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Oct 302014
 

Today we will look at the form भगवति mLs from श्रीमद्भागवतम् 10.30.2.

श्रीशुक उवाच
अन्तर्हिते भगवति सहसैव व्रजाङ्गनाः । अतप्यंस्तमचक्षाणाः करिण्य इव यूथपम् ।। १०-३०-१ ।।
गत्यानुरागस्मितविभ्रमेक्षितैर्मनोरमालापविहारविभ्रमैः । आक्षिप्तचित्ताः प्रमदा रमापतेस्तास्ता विचेष्टा जगृहुस्तदात्मिकाः ।। १०-३०-२ ।।

श्रीधर-स्वामि-टीका
अचक्षाणा अपश्यन्त्यः ।। १ ।। गत्या चानुरागस्मिताभ्यां विभ्रमेक्षितानि सविलासनिरीक्षणानि तैश्च मनोरमा आलापाश्च विहाराः क्रीडाश्च विभ्रमा अन्ये च विलासास्तैश्च रमापतेर्गत्यादिभिरेतैराक्षिप्तान्याकृष्टानि चित्तानि यासां ताः, अतस्तस्मिन्नेवात्मा यासां तास्तस्य विविधाश्चेष्टा जगृहुस्तदनुकरणेनाक्रीडन् ।। २ ।।

Gita Press translation – Śrī Śuka began again : The Lord having disappeared all of a sudden, the (aforesaid) women of Vraja felt agonized not to see Him (even) as she-elephants would when they failed to see the leader of their herd (1). With their mind captivated by the (charming) gait, loving smiles and sportful glances as well as by the delightful conversation, dalliances and graceful movements of Śrī Kṛṣṇa (the spouse of Ramā), the young women, getting identified with Him, imitated His various pastimes (2).

भगवति is पुंल्लिङ्गे सप्तमी-एकवचनम् of the प्रातिपदिकम् ‘भगवत्’।

(1) भगवत् + ङि । By 4-1-2 स्वौजसमौट्छष्टाभ्याम्भिस्ङेभ्याम्भ्यस्ङसिभ्याम्भ्यस्ङसोसाम्ङ्योस्सुप्‌। As per the सूत्रम् 2-3-37 यस्य च भावेन भावलक्षणम्‌ – A seventh case affix (‘ङि’, ‘ओस्’, ‘सुप्’) is used following a प्रातिपदिकम् (nominal stem) which denotes the one (agent/object) whose action (the timing of which is known) gives an indication of (the timing of) another action.
Note: A सप्तमी used in this manner is called भावलक्षण-सप्तमी or भाव-सप्तमी or सत्-सप्तमी or सति-सप्तमी। In English it is called Locative Absolute.
Note: The action (लक्षण-क्रिया) in the absolute clause is generally expressed by using a participle ending in a कृत् affix. This participle (here ‘अन्तर्हित’) – being in grammatical agreement with the प्रातिपदिकम् (here the agent ‘भगवत्’) which denotes the agent/object of the action – also takes the seventh case affix.

(2) भगवत् + इ । अनुबन्ध-लोपः by 1-3-8 लशक्वतद्धिते and 1-3-9 तस्य लोपः।

= भगवति ।

Questions:

1. Where has the सूत्रम् 2-3-37 यस्य च भावेन भावलक्षणम्‌ been used in verses 35-40 of Chapter One of the गीता?

2. Which सूत्रम् prescribes the substitution ‘हि’ in the form ‘हित’ (used in the compound अन्तर्हिते)?

3. Can you spot the affix ‘क्तिन्’ in the verses?

4. Where has the सूत्रम् 3-2-3 आतोऽनुपसर्गे कः been used in the verses?

5. Which कृत् affix is used to form the प्रातिपदिकम् ‘विहार’ (used in the compound मनोरमालापविहारविभ्रमैः in the verses)?

6. How would you say this in Sanskrit?
“On Rāvaṇa having been killed, the monkeys rejoiced.” Use the verbal root √हृष् (हृषँ तुष्टौ ४. १४२) for ‘to rejoice.’

Easy questions:

1. Where has the सूत्रम् 6-1-16 ग्रहिज्यावयिव्यधिवष्टिविचतिवृश्चतिपृच्छतिभृज्जतीनां ङिति च been used in the verses?

2. Where has लँङ् been used in the commentary?

Oct 272014
 

Today we will look at the form तूर्येषु mLp/nLp from श्रीमद्भागवतम् 10.44.29.

गोपान्वयस्यानाकृष्य तैः संसृज्य विजह्रतुः । वाद्यमानेषु तूर्येषु वल्गन्तौ रुतनूपुरौ ।। १०-४४-२९ ।।
जनाः प्रजहृषुः सर्वे कर्मणा रामकृष्णयोः । ऋते कंसं विप्रमुख्याः साधवः साधु साध्विति ।। १०-४४-३० ।।

श्रीधर-स्वामि-टीका
वल्गन्तौ नृत्यादि कुर्वन्तौ ।। २९ ।। साधु साधु इति वदन्तः ।। ३० ।।

Gita Press translation – Drawing near them Their cowherd mates and closing with them, the two Brothers sported (in the arena), while the trumpets were being sounded, dancing (at intervals) with Their anklets jingling (29). With the exception of Kaṁsa all the people (present there) exceedingly rejoiced over the achievement of Balarāma and Śrī Kṛṣṇa. And pious men, including the foremost of the Brāhmaṇas, exclaimed, “Well done! bravo!!” (30)

तूर्येषु is सप्तमी-बहुवचनम् of the पुंल्लिङ्ग/नपुंसकलिङ्ग-प्रातिपदिकम् ‘तूर्य’।

(1) तूर्य + सुप् । By 4-1-2 स्वौजसमौट्छष्टाभ्याम्भिस्ङेभ्याम्भ्यस्ङसिभ्याम्भ्यस्ङसोसाम्ङ्योस्सुप्‌। As per the सूत्रम् 2-3-37 यस्य च भावेन भावलक्षणम्‌ – A seventh case affix (‘ङि’, ‘ओस्’, ‘सुप्’) is used following a प्रातिपदिकम् (nominal stem) which denotes the one (agent/object) whose action (the timing of which is known) gives an indication of (the timing of) another action.
Note: A सप्तमी used in this manner is called भावलक्षण-सप्तमी or भाव-सप्तमी or सत्-सप्तमी or सति-सप्तमी। In English it is called Locative Absolute.
Note: The action (लक्षण-क्रिया) in the absolute clause is generally expressed by using a participle ending in a कृत् affix. This participle (here ‘वाद्यमान’) – being in grammatical agreement with the प्रातिपदिकम् (here the object ‘तूर्य’) which denotes the agent/object of the action – also takes the seventh case affix.

(2) तूर्य + सु । अनुबन्ध-लोपः by 1-3-3 हलन्त्यम् and 1-3-9 तस्य लोपः।

(3) तूर्ये + सु । By 7-3-103 बहुवचने झल्येत् – the ending letter ‘अ’ of a अङ्गम् changes to ‘ए’ when followed by a plural सुँप् affix beginning with a झल् letter.

(4) तूर्येषु । By 8-3-59 आदेशप्रत्यययोः – The letter ‘स्’ is replaced by the cerebral ‘ष्’ when preceded either by a letter of the इण्-प्रत्याहार: or a letter of the क-वर्ग: (‘क्’, ‘ख्’, ‘ग्’, ‘घ्’, ‘ङ्’)। This substitution only takes place if the ‘स्’ is an आदेश: (substitute) or part of a प्रत्यय: (affix.)

Questions:

1. Where has the सूत्रम् 2-3-37 यस्य च भावेन भावलक्षणम्‌ been used in verses 41-47 of Chapter One of the गीता?

2. In the absence of the सूत्रम् 2-3-37 यस्य च भावेन भावलक्षणम्‌ which case ending would have been used with ‘तूर्य’ (and ‘वाद्यमान’)?

3. Which सूत्रम् justifies the use of a third case affix in the form तै: used in the verses?

4. Where has the सूत्रम् 2-3-23 हेतौ been used in the verses?

5. In which word in the verses has the substitution ‘शतृँ’ (in place of ‘लँट्’) been used?

6. How would you say this in Sanskrit?
“While Śrī Rāma was being crowned the gods showered flowers.” Use the verbal root √सिच् (षिचँ क्षरणे ६. १७०) preceded by the उपसर्ग: ‘अभि’ for ‘to crown.’

Easy questions:

1. From which verbal root is विजह्रतुः derived?

2. Which सूत्रम् prescribes the substitution ‘उस्’ in the form प्रजहृषुः?

Oct 232014
 

Today we will look at the form दूरे nLs from श्रीमद्भागवतम् 10.47.34.

यत्त्वहं भवतीनां वै दूरे वर्ते प्रियो दृशाम् । मनसः सन्निकर्षार्थं मदनुध्यानकाम्यया ।। १०-४७-३४ ।।
यथा दूरचरे प्रेष्ठे मन आविश्य वर्तते । स्त्रीणां च न तथा चेतः सन्निकृष्टेऽक्षिगोचरे ।। १०-४७-३५ ।।
मय्यावेश्य मनः कृत्स्नं विमुक्ताशेषवृत्ति यत् । अनुस्मरन्त्यो मां नित्यमचिरान्मामुपैष्यथ ।। १०-४७-३६ ।।

श्रीधर-स्वामि-टीका
ननु किमन्यानिवास्मानात्मविद्यया प्रलोभयसि, वयं तु सर्वसुन्दरसकलगुणगणालंकृतेन त्वया विरहं नैव सहाम इति चेदत आह – यत्त्वहमिति । दृशां दूरे यद्वर्ते तन्मदनुध्यानार्थम् । तच्च ध्यानं मनसः संनिकर्षार्थमिति ।। ३४ ।। एतदुपपादयति त्रयेण – यथा दूरचर इति ।। ३५ ।।

Gita Press translation – It is only with intent to focus your thought constantly on Me in order to ensure your mental proximity with Me that I, your Darling, am actually staying (so) far from your eyes (34). The mind of women as well as of others does not get so absorbed in the thought of their most beloved one living close by and open to their view as in that of one staying at a distance (35). Incessantly thinking of Me (as you do), having devoted to Me your whole (undivided) mind, which has completely shed all (other) thoughts, you will come to Me before long (36).

दूरे is सप्तमी-एकवचनम् of the नपुंसकलिङ्ग-प्रातिपदिकम् ‘दूर’।

(1) दूर + ङि । By 4-1-2 स्वौजसमौट्छष्टाभ्याम्भिस्ङेभ्याम्भ्यस्ङसिभ्याम्भ्यस्ङसोसाम्ङ्योस्सुप्‌। By 2-3-36 सप्तम्यधिकरणे च – A seventh case affix (‘ङि’, ‘ओस्’, ‘सुप्’) is used to denote अधिकरणम् (location), provided it has not been expressed otherwise. The use of ‘च’ in the सूत्रम् tells us that a seventh case affix is also used following a प्रातिपदिकम् (nominal stem) having the sense of either ‘far’ or ‘near.’
In the present example, ‘दूर’ has the sense of ‘far’. Hence ‘दूर’ takes a seventh case affix.

(2) दूर + इ । अनुबन्ध-लोपः by 1-3-8 लशक्वतद्धिते and 1-3-9 तस्य लोपः।

(3) दूरे । By 6-1-87 आद्गुणः

Questions:

1. In the first twenty verses of Chapter Thirteen of the गीता where has the सूत्रम् 2-3-36 सप्तम्यधिकरणे च (used in step 1) been used to prescribe a seventh case affix following a प्रातिपदिकम् (nominal stem) having the sense of either ‘far’ or ‘near’?

2. Commenting on the सूत्रम् 2-3-36 सप्तम्यधिकरणे च the सिद्धान्तकौमुदी says – ‘दूरान्तिकार्थेभ्य: -’ इति विभक्तित्रयेण सह चतस्रोऽत्र विभक्तय: फलिता:। Please explain.

3. In the verses a sixth case ending has been used in दृशाम्। Which other case ending (other than the sixth case ending) could be used?

4. Which सूत्रम् prescribes the substitution ‘ल्यप्’ (in place of ‘क्त्वा’) in the form आविश्य?

5. Where has the सूत्रम् 7-1-81 शप्श्यनोर्नित्यम् been used in the verses?

6. How would you say this in Sanskrit?
“O Lord! May I always be close to You.”

Easy questions:

1. Which सूत्रम् prescribes the substitution ‘ए’ in the form वर्ते?

2. Where has the सूत्रम् 3-1-33 स्यतासी लृलुटोः been used in the verses?

Oct 202014
 

Today we will look at the form सर्वेषु भूतेषु nLp from श्रीमद्भागवतम् 7.7.32.

हरिः सर्वेषु भूतेषु भगवानास्त ईश्वरः । इति भूतानि मनसा कामैस्तैः साधु मानयेत् ।। ७-७-३२ ।।
एवं निर्जितषड्वर्गैः क्रियते भक्तिरीश्वरे । वासुदेवे भगवति यया संलभते रतिम् ।। ७-७-३३ ।।

श्रीधर-स्वामि-टीका
निर्जितः षण्णां कामक्रोधलोभमोहमदमत्सराणामिन्द्रियाणां वा वर्गो यैः ।। ३३ ।।

Gita Press translation – (Nay,) one should (as far as possible) duly gratify (the various) living beings with their objects of desire under the belief that the almighty Lord Śrī Hari is present in all created beings (32). In this way devotion to the all-powerful Lord Vāsudeva is practiced by those who have subdued the six senses (including the mind, the internal sense) – devotion through which one fully develops love (for Him) (33).

सर्वेषु is नपुंसकलिङ्गे सप्तमी-बहुवचनम् of the सर्वनाम-प्रातिपदिकम् ‘सर्व’। भूतेषु is सप्तमी-बहुवचनम् of the नपुंसकलिङ्ग-प्रातिपदिकम् ‘भूत’।

(1) सर्व + सुप् । By 4-1-2 स्वौजसमौट्छष्टाभ्याम्भिस्ङेभ्याम्भ्यस्ङसिभ्याम्भ्यस्ङसोसाम्ङ्योस्सुप्‌। As per the सूत्रम् 1-4-45 आधारोऽधिकरणम् – That कारकम् (participant in the action) which denotes the location/support – via the agent/object – of an action subsisting in the agent/object is called अधिकरणम् (location.)
In the present example, ‘भूत’ (qualified by the pronoun ‘सर्व’) is the कारकम् (participant in the action) which denotes the location/support – via the agent भगवान् – of the action आस्ते subsisting in the agent. Hence ‘भूत’/’सर्व’ get the designation अधिकरणम् (location.)
Note: औपश्‍लेषिको वैषयिकोऽभिव्‍यापकश्‍चेत्‍याधारस्‍त्रिधा – आधारः is of three kinds (i) औपश्‍लेषिक: involving contact or proximity (ii) वैषयिक: involving a subject matter (iii) अभिव्‍यापक: involving pervasion.
By 2-3-36 सप्तम्यधिकरणे च – A seventh case affix (‘ङि’, ‘ओस्’, ‘सुप्’) is used to denote अधिकरणम् (location), provided it has not been expressed otherwise. The use of ‘च’ in the सूत्रम् tells us that a seventh case affix is also used following a प्रातिपदिकम् (nominal stem) having the sense of either ‘far’ or ‘near.’

(2) सर्व + सु । अनुबन्ध-लोपः by 1-3-3 हलन्त्यम् and 1-3-9 तस्य लोपः।

(3) सर्वे + सु । By 7-3-103 बहुवचने झल्येत् – The ending letter ‘अ’ of a अङ्गम् changes to ‘ए’ when followed by a plural सुँप् affix beginning with a झल् letter.

(4) सर्वेषु । By 8-3-59 आदेशप्रत्यययोः

Similarly भूतेषु is derived from the नपुंसकलिङ्ग-प्रातिपदिकम् ‘भूत’।

Questions:

1. Where has the combination of 1-4-45 आधारोऽधिकरणम् and 2-3-36 सप्तम्यधिकरणे च been used for the first time in Chapter 13 of the गीता?

2. Where else (besides in सर्वेषु भूतेषु) has the combination of 1-4-45 आधारोऽधिकरणम् and 2-3-36 सप्तम्यधिकरणे च been used in the verses?

3. Which सूत्रम् justifies the use of a third case affix in the form यया?

4. Which कृत् affix is used to form the प्रातिपदिकम् ‘ईश्वर’?

5. Where has the सूत्रम् 6-4-37 अनुदात्तोपदेशवनतितनोत्यादीनामनुनासिकलोपो झलि क्ङिति been used in the verses?

6. How would you say this in Sanskrit?
“This water is sweet.” Paraphrase to “There is sweetness in this water.” Use the neuter प्रातिपदिकम् ‘माधुर्य’ for ‘sweetness.’

Easy questions:

1. In which word in the verses has the affix शप् taken the लुक् elision?

2. Where has the सूत्रम् 7-4-28 रिङ् शयग्लिङ्क्षु been used in the verses?

Oct 162014
 

Today we will look at the form प्रधने nLs from श्रीमद्भागवतम् 6.11.5.

किं व उच्चरितैर्मातुर्धावद्भिः पृष्ठतो हतैः । न हि भीतवधः श्लाघ्यो न स्वर्ग्यः शूरमानिनाम् ।। ६-११-४ ।।
यदि वः प्रधने श्रद्धा सारं वा क्षुल्लका हृदि । अग्रे तिष्ठत मात्रं मे न चेद् ग्राम्यसुखे स्पृहा ।। ६-११-५ ।।
एवं सुरगणान्क्रुद्धो भीषयन्वपुषा रिपून् । व्यनदत् सुमहाप्राणो येन लोका विचेतसः ।। ६-११-६ ।।

श्रीधर-स्वामि-टीका
तदेवाह द्वाभ्याम् । मातुरुच्चरितैः पुरीषप्रायैः । प्रथमान्तपाठे देवानां संबोधनम् । पृष्ठतो हतैर्दैत्यैः किम् । न किंचित् । न यशो नापि धर्मः । तदेवाह - नहीति ।। ४ ।। प्रधने संग्रामे । सारं धैर्यं हृदि चेत्तर्हि हे क्षुल्लकाः क्षुद्राः, मात्रं क्षणमात्रमग्रे तिष्ठतन चेदिह लोकभोगे स्पृहास्ति ।। ५ ।। सुरगणान् । सुमहान्प्राणो बलं यस्य । येन विचेतसो बभूवुः ।। ६ ।।

Gita Press translation – “What will be gained by you through these fugitives – who are no better than the excreta of their mother – being struck from behind? Indeed the slaughter of the terror-stricken is neither praiseworthy nor conducive to heavenly enjoyment for those who account themselves as brave (4). If you are keen about fighting or if there is courage in your heart, O vile creatures, and (again) if there is no craving (in your heart) for sensuous enjoyments, stand but for a moment before me” (5). Thus threatening the host of gods, his enemies, by his (words as well as by his gigantic form) figure, and full of rage, Vṛtra, who was possessed of vast strength, roared in such a way that people fainted (to hear the sound) (6).

Verses 4 and 5 have previously appeared in the following post – http://avg-sanskrit.org/2013/05/21/श्रद्धा-fns/

प्रधने is सप्तमी-एकवचनम् of the नपुंसकलिङ्ग-प्रातिपदिकम् ‘प्रधन’।

(1) प्रधन + ङि । By 4-1-2 स्वौजसमौट्छष्टाभ्याम्भिस्ङेभ्याम्भ्यस्ङसिभ्याम्भ्यस्ङसोसाम्ङ्योस्सुप्‌। As per the सूत्रम् 1-4-45 आधारोऽधिकरणम् – That कारकम् (participant in the action) which denotes the location/support – via the agent/object – of an action subsisting in the agent/object is called अधिकरणम् (location.)
In the present example, ‘प्रधन’ is the कारकम् (participant in the action) which denotes the location/support – via the agent श्रद्धा – of the (implied) action अस्ति subsisting in the agent. Hence ‘प्रधन’ gets the designation अधिकरणम् (location.)
Note: औपश्‍लेषिको वैषयिकोऽभिव्‍यापकश्‍चेत्‍याधारस्‍त्रिधा – आधारः is of three kinds (i) औपश्‍लेषिक: involving contact or proximity (ii) वैषयिक: involving a subject matter (iii) अभिव्‍यापक: involving pervasion. By 2-3-36 सप्तम्यधिकरणे च – A seventh case affix (‘ङि’, ‘ओस्’, ‘सुप्’) is used to denote अधिकरणम् (location), provided it has not been expressed otherwise. The use of ‘च’ in the सूत्रम् tells us that a seventh case affix is also used following a प्रातिपदिकम् (nominal stem) having the sense of either ‘far’ or ‘near.’

(2) प्रधन + इ । अनुबन्ध-लोपः by 1-3-8 लशक्वतद्धिते and 1-3-9 तस्य लोपः।

(3) प्रधने । By 6-1-87 आद्गुणः

Questions:

1. Where has the combination of 1-4-45 आधारोऽधिकरणम् and 2-3-36 सप्तम्यधिकरणे च been used in verses 13-17 of Chapter 4 of the गीता?

2. In the verses can you spot another word (besides ‘प्रधन’) that has the designation आधार: (by the सूत्रम् 1-4-45 आधारोऽधिकरणम्) and the आधार: is वैषयिक:?

3. Which वार्तिकम् may we use in justifying the third case affix used in उच्चरितै:, धावद्भिः and हतैः?

4. Can you spot the affix ‘ण्यत्’ in the verses?

5. Where has the सूत्रम् 6-4-37 अनुदात्तोपदेशवनतितनोत्यादीनामनुनासिकलोपो झलि क्ङिति been used in the verses?

6. How would you say this in Sanskrit?
“I am well-versed in (the subject of) grammar.” Use the adjective ‘कुशल’ for ‘well-versed.’

Easy questions:

1. Where has the सूत्रम् 6-1-111 ऋत उत्‌ been used in the verses?

2. Can you spot the augment अट् in the verses?

Oct 132014
 

Today we will look at the form गृहे nLs from श्रीमद्भागवतम् 1.15.37.

यदा मुकुन्दो भगवानिमां महीं जहौ स्वतन्वा श्रवणीयसत्कथः । तदाहरेवाप्रतिबुद्धचेतसामधर्महेतुः कलिरन्ववर्तत ।। १-१५-३६ ।।
युधिष्ठिरस्तत्परिसर्पणं बुधः पुरे च राष्ट्रे च गृहे तथात्मनि । विभाव्य लोभानृतजिह्महिंसनाद्यधर्मचक्रं गमनाय पर्यधात् ।। १-१५-३७ ।।

श्रीधर-स्वामि-टीका
युधिष्ठिरस्य स्वर्गारोहप्रसङ्गाय कलिप्रवेशमाह - यदेति । स्वतन्वा जहौ । सतनोरेव वैकुण्ठारोहात् । श्रवणार्हा सती कथा यस्य । तदा यदहस्तस्मिन्नेव । अहरिति लुप्तसप्तम्यन्तं पदम् । अप्रतिबुद्धचेतसामविवेकिनां इति । विवेकिनां तु न प्रभुरित्युक्तम् । अन्ववर्ततेति पूर्वमेवांशेन प्रविष्टस्य तेन रूपेणानुवृत्तिरुक्ता ।। ३६ ।। बुधो युधिष्ठिरः । तस्य कलेः परिसर्पणं प्रसरणं विलोक्य । कथंभूतम् । लोभाद्यधर्मचक्रं यस्मिन् । जिह्मं कौटिल्यम् । पर्यधात्तदुचितं परिधानमकरोत् ।। ३७ ।।

Gita Press translation – When Lord Śrī Kṛṣṇa (the Bestower of Liberation) bodily departed from this earth, leaving behind His stories which are charming to the ear, that very day entered the Kali age, which leads men of unawakened consciousness to unrighteousness (36). The wise king Yudhiṣṭhira saw the growth of vices like greed, falsehood, deceit and violence etc., not only in the city (of Hastināpura) but in the whole of his state, nay, in every home as well as in the mind of the people, and, concluding therefrom the advance of the Kali age, prepared to depart from this world (37).

गृहे is सप्तमी-एकवचनम् of the नपुंसकलिङ्ग-प्रातिपदिकम् ‘गृह’।

(1) गृह + ङि । By 4-1-2 स्वौजसमौट्छष्टाभ्याम्भिस्ङेभ्याम्भ्यस्ङसिभ्याम्भ्यस्ङसोसाम्ङ्योस्सुप्‌। As per the सूत्रम् 1-4-45 आधारोऽधिकरणम् – That कारकम् (participant in the action) which denotes the location/support – via the agent/object – of an action subsisting in the agent/object is called अधिकरणम् (location.)
In the present example, ‘गृह’ is the कारकम् (participant in the action) which denotes the location/support – via the object तत्परिसर्पणम् – of the action विभाव्य subsisting in the object. Hence ‘गृह’ gets the designation अधिकरणम् (location.)
Note: औपश्‍लेषिको वैषयिकोऽभिव्‍यापकश्‍चेत्‍याधारस्‍त्रिधा – आधारः is of three kinds (i) औपश्‍लेषिक: involving contact or proximity (ii) वैषयिक: involving a subject matter (iii) अभिव्‍यापक: involving pervasion. By 2-3-36 सप्तम्यधिकरणे च – A seventh case affix (‘ङि’, ‘ओस्’, ‘सुप्’) is used to denote अधिकरणम् (location), provided it has not been expressed otherwise. The use of ‘च’ in the सूत्रम् tells us that a seventh case affix is also used following a प्रातिपदिकम् (nominal stem) having the sense of either ‘far’ or ‘near.’

(2) गृह + इ । अनुबन्ध-लोपः by 1-3-8 लशक्वतद्धिते and 1-3-9 तस्य लोपः।

(3) गृहे । By 6-1-87 आद्गुणः

Questions:

1. Where has the combination of 1-4-45 आधारोऽधिकरणम् and 2-3-36 सप्तम्यधिकरणे च been used in verses 15-20 of Chapter 11 of the गीता?

2. Where else (besides in गृहे) has the combination of 1-4-45 आधारोऽधिकरणम् and 2-3-36 सप्तम्यधिकरणे च been used in the verses?

3. Which कृत् affix is used to form the प्रातिपदिकम् ‘बुध’?

4. Where has the सूत्रम् 6-4-51 णेरनिटि been used in the verses?

5. Which सूत्रम् prescribes the affix ल्युट् used in the form गमनाय (नपुंसकलिङ्ग-प्रातिपदिकम् ‘गमन’, चतुर्थी-एकवचनम्)?

6. How would you say this in Sanskrit?
“Sīta saw a beautiful deer in the forest.”

Easy questions:

1. Can you spot the affix शप् in the verses?

2. Where has the सूत्रम् 2-4-77 गातिस्थाघुपाभूभ्यः सिचः परस्मैपदेषु been used in the verses?

Oct 092014
 

Today we will look at the form हिरण्मये mLs from श्रीमद्भागवतम् 5.18.29.

भवान्युगान्तार्णव ऊर्मिमालिनि क्षोणीमिमामोषधिवीरुधां निधिम् । मया सहोरु क्रमतेऽज ओजसा तस्मै जगत्प्राणगणात्मने नम इति ।। ५-१८-२८ ।।
हिरण्मयेऽपि भगवान्निवसति कूर्मतनुं बिभ्राणस्तस्य तत्प्रियतमां तनुमर्यमा सह वर्षपुरुषैः पितृगणाधिपतिरुपधावति मन्त्रमिमं चानुजपति ।। ५-१८-२९ ।।

श्रीधर-स्वामि-टीका
अवतारचरितमाह । भवानिमां क्षोणीं मया मनुना सह मत्सहितां धृत्वेत्यध्याहारः । ऊर्मिमालावति प्रलयार्णवे ओजसा क्रमते विचरति । यद्वा पातुमित्यस्यानुषङ्गः । क्षोणीं पातुं क्रमते । उत्सहत इत्यर्थः । यतोऽजः । कीदृशीम् । ओषधीनां वीरुधां च निधिमाश्रयभूताम् । तस्मै नमः। जगतो यः प्राणगणस्तस्यात्मने नियन्त्रे ।। २८ ।। तत्प्रियतमां तां प्रियतमाम् ।। २९ ।।

Gita Press translation – “Holding (by a cord) this earth – a storehouse of annual plants and creepers (etc.) – including myself (then known as Satyavrata) You, the birthless Lord, sported far and wide with (great) vigor in the ocean, that was, at the time of universal dissolution tumultuous with waves. Hail to such a Lord, the (inner) Controller of the multitudes of animate beings !”(28) In Hiraṇmayavarṣa, again, the Lord resides in (lit., having assumed) the form of the (Divine) Tortoise. Along with the denizens of this subdivision of the earth, Aryamā, the lord of the hosts of manes, adores that most beloved manifestation of the Lord, and repeats this prayer (29).

हिरण्मये is पुंलिङ्गे सप्तमी-एकवचनम् of the प्रातिपदिकम् ‘हिरण्मय’।

(1) हिरण्मय + ङि । By 4-1-2 स्वौजसमौट्छष्टाभ्याम्भिस्ङेभ्याम्भ्यस्ङसिभ्याम्भ्यस्ङसोसाम्ङ्योस्सुप्‌। As per the सूत्रम् 1-4-45 आधारोऽधिकरणम् – That कारकम् (participant in the action) which denotes the location/support – via the agent/object – of an action subsisting in the agent/object is called अधिकरणम् (location.)
In the present example, ‘हिरण्मय’ is the कारकम् (participant in the action) which denotes the location/support – via the agent भगवान् – of the action निवसति subsisting in the agent. Hence ‘हिरण्मय’ gets the designation अधिकरणम् (location.)
Note: औपश्‍लेषिको वैषयिकोऽभिव्‍यापकश्‍चेत्‍याधारस्‍त्रिधा – आधारः is of three kinds (i) औपश्‍लेषिक: involving contact or proximity (ii) वैषयिक: involving a subject matter (iii) अभिव्‍यापक: involving pervasion.
By 2-3-36 सप्तम्यधिकरणे च – A seventh case affix (‘ङि’, ‘ओस्’, ‘सुप्’) is used to denote अधिकरणम् (location), provided it has not been expressed otherwise. The use of ‘च’ in the सूत्रम् tells us that a seventh case affix is also used following a प्रातिपदिकम् (nominal stem) having the sense of either ‘far’ or ‘near.’

(2) हिरण्मय + इ । अनुबन्ध-लोपः by 1-3-8 लशक्वतद्धिते and 1-3-9 तस्य लोपः।

(3) हिरण्मये । By 6-1-87 आद्गुणः

Questions:

1. Where has the combination of 1-4-45 आधारोऽधिकरणम् and 2-3-36 सप्तम्यधिकरणे च been used for the first time in the गीता?

2. Commenting on the statement औपश्‍लेषिको वैषयिकोऽभिव्‍यापकश्‍चेत्‍याधारस्‍त्रिधा made in the सिद्धान्तकौमुदी (under the सूत्रम् 1-4-45 आधारोऽधिकरणम्) the तत्त्वबोधिनी says – नद्यमास्त इत्याद्यर्थं सामीपिकमधिकरणं चतुर्थमपि केचिदिच्छन्ति। Please explain.

3. Where has the सूत्रम् 2-3-16 नमःस्वस्तिस्वाहास्वधालंवषड्योगाच्च been used in the verses?

4. Which सूत्रम् justifies the use of a third case affix in the form मया used in the verses?

5. Which कृत् affix is used to form the प्रातिपदिकम् ‘निधि’?

6. How would you say this in Sanskrit?
“Śrī Rāma lived in the forest for fourteen years.”

Easy questions:

1. From which masculine प्रातिपदिकम् is the form अर्यमा (प्रथमा-एकवचनम्) derived?

2. Where has the verbal root √ब्रू (ब्रूञ् व्यक्तायां वाचि २. ३९) been used in the commentary?

Oct 062014
 

Today we will look at the form आत्मनः mGs from श्रीमद्भागवतम् 4.1.65.

भवस्य पत्नी तु सती भवं देवमनुव्रता । आत्मनः सदृशं पुत्रं न लेभे गुणशीलतः ।। ४-१-६५ ।।
पितर्यप्रतिरूपे स्वे भवायानागसे रुषा । अप्रौढैवात्मनात्मानमजहाद्योगसंयुता ।। ४-१-६६ ।।

श्रीधर-स्वामि-टीका
गुणशीलत आत्मनः सदृशं देवमनुव्रतापि सती पुत्रं न लेभे ।। ६५ ।। तत्र हेतुः – स्वे पितरि दक्षेऽप्रतिरूपेऽसदृशे प्रतिकूले सतीत्यर्थः । आत्मना स्वयमेवात्मानं देहमजहात्त्यक्तवती । योगसंयुता योगमाश्रित्येति ।। ६६ ।।

Translation – Satī (Dakṣa’s youngest daughter and) the Consort of Bhava (Lord Śiva), was devoted to Lord Bhava, but did not get a son resembling herself in good qualities and character. For, while yet very young, she dropped her body of her own accord by dint of Yoga (concentration of mind), in a spirit of indignation against her father (Dakṣa) on account of his antagonism against Lord Bhava, who had done him no wrong (65-66).

आत्मनः is षष्ठी-एकवचनम् of the पुंलिङ्ग-प्रातिपदिकम् ‘आत्मन्’।

(1) आत्मन् + ङस् । By 4-1-2 स्वौजसमौट्छष्टाभ्याम्भिस्ङेभ्याम्भ्यस्ङसिँभ्याम्भ्यस्ङसोसाम्ङ्योस्सुप्। As per the सूत्रम् 2-3-72 तुल्यार्थैरतुलोपमाभ्यां तृतीयान्यतरस्याम्‌ – A third case affix (‘टा’, ‘भ्याम्’, ‘भिस्’) or a sixth case affix (‘ङस्’, ‘ओस्’, ‘आम्’) is used following a प्रातिपदिकम् (nominal stem) co-occurring with ‘तुल्य’ (equal/similar to) or any of its synonyms – but not ‘तुला’ or ‘उपमा’।

In the present example, ‘आत्मन्’ is co-occurring with ‘सदृश’ (a synonym of ‘तुल्य’)। Therefore ‘आत्मन्’ takes the sixth case affix. Optionally ‘आत्मन्’ could take the third case affix.

(2) आत्मन् + अस् । अनुबन्ध-लोपः by 1-3-8 लशक्वतद्धिते and 1-3-9 तस्य लोपः। 1-3-4 न विभक्तौ तुस्माः prevents the ending letter ‘स्’ of the affix ‘ङस्’ from getting इत्-सञ्ज्ञा।

(3) आत्मनः । रुँत्व-विसर्गौ by 8-2-66 ससजुषो रुः and 8-3-15 खरवसानयोर्विसर्जनीयः

Questions:

1. Where has the सूत्रम् 2-3-72 तुल्यार्थैरतुलोपमाभ्यां तृतीयान्यतरस्याम्‌ been used in the first fifteen verses of Chapter Eleven of the गीता?

2. Commenting on the सूत्रम् 2-3-72 तुल्यार्थैरतुलोपमाभ्यां तृतीयान्यतरस्याम्‌ the तत्त्वबोधिनी says – वेति वर्तमानेऽन्यतरस्यांग्रहणमुत्तरसूत्रे चकारेण स्वस्यानुकर्षणार्थम्। अन्यथा हि तृतीयैवानुकृष्येत, संनिहितत्वात्। Please explain.

3. Which सूत्रम् justifies the use of a sixth case affix in the form भवस्य used in the verses?

4. In which sense has the affix ‘क्त’ been used in the form अनुव्रता in the verses?
i) कर्तरि
ii) कर्मणि
iii) भावे
iv) None of the above

5. Can you spot the augment तुँक् in the commentary?

6. How would you say this in Sanskrit?
“There is a temple in India similar to this temple.”

Easy questions:

1. Which सूत्रम् prescribes the अभ्यासलोप: (elision of the first portion of the reduplication) in the form लेभे?

2. Where has the सूत्रम् 7-4-62 कुहोश्चुः been used in the verses?

Oct 022014
 

Today we will look at the form विष्णुना mIs from श्रीमद्-वाल्मीकि-रामायणम् 1.1.18.

विष्णुना सदृशो वीर्ये सोमवत्प्रियदर्शनः । कालाग्निसदृशः क्रोधे क्षमया पृथिवीसमः ।। १-१-१८ ।।
धनदेन समस्त्यागे सत्ये धर्म इवापरः । तमेवङ्गुणसम्पन्नं रामं सत्यपराक्रमम् ।। १-१-१९ ।।
ज्येष्ठं ज्येष्ठगुणैर्युक्तं प्रियं दशरथः सुतम् । प्रकृतीनां हितैर्युक्तं प्रकृतिप्रियकाम्यया ।। १-१-२० ।।
यौवराज्येन संयोक्तुमैच्छत्प्रीत्या महीपतिः ।। first half of verse १-१-२१ ।।

Gita Press translation – He is a replica of Lord Viṣṇu in prowess and is pleasing of aspect as the moon. In (show of) anger he resembles the destructive fire at the end of creation and is a counterpart of Mother Earth in forbearance (18). He equals Kubera (the god of riches, the bestower of wealth) in liberality and is another Dharma (the god of piety) as it were in point of truthfulness. With intent to gratify the people, the king (Emperor Daśaratha) lovingly sought to invest with the office of Regent, his beloved son, Śrī Rāma, who possessed unfailing prowess and was adorned with the aforesaid qualities, who was not only the eldest (of his four sons in point of age) but was also endowed with the highest virtues and devoted to the interests of the people (verses 19,20 and first half of verse 21).

These verses have previously appeared in the following post - http://avg-sanskrit.org/2013/03/08/त्यागे-mls/

विष्णुना is तृतीया-एकवचनम् of the पुंलिङ्ग-प्रातिपदिकम् ‘विष्णु’।

(1) विष्णु + टा । By 4-1-2 स्वौजसमौट्छष्टाभ्याम्भिस्ङेभ्याम्भ्यस्ङसिभ्याम्भ्यस्ङसोसाम्ङ्योस्सुप्‌। As per 2-3-72 तुल्यार्थैरतुलोपमाभ्यां तृतीयान्यतरस्याम्‌ – A third case affix (‘टा’, ‘भ्याम्’, ‘भिस्’) or a sixth case affix (‘ङस्’, ‘ओस्’, ‘आम्’) is used following a प्रातिपदिकम् (nominal stem) co-occurring with ‘तुल्य’ (equal/similar to) or any of its synonyms – but not ‘तुला’ or ‘उपमा’।
In the present example, ‘विष्णु’ is co-occurring with ‘सदृश’ (a synonym of ‘तुल्य’)। Therefore ‘विष्णु’ takes the third case affix. Optionally ‘विष्णु’ could take the sixth case affix.

‘विष्णु’ gets the घि-सञ्ज्ञा by 1-4-7 शेषो घ्यसखि।

(2) विष्णु + आ । अनुबन्ध-लोपः by 1-3-7 चुटू and 1-3-9 तस्य लोपः।

(3) विष्णुना । By 7-3-120 आङो नाऽस्त्रियाम् – Following a अङ्गम् having घि-सञ्ज्ञा, the affix ‘आङ्’ is replaced by ‘ना’, but not in the feminine gender. ‘आङ्’ is an ancient name for the (instrumental singular) affix ‘टा’।

Questions:

1. Where has the सूत्रम् 2-3-72 तुल्यार्थैरतुलोपमाभ्यां तृतीयान्यतरस्याम्‌ been used between verses 35-40 of Chapter Four of the गीता?

2. Where else (besides in विष्णुना) has the सूत्रम् 2-3-72 तुल्यार्थैरतुलोपमाभ्यां तृतीयान्यतरस्याम्‌ been used in the verses?

3. Commenting on the सूत्रम् 2-3-72 तुल्यार्थैरतुलोपमाभ्यां तृतीयान्यतरस्याम्‌ the सिद्धान्तकौमुदी says – अतुलोपमाभ्यां किम्? तुला उपमा वा कृष्णस्य नास्ति। Please explain.

4. Which कृत् affix is used to derive the feminine प्रातिपदिकम् ‘क्षमा’ (used in the form क्षमया (तृतीया-एकवचनम्) in the verses)?

5. Which सूत्रम् prescribes the substitution ‘ग्’ in the प्रातिपदिकम् ‘त्याग’ (used in the form त्यागे (सप्तमी-एकवचनम्) in the verses)?

6. How would you say this in Sanskrit?
“I want to get a car similar to your car.”

Easy questions:

1. Which सूत्रम् prescribes the substitution ‘ए’ (which subsequently becomes ‘अय्’ after applying 6-1-78 एचोऽयवायावः) in the form क्षमया?

2. Where has the सूत्रम् 6-4-3 नामि been used in the verses?

Sep 292014
 

Today we will look at the form अम्बुदस्य mGs from शिशुपालवधम् 14-46.

निर्गुणोऽपि विमुखो न भूपतेर्दानशौण्डमनसः पुरोऽभवत् ।
वर्षुकस्य किमपः कृतोन्नतेरम्बुदस्य परिहार्यमूषरम् ।। १४-४६ ।।

टीका -
निर्गुण इति ।। दानशौण्डमनसो दानशूरचित्तस्य । बहुप्रदस्येत्यर्थः । ‘स्युर्वदान्यस्थूललक्ष्यदानशौण्डा बहुप्रदे । मत्ते शौण्डोत्कटक्षीबाः’ इत्यमरः । भूपतेः पुरोऽग्रे निर्गुणस्तपोविद्यादिगुणहीनोऽपि विमुखो निष्फलो नाभवत्, किन्तु पूर्णकाम एवाभवत् । भूरिदाने सर्वस्यापि पात्रत्वादिति भावः । अत एव तेनापात्रवर्षदोषोऽपि न करुणवृत्तेरित्याशयेन दृष्टान्तमाह – वर्षुकस्येति । अपो जलानि । ’2-3-69 न लोकाव्ययनिष्ठाखलर्थतृनाम्‌’ इत्यादिना षष्ठीप्रतिषेधः । वर्षुकस्य वर्षणशीलस्य । ’3-2-154 लषपतपदस्थाभूवृषहनकमगमशॄभ्य उकञ्’ इत्यादिना उकञ्प्रत्यये लघूपधगुणः। कृतोन्नतेः कृतोदयस्याम्बुदस्य । अम्बुदेनेत्यर्थः । ’2-3-71 कृत्यानां कर्तरि वा’ इति षष्ठी । ‘स्यादूषः क्षारमृत्तिका’ इत्यमरः । तद्वत्क्षेत्रमूषरम् । ‘ऊषवानूषरो द्वावप्यन्यलिङ्गौ स्थलं स्थली’ इत्यमरः । ’5-2-107 ऊषसुषिमुष्कमधो रः’ इति र-प्रत्ययः । परिहार्यं त्याज्यं किम् नेत्यर्थः । अत्र पर्जन्यभूपालयोर्वाक्यभेदेन बिम्बप्रतिबिम्बितया समानधर्माभिधानाद् दृष्टान्तालङ्कारः ।।

Translation – In front of the king (Yudhiṣṭhira), whose mind was skilled in charity, even a person devoid of good qualities was not disappointed. (Just like) for a cloud, which has risen high and is pouring down water, is a barren spot with saline soil to be forsaken? (Indeed no.)

अम्बुदस्य is पुंलिङ्गे षष्ठी-एकवचनम् of the प्रातिपदिकम् ‘अम्बुद’।

(1) अम्बुद + ङस् । By 4-1-2 स्वौजसमौट्छष्टाभ्याम्भिस्ङेभ्याम्भ्यस्ङसिँभ्याम्भ्यस्ङसोसाम्ङ्योस्सुप्। As per the सूत्रम् 2-3-71 कृत्यानां कर्तरि वा – A sixth case affix (‘ङस्’, ‘ओस्’, ‘आम्’) is optionally used to denote कर्ता (the doer) of an action denoted by a word ending in a ‘कृत्य’ affix (prescribed in the अधिकार: of 3-1-95 कृत्याः।) Note: When the sixth case affix is not used, a third case affix is used as per 2-3-18 कर्तृकरणयोस्तृतीया।
In the present example ‘अम्बुद’ (‘cloud’) is the doer of the action (of abandoning) denoted by the word ‘परिहार्य’ (which ends in the affix ण्यत् prescribed by the सूत्रम् 3-1-124 ऋहलोर्ण्यत्‌।) Hence ‘अम्बुद’ optionally takes a sixth case affix.

(2) अम्बुदस्य । By 7-1-12 टाङसिङसामिनात्स्याः - Following a अङ्गम् ending in the letter ‘अ’, the affixes ‘टा’, ‘ङसिँ’ and ‘ङस्’ are replaced respectively by ‘इन’, ‘आत्’ and ‘स्य’। As per 1-1-55 अनेकाल्शित्सर्वस्य the entire affix ‘ङस्’ is replaced.

Questions:

1. Where has the सूत्रम् 2-3-71 कृत्यानां कर्तरि वा been used between verses 20-25 of Chapter Three of the गीता?

2. Commenting on the सूत्रम् 2-3-71 the सिद्धान्तकौमुदी says – अत्र योगो विभज्यते। कृत्यानाम्। उभयप्राप्ताविति नेति चानुवर्तते। तेन नेतव्या व्रजं गाव: कृष्णेन। तत: कर्तरि वा। Please explain.

3. Commenting on the सूत्रम् 2-3-71 the तत्त्वबोधिनी says – ‘कर्तृकर्मणो: -’ इति नित्ये प्राप्ते विभाषेयम्। Please explain.

4. Where has the सूत्रम् 2-3-69 न लोकाव्ययनिष्ठाखलर्थतृनाम्‌ been used in the verse?

5. Consider the प्रातिपदिकम् ‘बहुप्रद’ used in the commentary. Can you find the सूत्रम् (which we have seen in a prior comment) that justifies the use of the affix ‘क’ in the derivation of ‘बहुप्रद’? Note that 3-2-3 आतोऽनुपसर्गे कः cannot be used here because the उपसर्ग: ‘प्र’ is present. Hint: The अनुवृत्ति: of ‘क’ goes from 3-2-3 आतोऽनुपसर्गे कः down to 3-2-7 समि ख्यः।

6. How would you say this in Sanskrit?
“All of us ought to study the Gīta.” Paraphrase to “The Gīta ought to be studied by all of us.” Use the verbal root √इ (इङ् अध्ययने – नित्यमधिपूर्वः २. ४१) with the उपसर्ग: ‘अधि’ for ‘to study.’

Easy questions:

1. Which सूत्रम् prescribes the elision of the letter ‘इ’ in the form अभवत्?

2. In the verse can you spot a प्रातिपदिकम् which is used only in the plural (no singular or dual)?