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Mar 302015
 

Today we will look at the form अपराह्णे mLs from श्रीमद्भागवतम् 6.8.21.

मां केशवो गदया प्रातरव्याद्गोविन्द आसङ्गवमात्तवेणुः । नारायणः प्राह्ण उदात्तशक्तिर्मध्यन्दिने विष्णुररीन्द्रपाणिः ।। ६-८-२० ।।
देवोऽपराह्णे मधुहोग्रधन्वा सायं त्रिधामावतु माधवो माम् । दोषे हृषीकेश उतार्धरात्रे निशीथ एकोऽवतु पद्मनाभः ।। ६-८-२१ ।।

श्रीधर-स्वामि-टीका
दिनस्य षट्सु भागेषु क्रमेण प्रातरादिसंज्ञेषु रात्रेश्च प्रदोषादिसंज्ञेषु रक्षाप्रार्थनम् - मां केशव इति त्रिभिः । आसङ्गवं सङ्गवमभिव्याप्य ।। २० ।। त्रिधामा ब्रह्मादित्रिमूर्तिः श्रीमाधवःदोषे प्रदोषे आर्धरात्रे अर्धरात्रिपर्यन्ते काले निशीथे चैक एव पद्मनाभोऽवतु ।। २१ ।।

Gita Press translation – May Lord Keśava (the Supreme Deity the Ruler of even Brahmā and Śiva) protect me with His mace in the morning (the first of the six divisions of the day, each consisting of two hours); Śrī Kṛṣṇa (the Protector of cows), who holds a flute (in His hand), through the Saṅgava hours (the second part of the day); Lord Nārāyaṇa (who has His abode in water), who wields an uplifted javelin, in the forenoon and (the all-pervading) Lord Viṣṇu, carrying Sudarśana (the chief of all discuses) in His hand, at midday (20). May Lord Madhusūdana (the Slayer of the demon Madhu), who wields a terrible bow, protect me in the afternoon and Lord Mādhava (the Spouse of Goddess Lakṣmī), manifested in three glorious forms (Brahmā, Viṣṇu and Śiva), at dusk. May Lord Hṛṣīkeśa guard me in the first part of the night (and) Lord Padmanābha (who has a lotus spring from His navel), alone, during the second part (till midnight) as well as at midnight (during the third part) (21).

लौकिक-विग्रह: -
(1) अपरमह्नः = अपराह्ण: – PM (afternoon.)

अलौकिक-विग्रह: -
(2) अपर सुँ + अहन् ङस् । By 2-2-1 पूर्वापराधरोत्तरमेकदेशिनैकाधिकरणे (A पदम् formed by adding a सुँप् affix to) either ‘पूर्व’ (front/prior part) or ‘अपर’ (back/latter part) or ‘अधर’ (lower part) or ‘उत्तर’ (upper part) optionally compounds with a (syntactically related) सुबन्तं (ending in a सुँप् affix) पदम् denoting a single substance/thing consisting of parts and the resulting compound gets the designation तत्पुरुष:।
Note: षष्ठीसमासापवाद: – The compounding prescribed by this सूत्रम् is a अपवाद: (exception) to the षष्ठी-समास: prescribed by the सूत्रम् 2-2-8 षष्ठी।

(3) By 1-2-43 प्रथमानिर्दिष्टं समास उपसर्जनम् – the term ‘अपर सुँ’ gets the designation उपसर्जनम् because in the सूत्रम् 2-2-1 (which prescribes the compounding) term पूर्वापराधरोत्तरम् ends in the nominative case. Hence ‘अपर सुँ’ is placed in the prior position in the compound as per the सूत्रम् 2-2-30 उपसर्जनं पूर्वम्‌ – In a compound a term which has the designation ‘उपसर्जन’ should be placed in the prior position.

Note: ‘अपर सुँ + अहन् ङस्’ gets the designation प्रातिपदिकम्‌ by 1-2-46 कृत्तद्धितसमासाश्च। This allows 2-4-71 to apply in the next step.

(4) अपर + अहन् । By 2-4-71 सुपो धातुप्रातिपदिकयोः – A सुँप् affix takes a लुक् elision when it is a part of a धातुः or a प्रातिपदिकम्।

(5) अपर + अहन् + टच् । By 5-4-91 राजाह:सखिभ्यष्टच्‌ – Following a तत्पुरुष: compound ending in either ‘राजन्’ or ‘अहन्’ or ‘सखि’ the तद्धित: affix टच् is prescribed and this affix becomes the ending member of the compound.

(6) अपर + अहन् + अ । अनुबन्ध-लोपः by 1-3-7 चुटू, 1-3-3 हलन्त्यम्1-3-9 तस्य लोपः।

(7) अपर + अह्न + अ । By 5-4-88 अह्नोऽह्न एतेभ्यः – When followed by the affix ‘टच्’ (prescribed by 5-4-91 राजाह:सखिभ्यष्टच्‌), the word ‘अहन्’ is replaced by ‘अह्न’ provided ‘अहन्’ is preceded by any one of the following -
i) ‘सर्व’
ii) a word denoting a part (of the day)
iii) ‘संख्यात’
iv) a संख्या (numeral)
v) a अव्ययम् (indeclinable)
Note: By 1-1-55 अनेकाल्शित्सर्वस्य, the entire term ‘अहन्’ is replaced by ‘अह्न’।
Note: एतच्छब्देन ‘अहःसर्वैकदेश-’ इति सूत्रस्थाः परामृश्यन्ते – The pronoun ‘एतद्’ (used in the सूत्रम् 5-4-88 अह्नोऽह्न एतेभ्यः) refers to the terms listed in the सूत्रम् 5-4-87 अह:सर्वैकदेशसंख्यातपुण्याच्च रात्रेः। But अहःशब्द इह न गृह्यते, असंभवात् – the word ‘अहन्’ is not included because it is not possible to compound ‘अहन्’ with ‘अहन्’ itself. ‘पुण्य’ is also not included because of the prohibition contained in the सूत्रम् 5-4-90 उत्तमैकाभ्यां च।

(8) अपराह्न + अ । By 6-1-101 अकः सवर्णे दीर्घः

Note: The अङ्गम् ‘अपराह्न’ has the designation ‘भ’ here by 1-4-18 यचि भम्। This allows 6-4-148 to apply in the next step.

(9) अपराह्न् + अ । By 6-4-148 यस्येति च – When the letter ‘ई’ or a ‘तद्धित’ affix follows, the (ending) इ-वर्ण: (letter ‘इ’ or ‘ई’) or the (ending) अवर्ण: (letter ‘अ’ or ‘आ’) of a अङ्गम् with the भ-सञ्ज्ञा takes elision (लोपः)।

(10) अपराह्ण । By 8-4-7 अह्नोऽदन्तात्‌ – The letter ‘न्’ of the term ‘अह्न’ (ref. 5-4-88 अह्नोऽह्न एतेभ्यः) is substituted by the letter ‘ण्’ when preceded by a पूर्वपदम् (prior member of a compound) which ends in the letter ‘अ’ and contains the cause – the letter ‘र्’ – for the substitution.
Note: The प्रथमा विभक्ति: (nominative case ending) used in the word अह्न: (in this सूत्रम् 8-4-7) actually stands for the षष्ठी विभक्ति: (genitive case ending.)

Note: Since ‘अहन्’ is neuter in gender, as per the सूत्रम् 2-4-26 परवल्लिङ्गं द्वन्द्वतत्पुरुषयोः, the compound प्रातिपदिकम् ‘अपराह्ण’ would also be neuter in gender, but the सूत्रम् 2-4-29 रात्राह्नाहाः पुंसि intervenes.

(11) By 2-4-29 रात्राह्नाहाः पुंसि – The gender of a द्वन्द्व:/तत्पुरुष: compound ending in either ‘रात्र’ or ‘अह्न’ or ‘अह’ is always masculine.
Note: The सिद्धान्तकौमुदी makes the point that this सूत्रम् is a अपवाद: (exception) to not only the सूत्रम् 2-4-26 परवल्लिङ्गं द्वन्द्वतत्पुरुषयोः but also to the सूत्रम् 2-4-17 स नपुंसकम्‌।

अपराह्णे is सप्तमी-एकवचनम् of the पुंल्लिङ्ग-प्रातिपदिकम् ‘अपराह्ण’।

(12) अपराह्ण + ङि । By 4-1-2 स्वौजसमौट्छष्टाभ्याम्भिस्ङेभ्याम्भ्यस्ङसिभ्याम्भ्यस्ङसोसाम्ङ्योस्सुप्‌

(13) अपराह्ण + इ । अनुबन्ध-लोपः by 1-3-8 लशक्वतद्धिते and 1-3-9 तस्य लोपः।

(14) अपराह्णे । By 6-1-87 आद्गुणः

Questions:

1. Commenting on the सूत्रम् 2-2-1 पूर्वापराधरोत्तरमेकदेशिनैकाधिकरणे (used in step 2) the सिद्धान्तकौमुदी says – एकदेशिना किम्‌? पूर्वं नाभे: कायस्य। Please explain.

2. Commenting further on the same सूत्रम् 2-2-1 the सिद्धान्तकौमुदी says – एकाधिकरणे किम्‌? पूर्वश्छात्राणाम्‌। Please explain.

3. Can you spot a अव्ययीभाव: compound in the verses?

4. Which सूत्रम् justifies the use of a third case affix in the form गदया used in the verses?

5. From which verbal root is the प्रातिपदिकम् ‘आत्त’ (used as part of the compound आत्तवेणु: in the verses) derived? Hint: Recall the सूत्रम् 7-4-47 अच उपसर्गात्तः which we have seen in a prior post.

6. How would you say this in Sanskrit?
“Let us go to the temple in the afternoon.”

Easy questions:

1. What is the alternate form for षट्सु (used in the commentary)?

2. Where has the सूत्रम् 6-1-110 ङसिङसोश्च been used in the commentary?

Mar 262015
 

Today we will look at the form अपररात्रे mLs from श्रीमद्भागवतम् 6.8.22.

श्रीवत्सधामापररात्र ईशः प्रत्यूष ईशोऽसिधरो जनार्दनः । दामोदरोऽव्यादनुसन्ध्यं प्रभाते विश्वेश्वरो भगवान्कालमूर्तिः ।। ६-८-२२ ।।
चक्रं युगान्तानलतिग्मनेमि भ्रमत्समन्ताद्भगवत्प्रयुक्तम् । दन्दग्धि दन्दग्ध्यरिसैन्यमाशु कक्षं यथा वातसखो हुताशः ।। ६-८-२३ ।।

श्रीधर-स्वामि-टीका
अपररात्रे ईशः श्रीवत्सधामा अवतु । प्रत्यूष ईशः श्रीजनार्दनः । श्रीदामोदरः प्रभाते श्रीविश्वेश्वरोऽनुसन्ध्यम् ।। २२ ।। युगान्तानलवत्तिग्मा तीक्ष्णा नेमिर्यस्य तच्चक्रं भगवता प्रयुक्तं सत् अरिसैन्यं दन्दग्धि दन्दग्धि अतिशयेन दहति । तस्यायं स्वभाव एव, नतु तस्मात्प्रार्थनीयमित्यर्थः । यद्वा दन्दग्धीति लोण्मध्यमपुरुषः । अत्र त्वमेवंभूतं चक्रमिति स्वरूपमुक्त्वा संबोध्य प्रार्थ्यतेऽतिशयेन दहेति । कक्षं शुष्कतृणम् ।। २३ ।।

Gita Press translation – May the Lord bearing the mark of Śrīvatsa (a white curl of hair representing the foot-print of the sage Bhṛgu) on His chest, protect me in the latter (fourth) part of the night; Lord Janārdana (who is supplicated by men), carrying a sword (in His hand), at the close (during the fifth part) of the night; Dāmodara (Lord Śrī Kṛṣṇa as bound at the waist with a string to a wooden mortar used for threshing paddy etc., by mother Yaśodā as a punishment for His childish pranks) at dawn and Lord Viśweśwara (the Ruler of the universe), manifested as the Time-Spirit (or Death), during both twilights (morning and evening) (22). (Addressing Sudarśana, a divine attendant of Lord Viṣṇu, who when commanded by Him, assumes the form of a discus and is employed by Him is destroying His adversaries or the enemies of His devotees,) Revolving all round, (when) hurled by the Lord in the form of a discus with a rim fierce as the fire raging at the time of universal dissolution, (pray,) completely burn, (O) completely burn (my) enemy’s host at once, (even) as fire helped by the wind consumes (a pile of) hay (23).

लौकिक-विग्रह: -
(1) अपरं रात्रे: = अपररात्रः – After mid-night (latter part of the night.)

अलौकिक-विग्रह: -
(2) अपर सुँ + रात्रि ङस् । By 2-2-1 पूर्वापराधरोत्तरमेकदेशिनैकाधिकरणे (A पदम् formed by adding a सुँप् affix to) either ‘पूर्व’ (front/prior part) or ‘अपर’ (back/latter part) or ‘अधर’ (lower part) or ‘उत्तर’ (upper part) optionally compounds with a (syntactically related) सुबन्तं (ending in a सुँप् affix) पदम् denoting a single substance/thing consisting of parts and the resulting compound gets the designation तत्पुरुष:।

See question 1.

(3) By 1-2-43 प्रथमानिर्दिष्टं समास उपसर्जनम् – the term ‘अपर सुँ’ gets the designation उपसर्जनम् because in the सूत्रम् 2-2-1 (which prescribes the compounding) term पूर्वापराधरोत्तरम् ends in the nominative case. Hence ‘अपर सुँ’ is placed in the prior position in the compound as per the सूत्रम् 2-2-30 उपसर्जनं पूर्वम्‌ – In a compound a term which has the designation ‘उपसर्जन’ should be placed in the prior position.

Note: ‘अपर सुँ + रात्रि ङस्’ gets the designation प्रातिपदिकम्‌ by 1-2-46 कृत्तद्धितसमासाश्च। This allows 2-4-71 to apply in the next step.

(4) अपर + रात्रि । By 2-4-71 सुपो धातुप्रातिपदिकयोः – A सुँप् affix takes a लुक् elision when it is a part of a धातुः or a प्रातिपदिकम्।

(5) अपररात्रि + अच् । By 5-4-87 अह:सर्वैकदेशसंख्यातपुण्याच्च रात्रेः – The तद्धित: affix अच् is prescribed following a तत्पुरुष: compound ending in the word ‘रात्रि’ – provided ‘रात्रि’ is preceded by one of the following – and this affix becomes the ending member of the compound -
i) ‘अहन्’
ii) ‘सर्व’
iii) a word denoting a part (of the night)
iv) ‘संख्यात’
v) ‘पुण्य’
vi) a संख्या (numeral)
vii) a अव्ययम् (indeclinable)
Note: अहर्ग्रहणं द्वन्द्वार्थम् – The mention of ‘अहन्’ in this सूत्रम् is for the purpose of a द्वन्द्व: (and not a तत्पुरुष:) compound.

(6) अपररात्रि + अ । अनुबन्ध-लोपः by 1-3-3 हलन्त्यम्1-3-9 तस्य लोपः।
Note: The अङ्गम् ‘अपररात्रि’ has the designation ‘भ’ here by 1-4-18 यचि भम्। This allows 6-4-148 to apply in the next step.

(7) अपररात्र् + अ । By 6-4-148 यस्येति च – When the letter ‘ई’ or a ‘तद्धित’ affix follows, the (ending) इ-वर्ण: (letter ‘इ’ or ‘ई’) or the (ending) अवर्ण: (letter ‘अ’ or ‘आ’) of a अङ्गम् with the भ-सञ्ज्ञा takes elision (लोपः)।

= अपररात्र ।

Note: Since ‘रात्रि’ is feminine in gender, as per the सूत्रम् 2-4-26 परवल्लिङ्गं द्वन्द्वतत्पुरुषयोः, the compound प्रातिपदिकम् ‘अपररात्र’ would also be feminine in gender, but the सूत्रम् 2-4-29 रात्राह्नाहाः पुंसि intervenes.

(8) By 2-4-29 रात्राह्नाहाः पुंसि – The gender of a द्वन्द्व:/तत्पुरुष: compound ending in either ‘रात्र’ or ‘अह्न’ or ‘अह’ is always masculine.
Note: The सिद्धान्तकौमुदी makes the point that this सूत्रम् is a अपवाद: (exception) to not only the सूत्रम् 2-4-26 परवल्लिङ्गं द्वन्द्वतत्पुरुषयोः but also to the सूत्रम् 2-4-17 स नपुंसकम्‌।

अपररात्रे is सप्तमी-एकवचनम् of the पुंल्लिङ्ग-प्रातिपदिकम् ‘अपररात्र’।

(9) अपररात्र + ङि । By 4-1-2 स्वौजसमौट्छष्टाभ्याम्भिस्ङेभ्याम्भ्यस्ङसिभ्याम्भ्यस्ङसोसाम्ङ्योस्सुप्‌

(10) अपररात्र + इ । अनुबन्ध-लोपः by 1-3-8 लशक्वतद्धिते and 1-3-9 तस्य लोपः।

(11) अपररात्रे । By 6-1-87 आद्गुणः

Questions:

1. The compounding prescribed by the सूत्रम् 2-2-1 पूर्वापराधरोत्तरमेकदेशिनैकाधिकरणे (used in step 2) is a अपवाद: (exception) to which compound prescribed by which सूत्रम्?

2. Derive the form दन्दग्धि। Note: There are two possibilities – लँट्, प्रथम-पुरुष:, एकवचनम् or लोँट्, मध्यम-पुरुष:, एकवचनम्।

3. Where has the सूत्रम् 3-1-135 इगुपधज्ञाप्रीकिरः कः been used in the verses?

4. Can you spot the affix अण् in the verses?

5. Which सूत्रम् prescribes the affix अनीयर् used in the form प्रार्थनीयम् in the commentary?

6. How would you say this in Sanskrit?
“One should not eat anything in the latter part of the night.”

Easy questions:

1. Where has the सूत्रम् 3-4-86 एरुः been used in the commentary?

2. Can you spot the affix यक् in the commentary?

Mar 232015
 

Today we will look at the form नरसखम् mAs from श्रीमद्भागवतम् 11.7.18.

सत्यस्य ते स्वदृश आत्मन आत्मनोऽन्यं वक्तारमीश विबुधेष्वपि नानुचक्षे । सर्वे विमोहितधियस्तव माययेमे ब्रह्मादयस्तनुभृतो बहिरर्थभावाः ।। ११-७-१७ ।।
तस्माद्भवन्तमनवद्यमनन्तपारं सर्वज्ञमीश्वरमकुण्ठविकुण्ठधिष्ण्यम् । निर्विण्णधीरहमु ह वृजिनाभितप्तो नारायणं नरसखं शरणं प्रपद्ये ।। ११-७-१८ ।।

श्रीधर-स्वामि-टीका
मया संक्षेपत उक्तं विस्तरतस्त्वन्यान्पृच्छेति चेदत आह – सत्यस्येति । स्वदृशः स्वप्रकाशस्य सत्यस्यात्मन आत्मनो मां प्रति वक्तारं ते त्वत्तोऽन्यं नानुचक्षे न पश्यामि । स्वदृशः स्वतःसिद्धज्ञानात्त्वत्तोऽन्यमिति वा । कुत इत्यत आह – सर्व इति । बहिरर्थभावा विषयेष्वर्थबुद्धयः ।। १७ ।। केचिद्दुःशीला भवन्ति केचित्सेविताः फलकाले विनश्यन्ति केचिदज्ञाः केचिद्रक्षणेऽसमर्थाः केचित्तु स्थानाद्भ्रष्टास्तद्व्यावृत्त्यर्थमनवद्यमित्यादीनि पञ्च विशेषणानि । न अन्तः कालतः पारं देशतश्च यस्य तम् । कालादिभिरकुण्ठो विकुण्ठलोको धिष्ण्यं स्थानं यस्य तम् । हे भगवन्, स्फुटम् । निर्वेदे हेतुः – वृजिनैर्दुःखैरभितप्तः । हकारगौरवाय वृकारो युक्त इव पठनीयः । नन्वनवद्यत्वादीनि कुतो मम तदाह – नारायणमिति । अनुकम्पितामाह (नरसखं नीयते विक्षिप्यते दुःखैरिति) नरो जीवस्तस्य सखायं भवन्तं शरणं प्रपद्ये ।। १८ ।।

Gita Press translation – O Lord, I do not see, except You, anyone even among the celestials, who can give me instruction about the self-revealed Ātmā, the only Truth. (Even) Brahmā and all these beings are deluded by Your Māyā as they look upon external things as real (17). Therefore, afflicted as I am with sorrows and with my mind turned away from the world, O Lord, I, seek refuge in You, who are (no other than) Lord Nārāyaṇa, the friend of (all) living beings, devoid of (all) defects, eternal and infinite, omniscient, the supreme Ruler of all, whose abode is the eternal Vaikuṇṭha! (18)

लौकिक-विग्रह: -
(1) नराणां सखा = नरसख: – the friend of (all) living beings (Lord Nārāyaṇa).
Note: The sixth case affix in नराणाम् is as per the सूत्रम् 2-3-50 षष्ठी शेषे।

अलौकिक-विग्रह: -
(2) नर आम् + सखि सुँ । By 2-2-8 षष्ठी – A पदम् ending in a sixth case affix optionally compounds with a (syntactically related) पदम् ending in a सुँप् affix and the resulting compound gets the designation तत्पुरुष:।

(3) By 1-2-43 प्रथमानिर्दिष्टं समास उपसर्जनम् – the term ‘नर आम्’ gets the designation उपसर्जनम् because in the सूत्रम् 2-2-8 (which prescribes the compounding) the term षष्ठी ends in the nominative case. Hence ‘नर आम्’ is placed in the prior position in the compound as per the सूत्रम् 2-2-30 उपसर्जनं पूर्वम्‌ – In a compound a term which has the designation ‘उपसर्जन’ should be placed in the prior position.

Note: ‘नर आम् + सखि सुँ’ gets the designation प्रातिपदिकम्‌ by 1-2-46 कृत्तद्धितसमासाश्च। This allows 2-4-71 to apply in the next step.

(4) नर + सखि । By 2-4-71 सुपो धातुप्रातिपदिकयोः – A सुँप् affix takes a लुक् elision when it is a part of a धातुः or a प्रातिपदिकम्।

(5) नरसखि + टच् । By 5-4-91 राजाह:सखिभ्यष्टच्‌ – Following a तत्पुरुष: compound ending in either ‘राजन्’ or ‘अहन्’ or ‘सखि’ the तद्धित: affix टच् is prescribed and this affix becomes the ending member of the compound.

(6) नरसखि + अ । अनुबन्ध-लोपः by 1-3-7 चुटू, 1-3-3 हलन्त्यम्1-3-9 तस्य लोपः।
Note: The अङ्गम् ‘ नरसखि’ has the designation ‘भ’ here by 1-4-18 यचि भम्। This allows 6-4-148 to apply in the next step.

(7) नरसख् + अ । By 6-4-148 यस्येति च – When the letter ‘ई’ or a ‘तद्धित’ affix follows, the (ending) इ-वर्ण: (letter ‘इ’ or ‘ई’) or the (ending) अवर्ण: (letter ‘अ’ or ‘आ’) of a अङ्गम् with the भ-सञ्ज्ञा takes elision (लोपः)।

= नरसख ।

Note: As per the सूत्रम् 2-4-26 परवल्लिङ्गं द्वन्द्वतत्पुरुषयोः, the compound प्रातिपदिकम् ‘नरसख’ is masculine since the latter member ‘सखि’ of the compound is masculine. The compound declines like राम-शब्द:।

The विवक्षा is द्वितीया-एकवचनम्।

(8) नरसख + अम् । By 4-1-2 स्वौजसमौट्छष्टाभ्याम्भिस्ङेभ्याम्भ्यस्ङसिभ्याम्भ्यस्ङसोसाम्ङ्योस्सुप्‌।

(9) नरसखम् । By 6-1-107 अमि पूर्वः – In place of a preceding अक् letter and the following vowel (अच्) belonging to the affix ‘अम्’ there is a single substitute of that preceding अक् letter.

Questions:

1. Can you spot a तृतीया-तत्पुरुष-समास: in the verses?

2. Where has the कृत् affix ‘क’ been used in the verses?

3. Where has the सूत्रम् 3-2-175 स्थेशभासपिसकसो वरच् been used in the verses?

4. Which सूत्रम् prescribes the seventh case affix used in the form रक्षणे in the commentary?

5. In the commentary can you spot a word in which the nasal letter ‘न्’ has been elided?

6. How would you say this in Sanskrit?
“It is said that wind (is) a friend of fire.”

Easy questions:

1. In which word in the verses has the affix शप् taken the लुक् elision?

2. Where has the सूत्रम् 7-1-92 सख्युरसम्बुद्धौ been used in the commentary?

Mar 192015
 

Today we will look at the form देवराजाय mDs from श्रीमद्भागवतम् 8.11.30.

अश्मसारमयं शूलं घण्टावद्धेमभूषणम् । प्रगृह्याभ्यद्रवत्क्रुद्धो हतोऽसीति वितर्जयन् । प्राहिणोद्देवराजाय निनदन्मृगराडिव ।। ८-११-३० ।।
तदापतद्गगनतले महाजवं विचिच्छिदे हरिरिषुभिः सहस्रधा । तमाहनन्नृप कुलिशेन कन्धरे रुषान्वितस्त्रिदशपतिः शिरो हरन् ।। ८-११-३१ ।।

श्रीधर-स्वामि-टीका
घण्टावद्घण्टाभिर्युक्तम् ।। ३० ।। ३१ ।।

Gita Press translation – Taking up a lance of steel, furnished with bells and adorned with gold ornaments he darted, full of rage, threatening in the word “You are slain!” and flung it at Indra (the ruler of the gods), roaring like a lion (the king of beasts) (30). Hari (Indra) cut it with (his) arrows into a thousand pieces (even) as it flew towards him through the air with great speed. Full of anger, the ruler of the gods (then) struck him (Namuci) with his thunderbolt in the neck, aiming to chop off the latter’s head (31).

लौकिक-विग्रह: -
(1) देवानां राजा = देवराज: – the ruler of the gods (Indra).
Note: The sixth case affix in देवानाम् is as per the सूत्रम् 2-3-50 षष्ठी शेषे।

अलौकिक-विग्रह: -
(2) देव आम् + राजन् सुँ । By 2-2-8 षष्ठी – A पदम् ending in a sixth case affix optionally compounds with a (syntactically related) पदम् ending in a सुँप् affix and the resulting compound gets the designation तत्पुरुष:।

(3) By 1-2-43 प्रथमानिर्दिष्टं समास उपसर्जनम् – the term ‘देव आम्’ gets the designation उपसर्जनम् because in the सूत्रम् 2-2-8 (which prescribes the compounding) the term षष्ठी ends in the nominative case. Hence ‘देव आम्’ is placed in the prior position in the compound as per the सूत्रम् 2-2-30 उपसर्जनं पूर्वम्‌ – In a compound a term which has the designation ‘उपसर्जन’ should be placed in the prior position.

Note: ‘देव आम् + राजन् सुँ’ gets the designation प्रातिपदिकम्‌ by 1-2-46 कृत्तद्धितसमासाश्च। This allows 2-4-71 to apply in the next step.

(4) देव + राजन् । By 2-4-71 सुपो धातुप्रातिपदिकयोः – A सुँप् affix takes a लुक् elision when it is a part of a धातुः or a प्रातिपदिकम्।

(5) देवराजन् + टच् । By 5-4-91 राजाह:सखिभ्यष्टच्‌ – Following a तत्पुरुष: compound ending in either ‘राजन्’ or ‘अहन्’ or ‘सखि’ the तद्धित: affix टच् is prescribed and this affix becomes the ending member of the compound.

(6) देवराजन् + अ । अनुबन्ध-लोपः by 1-3-7 चुटू, 1-3-3 हलन्त्यम्1-3-9 तस्य लोपः।
Note: The अङ्गम् ‘ देवराजन्’ has the designation ‘भ’ here by 1-4-18 यचि भम्। This allows 6-4-144 to apply in the next step.

(7) देवराज् + अ । By 6-4-144 नस्तद्धिते – The ‘टि’ portion (ref. 1-1-64 अचोऽन्त्यादि टि) of a अङ्गम् (base) is elided provided the अङ्गम् -
i) has the designation ‘भ’ (ref. 1-4-18 यचि भम्)
ii) ends in the letter ‘न्’ and
iii) is followed by a तद्धित: affix
Note: The ‘अन्’ part of the अङ्गम् ‘देवराजन्’ has the designation ‘टि’ by the सूत्रम् 1-1-64 अचोऽन्त्यादि टि – That part of a group of sounds which begins with the last vowel of the group (and goes to the end of the group) gets the designation ‘टि’।

= देवराज ।

Note: As per the सूत्रम् 2-4-26 परवल्लिङ्गं द्वन्द्वतत्पुरुषयोः, the compound प्रातिपदिकम् ‘देवराज’ is masculine since the latter member ‘राजन्’ of the compound is masculine. The compound declines like राम-शब्द:।

The विवक्षा is चतुर्थी-एकवचनम्।

(8) देवराज + ङे । By 4-1-2 स्वौजसमौट्छष्टाभ्याम्भिस्ङेभ्याम्भ्यस्ङसिँभ्याम्भ्यस्ङसोसाम्ङ्योस्सुप्

(9) देवराज + य । By 7-1-13 ङेर्यः – Following a प्रातिपदिकम् ending in the letter ‘अ’, the affix ‘ङे’ (चतुर्थी-एकवचनम्) is replaced by ‘य’।

(10) देवराजाय । By 7-3-102 सुपि च – The ending letter ‘अ’ of a प्रातिपदिकम् is elongated if it is followed by a सुँप् affix beginning with a letter of the यञ्-प्रत्याहार:।

Questions:

1. Where has the सूत्रम् 5-4-91 राजाह:सखिभ्यष्टच्‌ been used for the first time in the गीता?

2. Can you spot three other (besides देवराजाय) षष्ठी-तत्पुरुष-समासा: in the verses?

3. Which सूत्रम् prescribes the सम्प्रसारणम् in the form प्रगृह्य used in the verses?

4. In which word in the verses has the letter ‘न्’ been elided?

5. Where has the सूत्रम् 3-2-3 आतोऽनुपसर्गे कः been used in the verses?

6. How would you say this in Sanskrit?
“Sugrīva the king of monkeys became a friend of Śrī Rāma.” Form a compound for ‘the king of monkeys’ and ‘friend of Śrī Rāma.’

Easy questions:

1. Which सूत्रम् prescribes the substitution ‘ण्’ (in place of ‘न्’) in the form प्राहिणोत्? (We have seen this सूत्रम् in a prior post.)

2. Where has the सूत्रम् 7-4-50 तासस्त्योर्लोपः been used in the verses?

Mar 162015
 

Today we will look at the form पुरुषोत्तम mVs from श्रीमद्भागवतम् 3.26.9.

देवहूतिरुवाच
प्रकृतेः पुरुषस्यापि लक्षणं पुरुषोत्तम । ब्रूहि कारणयोरस्य सदसच्च यदात्मकम् ।। ३-२६-९ ।।
श्रीभगवानुवाच
यत्तत्त्रिगुणमव्यक्तं नित्यं सदसदात्मकम् । प्रधानं प्रकृतिं प्राहुरविशेषं विशेषवत् ।। ३-२६-१० ।।

श्रीधर-स्वामि-टीका
तदेवं संसारिणं पुरुषं तद्धेतुं प्रकृतिं च ज्ञात्वेदानीं जगत्कारणमीश्वरं तत्प्रकृतिं च पृच्छति - प्रकृतेरिति । अस्य विश्वस्य । सदसच्च स्थूलं सूक्ष्मं च कार्यं यदात्मकं तयोः प्रकृतिपुरुषयोः ।। ९ ।। तत्र प्रकृतिं लक्षयति । यत्प्रधानं तदेप्रकृतिं प्राहुः । किं तत्प्रधानम्, स्वतोऽविशेषं विशेषवद्विशेषाणामाश्रयः । तर्हि किं ब्रह्म, न, त्रिगुणम् । किं महत्तत्वादि, न, अव्यक्तमकार्यम् । किं कालादि, न, सदसदात्मकं कार्यकारणरूपम् ।। किं जीवः प्रकृतिः, न, नित्यम् ।। १० ।।

Gita Press translation – Devahūti said: Kindly also tell me, O Supreme Person, the characteristics of Prakṛti and Puruṣa, the two causes of this universe, which in its gross and subtle forms is nothing but a manifestation of these (9). The Lord resumed: The wise speak of Pradhāna (Primordial Matter) as Prakṛti – the Pradhāna, which consists of the three Guṇas (Sattva, Rajas and Tamas), nay, which is unmanifest and eternal and exists both as cause and effect and which, though undifferentiated (in its causal state) is the source of distinct categories (such as Mahat-tattva and so on) (10).

लौकिक-विग्रह: -
(1) पुरुषाणामुत्तम: = पुरुषोत्तम: – best among men (Supreme Person).
Note: The sixth case affix in पुरुषाणाम् is as per the सूत्रम् 2-3-41 यतश्च निर्धारणम्‌

अलौकिक-विग्रह: -
(2) पुरुष आम् + उत्तम सुँ । By 2-2-8 षष्ठी – A पदम् ending in a sixth case affix optionally compounds with a (syntactically related) पदम् ending in a सुँप् affix and the resulting compound gets the designation तत्पुरुष:।
Note: As per the सूत्रम् 2-2-10 न निर्धारणे – A पदम् ending in a sixth case affix prescribed by the सूत्रम् 2-3-41 यतश्च निर्धारणम्‌ cannot be compounded. अथ कथं पुरुषोत्तम इति? Then how do we explain the compound पुरुषाणामुत्तम: = पुरुषोत्तम:? The answer is – यस्मान्निर्धार्यते, यश्चैकदेशो निर्धार्यते, यश्च निर्धारणहेतुः – एतत्त्रितयसंनिधाने सत्येवायं निषेध इति ‘५-३-५७ द्विवचनविभज्योप-’ इति सूत्रे कैयटः। Commenting on the सूत्रम् 5-3-57 द्विवचनविभज्योपपदे तरबीयसुनौ, the grammarian कैयटः (who has written a well-acclaimed commentary on the महाभाष्यम्) says that the prohibition ordained by the सूत्रम् 2-2-10 न निर्धारणे applies only when all the following three are present – i) the group/whole from which an element/part is singled out ii) the item that is singled out and iii) the cause or basis for singling out. In the example पुरुषाणामुत्तम: = पुरुषोत्तम: compounding is not prohibited because ii) is not present. If the example were to be पुरुषाणां राम उत्तम: then the सूत्रम् 2-2-10 न निर्धारणे would prohibit पुरुषाणाम् (‘पुरुष आम्’) from compounding with राम: (‘राम सुँ’)।

(3) By 1-2-43 प्रथमानिर्दिष्टं समास उपसर्जनम् – the term ‘पुरुष आम्’ gets the designation उपसर्जनम् because in the सूत्रम् 2-2-8 (which prescribes the compounding) the term षष्ठी ends in the nominative case. Hence ‘पुरुष आम्’ is placed in the prior position in the compound as per the सूत्रम् 2-2-30 उपसर्जनं पूर्वम्‌ – In a compound a term which has the designation ‘उपसर्जन’ should be placed in the prior position.

Note: ‘पुरुष आम् + उत्तम सुँ’ gets the designation प्रातिपदिकम्‌ by 1-2-46 कृत्तद्धितसमासाश्च। This allows 2-4-71 to apply in the next step.

(4) पुरुष + उत्तम । By 2-4-71 सुपो धातुप्रातिपदिकयोः – A सुँप् affix takes a लुक् elision when it is a part of a धातुः or a प्रातिपदिकम्।

(5) पुरुषोत्तम । By 6-1-87 आद्गुणः

Note: As per the सूत्रम् 2-4-26 परवल्लिङ्गं द्वन्द्वतत्पुरुषयोः, the compound प्रातिपदिकम् ‘ पुरुषोत्तम’ is masculine since the latter member ‘उत्तम’ of the compound is used here in the masculine. The compound declines like राम-शब्द:।

The विवक्षा is सम्बुद्धिः। By 2-3-49 एकवचनं सम्बुद्धि: – The nominative singular affix (‘सुँ’) when used in a vocative form gets the designation सम्बुद्धि:।

(6) (हे) पुरुषोत्तम + सुँ । By 4-1-2 स्वौजसमौट्छष्टाभ्याम्भिस्ङेभ्याम्भ्यस्ङसिभ्याम्भ्यस्ङसोसाम्ङ्योस्सुप्‌। By 2-3-47 सम्बोधने च – A first case affix (‘सुँ’, ‘औ’, ‘जस्’) is used to denote ‘address’ (in addition to the meaning of the nominal stem) also. Note: सम् (सम्मुखीकृत्य) बोधनम् (ज्ञापनम्) = सम्बोधनम्। सम्बोधनम् means drawing someone’s attention (to inform him/her of something.)

(7) (हे) पुरुषोत्तम + स् । अनुबन्ध-लोप: by 1-3-2 उपदेशेऽजनुनासिक इत् and 1-3-9 तस्य लोपः। The letter ‘स्’ which is an एकाल् (single letter) affix gets the अपृक्त-सञ्ज्ञा by 1-2-41 अपृक्त एकाल् प्रत्ययः

(8) (हे) पुरुषोत्तम । By 6-1-69 एङ्ह्रस्वात्‌ सम्बुद्धेः – Following a अङ्गम् ending in ‘एङ्’ (letter ‘ए’ or ‘ओ’) or a short vowel, a consonant is dropped if it belongs to a सम्बुद्धि: affix.

Questions:

1. The compound ‘पुरुषोत्तम’ has been used in the first verse of which chapter of the गीता?

2. Can you spot the कृत् affix क्तिन् in the verses?

3. The कृत् affix ल्युट् used to construct the प्रातिपदिकम् ‘प्रधान’ (used in the form प्रधानम् (द्वितीया-एकवचनम्) in the verses) is prescribed by which सूत्रम्? Note: The विग्रह: is प्रधत्तेऽत्र (सर्वम्) इति प्रधानम्।

4. In which word in the verses has the affix णिच् been elided?

5. Where has the सूत्रम् 3-4-21 समानकर्तृकयोः पूर्वकाले been used in the commentary?

6. How would you say this in Sanskrit?
“Which is the best of fruits? The mango.”

Easy questions:

1. Which सूत्रम् prescribes the substitution ‘हि’ (in place of the affix ‘सि’) in the form ब्रूहि?

2. Where has the सूत्रम् 3-1-77 तुदादिभ्यः शः been used in the commentary?

Mar 122015
 

Today we will look at the form राजपुत्रीम् fAs from श्रीमद्भागवतम् 10.53.28.

एवं वध्वाः प्रतीक्षन्त्या गोविन्दागमनं नृप । वाम ऊरुर्भुजो नेत्रमस्फुरन्प्रियभाषिणः ।। १०-५३-२७ ।।
अथ कृष्णविनिर्दिष्टः स एव द्विजसत्तमः । अन्तःपुरचरीं देवीं राजपुत्रीं ददर्श ह ।। १०-५३-२८।।

श्रीधर-स्वामि-टीका
प्रियभाषिणः प्रियसूचकाः ।। २७ ।। पुरोपवनं प्राप्तेन श्रीकृष्णेन विनिर्दिष्टः प्राप्तं मां कथयेत्यादिष्टः ।। २८ ।।

Gita Press translation – (Meanwhile) the left thigh, arm and eye of the bride, who had thus been awaiting the arrival of Śrī Kṛṣṇa (the Protector of cows), throbbed, auguring delightful news, O king! (27) Specially instructed by Śrī Kṛṣṇa (to report His arrival), the same Sunanda (the foremost of the Brāhmaṇas) – so the tradition goes – forthwith saw the princess, who dwelt in the gynaeceum and shone brightly (with joy born of her meeting with Śrī Kṛṣṇa in contemplation) (28).

लौकिक-विग्रह: -
(1) राजपुत्री = राज्ञः पुत्री – king’s daughter (princess).
Note: The sixth case affix in राज्ञ: is as per the सूत्रम् 2-3-50 षष्ठी शेषे।

अलौकिक-विग्रह: -
(2) राजन् ङस् + पुत्री सुँ । By 2-2-8 षष्ठी – A पदम् ending in a sixth case affix optionally compounds with a (syntactically related) पदम् ending in a सुँप् affix and the resulting compound gets the designation तत्पुरुष:।

(3) By 1-2-43 प्रथमानिर्दिष्टं समास उपसर्जनम् – the term ‘राजन् ङस्’ gets the designation उपसर्जनम् because in the सूत्रम् 2-2-8 (which prescribes the compounding) the term षष्ठी ends in the nominative case. Hence ‘राजन् ङस्’ is placed in the prior position in the compound as per the सूत्रम् 2-2-30 उपसर्जनं पूर्वम्‌ – In a compound a term which has the designation ‘उपसर्जन’ should be placed in the prior position.

Note: ‘राजन् ङस् + पुत्री सुँ’ gets the designation प्रातिपदिकम्‌ by 1-2-46 कृत्तद्धितसमासाश्च। This allows 2-4-71 to apply in the next step.

(4) राजन् + पुत्री । By 2-4-71 सुपो धातुप्रातिपदिकयोः – A सुँप् affix takes a लुक् elision when it is a part of a धातुः or a प्रातिपदिकम्।

Note: Here ‘राजन्’ has the designation पदम् as per 1-4-14 सुप्तिङन्तं पदम् with the help of 1-1-62 प्रत्ययलोपे प्रत्ययलक्षणम्। This allows 8-2-7 नलोपः प्रातिपदिकान्तस्य to apply in the next step.

(5) राजपुत्री । By 8-2-7 नलोप: प्रातिपदिकान्तस्य – The ending letter ‘न्’ of a पदम् is dropped when the पदम् also has the designation प्रातिपदिकम्।

Note: As per the सूत्रम् 2-4-26 परवल्लिङ्गं द्वन्द्वतत्पुरुषयोः, the compound प्रातिपदिकम् ‘राजपुत्री’ is feminine since the latter member ‘पुत्री’ of the compound is feminine. The compound declines like नदी-शब्द:।

The विवक्षा is द्वितीया-एकवचनम्।

(6) राजपुत्री + अम् । By 4-1-2 स्वौजसमौट्छष्टाभ्याम्भिस्ङेभ्याम्भ्यस्ङसिभ्याम्भ्यस्ङसोसाम्ङ्योस्सुप्‌।

(7) राजपुत्रीम् । By 6-1-107 अमि पूर्वः – In place of a preceding अक् letter and the following vowel (अच्) belonging to the affix ‘अम्’ there is a single substitute of that preceding अक् letter.

Questions:

1. Where has the सूत्रम् 2-2-8 षष्ठी (used in step 2) been used for the first time in the गीता?

2. In which word in the verses has the affix ‘ट’ been used?

3. Where has the सूत्रम् 2-1-32 कर्तृकरणे कृता बहुलम्‌ been used in the verses?

4. Why is प्रतीक्षन्त्या: (स्त्रीलिङ्ग-प्रातिपदिकम् ‘प्रतीक्षन्ती’, षष्ठी-एकवचनम्) a आर्ष-प्रयोग: (grammatically irregular form)?

5. How would you say this in Sanskrit?
“Among the sons of Daśaratha, Śrī Rāma was the eldest.”

6. How would you say this in Sanskrit?
“Śrī Hanumān killed Akṣa the son of Rāvaṇa.”

Easy questions:

1. Which सूत्रम् prescribes the augment ‘आट्’ in the form वध्वाः (स्त्रीलिङ्ग-प्रातिपदिकम् ‘वधू’, षष्ठी-एकवचनम्)?

2. In which word in the commentary has the affix ‘णिच्’ been used?

Mar 092015
 

Today we will look at the form गजभीतः mNs from श्रीमद्भागवतम् 5.13.18.

द्रुमेषु रंस्यन्सुतदारवत्सलो व्यवायदीनो विवशः स्वबन्धने । क्वचित्प्रमादाद्गिरिकन्दरे पतन्वल्लीं गृहीत्वा गजभीत आस्थितः ।। ५-१३-१८ ।।
अतः कथञ्चित्स विमुक्त आपदः पुनश्च सार्थं प्रविशत्यरिन्दम । अध्वन्यमुष्मिन्नजया निवेशितो भ्रमञ्जनोऽद्यापि न वेद कश्चन ।। ५-१३-१९ ।।

श्रीधर-स्वामि-टीका
द्रुमवत्केवलदृष्टार्थेषु गृहेषु । व्यवायदीनः सुरतेच्छया कृपणः । एवं स्वस्य यद्बन्धनं प्राप्तं तस्मिन्विवशः परिहर्तुमशक्तः । पाठान्तरे तु वने संसारे चरन्नित्यर्थः । गिरिकन्दरवदतिभयानके रोगादिदुःखे पतन्कन्दरस्थगजतुल्यान्मृत्योर्भीत: सन् वल्लीतुल्यं प्राचीनं कर्मावलम्ब्यावस्थितो भवति ।। १८ ।। सार्थं प्रविशति यथापूर्वं प्रवृत्तिमार्गे रमते । न वेद परमपुरुषार्थम् ।। १९ ।।

Gita Press translation – Seeking delight in trees and fond of sons and wife, they are (ever) impatient with the animal desire for sexual indulgence and powerless to get rid of their bondage. When falling into some ravine through inadvertence, (a stray member of) this company catches hold of some creeper and remains suspended by it, afraid of the elephant (below) (18). Somehow extricated from this calamity, however, he joins the company once more, O chastiser of foes! No one put on this track by Māyā (the deluding potency of the Lord, that has no beginning), and wandering (along it) is able to cognize the supreme object of life even to this day (19).

लौकिक-विग्रह: -
(1) गजभीतः = गजाद् भीतः – afraid of (from) the elephant.
Note: As per the सूत्रम् 2-3-28 अपादाने पञ्चमी a fifth case affix is used following the प्रातिपदिकम् ‘गज’ which has the designation अपादानम् here as per the सूत्रम् 1-4-25 भीत्रार्थानां भयहेतुः।

अलौकिक-विग्रह: -
(2) गज ङसिँ + भीत सुँ । By 2-1-37 पञ्चमी भयेन – A पदम् ending in a fifth case affix optionally compounds with a (syntactically related) पदम् (formed by adding a सुँप् affix to) ‘भय’ and the resulting compound gets the designation तत्पुरुष:। As per the वार्तिकम् (under the सूत्रम् 2-1-37भयभीतभीतिभीभिरिति वाच्यम्‌ – In the सूत्रम् 2-1-37 पञ्चमी भयेन, the word भयेन should be extended to भयभीतभीतिभीभि:।

(3) By 1-2-43 प्रथमानिर्दिष्टं समास उपसर्जनम् – the term ‘गज ङसिँ’ gets the designation उपसर्जनम् because in the सूत्रम् 2-1-37 (which prescribes the compounding) the term पञ्चमी ends in the nominative case. Hence ‘गज ङसिँ’ is placed in the prior position in the compound as per the सूत्रम् 2-2-30 उपसर्जनं पूर्वम्‌ – In a compound a term which has the designation ‘उपसर्जन’ should be placed in the prior position.

Note: ‘गज ङसिँ + भीत सुँ’ gets the designation प्रातिपदिकम्‌ by 1-2-46 कृत्तद्धितसमासाश्च। This allows 2-4-71 to apply in the next step.

(4) गज + भीत । By 2-4-71 सुपो धातुप्रातिपदिकयोः – A सुँप् affix takes a लुक् elision when it is a part of a धातुः or a प्रातिपदिकम्।

= गजभीत ।

Note: As per the सूत्रम् 2-4-26 परवल्लिङ्गं द्वन्द्वतत्पुरुषयोः, the compound प्रातिपदिकम् ‘गजभीत’ is masculine since the latter member ‘भीत’ of the compound is used here in the masculine. The compound declines like राम-शब्द:।

The विवक्षा is प्रथमा-एकवचनम्।

(5) गजभीत + सुँ । By 4-1-2 स्वौजसमौट्छष्टाभ्याम्भिस्ङेभ्याम्भ्यस्ङसिँभ्याम्भ्यस्ङसोसाम्ङ्योस्सुप्

(6) गजभीत + स् । अनुबन्ध-लोपः by 1-3-2 उपदेशेऽजनुनासिक इत् and 1-3-9 तस्य लोपः।

(7) गजभीत: । रुँत्व-विसर्गौ by 8-2-66 ससजुषो रुः and 8-3-15 खरवसानयोर्विसर्जनीयः

Questions:

1. In verses 30-40 of Chapter Eleven of the गीता where has the सूत्रम् 2-1-37 पञ्चमी भयेन (used in step 2) been used along with the वार्तिकम् (under the सूत्रम् 2-1-37) भयभीतभीतिभीभिरिति वाच्यम्‌?

2. Where has the सूत्रम् 3-3-14 लृटः सद् वा been used in the verses?

3. In which word in the verses does the augment मुँम् occur?

4. Which कृत् affix (prescribed by which वार्तिकम्) is used to form the feminine प्रातिपदिकम् ‘आपद्’ used in the form आपद: (पञ्चमी-एकवचनम्) in the verses?

5. Can you spot a अव्ययीभाव-समास: in the commentary?

6. How would you say this in Sanskrit?
“Afraid of (from) Kumbhakarṇa, the monkeys fled in all directions.”

Easy questions:

1. Can you spot the affix ‘श’ in the verses?

2. What is the alternate form for the word वेद used in the verses?

Mar 052015
 

Today we will look at the form भवभयम् nNs from श्रीमद्भागवतम् 10.87.32.

नृषु तव मायया भ्रमममीष्ववगत्य भृशं त्वयि सुधियोऽभवे दधति भावमनुप्रभवम् । कथमनुवर्ततां भवभयं तव यद्भ्रुकुटिः सृजति मुहुस्त्रिणेमिरभवच्छरणेषु भयम् ।। १०-८७-३२ ।।
विजितहृषीकवायुभिरदान्तमनस्तुरगं य इह यतन्ति यन्तुमतिलोलमुपायखिदः। व्यसनशतान्विताः समवहाय गुरोश्चरणं वणिज इवाज सन्त्यकृतकर्णधरा जलधौ ।। १०-८७-३३ ।।

श्रीधर-स्वामि-टीका
नन्वेवं तावत्परमेश्वराज्जीवा जायन्ते तद्वशेन च कर्माणि कुर्वन्ति पुनस्तत्र लीयन्त इति संसारचक्रे परिभ्रमणमुक्तमिदानीं तन्निवृत्तये ‘परीत्य भूतानि परीत्य लोकान् परीत्य सर्वाः प्रदिशो दिशश्च । उपस्थाय प्रथमजामृतस्यात्मनात्मानमभिसंविवेश’ इत्याद्या भगवदनुवृत्तिं विदधतीत्याह – नृषु तव माययेति । नृषु जीवेष्वमीषु तव मायया भ्रममुक्तलक्षणमवगत्य ज्ञात्वा सुधियो भृशं त्वय्यभवे भवनिवर्तके भावं स्वभावमनुवृत्तिं दधति कुर्वन्ति । कीदृशं भ्रमम्अनुप्रभवं अन्वनु प्रभवो यस्मिंस्तं भ्रमम् । ततः किमत आह - कथमिति । अनुवर्ततामनुवर्तमानानां त्वामेव शरणं भजतां भवभयं संसारभयं कथं भवेत् । न कथंचिदपीत्यर्थः । कुतः । यद्यस्मात्तव भ्रुकुटिर्भ्रूभङ्गरूपस्त्रिणेमिस्तिस्रो नेमय इवावच्छेदाः शीतोष्णवर्षाकाला यस्य संवत्सरात्मकस्य कालस्य सः । अभवच्छरणेषु न भवान् शरणं रक्षिता येषां तेष्वेव भयं जन्ममरणादिलक्षणं सृजति करोति, अत एवंभूतं संसारमाकलय्य तन्निवृत्तये सुधिस्त्वयि भावं दधतीति ।। संसारचक्रक्रकचैर्विदीर्णमुदीर्णनानाभवतापतप्तम् ।। कथंचिदापन्नमिह प्रपन्नं त्वमुद्धर श्रीनृहरे नृलोकम् ।। ३२ ।। स च भगवति भावो मनोनियमे सति भवति, सोऽपि गुरूपसदनादिति गुरूपसदनं विदधति ‘तद्विज्ञानार्थं स गुरुमेवाभिगच्छेत्समित्पाणिः श्रोत्रियं ब्रह्मनिष्ठम्’, ‘आचार्यवान्पुरुषो वेद’, ‘नैषा तर्केण मतिरापनेया प्रोक्ताऽन्येनैव सुज्ञानाय प्रेष्ठे’त्याद्याः श्रुतय इत्याह – विजितहृषीकवायुभिरिति । विजितानि हृषीकाणीन्द्रियाणि वायुश्च प्राणो यैस्तैरप्यदान्तमनस्तुरगमदान्तमदमितं मन एव तुरगो दुर्दमत्वसाम्यात्तं ये यन्तुं नियन्तुं यतन्ति प्रयतन्ते । अतिलोलमतिचञ्चलम् । गुरोश्चरणं समवहायानाश्रित्य ते उपायेषु खिद्यन्ते क्लिश्यन्तीत्युपायखिदः सन्तो व्यसनशतान्विता बहुव्यसनाकुला इह संसारसमुद्रे सन्ति तिष्ठन्ति । दुःखमेव प्राप्नुवन्तीत्यर्थः । हे अज, अकृतकर्णधरा अस्वीकृतनाविका वणिजो यथा तद्वत् । उक्तं च – ‘नृदेहमाद्यं सुलभं सुदुर्लभं प्लवं सुकल्पं गुरुकर्णधारम् ।। मयानुकूलेन नभस्वतेरितं पुमान्भवाब्धिं न तरेत्स आत्महा’ ।। इति । ‘प्राकृतैः संस्कृतैश्चैव गद्यपद्याक्षरैस्तथा ।। देशभाषादिभिः शिष्यं बोधयेत्स गुरुः स्मृतः ।।’ गुरुणोपदर्शितभगवद्भजनसुखानुभूतौ तु स्वत एव मनो निश्चलं भवति नान्यथेति भावः ।। यदा परानन्दगुरो भवत्पदे पदं मनो मे भगवँल्लभेत ।। तदा निरस्ताखिलसाधनश्रमः श्रयेय सौख्यं भवतः कृपातः ।। ३३ ।।

Gita Press translation – Perceiving the misapprehension (in the shape of self-identification with the body etc.), implanted by Māyā (Your deluding potency), in these human beings, men of sound judgement develop intense devotion – that grows every moment to You, who are capable of putting a stop to their transmigration. How can the fear of birth (even) haunt those that worship You, since Your frown in the shape of (the wheel of) Time (as represented by a twelvemonth) with its threefold rim (as consisting of the three parts of the year, viz., winter, summer and the rainy season) inspires terror (again and again) into (the mind of) those (alone) who do not resort to You as their asylum (32). They who endeavor to break the most restless steed of their mind – unsubdued (even) by those who have controlled their senses and breath (too) – neglecting the feet of their preceptor, and taking (great) pains over other devices (for mind control), remain beset with a hundred and one calamities in this world like merchants that have not secured a pilot (for their vessel) in the sea, O birth-less Lord! (33)

Verse 33 has appeared in the following post on Jan 14th 2011 – http://avg-sanskrit.org/2011/01/14/वणिजः-mnp/

लौकिक-विग्रह: -
(1) भवभयम् = भवाद् भयम् – fear of (from) birth.
Note: As per the सूत्रम् 2-3-28 अपादाने पञ्चमी a fifth case affix is used following the प्रातिपदिकम् ‘भव’ which has the designation अपादानम् here as per the सूत्रम् 1-4-25 भीत्रार्थानां भयहेतुः।

अलौकिक-विग्रह: -
(2) भव ङसिँ + भय सुँ । By 2-1-37 पञ्चमी भयेन – A पदम् ending in a fifth case affix optionally compounds with a (syntactically related) पदम् (formed by adding a सुँप् affix to) ‘भय’ and the resulting compound gets the designation तत्पुरुष:।

(3) By 1-2-43 प्रथमानिर्दिष्टं समास उपसर्जनम् – the term ‘भव ङसिँ’ gets the designation उपसर्जनम् because in the सूत्रम् 2-1-37 (which prescribes the compounding) the term पञ्चमी ends in the nominative case. Hence ‘भव ङसिँ’ is placed in the prior position in the compound as per the सूत्रम् 2-2-30 उपसर्जनं पूर्वम्‌ – In a compound a term which has the designation ‘उपसर्जन’ should be placed in the prior position.

Note: ‘भव ङसिँ + भय सुँ’ gets the designation प्रातिपदिकम्‌ by 1-2-46 कृत्तद्धितसमासाश्च। This allows 2-4-71 to apply in the next step.

(4) भव + भय । By 2-4-71 सुपो धातुप्रातिपदिकयोः – A सुँप् affix takes a लुक् elision when it is a part of a धातुः or a प्रातिपदिकम्।

= भवभय ।

Note: As per the सूत्रम् 2-4-26 परवल्लिङ्गं द्वन्द्वतत्पुरुषयोः, the compound प्रातिपदिकम् ‘ भवभय’ is neuter since the latter member ‘भय’ of the compound is neuter. The compound declines like वन-शब्द:।

The विवक्षा is प्रथमा-एकवचनम्।

(5) भवभय + सुँ । By 4-1-2 स्वौजसमौट्छष्टाभ्याम्भिस्ङेभ्याम्भ्यस्ङसिभ्याम्भ्यस्ङसोसाम्ङ्योस्सुप्‌।

(6) भवभय + अम् । By 7-1-24 अतोऽम् – The affixes ‘सुँ’ and ‘अम्’ that follow a neuter अङ्गम् ending in the short vowel ‘अ’ take ‘अम्’ as their replacement.
1-3-4 न विभक्तौ तुस्माः prevents the ending letter ‘म्’ of the affix ‘अम्’ from getting इत्-सञ्ज्ञा।

(7) भवभयम् । By 6-1-107 अमि पूर्वः – In place of a preceding अक् letter and the following vowel (अच्) belonging to the affix ‘अम्’ there is a single substitute of that preceding अक् letter.

Questions:

1. Commenting on the सूत्रम् 2-1-37 पञ्चमी भयेन (used in step 2) the तत्त्वबोधिनी says – भयेनेति स्वरूपग्रहणं नार्थस्य, प्रमाणाभावात्, ‘भयभीत-’ इति वार्तिकारम्भाच्च। तेन वृकात्त्रास इत्यादौ समासो न। Please explain.

2. What is the alternate form for अवगत्य?

3. Why is the form अनुवर्तताम् used in the verses a आर्ष-प्रयोग: (irregular grammatical usage)?

4. Where has the सूत्रम् 6-1-86 षत्वतुकोरसिद्धः been used in the commentary?

5. Which सूत्रम् prescribes the substitution ‘अय्’ in the form आकलय्य used in the commentary?

6. How would you say this in Sanskrit?
“Everyone is afraid of death.” Paraphrase to “Everyone has fear of (from) death.”

Easy questions:

1. Where has the सूत्रम् 6-4-112 श्नाभ्यस्तयोरातः been used in the verses?

2. Can you spot the affix ‘श’ in the verses?

Mar 022015
 

Today we will look at the form धर्मार्थम् nAs from श्रीमद्भागवतम् 7.15.15.

धर्मार्थमपि नेहेत यात्रार्थं वाधनो धनम् । अनीहानीहमानस्य महाहेरिव वृत्तिदा ।। ७-१५-१५ ।।
सन्तुष्टस्य निरीहस्य स्वात्मारामस्य यत्सुखम् । कुतस्तत्कामलोभेन धावतोऽर्थेहया दिशः ।। ७-१५-१६ ।।

श्रीधर-स्वामि-टीका
किंच – अधनो धर्मार्थं धनं नेहेत नापेक्षेत, धनार्थं व्याप्रियेतेति वा । दैवोपपन्नेनैव स्वधर्मसिद्धेरुक्तत्वात् । यात्रार्थमपि नेहेतेत्येतत्प्रपञ्चयति – अनीहेति सार्धैः षड्भिः ।। १५ ।। १६ ।।

Gita Press translation – An indigent man should not endeavor to obtain wealth even for the sake of piety or for maintenance. Effortlessness proves to be a means of subsistence to a man who ceases to strive (even) as it does in the case of a python (15). How can that (supreme and lasting) happiness which falls to the lot of a contented and effortless man delighting in his own self be enjoyed by one running in all directions in quest of wealth out of greed for objects of sense? (16)

लौकिक-विग्रह: -
(1) धर्मार्थम् = धर्मायेदम् (धर्माय इदम्) – for the sake of piety.
Note: The fourth case affix used following the प्रातिपदिकम् ‘धर्म’ is justified by the following वार्तिकम् (under 2-3-13 चतुर्थी सम्प्रदाने in the महाभाष्यम्) तादर्थ्ये चतुर्थी वाच्या – A fourth case affix (‘ङे’, ‘भ्याम्’, ‘भ्यस्’) is used following a प्रातिपदिकम् (nominal stem) which denotes the purpose for which an action is done or for which another thing exists or is used.
Note: The existence of this वार्तिकम् is inferred from the सूत्रम् 2-1-36 चतुर्थी तदर्थार्थबलिहितसुखरक्षितैः which allows compounding between a पदम् which ends in a fourth case affix and another पदम् which ends in a सुँप् affix and denotes a thing whose purpose is denoted by the पदम् ending in the fourth case affix.

अलौकिक-विग्रह: -
(2) धर्म ङे + अर्थ सुँ । By 2-1-36 चतुर्थी तदर्थार्थबलिहितसुखरक्षितैः – A पदम् ending in a fourth case affix optionally compounds with a (syntactically related) पदम् denoting that which is for the purpose of that which is denoted by the पदम् ending in the fourth case affix, and so also with a (syntactically related) पदम् (formed by adding a सुँप् affix to) ‘अर्थ’ or ‘बलि’ or ‘हित’ or ‘सुख’ or ‘रक्षित’ and the resulting compound gets the designation तत्पुरुष:।
Note: As per the वार्तिकम् (under 2-1-36 चतुर्थी तदर्थार्थबलिहितसुखरक्षितैः) अर्थेन नित्यसमासो विशेष्यलिङ्‌गता चेति वक्तव्यम्‌ – The compounding (prescribed by the सूत्रम् 2-1-36 चतुर्थी तदर्थार्थबलिहितसुखरक्षितैः of a पदम् ending in a fourth case affix) with a syntactically related पदम् formed by adding a सुँप् affix to ‘अर्थ’ is obligatory (not optional) and the gender of the resulting compound is the same as the gender of that which it qualifies.

(3) By 1-2-43 प्रथमानिर्दिष्टं समास उपसर्जनम् – the term ‘धर्म ङे’ gets the designation उपसर्जनम् because in the सूत्रम् 2-1-36 (which prescribes the compounding) the term चतुर्थी ends in the nominative case. Hence ‘धर्म ङे’ is placed in the prior position in the compound as per the सूत्रम् 2-2-30 उपसर्जनं पूर्वम्‌ – In a compound a term which has the designation ‘उपसर्जन’ should be placed in the prior position.

Note: ‘धर्म ङे + अर्थ सुँ’ gets the designation प्रातिपदिकम्‌ by 1-2-46 कृत्तद्धितसमासाश्च। This allows 2-4-71 to apply in the next step.

(4) धर्म + अर्थ । By 2-4-71 सुपो धातुप्रातिपदिकयोः – A सुँप् affix takes a लुक् elision when it is a part of a धातुः or a प्रातिपदिकम्।

(5) धर्मार्थ । By 6-1-101 अकः सवर्णे दीर्घः

See questions 3 and 4.

As per the above वार्तिकम्, the compound ‘धर्मार्थ’ takes the gender of that which it qualifies. Here the compound is neuter because it is qualifying ‘धन’ which is neuter.

The विवक्षा is द्वितीया-एकवचनम्।

(6) धर्मार्थ + अम् । By 4-1-2 स्वौजसमौट्छष्टाभ्याम्भिस्ङेभ्याम्भ्यस्ङसिभ्याम्भ्यस्ङसोसाम्ङ्योस्सुप्‌।

(7) धर्मार्थ + अम् । By 7-1-24 अतोऽम् – The affixes ‘सुँ’ and ‘अम्’ that follow a neuter अङ्गम् ending in the short vowel ‘अ’ take ‘अम्’ as their replacement. Note: 7-1-24 is required here to prevent 7-1-23 स्वमोर्नपुंसकात्‌ from applying.
1-3-4 न विभक्तौ तुस्माः prevents the ending letter ‘म्’ of the affix ‘अम्’ from getting इत्-सञ्ज्ञा।

(8) धर्मार्थम् । By 6-1-107 अमि पूर्वः – In place of a preceding अक् letter and the following vowel (अच्) belonging to the affix ‘अम्’ there is a single substitute of that preceding अक् letter.

Questions:

1. In verses 5-15 of Chapter Ten of the गीता where has the सूत्रम् 2-1-36 चतुर्थी तदर्थार्थबलिहितसुखरक्षितैः (used in step 2) been used along with the वार्तिकम् (under 2-1-36 चतुर्थी तदर्थार्थबलिहितसुखरक्षितैः) अर्थेन नित्यसमासो विशेष्यलिङ्‌गता चेति वक्तव्यम्‌?

2. Where else (besides in धर्मार्थम्) has the सूत्रम् 2-1-36 चतुर्थी तदर्थार्थबलिहितसुखरक्षितैः been used along with the वार्तिकम् (under 2-1-36 चतुर्थी तदर्थार्थबलिहितसुखरक्षितैः) अर्थेन नित्यसमासो विशेष्यलिङ्‌गता चेति वक्तव्यम्‌ in the verses?

3. Commenting on the term ‘नित्य’ used in the वार्तिकम् ‘अर्थेन नित्यसमासो विशेष्यलिङ्‌गता चेति वक्तव्यम्‌’ the तत्त्वबोधिनी comments अन्यथा विभाषाधिकारात्पक्षे द्विजायार्थ इति प्रयोगः स्यादिति भावः। (The reference is to the example द्विजायायं द्विजार्थ: सूप: given in the सिद्धान्तकौमुदी।) Please explain.

4. Commenting on the word ‘विशेष्यलिङ्‌गता’ used in the वार्तिकम् ‘अर्थेन नित्यसमासो विशेष्यलिङ्‌गता चेति वक्तव्यम्‌’ the तत्त्वबोधिनी comments वचनाभावे त्वर्थशब्दस्य नित्यपुंस्त्वात् ‘परवल्लिङ्गम्-’ इति सर्वत्र पुंलिङ्गप्रयोग एव स्यादिति भावः। Please explain.

5. Where has the सूत्रम् 3-2-3 आतोऽनुपसर्गे कः been used in the verses?

6. How would you say this in Sanskrit?
“These fruits are for the guests.”

Easy questions:

1. Can you spot the augment ‘सीयुट्’ in the verses?

2. From which verbal root is the form व्याप्रियेत (used in the commentary) derived?

Feb 262015
 

Today we will look at the form आत्महितम्  nAs from श्रीमद्-वाल्मीकि-रामायणम् 6.59.107.

द्वाभ्यामूर्ध्वं तु मासाभ्यां भर्तारं मामनिच्छतीम् । मम त्वां प्रातराशार्थे सूदाश्छेत्स्यन्ति खण्डश: ।। ५-२२-९ ।।
तां भर्त्स्यमानां सम्प्रेक्ष्य राक्षसेन्द्रेण जानकीम् । देवगन्धर्वकन्यास्ता विषेदुर्विकृतेक्षणाः ।। ५-२२-१० ।।
ओष्ठप्रकारैरपरा नेत्रैर्वक्त्रैस्तथापराः । सीतामाश्वासयामासुस्तर्जितां तेन रक्षसा ।। ५-२२-११ ।।
ताभिराश्वासिता सीता रावणं राक्षसाधिपम् । उवाचात्महितं वाक्यं वृत्तशौटीर्यगर्वितम् ।। ५-२२-१२ ।।

Gita Press translation – “My cooks will mince you for my morning repast in case you do not wish to have me for your husband even after two months (from now) (9).” Gazing on that daughter of Janaka being threatened by Rāvaṇa (the lord of ogres), those daughters of gods and Gandharvas ( who had been forcibly borne away like Sītā) grew melancholy with troubled eyes (10). Some (of them) reassured by the expression of their lips and others by their eyes and faces Sītā who was menaced (as above) by that ogre (11). Restored to confidence by them, Sītā addressed to Rāvaṇa, the suzerain lord of ogres, the following reply, which was in his own interest and which was full of pride for her (own) morality as well as for her husband’s valor (12).

लौकिक-विग्रह: -
(1) आत्महितम् = आत्मने हितम् – for (one’s) own benefit/interest.
Note: The fourth case affix used following the प्रातिपदिकम् ‘आत्मन्’ is justified by the following वार्तिकम् (under 2-3-13 चतुर्थी सम्प्रदाने) हितयोगे चतुर्थी वाच्या – A fourth case affix (‘ङे’, ‘भ्याम्’, ‘भ्यस्’) is used following a प्रातिपदिकम् (nominal stem) which is in connection with the word ‘हित’ (beneficial.)

अलौकिक-विग्रह: -
(2) आत्मन् ङे + हित सुँ । By 2-1-36 चतुर्थी तदर्थार्थबलिहितसुखरक्षितैः – A पदम् ending in a fourth case affix optionally compounds with a (syntactically related) पदम् denoting that which is for the purpose of that which is denoted by the पदम् ending in the fourth case affix, and so also with a (syntactically related) पदम् (formed by adding a सुँप् affix to) ‘अर्थ’ or ‘बलि’ or ‘हित’ or ‘सुख’ or ‘रक्षित’ and the resulting compound gets the designation तत्पुरुष:।

See question 1.

(3) By 1-2-43 प्रथमानिर्दिष्टं समास उपसर्जनम् – the term ‘आत्मन् ङे’ gets the designation उपसर्जनम् because in the सूत्रम् 2-1-36 (which prescribes the compounding) the term चतुर्थी ends in the nominative case. Hence ‘आत्मन् ङे’ is placed in the prior position in the compound as per the सूत्रम् 2-2-30 उपसर्जनं पूर्वम्‌ – In a compound a term which has the designation ‘उपसर्जन’ should be placed in the prior position.

Note: ‘आत्मन् ङे + हित सुँ’ gets the designation प्रातिपदिकम्‌ by 1-2-46 कृत्तद्धितसमासाश्च। This allows 2-4-71 to apply in the next step.

(4) आत्मन् + हित । By 2-4-71 सुपो धातुप्रातिपदिकयोः – A सुँप् affix takes a लुक् elision when it is a part of a धातुः or a प्रातिपदिकम्।

Note: ‘आत्मन्’ has पद-सञ्ज्ञा here by 1-4-14 सुप्तिङन्तं पदम् with the help of 1-1-62 प्रत्यय-लोपे प्रत्ययलक्षणम् – When an affix (in this case ‘ङे’) takes लोपः(elision), the operations that were ordained by that affix are still carried out.

(5) आत्महित । By 8-2-7 नलोप: प्रातिपदिकान्तस्य – The ending letter ‘न्’ of a पदम् is dropped when the पदम् also has the designation प्रातिपदिकम्।

As per the सूत्रम् 2-4-26 परवल्लिङ्गं द्वन्द्वतत्पुरुषयोः, the compound प्रातिपदिकम् ‘आत्महित’ is neuter here since the latter member ‘हित’ of the compound is used here in the neuter. (The entire compound is qualifying वाक्यम्।)

The विवक्षा is द्वितीया-एकवचनम्।

(6) आत्महित + अम् । By 4-1-2 स्वौजसमौट्छष्टाभ्याम्भिस्ङेभ्याम्भ्यस्ङसिभ्याम्भ्यस्ङसोसाम्ङ्योस्सुप्‌।

(7) आत्महित + अम् । By 7-1-24 अतोऽम् – The affixes ‘सुँ’ and ‘अम्’ that follow a neuter अङ्गम् ending in the short vowel ‘अ’ take ‘अम्’ as their replacement. Note: 7-1-24 is required here to prevent 7-1-23 स्वमोर्नपुंसकात्‌ from applying.
1-3-4 न विभक्तौ तुस्माः prevents the ending letter ‘म्’ of the affix ‘अम्’ from getting इत्-सञ्ज्ञा।

(8) आत्महितम् । By 6-1-107 अमि पूर्वः – In place of a preceding अक् letter and the following vowel (अच्) belonging to the affix ‘अम्’ there is a single substitute of that preceding अक् letter.

Questions:

1. Commenting on the सूत्रम् 2-1-36 चतुर्थी तदर्थार्थबलिहितसुखरक्षितैः (used in step 2) the सिद्धान्तकौमुदी says – तदर्थेन प्रकृतिविकृतिभाव एव गृह्यते। बलिरक्षितग्रहणाज्ज्ञापकात्‌। Please explain.

2. Which सूत्रम् justifies the use of a fifth case affix in द्वाभ्याम् and मासाभ्याम् used in the verses?

3. Which कृत् affix is used to form the neuter प्रातिपदिकम् ‘नेत्र’ used in the form नेत्रै: (तृतीया-बहुवचनम्) in the verses?

4. Where has the सूत्रम् 7-1-37 समासेऽनञ्पूर्वे क्त्वो ल्यप्‌ been used in the verses?

5. How would you say this in Sanskrit?
“Say that which is beneficial for everyone.” Form a compound for ‘beneficial for everyone’ = सर्वस्मै हितम्।

6. How would you say this in Sanskrit?
“This seat is reserved for the teacher.” Form a compound for ‘reserved for the teacher’ = गुरवे रक्षितम्।

Easy questions:

1. Which सूत्रम् prescribes the affix ‘स्य’ in the form छेत्स्यन्ति?

2. Where has the सूत्रम् 3-1-40 कृञ् चानुप्रयुज्यते लिटि been used in the verses?