सहयुक्तेऽप्रधाने – A third case affix (‘टा’, ‘भ्याम्’, ‘भिस्’) is used following a प्रातिपदिकम् (nominal stem) co-occurring with सह or a synonym of सह, provided the प्रातिपदिकम् does not denote the primary (agent.)

See question 2.

(2) वैदेही + आ । अनुबन्ध-लोपः by 1-3-7 चुटू, 1-3-9 तस्य लोपः

(3) वैदेह्या । By 6-1-77 इको यणचि

Questions:

1. Where has the सूत्रम् 2-3-19 सहयुक्तेऽप्रधाने been used for the first time in the गीता?

2. In the सिद्धान्तकौमुदी the वृत्ति: of the सूत्रम् 2-3-19 सहयुक्तेऽप्रधाने reads सहार्थेन युक्ते अप्रधाने तृतीया स्‍यात् । Commenting on the word सहार्थेन used in the वृत्ति: the तत्त्वबोधिनी commentary says – ‘सहेनाप्रधाने’ इत्येव वाच्ये युक्तग्रहणादर्थग्रहणमित्याह– सहार्थेनेति। सहार्थकशब्देन सह–साकं–सार्धमित्यादिनेत्यर्थः। Please explain.

3. Which सूत्रम् prescribes the दीर्घादेश: (elongation) in the form शान्त:?

4. Can you spot the affix ‘क’ in the commentary?

5. Which कृत् affix is used to form the प्रातिपदिकम् ‘अनुज’ (used as part of the compound सानुज: in the verses)?

6. How would you say this in Sanskrit?
“Śrī Kṛṣṇa went to Mathurā with Balarāma.”

Easy questions:

1. Where has the सूत्रम् 6-4-8 सर्वनामस्थाने चासम्बुद्धौ been used in the verses?

2. Which सूत्रम् is applied to perform the following operation (in the commentary) – कुर्वन् + जीवन् = कुर्वञ्जीवन्?

 

Today we will look at the form मासेन mIs from श्रीमद्भागवतम् 3.31.3.

मासेन तु शिरो द्वाभ्यां बाह्वङ्घ्र्याद्यङ्गविग्रहः । नखलोमास्थिचर्माणि लिङ्गच्छिद्रोद्भवस्त्रिभिः ।। ३-३१-३ ।।
चतुर्भिर्धातवः सप्त पञ्चभिः क्षुत्तृडुद्भवः । षड्भिर्जरायुणा वीतः कुक्षौ भ्राम्यति दक्षिणे ।। ३-३१-४ ।।

श्रीधर-स्वामि-टीका
बाह्वङ्घ्र्यादीनामङ्गानां विग्रहो विभागः । लिङ्गं च छिद्राणि च तेषामुद्भवः ।। ३ ।। जरायुणा गर्भवेष्टनेन वीतः प्रावृतः ।। ४ ।।

Gita Press translation – In the course of a month a head is formed and the end of two months hands, feet and other limbs take shape. By the end of three months the nails (of fingers and toes), the hair on the body (those of eyes, nostrils, ears, mouth and anus) (3). In as many as four months the seven essential ingredients of the body (viz., chyle, blood, flesh, fat, bone, marrow and semen) come into being; while at the end of five months hunger and thirst make themselves felt. In the course of six months the fetus is enclosed by an amnion and begins to move in the right side of the abdomen (or in the left if it is a female) (4).

मासेन is तृतीया-एकवचनम् of the पुंलिङ्ग-प्रातिपदिकम् ‘मास’।

(1) मास + टा । By 4-1-2 स्वौजसमौट्छष्टाभ्याम्भिस्ङेभ्याम्भ्यस्ङसिँभ्याम्भ्यस्ङसोसाम्ङ्योस्सुप्। As per 2-3-6 अपवर्गे तृतीया – A third case affix (‘टा’, ‘भ्याम्’, ‘भिस्’) is used following a प्रातिपदिकम् (nominal stem) denoting (measure of) time or (measure of) path/road when there is continuous connection with an action and completion of the action (i.e. attainment of the result) is meant.

See question 2.

(2) मास + इन । अनुबन्ध-लोपः by 7-1-12 टाङसिँङसामिनात्स्या: – Following a अङ्गम् ending in the letter ‘अ’, the affixes ‘टा’, ‘ङसिँ’ and ‘ङस्’ are replaced respectively by ‘इन’, ‘आत्’ and ‘स्य’।

(3) मासेन । By 6-1-87 आद्गुणः

Questions:

1. Where else (besides in मासेन) has the सूत्रम् 2-3-6 अपवर्गे तृतीया been used in the verses?

2. The third case affix prescribed by the सूत्रम् 2-3-6 अपवर्गे तृतीया is a अपवाद: (exception) to which case affix prescribed by which सूत्रम्?

3. After quoting the example अह्ना क्रोशेन वानुवाकोऽधीत: on the सूत्रम् 2-3-6 अपवर्गे तृतीया the सिद्धान्तकौमुदी makes the comment – अपवर्गे किम्? मासमधीतो नायात:। Please explain this comment.

4. Which सूत्रम् prescribes the affix अप् to derive the प्रातिपदिकम् ‘उद्भव’ (used as part of the compound क्षुत्तृडुद्भवः in the verses)?

5. How would you say this in Sanskrit?
“I will be back in a second.” Use the verbal root √वृत् (वृतुँ वर्तने १. ८६२) preceded by the उपसर्ग: ‘नि’ for ‘to come back.’

6. How would you say this in Sanskrit?
“Over the course of five years, we will complete the study of grammar.” Paraphrase to “Over the course of five years, we will take the study of grammar to completion.”

Easy questions:

1. Which सूत्रम् prescribes the दीर्घादेश: (elongation) in the form भ्राम्यति?

2. Where has the सूत्रम् 7-3-102 सुपि च been used in the verses?

 

Today we will look at the form नाम्ना nIs from श्रीमद्भागवतम् 1.3.24.

नरदेवत्वमापन्नः सुरकार्यचिकीर्षया । समुद्रनिग्रहादीनि चक्रे वीर्याण्यतः परम् ।। १-३-२२ ।।
एकोनविंशे विंशतिमे वृष्णिषु प्राप्य जन्मनी । रामकृष्णाविति भुवो भगवानहरद्भरम् ।। १-३-२३ ।।
ततः कलौ सम्प्रवृत्ते सम्मोहाय सुरद्विषाम् । बुद्धो नाम्नाजनसुतः कीकटेषु भविष्यति ।। १-३-२४ ।।

श्रीधर-स्वामि-टीका
रामावतारमाह – नरेति । नरदेवत्वं राघवरूपेण प्राप्तः सन् । अतः परमष्टादशे ।। २२ ।। रामकृष्णावतारमाह – एकोनेति विंशतितम इति वक्तव्ये तकारलोपश्छन्दोनुरोधेन । रामकृष्णावित्येवंनामनी जन्मनी प्राप्य ।। २३ ।। बुद्धावतारमाह – तत इति । अजनस्य सुतः । ‘जिनसुत’ इति पाठे जिनोऽपि स एव । कीकटेषु मध्ये गयाप्रदेशे ।। २४ ।।

Gita Press translation – Then again (in the eighteenth descent) He assumed the form of a ruler of men (Śrī Rāma) with a view to accomplishing the purpose of the gods and performed heroic feats like bridging the ocean and so on (22). In the nineteenth and the twentieth the Lord was born among the Vṛṣṇis as Balarāma and Śrī Kṛṣṇa and relived the earth of its burden (23). When Kali sets in, He will be born in Magadha (North Bihar) as Buddha, son of Ajana, with a view to deluding the enemies of gods (24).

नाम्ना is तृतीया-एकवचनम् of the नपुंसकलिङ्ग-प्रातिपदिकम् ‘नामन्’।

(1) नामन् + टा । By 4-1-2 स्वौजसमौट्छष्टाभ्याम्भिस्ङेभ्याम्भ्यस्ङसिँभ्याम्भ्यस्ङसोसाम्ङ्योस्सुप्। As per the वार्तिकम् (under 2-3-18 कर्तृकरणयोस्तृतीया) प्रकृत्यादिभ्य उपसङ्ख्यानम् – A third case affix (‘टा’, ‘भ्याम्’, ‘भिस्’) is used following the प्रातिपदिकानि (nominal stems) ‘प्रकृति’ etc. The list ‘प्रकृति’ etc is a आकृति-गण: – which is a class or group of words in which some words are actually mentioned and room is left to include others which are found undergoing the same operations. तेन ‘नाम्ना सुतीक्ष्णश्चरितेन दान्त:’ इत्यादि सिद्धम्। This explains usages such as ‘नाम्ना सुतीक्ष्ण: Sutīkṣṇa by name’ and ‘चरितेन दान्त: naturally restrained.’

(2) नामन् + आ । अनुबन्ध-लोपः by 1-3-7 चुटू and 1-3-9 तस्य लोपः।

(3) नाम् न् + आ = नाम्ना । By 6-4-134 अल्लोपोऽनः – There is an elision of the letter ‘अ’ of ‘अन्’ when
i) the ‘अन्’ belongs to a अङ्गम् and
ii) the ‘अन्’ is (immediately) followed by a स्वादि-प्रत्यय: which is not सर्वनामस्थानम् and which either begins with the letter ‘य्’ or a vowel (अच्)।

Questions:

1. Where has the वार्तिकम् (under 2-3-18 कर्तृकरणयोस्तृतीया) प्रकृत्यादिभ्य उपसङ्ख्यानम् been used in Chapter Six of the गीता?

2. From which verbal root is the प्रातिपदिकम् ‘चिकीर्षा’ (used a part of the compound सुरकार्यचिकीर्षया) derived?

3. Can you spot the substitution ‘ल्यप्’ (in place of ‘क्त्वा’) in the verses?

4. Which सूत्रम् is used to form the प्रातिपदिकम् ‘अवतार’ (used as part of the compound रामावतारम् in the commentary)?

5. How would use say this in Sanskrit?
“My name is Satish.” Paraphrase to “I am Satish by name.”

6. How would use say this in Sanskrit?
“People who live in India are vegetarian for the most part.”

Easy questions:

1. Which सूत्रम् prescribes the affix ‘स्य’ in भविष्यति?

2. Is there an alternate form for जन्मनी (नपुंसकलिङ्ग-प्रातिपदिकम् ‘जन्मन्’, द्वितीया-द्विवचनम्)?

 

Today we will look at the form पुष्पैः nIp from श्रीमद्भागवतम् 10.16.29.

तस्याक्षिभिर्गरलमुद्वमतः शिरस्सु यद्यत्समुन्नमति निःश्वसतो रुषोच्चैः । नृत्यन्पदानुनमयन्दमयाम्बभूव पुष्पैः प्रपूजित इवेह पुमान्पुराणः ।। १०-१६-२९ ।। तच्चित्रताण्डवविरुग्णफणातपत्रो रक्तं मुखैरुरु वमन्नृप भग्नगात्रः । स्मृत्वा चराचरगुरुं पुरुषं पुराणं नारायणं तमरणं मनसा जगाम ।। १०-१६-३० ।।

श्रीधर-स्वामि-टीका
पुनरपि रुषा उच्चैर्निःश्वसतो यद्यत्समुन्नमति तत्तत्पदाघातेनानुनमयन्निहास्मिन्नवसरे हृष्टैर्गन्धर्वादिभिः शेषासनः पुराणः पुरुष इव यशोदानन्दनः पुष्पैः प्रपूजितः । यद्वा तदा गन्धर्वादिभिः पुष्पैः प्रपूजितो गोपैः पुराणः पुमानिव दृष्ट इति । यद्वा पुष्पैः प्रपूजित इव प्रसन्नः सन्दमयाम्बभूव ।। २९ ।। अरणं शरणम् ।। ३० ।।

Gita Press translation – Continuing to dance (with untiring zeal) Śrī Kṛṣṇa (the most ancient Person) subdued the cobra, successively bending under His foot whichever of the heads of the snake – that was ejecting poison through its eyes and violently hissing in rage – would rise itself. (With His feet bespattered with the drops of blood ejected from the eyes of the serpent) the Lord appeared as though devotedly worshipped with flowers (29). With its umbrella-like hoods crushed by the Lord’s weird dance and its limbs shattered (due to the expansion of Śrī Kṛṣṇa’s body,) and spouting copious blood through its mouths, the serpent (now) thought of Lord Nārāyaṇa, the most ancient Person, the adored of the mobile as well as of the immobile creation, and mentally sought Him as its protector (30).

पुष्पैः is तृतीया-बहुवचनम् of the नपुंसकलिङ्ग-प्रातिपदिकम् ‘पुष्प’।
Here ‘पुष्प’ has the करण-सञ्ज्ञा by the 1-4-42 साधकतमं करणम् – That कारकम् (participant in the action) which is most effective/helpful in accomplishing the action gets the designation करणम् (instrument.) Note: The instrument is the most effective/helpful in accomplishing the action because immediately after the use of the instrument the action is accomplished.

The participle प्रपूजितः has expressed the object पुराणः पुमान् (श्रीकृष्णः)। The instrument ‘पुष्प’ has not been expressed. Hence ‘पुष्प’ takes the third case affix (‘भिस्’) by 2-3-18 कर्तृकरणयोस्तृतीया – A third case affix (‘टा’, ‘भ्याम्’, ‘भिस्’) is used to denote कर्ता (the doer of the action) as well as करणम् (the instrument of the action) provided the doer/instrument has not been expressed otherwise.

(1) पुष्प + भिस् । By 4-1-2 स्वौजसमौट्छष्टाभ्याम्भिस्ङेभ्याम्भ्यस्ङसिँभ्याम्भ्यस्ङसोसाम्ङ्योस्सुप्, 2-3-18 कर्तृकरणयोस्तृतीया

(2) पुष्प + ऐस् । By 7-1-9 अतो भिस ऐस् – Following a अङ्गम् ending in the letter ‘अ’, the affix ‘भिस्’ is replaced by ‘ऐस्’। As per the परिभाषा-सूत्रम् 1-1-55 अनेकाल्शित्सर्वस्य the entire affix ‘भिस्’ is replaced by ‘ऐस्’। 1-3-4 न विभक्तौ तुस्माः prevents the ending letter ‘स्’ of ‘ऐस्’ from getting the इत्-सञ्ज्ञा।

(3) पुष्पैस् । By 6-1-88 वृद्धिरेचि

(4) पुष्पैः । रुँत्व-विसर्गौ by 8-2-66 ससजुषो रुः and 8-3-15 खरवसानयोर्विसर्जनीयः

Questions:

1. In the last verse of which chapter(s) of the गीता has a third case affix been used करणे (to denote the instrument of the action)?

2. In which other words (besides पुष्पैः) in the verses has a third case affix been used करणे (to denote the instrument of the action)?

3. Where has the सूत्रम् 6-4-52 निष्ठायां सेटि been used in the verses?

4. In which of the following senses has the first case affix been used in उच्चैः?
(i) प्रातिपदिकार्थमात्रे (ii) लिङ्गमात्राधिक्‍ये (iii) परिमाणमात्राधिक्‍ये (iv) वचनमात्रे

5. Which सूत्रम् prescribes the substitution ‘न्’ in प्रसन्नः (used in the commentary)?

6. How would you say this in Sanskrit?
“Some have attained liberation by renunciation alone, some others by knowledge alone.”

Easy questions:

1. Where has the सूत्रम् 2-4-81 आमः been used in the verses?

2. From which प्रातिपदिकम् is the form पदा (तृतीया-एकवचनम्) derived?

 

Today we will look at the form वायुना mIs from श्रीमद्भागवतम् 1.8.44.

यथा मेढीस्तम्भ आक्रमणपशवः संयोजितास्त्रिभिस्त्रिभिः सवनैर्यथास्थानं मण्डलानि चरन्त्येवं भगणा ग्रहादय एतस्मिन्नन्तर्बहिर्योगेन कालचक्र आयोजिता ध्रुवमेवावलम्ब्य वायुनोदीर्यमाणा आकल्पान्तं परिचङ्क्रमन्ति नभसि यथा मेघाः श्येनादयो वायुवशाः कर्मसारथयः परिवर्तन्ते एवं ज्योतिर्गणाः प्रकृतिपुरुषसंयोगानुगृहीताः कर्मनिर्मितगतयो भुवि न पतन्ति ॥ ५-२३-३ ॥

श्रीधर-स्वामि-टीका
मेढीस्तम्भे बद्धा धान्याक्रमणपशवो बलीवर्दाः । कर्म सारथिः सहायो येषाम् ॥ ३ ॥

Gita Press translation – Just as (pairs of) oxen, trampling corn (in order to thresh it) while (remaining) tied to a post in the middle of a threshing-floor, walk round in their respective spheres, in three circles (gradually receding from that post,) so the host of luminaries including the planets – fastened as they are to the aforesaid wheel (revolving movement) of Time either in the inner circle (remote from the earth) or in the outer one (nearer the earth) and propelled by the wind (called Pravaha and referred to passage 8 of the Discourse XXI) – revolve round the pole-star as the pivot till the end of a Kalpa (the life-time of the three worlds) in three courses (northward, southward and along the equator.) (And just) as clouds and birds such as the hawk move about in the sky, suspended in the air and helped by their destiny (which keeps them floating in the air and prevents them from falling down,) so the hosts of luminaries (which are no other than particular Jīvas appearing in those form) – brought into existence by the union of matter and Spirit (occasioned by the destiny responsible for their assuming such forms) and reaping the fruit yielded by their (past) actions – (move about in the air and) do not fall to the ground (3).

This verse has appeared previously in the following post – http://avg-sanskrit.org/2012/07/31/परिचङ्क्रमन्ति-3ap-लँट्/

वायुना is तृतीया-एकवचनम् of the पुंलिङ्ग-प्रातिपदिकम् ‘वायु’।
Here ‘वायु’ has the कर्तृ-सञ्ज्ञा by the 1-4-54 स्वतन्त्रः कर्ता। The participle उदीर्यमाणा: has expressed the object भगणा: and not ‘वायु’। Hence ‘वायु’ takes the third case affix (‘टा’) by the सूत्रम् 2-3-18 कर्तृकरणयोस्तृतीया – A third case affix (‘टा’, ‘भ्याम्’, ‘भिस्’) is used to denote कर्ता (the doer of the action) as well as करणम् (the instrument of the action) provided the doer/instrument has not been expressed otherwise.

(1) वायु + टा । By 4-1-2 स्वौजसमौट्छष्टाभ्याम्भिस्ङेभ्याम्भ्यस्ङसिँभ्याम्भ्यस्ङसोसाम्ङ्योस्सुप्, 2-3-18 कर्तृकरणयोस्तृतीया। ‘वायु’ gets the घि-सञ्ज्ञा by 1-4-7 शेषो घ्यसखि।

(2) वायु + आ । अनुबन्ध-लोपः by 1-3-7 चुटू and 1-3-9 तस्य लोपः।

(3) वायुना । By 7-3-120 आङो नाऽस्त्रियाम् – Following a अङ्गम् having घि-सञ्ज्ञा, the affix ‘आङ्’ is replaced by ‘ना’, but not in the feminine gender. ‘आङ्’ is an ancient name for the (instrumental singular) affix ‘टा’।

Questions:

1. Where has the सूत्रम् 2-3-18 कर्तृकरणयोस्तृतीया been used for the last time in the गीता?

2. Commenting on the सूत्रम् 2-3-18 कर्तृकरणयोस्तृतीया the तत्त्वबोधिनी says – अनभिहिते किम्? हरि: करोति। Please explain.

3. Where has the सूत्रम् 7-1-37 समासेऽनञ्पूर्वे क्त्वो ल्यप्‌ been used in the verses?

4. Which सूत्रम् prescribes the elision of the letter ‘न्’ in बद्धा: (used in the commentary)?

5. How would you say this in Sanskrit?
“Rāvaṇa was killed by Śrī Rāma.”

6. How would you say this in Sanskrit?
“We are all being propelled by destiny.” Use the neuter प्रातिपदिकम् ‘दैव’ for ‘destiny.’

Easy questions:

1. Where has the सूत्रम् 6-4-77 अचि श्नुधातुभ्रुवां य्वोरियङुवङौ been used in the verses?

2. Which सूत्रम् prescribes the substitution ‘अन्त्’ in परिवर्तन्ते?

 

Today we will look at the form मन्दम् nAs from श्रीमद्भागवतम् 1.8.44.

सूत उवाच
पृथयेत्थं कलपदैः परिणूताखिलोदयः । मन्दं जहास वैकुण्ठो मोहयन्निव मायया ।। १-८-४४ ।।
तां बाढमित्युपामन्त्र्य प्रविश्य गजसाह्वयम् । स्त्रियश्च स्वपुरं यास्यन्प्रेम्णा राज्ञा निवारितः ।। १-८-४५ ।।

श्रीधर-स्वामि-टीका
कलानि मधुराणि पदानि येषु तैर्वाक्यैः परिणूतः स्तुतोऽखिल उदयो महिमा यस्य सः । णु स्तुतावित्यस्मात् । परिणुतेति वक्तव्ये दीर्घश्छन्दोनुरोधेन । मन्दमीषत् । तस्य हास एव माया । वक्ष्यति हि ‘हासो जनोन्मादकरी च माया’ इति ।। ४४ ।। त्वयि मेऽनन्यविषया मतिरिति यत्प्रार्थितं तद्बाढमित्यङ्गीकृत्य रथस्थानाद्गजसाह्वयमागत्य पश्चात्तां चान्याश्च सुभद्राप्रमुखाः स्त्रिय उपामन्त्र्यानुज्ञाप्य स्वपुरं यास्यन् राज्ञा युधिष्ठिरेण प्रेम्णाऽत्रैव किंचित्कालं निवसेति संप्रार्थ्य निवारितः ।। ४५ ।।

Gita Press translation – Sūta went on: In this way when Pṛthā (Kuntī) extolled in sweet words the consummate glory of Lord Vaikuṇṭha (Śrī Kṛṣṇa,) He gently smiled as if bewitching her by His Māyā (deluding potency) (44). “So be it,” said Śrī Kṛṣṇa and, taking leave of her, entered the city of Hastināpura once again; then, after bidding adieu to the other ladies as well, He was about to leave for Dwārakā when king Yudhiṣṭhira detained Him out of love (45).

मन्दम् is नपुंसकलिङ्गे द्वितीया-एकवचनम् of the adjective प्रातिपदिकम् ‘मन्द’।

‘मन्द’ gets the designation कर्म by the वार्तिकम् (under 2-4-18 अव्ययीभावश्च in the काशिका) क्रियाविशेषणानां कर्मत्वं नपुंसकत्वमेकवचनान्तत्वं चेष्यते – Adverbs are treated as having the designation कर्म (object) and are used in the neuter singular.

(1) मन्द + अम् । By 4-1-2 स्वौजसमौट्छष्टाभ्याम्भिस्ङेभ्याम्भ्यस्ङसिँभ्याम्भ्यस्ङसोसाम्ङ्योस्सुप्, वार्तिकम् (under 2-4-18 अव्ययीभावश्च in the काशिका) क्रियाविशेषणानां कर्मत्वं नपुंसकत्वमेकवचनान्तत्वं चेष्यते, 2-3-2 कर्मणि द्वितीया

(2) मन्द + अम् । By 7-1-24 अतोऽम् – The affixes ‘सुँ’ and ‘अम्’ that follow a neuter अङ्गम् ending in the short vowel ‘अ’ take ‘अम्’ as their replacement. 1-3-4 न विभक्तौ तुस्माः prevents the ending letter ‘म्’ of the affix ‘अम्’ from getting the इत्-सञ्ज्ञा । Note: 7-1-24 अतोऽम् is required here to prevent 7-1-23 स्वमोर्नपुंसकात्‌ from applying.

(3) मन्दम् । By 6-1-107 अमि पूर्वः – In place of a preceding अक् letter and the following vowel (अच्) belonging to the affix ‘अम्’ there is a single substitute of that preceding अक् letter.

Questions:

1. Where has the वार्तिकम् (under 2-4-18 अव्ययीभावश्च in the काशिका) क्रियाविशेषणानां कर्मत्वं नपुंसकत्वमेकवचनान्तत्वं चेष्यते been used in the first five verses of Chapter Five of the गीता?

2. Why is the form ‘परिणूत’ (used as part of the compound परिणूताखिलोदयः) a आर्ष-प्रयोग: (irregular grammatical usage)?

3. Where has the सूत्रम् 3-3-14 लृटः सद् वा been used in the verses?

4. Can you spot the affix ‘ट’ in the commentary?

5. Is there an alternate form for आगत्य (used in the commentary)?

6. How would you say this in Sanskrit?
“My mother is a good cook.” Paraphrase to “My mother cooks well (in a good manner.)” Use the प्रातिपदिकम् ‘शोभन’ (meaning ‘good’) as an adverb.

Easy questions:

1. Where has the सूत्रम् 6-4-134 अल्लोपोऽनः been used in the verses?

2. In the commentary, can you spot a word in which the affix ‘हि’ has taken the लुक् elision?

 

Today we will look at the form सप्ताहम् mAs from श्रीमद्भागवतम् 10.46.25.

श्रीधर-स्वामि-टीका
कंसं नागायुतप्राणं मल्लौ गजपतिं तथा । अवधिष्टां लीलयैव पशूनिव मृगाधिपः ।। १०-४६-२४ ।।
तालत्रयं महासारं धनुर्यष्टिमिवेभराट् । बभञ्जैकेन हस्तेन सप्ताहमदधाद्गिरिम् ।। १०-४६-२५ ।।

न केवलं तद्वचनानुसारेणैव व्यवहारसंवादादपीत्याह – कंसमिति ।। २४ ।। इभराड्यष्टिमिव तालत्रयप्रमाणं धनुर्बभञ्ज ।। २५ ।।

Gita Press translation – They killed in mere sport Kaṁsa, who possessed the strength of (not less than) ten thousand elephants, and (his) two (principal) wrestlers (Cāṇūra and Muṣṭika) as well as Kuvalayapīḍa (the chief of his elephants) (just) as a lion (the king of beasts) would kill (a number of) animals (24). Kṛṣṇa snapped the most powerful bow (of Kaṁsa) measuring 3 Tālas (equivalent to 27 spans), (even) as a leader of elephants would break a sugarcane, and held the (Govardhana) hill with one hand for a (full) week (25).

सप्ताहम् is द्वितीया-एकवचनम् of the पुंलिङ्ग-प्रातिपदिकम् ‘सप्ताह’।

‘सप्ताह’ gets the द्वितीया-विभक्तिः by 2-3-5 कालाध्वनोरत्यन्तसंयोगे – A second case affix (‘अम्’, ‘औट्’, ‘शस्’) is used following a प्रातिपदिकम् (nominal stem) denoting (measure of) time or (measure of) path/road when continuous connection (with a quality or action or thing) is meant.

(1) सप्ताह + अम् । By 4-1-2 स्वौजसमौट्छष्टाभ्याम्भिस्ङेभ्याम्भ्यस्ङसिभ्याम्भ्यस्ङसोसाम्ङ्योस्सुप्‌, 2-3-5 कालाध्वनोरत्यन्तसंयोगे1-3-4 न विभक्तौ तुस्माः prevents the ending letter ‘म्’ of the affix ‘अम्’ from getting the इत्-सञ्ज्ञा।

(2) सप्ताहम् । By 6-1-107 अमि पूर्व: – In place of a preceding letter ‘अक्’ and the following vowel (‘अच्’) belonging to the affix ‘अम्’ there is a single substitute of that preceding अक् letter.

Questions:

1. Where has the सूत्रम् 2-3-5 कालाध्वनोरत्यन्तसंयो been used in the last ten verses of Chapter Six of the Geeta?

2. Commenting on the सूत्रम् 2-3-5 कालाध्वनोरत्यन्तसंयो the सिद्धान्त-कौमुदी says – अत्यन्तसंयोगे किम्? मासस्य द्विरधीते। Please explain.

3. Which सूत्रम् is used to justify the affix क्विँप् used to compose the प्रातिपदिकम् ‘राज्’ (used in the compound इभराट्)?

4. Which कृत् affix is used to compose the प्रातिपदिकम् ‘अधिप’ (used as part of the compound मृगाधिपः)?

5. How would you say this in Sanskrit?
“(Please) wait for a second.” Paraphrase to passive (भावे प्रयोग:) – “Let it be waited for a second.” Use the verbal root √स्था (ष्ठा गतिनिवृत्तौ १. १०७७) for ‘to wait.’

6. How would you say this in Sanskrit?
“Śrī Rāma lived in the forest for fourteen years.”

Easy questions:

1. Which सूत्रम् prescribes the substitution ‘वध’ in अवधिष्टाम्?

2. Where has the सूत्रम् 6-1-8 लिटि धातोरनभ्यासस्य been used in the verses?

 

Today we will look at the form महदनुग्रहम् mAs from श्रीमद्भागवतम् 3.31.15

यन्माययोरुगुणकर्मनिबन्धनेऽस्मिन् सांसारिके पथि चरंस्तदभिश्रमेण ।
नष्टस्मृतिः पुनरयं प्रवृणीत लोकं युक्त्या कया महदनुग्रहमन्तरेण ।। ३-३१-१५ ।।

श्रीधर-स्वामि-टीका
ननु ज्ञानेनायं बन्धो निवर्तिष्यते किं परमेश्वरवन्दनेन तत्राह । यस्य मायया नष्टस्मृतिः सन् संसारसंबन्धिनि पथि तदभिश्रमेण तत्कृतेन क्लेशेन चरन्नयं जीवो महतस्तस्यैवेश्वरस्यानुग्रहं विना पुनः कया युक्त्या लोकं निजस्वरूपं प्रवृणीत संभजेत । अभिश्रमहेतुत्वेन पन्थानं विशिनष्टि उरूणि गुणनिमित्तानि कर्माणि नितरां बन्धनानि यस्मिन् । ईश्वरस्य प्रसादं विना ज्ञानाभावात्स एव सेव्य इत्यर्थः ।। १५ ।।

Gita Press translation – Having forgotten his own self under the influence of the Lord’s Māyā, the embodied soul traverses the path of Saṁsāra (transmigration) – strewn with numerous shackles of Karma, having their source in the three Guṇas – undergoing hardships of many kinds. By what other expedient, then, than through the grace of that Supreme Being can he expect to realize his true nature? (15)

महदनुग्रहम् is द्वितीया-एकवचनम् of the compound पुंलिङ्ग-प्रातिपदिकम् ‘महदनुग्रह’।

(1) महदनुग्रह + अम् । By 4-1-2 स्वौजसमौट्छष्टाभ्याम्भिस्ङेभ्याम्भ्यस्ङसिभ्याम्भ्यस्ङसोसाम्ङ्योस्सुप्‌, 2-3-4 अन्तरान्तरेण युक्ते – A second case affix (‘अम्’, ‘औट्’, ‘शस्’) is used following a प्रातिपदिकम् (nominal stem) co-occurring with ‘अन्तरा’ or ‘अन्तरेण’। Note: As per the महाभाष्यम्, the terms ‘अन्तरा’ and ‘अन्तरेण’ used in the सूत्रम् 2-3-4 have the निपात-सञ्ज्ञा। They also have the अव्यय-सञ्ज्ञा by 1-1-37 स्वरादिनिपातमव्ययम्। (Here अन्तरेण is not the instrumental singular of ‘अन्तर’)।
1-3-4 न विभक्तौ तुस्माः prevents the ending letter ‘म्’ of ‘अम्’ from getting the इत्-सञ्ज्ञा।

(2) महदनुग्रहम् । By 6-1-107 अमि पूर्व: – In place of a preceding letter ‘अक्’ and the following vowel (‘अच्’) belonging to the affix ‘अम्’ there is a single substitute of that preceding अक् letter.

Questions:

1. In how many places has the सूत्रम् 2-3-4 अन्तरान्तरेण युक्ते been used in the गीता?
i) 0
ii) 1
iii) 2
iv) 3

2. Commenting on the सूत्रम् 2-3-4 अन्तरान्तरेण युक्ते the तत्त्वबोधिनी says – युक्तग्रहणान्नेह – ‘अन्तरा त्वां मां कृष्णस्य मूर्तिः’। इह कृष्णान्न द्वितीया, अन्तराशब्दप्रयोगेऽपि अन्तरेत्यनेनानन्वयात्। Please explain.

3. In which word in the verses has the substitution ‘शतृँ’ (in place of लँट्) been used?

4. Can you spot the affix क्तिन् in the verses?

5. Which कृत् affix is used to form the प्रातिपदिकम् ‘अनुग्रह’ (used as part of of the compound प्रातिपदिकम् ‘महदनुग्रह’)?

6. How would you say this in Sanskrit?
“Daśaratha did not want to live without Śrī Rāma.’

Easy questions:

1. Can you spot the affix श्नम् in the commentary?

2. Where has the सूत्रम् 7-1-88 भस्य टेर्लोपः been used in the verses?

© 2011 AVG-Sanskrit Suffusion theme by Sayontan Sinha