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Sep 032015
 

Today we will look at the form अतीत्य  ind from श्रीमद्भागवतम् 3.15.27.

तद्विश्वगुर्वधिकृतं भुवनैकवन्द्यं दिव्यं विचित्रविबुधाग्र्यविमानशोचिः । आपुः परां मुदमपूर्वमुपेत्य योगमायाबलेन मुनयस्तदथो विकुण्ठम् ।। ३-१५-२६ ।।
तस्मिन्नतीत्य मुनयः षडसज्जमानाः कक्षाः समानवयसावथ सप्तमायाम् । देवावचक्षत गृहीतगदौ परार्ध्यकेयूरकुण्डलकिरीटविटङ्कवेषौ ।। ३-१५-२७ ।।

श्रीधर-स्वामि-टीका
तत्तदा तदपूर्वं विकुण्ठं अथो अनन्तरमुपेत्य मुनयः परामुत्कृष्टां मुदमापुः । अपूर्वत्वे हेतवः – विश्वगुरुणा हरिणाऽधिकृतमधिष्ठितम् । भुवनानामेकमेव वन्द्यम् । दिव्यमलौकिकम् । विचित्राणि विबुधाग्र्याणां विमानानि तेषां शोचिर्दीप्तिर्यस्मिन् । योगमायाबलेनेति अष्टाङ्गयोगप्रभावेणोपेत्य । परमेश्वरे तु योगमायेति चिच्छक्तिविलास इति द्रष्टव्यम् ।। २६ ।। तस्मिन्वैकुण्ठे षट् कक्षाः प्राकारद्वाराणि । असज्जमानाः भगवद्दर्शनोत्कण्ठया तत्तदद्भुतदर्शन आसक्तिमकुर्वाणाः । द्वारपालौ देवावपश्यन् । समानं वयो ययोः । गृहीते गदे याभ्याम् । परार्ध्यैः केयूरादिभिर्विटङ्कः सुन्दरो वेषो ययोः ।। २७ ।।

Gita Press translation – The sages (Sanaka and his three brothers) felt supremely delighted when they reached by dint of their Yogamāyā (wonderful power of Yoga) the divine and unique realm of Vaikuṇṭha, presided over by Lord Viṣṇu (the Father of the whole universe), which is the sole object of reverence for all the worlds, and shone resplendent with the wonderful aerial cars of the foremost gods (26). Having passed through six entrances to the Lord’s residence without feeling attached to anything, they saw at the seventh gate two shining beings of the same age, armed with a mace and adorned with most valuable armlets, ear-rings and diadems (27).

The verse (३-१४-२७) has appeared previously in the following post – http://avg-sanskrit.org/2013/06/28/अतीत्य-ind/

(1) अतीत्य – having gone beyond

अतीत्य is derived from the verbal root √इ (इण् गतौ २. ४०) preceded by the उपसर्ग: ‘अति’। ‘अति’ also gets the designation गति: here as per 1-4-60 गतिश्च

(2) इ + क्त्वा । By 3-4-21 समानकर्तृकयोः पूर्वकाले – The affix ‘क्‍त्‍वा’ is used following a verbal root which denotes a prior action relative to that of another verbal root, provided the agent of both the actions is the same. In the present example the later action (having the same agent – ‘they’) is अचक्षत (‘saw.’)

(3) अलौकिक-विग्रह: –

अति + इ + क्त्वा । By 2-2-18 कुगतिप्रादयः – The indeclinable ‘कु’, terms having the designation ‘गति’ (ref. 1-4-60 गतिश्च etc) as well as the terms ‘प्र’ etc. (ref. 1-4-58 प्रादयः) invariably compound with a syntactically related term and the resulting compound gets the designation तत्पुरुष:।
Note: The अनुवृत्ति: of नित्यम् (invariably) comes down from the prior सूत्रम् 2-2-17 नित्यं क्रीडाजीविकयोः।
Note: The designation ‘गति’ is prescribed in the section from 1-4-60 गतिश्च down to 1-4-79 जीविकोपनिषदावौपम्ये

(3) By 1-2-43 प्रथमानिर्दिष्टं समास उपसर्जनम् – the term ‘अति’ has the designation गति: here and therefore gets the designation उपसर्जनम् because in the सूत्रम् 2-2-18 (which prescribes the compounding) the term कुगतिप्रादयः ends in the nominative case.
Hence the term ‘अति’ is placed in the prior position in the compound as per the सूत्रम् 2-2-30 उपसर्जनं पूर्वम्‌ – In a compound a term which has the designation ‘उपसर्जन’ should be placed in the prior position.

Note: ‘अति + इ + क्त्वा’ gets the designation प्रातिपदिकम्‌ by 1-2-46 कृत्तद्धितसमासाश्च।

(4) अति + इ + ल्यप् । By 7-1-37 समासेऽनञ्पूर्वे क्त्वो ल्यप्‌ – When the affix ‘क्त्वा’ occurs at the end of a compound, it is replaced by ‘ल्यप्’ provided the prior member of the compound is a अव्‍ययम् other than ‘नञ्’ (ref. 2-2-6 नञ्)। The entire term ‘क्त्वा’ is replaced by ‘ल्यप्’ as per the परिभाषा-सूत्रम् 1-1-55 अनेकाल्शित्सर्वस्य
Note: As per 1-1-56 स्थानिवदादेशोऽनल्विधौ, the substitution ‘ल्यप्’ (in place of the affix ‘क्त्वा’) inherits the property of being a कित् (having the letter ‘क्’ as a इत्) affix with the designation of कृत् (by 3-1-93 कृदतिङ्) and आर्धधातुकम् (by 3-4-114 आर्धधातुकं शेषः।)

(5) अति + इ + य । अनुबन्ध-लोपः by 1-3-3 हलन्त्यम्, 1-3-8 लशक्वतद्धिते and 1-3-9 तस्य लोपः

Note: 1-1-5 क्क्ङिति च prevents 7-3-84 सार्वधातुकार्धधातुकयोः from applying.

(6) अती + य । By 6-1-101 अकः सवर्णे दीर्घः। Note: Since the affix ‘य’ is no longer preceded by a short vowel, 6-1-71 ह्रस्वस्य पिति कृति तुक् would not apply here. But now 6-1-86 षत्वतुकोरसिद्धः intervenes and says that when it comes to a possible addition of the augment ‘तुँक्’, the single substitute ‘ई’ (in place of ‘इ + इ’) is to be treated as if it has not occurred. Thus 6-1-71 ह्रस्वस्य पिति कृति तुक् still sees अति + इ + य and the addition of the augment ‘तुँक्’ does take place.

Note: The entire meaning of the सूत्रम् 6-1-86 षत्वतुकोरसिद्धः is – When the substitution ‘ष्’ or the augment ‘तुँक्’ is to be performed, a single replacement (in place of the preceding and following letter) is treated as if it has not occurred.

(7) अती तुँक् + य । By 6-1-71 ह्रस्वस्य पिति कृति तुक् – When followed by a कृत् affix which is a पित् (has the letter ‘प्’ as a इत्), a short vowel takes the augment ‘तुँक्’। As per 1-1-46 आद्यन्तौ टकितौ, the augment ‘तुँक्’ joins after the short vowel ‘इ’।

(8) अतीत्य । अनुबन्ध-लोप: by 1-3-3 हलन्त्यम्, 1-3-2 उपदेशेऽजनुनासिक इत् and 1-3-9 तस्य लोपः

‘अतीत्य’ gets the अव्यय-सञ्ज्ञा by 1-1-40 क्त्वातोसुन्कसुनः with the help of 1-1-56 स्थानिवदादेशोऽनल्विधौ। This allows 2-4-82 to apply below.

(9) अतीत्य + सुँ (default) । By 4-1-2 स्वौजसमौट्छष्टाभ्याम्भिस्ङेभ्याम्भ्यस्ङसिँभ्याम्भ्यस्ङसोसाम्ङ्योस्सुप्

(10) अतीत्य । By 2-4-82 अव्ययादाप्सुपः – The feminine affix आप् and सुँप् affixes that are prescribed after a अव्ययम् take the लुक् elision.

Questions:

1. In which Chapter of the गीता has the form अतीत्य been used?

2. Can you spot another (besides अतीत्य) गति-समास: in the verses?

3. Which two compounds occurring in the verses have been constructed using the सूत्रम् 2-2-6 नञ्‌?

4. Which सूत्रम् justifies the use of a third case affix in the form योगमायाबलेन used in the verses?

5. What is the लौकिक-विग्रह: of the compound भुवनैकवन्द्यम् (प्रातिपदिकम् ‘भुवनैकवन्द्य’, नपुंसकलिङ्गे द्वितीया-एकवचनम्) used in the verses? Hint: First form the कर्मधारय: compound ‘एकवन्द्य’ and use that to form the final षष्ठी-तत्पुरुष: compound ‘भुवनैकवन्द्य’।

6. How would you say this in Sanskrit?
“Having crossed (gone beyond) the ocean Śrī Hanumān reached Lanka.” Use the verbal root √आप् (आपॢँ व्याप्तौ ५. १६) preceded by the उपसर्ग: ‘प्र’ for ‘to reach.’

Easy questions:

1. Where has लिँट् been used in the verses?

2. Which सूत्रम् prescribes the substitution ‘अत्’ in the form अचक्षत?

Aug 312015
 

Today we will look at the form कवोष्णम् nAs from रघुवंशम् 1.67.

मत्परं दुर्लभं मत्वा नूनमावर्जितं मया । पयः पूर्वैः स्वनिःश्वासैः कवोष्णमुपभुज्यते ॥ 1-67॥
सोऽहमिज्याविशुद्धात्मा प्रजालोपनिमीलितः । प्रकाशश्चाप्रकाशश्च लोकालोक इवाचलः ॥ 1-68॥

मल्लिनाथ-टीका
मत्परं मदनन्तरम् । ‘अन्यारात् -‘ इत्यादिना पञ्चमी । दुर्लभं दुर्लभ्यं मत्वा मया आवर्जितं दत्तं पयः पूर्वेः पितृभिः स्वनिःश्वासैः दु:खजैः कवोष्णम् ईषदुष्णं यथा तथा उपभुज्यतेनूनम् इति वितर्के । कवोष्णमिति कुशब्दस्य कवादेशः । ‘कोष्णं कवोष्णं मन्दोष्णं कदुष्णं त्रिषु तद्वति’ इत्यमरः ।। ६७ ।। इज्या यागः । ‘व्रजयजोर्भावे क्यप्’ इति क्यप्प्रत्ययः । तया विशुद्धात्मा विशुद्धचेतनः [इज्याविशुद्धात्मा]। प्रजालोपेन संतत्यभावेन निमीलितः कृतनिमीलनः । [प्रजालोपनिमीलितः] सोऽहम् । लोक्यत इति लोकः न लोक्यत इत्यलोकः। लोकश्चालोकश्चात्र स्त इति, लोकश्चासावलोकश्चेति वा लोकालोकः चक्रवालः अचलः इव। ‘लोकालोकश्चक्रवालः’ इत्यमरः । प्रकाशत इति प्रकाशश्च देवर्णविमोचनात् । न प्रकाशत इति अप्रकाशश्च पितॄणामृणाविमोचनात् । पचाद्यच् । अस्मीति शेषः । लोकालोकोऽप्यन्तःसूर्यसंपर्काद्बहिस्तमोव्याप्त्या च प्रकाशश्चाप्रकाशश्चेति मन्तव्यम् ।। ६८ ।।

Translation – Verily the libation of water, offered by me, is drunk, rendered lukewarm with their sighs, by my forefathers, thinking that it would be difficult to be obtained after my death (67). I, therefore, with my soul purified by the performance of sacrifices, but obscured by want of issue, am both shining and not shining like the mountain Lokāloka (which is lighted on one side and dark on the other) (68).

(1) ईषदुष्णम्‌ = कवोष्णम्‌ – lukewarm (slightly warm.)

(2) अलौकिक-विग्रह: –
कु + उष्ण सुँ । By 2-2-18 कुगतिप्रादयः – The indeclinable ‘कु’, terms having the designation ‘गति’ (ref. 1-4-60 गतिश्च etc) as well as the terms ‘प्र’ etc. (ref. 1-4-58 प्रादयः) invariably compound with a syntactically related term and the resulting compound gets the designation तत्पुरुष:।
Note: The अनुवृत्ति: of नित्यम् (invariably) comes down from the prior सूत्रम् 2-2-17 नित्यं क्रीडाजीविकयोः।

(3) By 1-2-43 प्रथमानिर्दिष्टं समास उपसर्जनम् – the term ‘कु’ gets the designation उपसर्जनम् because in the सूत्रम् 2-2-18 (which prescribes the compounding) the term कुगतिप्रादयः ends in the nominative case. Hence the term ‘कु’ is placed in the prior position in the compound as per the सूत्रम् 2-2-30 उपसर्जनं पूर्वम्‌ – In a compound a term which has the designation ‘उपसर्जन’ should be placed in the prior position.

Note: ‘कु + उष्ण सुँ’ gets the designation प्रातिपदिकम्‌ by 1-2-46 कृत्तद्धितसमासाश्च। This allows 2-4-71 to apply in the next step.

(4) कु + उष्ण । By 2-4-71 सुपो धातुप्रातिपदिकयोः – A सुँप् affix takes a लुक् elision when it is a part of a धातुः or a प्रातिपदिकम्।

(5) कव + उष्ण । By 6-3-107 कवं चोष्णे – The indeclinable ‘कु’ optionally takes the substitution ‘कव’ or ‘का’ when it is followed by ‘उष्ण’ as the final member in a compound. Note: As per the परिभाषा-सूत्रम् 1-1-55 अनेकाल्शित्सर्वस्य the entire term ‘कु’ is replaced by ‘कव’ or ‘का’ or ‘कत्’।

See question 1.

(6) कवोष्ण । By 6-1-87 आद्गुणः

As per the सूत्रम् 2-4-26 परवल्लिङ्गं द्वन्द्वतत्पुरुषयोः, the compound प्रातिपदिकम् ‘कवोष्ण’ is an adjective since the latter member ‘उष्ण’ of the compound is an adjective. In the present example the compound is qualifying the neuter noun पय: and hence the compound is neuter. It declines like वन-शब्द:।

The विवक्षा is प्रथमा-एकवचनम्।

(7) कवोष्ण + सुँ । By 4-1-2 स्वौजसमौट्छष्टाभ्याम्भिस्ङेभ्याम्भ्यस्ङसिभ्याम्भ्यस्ङसोसाम्ङ्योस्सुप्‌।

(8) कवोष्ण + अम् । By 7-1-24 अतोऽम् – The affixes ‘सुँ’ and ‘अम्’ that follow a neuter अङ्गम् ending in the short vowel ‘अ’ take ‘अम्’ as their replacement. 1-3-4 न विभक्तौ तुस्माः prevents the ending letter ‘म्’ of the affix ‘अम्’ from getting इत्-सञ्ज्ञा।

(9) कवोष्णम् । By 6-1-107 अमि पूर्वः – In place of a preceding अक् letter and the following vowel (अच्) belonging to the affix ‘अम्’ there is a single substitute of that preceding अक् letter.

Questions:

1. Which are the two alternate forms for कवोष्णम्?

2. Where has the सूत्रम् 2-3-29 अन्यारादितरर्तेदिक्‌छब्दाञ्चूत्तरपदाजाहियुक्ते been used in the verses?

3. Which सूत्रम् prescribes the कृत् affix क्यप् used to construct the feminine प्रातिपदिकम् ‘इज्या’ (seen in the compound इज्याविशुद्धात्मा in the verses)?

4. Which कृत् affix is used to construct the प्रातिपदिकम् ‘प्रकाश’ (as used in the form प्रकाश: (पुंलिङ्गे प्रथमा-एकवचनम्) in the verses)?

5. What is the विग्रह: of the compound अचल: used in the verses?

6. How would you say this in Sanskrit?
The doctor told me – ‘Drink lukewarm water with this medicine.’ Use the neuter प्रातिपदिकम् ‘औषध’ for ‘medicine.’

Easy questions:

1. Which सूत्रम् prescribes the affix यक् used in the form उपभुज्यते?

2. Where has the सूत्रम् 6-4-111 श्नसोरल्लोपः been used in the commentary?

Aug 272015
 

Today we will look at the form कदन्नम्  nAs from श्रीमद्भागवतम् 5.9.9.

स च प्राकृतैर्द्विपदपशुभिरुन्मत्तजडबधिरेत्यभिभाष्यमाणो यदा तदनुरूपाणि प्रभाषते कर्माणि च कार्यमाणः परेच्छया करोति विष्टितो वेतनतो वा याच्ञया यदृच्छया वोपसादितमल्पं बहु मृष्टं कदन्नं वाभ्यवहरति परं नेन्द्रियप्रीतिनिमित्तम् । नित्यनिवृत्तनिमित्तस्वसिद्धविशुद्धानुभवानन्दस्वात्मलाभाधिगमः सुखदुःखयोर्द्वन्द्वनिमित्तयोरसम्भावितदेहाभिमानः ।। ५-९-९ ।।

श्रीधर-स्वामि-टीका
यदाऽभिभाष्यमाणस्तदा तदनुरूपाणि प्रभाषते । मूल्यमन्तरेण बलाद्यत्कर्म कार्यते सा विष्टिः । वेतनं मूल्यम् । विष्ट्यादिभिरुपसादितमन्नमभ्यवहरति उपभुङ्क्ते केवलं, न त्विन्द्रियप्रीतये । अत्र हेतुद्वयमाह । नित्यं सदा निवृत्तं निमित्तं यस्मात्स उत्पादकशून्यः स्वसिद्धोऽभिव्यञ्जकशून्यो विशुद्धः केवलो योऽनुभवः स एवानन्दरूपः स्वात्मा तस्य लाभ एवंभूतोऽहमिति ज्ञानं तस्याधिगमः प्राप्तिरस्ति यस्य । द्वन्द्वानि सन्मानावमानादीनि तद्धेतुकयोः सुखदुःखयोरकृतदेहाभिमानः । तस्मान्नेन्द्रियप्रीतिनिमित्तमभ्यवहरतीत्यन्वयः ।। ९ ।।

Gita Press translation – As for Bharata, when he was addressed as a lunatic, a dullard or a deaf fellow by the common people, the two-footed brutes, he spoke words befitting such a description and would do work as desired by others when compelled to do so. (Nay,) he would eat any food got through forced labor or by way of remuneration (for services done by him), by begging or without asking, no matter whether it was scanty or plentiful, tasteful or bad, but never for the gratification of his senses. For, having realized his oneness with the all-blissful Self – that is of the nature of absolute Consciousness, ever without cause and shining by itself – he never identified himself with the body in joy or sorrow occasioned by pairs of opposites (such as honor or ignominy) (9).

(1) कुत्सितमन्नम् = कदन्नम्‌ – bad food

(2) अलौकिक-विग्रह: –
कु + अन्न सुँ । By 2-2-18 कुगतिप्रादयः – The indeclinable ‘कु’, terms having the designation ‘गति’ (ref. 1-4-60 गतिश्च etc) as well as the terms ‘प्र’ etc. (ref. 1-4-58 प्रादयः) invariably compound with a syntactically related term and the resulting compound gets the designation तत्पुरुष:।
Note: The अनुवृत्ति: of नित्यम् (invariably) comes down from the prior सूत्रम् 2-2-17 नित्यं क्रीडाजीविकयोः।

(3) By 1-2-43 प्रथमानिर्दिष्टं समास उपसर्जनम् – the term ‘कु’ gets the designation उपसर्जनम् because in the सूत्रम् 2-2-18 (which prescribes the compounding) the term कुगतिप्रादयः ends in the nominative case. Hence the term ‘कु’ is placed in the prior position in the compound as per the सूत्रम् 2-2-30 उपसर्जनं पूर्वम्‌ – In a compound a term which has the designation ‘उपसर्जन’ should be placed in the prior position.

Note: ‘कु + अन्न सुँ’ gets the designation प्रातिपदिकम्‌ by 1-2-46 कृत्तद्धितसमासाश्च। This allows 2-4-71 to apply in the next step.

(4) कु + अन्न । By 2-4-71 सुपो धातुप्रातिपदिकयोः – A सुँप् affix takes a लुक् elision when it is a part of a धातुः or a प्रातिपदिकम्।

(5) कत् + अन्न । By 6-3-101 कोः कत्‌ तत्पुरुषेऽचि – In a तत्पुरुष: compound, the indeclinable ‘कु’ takes the substitution ‘कत्‌’ when it is followed by a vowel-beginning final member. Note: As per the परिभाषा-सूत्रम् 1-1-55 अनेकाल्शित्सर्वस्य the entire term ‘कु’ is replaced by ‘कत्’।

(6) कदन्न । By 8-2-39 झलां जशोऽन्ते – When a झल् letter occurs at the end of a पदम् it is replaced by a जश् letter.

As per the सूत्रम् 2-4-26 परवल्लिङ्गं द्वन्द्वतत्पुरुषयोः, the compound प्रातिपदिकम् ‘कदन्न’ is neuter since the latter member ‘अन्न’ of the compound is neuter. The compound declines like वन-शब्द:।

The विवक्षा is द्वितीया-एकवचनम्।

(7) कदन्न + अम् । By 4-1-2 स्वौजसमौट्छष्टाभ्याम्भिस्ङेभ्याम्भ्यस्ङसिभ्याम्भ्यस्ङसोसाम्ङ्योस्सुप्‌।

(8) कदन्न + अम् । By 7-1-24 अतोऽम् – The affixes ‘सुँ’ and ‘अम्’ that follow a neuter अङ्गम् ending in the short vowel ‘अ’ take ‘अम्’ as their replacement. 1-3-4 न विभक्तौ तुस्माः prevents the ending letter ‘म्’ of the affix ‘अम्’ from getting इत्-सञ्ज्ञा।
Note: 7-1-24 is required here to prevent 7-1-23 स्वमोर्नपुंसकात्‌ from applying.

(9) कदन्नम् । By 6-1-107 अमि पूर्वः – In place of a preceding अक् letter and the following vowel (अच्) belonging to the affix ‘अम्’ there is a single substitute of that preceding अक् letter.

Questions:

1. Commenting on the सूत्रम् 6-3-101 कोः कत्‌ तत्पुरुषेऽचि (used in step 5) the काशिका says – अचीति किम्? कुब्राह्मणः। कुपुरुषः। Please explain.

2. Which कृत् affix is used to form the feminine प्रातिपदिकम् ‘याच्ञा’ (occurring in the form याच्ञया (तृतीया-एकवचनम्) in the verses)?

3. In which word(s) in the verses has the augment मुँक् been used?

4. Which सूत्रम् justifies the use of a second case affix in the form मूल्यम् used in the commentary?

5. Where has the वार्तिकम् (under 2-3-13 चतुर्थी सम्प्रदाने in the महाभाष्यम्) तादर्थ्ये चतुर्थी वाच्या been used in the commentary?

6. How would you say this in Sanskrit?
“Bad food pollutes not only the body but also the mind.” Use the verbal root √दुष् (दुषँ वैकृत्ये ४. ८२) in the causative for ‘to pollute.’

Easy questions:

1. Where has the सूत्रम् 3-4-79 टित आत्मनेपदानां टेरे been used in the verses?

2. Can you spot the affix श्नम् in the commentary?

Aug 242015
 

Today we will look at the form कुपुरुषः  mNs from श्रीमद्भागवतम् 7.8.53.

यक्षा ऊचुः
वयमनुचरमुख्याः कर्मभिस्ते मनोज्ञैस्त इह दितिसुतेन प्रापिता वाहकत्वम् । स तु जनपरितापं तत्कृतं जानता ते नरहर उपनीतः पञ्चतां पञ्चविंश ।। ७-८-५२ ।।
किम्पुरुषा ऊचुः
वयं किम्पुरुषास्त्वं तु महापुरुष ईश्वरः । अयं कुपुरुषो नष्टो धिक्कृतः साधुभिर्यदा ।। ७-८-५३ ।।

श्रीधर-स्वामि-टीका
मनोज्ञैः कर्मभिस्तवानुचरेषु मुख्यास्ते वयं दितिसुतेन शिबिकावाहकत्वं प्रापिताःपञ्चतां मृत्युम् । हे पञ्चविंश चतुर्विंशतितत्त्वनियामक ।। ५२ ।। किंपुरुषास्तु त्वां स्तोतुं के वयं वराका इत्याहुः – वयमिति । वयं किंपुरुषास्तुच्छप्राणिनस्त्वं तु महानद्भुतप्रभावः पुरुषः । नन्वयं महान्दैत्यो हत इति न वर्ण्यत इत्याशङ्क्य कियदेतदित्याहुः – अयमिति । यदा साधुभिर्भगवद्भक्तैस्तिरस्कृतस्तदैव नष्टः ।। ५३ ।।

Gita Press translation – The Yakṣas said: We, who are well-known as the chief among Your servants by virtue of (our) agreeable actions, had hitherto been reduced to the position of mere palanquin-bearers by Hiraṇyakaśipu (Diti’s son). He, however, has (now) been put to death by You, O Narasiṁha, the Controller of the twenty-four categories, knowing as You did the agony caused to the people by him (52). The Kimpuruṣas said: We are Kimpuruṣas (insignificant creatures), while You are the almighty Supreme Person. This wretched fellow was no more (even) when he was reproached by pious souls (53).

(1) कुत्सितः पुरुषः = कुपुरुषः – a despicable man

(2) अलौकिक-विग्रह: –
कु + पुरुष सुँ । By 2-2-18 कुगतिप्रादयः – The indeclinable ‘कु’, terms having the designation ‘गति’ (ref. 1-4-60 गतिश्च etc) as well as the terms ‘प्र’ etc. (ref. 1-4-58 प्रादयः) invariably compound with a syntactically related term and the resulting compound gets the designation तत्पुरुष:।
Note: The अनुवृत्ति: of नित्यम् (invariably) comes down from the prior सूत्रम् 2-2-17 नित्यं क्रीडाजीविकयोः।

(3) By 1-2-43 प्रथमानिर्दिष्टं समास उपसर्जनम् – the term ‘कु’ gets the designation उपसर्जनम् because in the सूत्रम् 2-2-18 (which prescribes the compounding) the term कुगतिप्रादयः ends in the nominative case. Hence the term ‘कु’ is placed in the prior position in the compound as per the सूत्रम् 2-2-30 उपसर्जनं पूर्वम्‌ – In a compound a term which has the designation ‘उपसर्जन’ should be placed in the prior position.

Note: ‘कु + पुरुष सुँ’ gets the designation प्रातिपदिकम्‌ by 1-2-46 कृत्तद्धितसमासाश्च। This allows 2-4-71 to apply in the next step.

(4) कु + पुरुष By 2-4-71 सुपो धातुप्रातिपदिकयोः – A सुँप् affix takes a लुक् elision when it is a part of a धातुः or a प्रातिपदिकम्।

= कुपुरुष ।

As per the सूत्रम् 2-4-26 परवल्लिङ्गं द्वन्द्वतत्पुरुषयोः, the compound प्रातिपदिकम् ‘कुपुरुष’ is masculine since the latter member ‘पुरुष’ of the compound is masculine. The compound declines like राम-शब्द:।

The विवक्षा is प्रथमा-एकवचनम् ।

(5) कुपुरुष + सुँ । By 4-1-2 स्वौजसमौट्छष्टाभ्याम्भिस्ङेभ्याम्भ्यस्ङसिँभ्याम्भ्यस्ङसोसाम्ङ्योस्सुप्

(6) कुपुरुष + स् । अनुबन्ध-लोपः by 1-3-2 उपदेशेऽजनुनासिक इत् and 1-3-9 तस्य लोपः।

(7) कुपुरुष: । रुँत्व-विसर्गौ by 8-2-66 ससजुषो रुः and 8-3-15 खरवसानयोर्विसर्जनीयः

Questions:

1. Commenting on the सूत्रम् 2-2-18 कुगतिप्रादयः (used in step 2) the तत्त्वबोधिनी says – ‘कु’शब्दोऽत्राव्ययं गृह्यते, न तु पृथिवीवाचको, गत्यादिसाहचर्यात्। Please explain.

2. Which सूत्रम् justifies the use of a third case affix in the form कर्मभि: (and मनोज्ञै:) used in the verses?

3. What is the लौकिक-विग्रह: of the compound ‘किम्पुरुष’ (used in the form किम्पुरुषा: (प्रथमा-बहुवचनम्) in the verses)?

4. Where has the सूत्रम् 6-3-46 आन्महतः समानाधिकरणजातीययोः been used in the verses?

5. In which word in the verses has the substitution ‘शतृँ’ (in place of ‘लँट्’) taken place?

6. How would you say this in Sanskrit?
“Not getting a son is better than getting a despicable son.” Paraphrase to “Non-obtaining of a son is better than obtaining of a despicable son.” Use the कृत् affix ‘क्तिन्’ with the verbal root √आप् (आपॢँ व्याप्तौ ५. १६) preceded by the उपसर्ग: ‘प्र’ to form a feminine प्रातिपदिकम् for ‘obtaining.’ Construct a नञ्-तत्पुरुष: compound for ‘non-obtaining.’ Use the adjective प्रातिपदिकम् ‘वर’ (feminine ‘वरा’) for ‘better.’

Easy questions:

1. From which verbal root is the form ऊचुः derived?

2. Which सूत्रम् prescribes the elision of the affix णिच् in the form वर्ण्यते used in the commentary?

Aug 202015
 

Today we will look at the form अनृतम्  nAs from श्रीमद्भागवतम् 10.88.34.

यदि वस्तत्र विश्रम्भो दानवेन्द्र जगद्गुरौ । तर्ह्यङ्गाशु स्वशिरसि हस्तं न्यस्य प्रतीयताम् ।। १०-८८-३३ ।।
यद्यसत्यं वचः शम्भोः कथञ्चिद्दानवर्षभ । तदैनं जह्यसद्वाचं न यद्वक्तानृतं पुनः ।। १०-८८-३४ ।।

श्रीधर-स्वामि-टीका
यद्यथा वक्ता वदिष्यति ।। ३४ ।।

Gita Press translation – O lord of demons, if you still repose faith in Śaṅkara as the Teacher of the world, the truth may be verified (by you) this very instant, O dear friend, by placing your hand on your own head (33). O chief of Asuras, if the words of Śaṅkara are found to deviate from truth in any wise, you had better do away with that liar so that he may not (live to) utter a falsehood again (34).

(1) न ऋतम् = अनृतम् – falsehood.

अलौकिक-विग्रह: –
(2) नञ्‌ + ऋत सुँ । By 2-2-6 नञ्‌ – The negation particle नञ्‌ (meaning ‘not’) optionally compounds with a सुबन्तं (ending in a सुँप् affix) पदम् and the resulting compound is a तत्पुरुष:।
Note: The negation particle नञ्‌ belongs to the चादि-गणः (referenced in 1-4-57 चादयोऽसत्त्वे)। Hence it gets the designation निपात: by 1-4-56 प्राग्रीश्वरान्निपाताः and the designation अव्ययम् by 1-1-37 स्वरादिनिपातमव्ययम्।
Note: तत्सादृश्यमभावश्च तदन्यत्वं तदल्पता । अप्राशस्त्यं विरोधश्च नञर्था: षट् प्रकीर्तिता: ॥ The negation particle नञ्‌ may convey any of the following senses –
i) तत्सादृश्यम् – similarity to that which is being negated.
ii) अभाव: – absence of that which is being negated.
iii) तदन्यत्वम् – different from that which is being negated.
iv) तदल्पता – smallness of that which is being negated.
v) अप्राशस्त्यम् – non-praiseworthiness.
vi) विरोध: – opposite of that which is being negated.
In the present example the negation particle नञ्‌ conveys the sense of opposite to that which is being negated. अनृतम् – Opposite of truth = falsehood.

(3) By 1-2-43 प्रथमानिर्दिष्टं समास उपसर्जनम् – the term नञ् gets the designation उपसर्जनम् because in the सूत्रम् 2-2-6 (which prescribes the compounding) the term नञ् ends in the nominative case. Hence the term नञ् is placed in the prior position in the compound as per the सूत्रम् 2-2-30 उपसर्जनं पूर्वम्‌ – In a compound a term which has the designation ‘उपसर्जन’ should be placed in the prior position.

(4) न + ऋत सुँ । अनुबन्ध-लोप: by 1-3-3 हलन्त्यम् and 1-3-9 तस्य लोपः
Note: ‘न + ऋत सुँ’ gets the designation प्रातिपदिकम्‌ by 1-2-46 कृत्तद्धितसमासाश्च। This allows 2-4-71 to apply in the next step.

(5) न + ऋत । By 2-4-71 सुपो धातुप्रातिपदिकयोः – A सुँप् affix takes a लुक् elision when it is a part of a धातुः or a प्रातिपदिकम्।

(6) अ + ऋत । By 6-3-73 नलोपो नञः – The letter ‘न्’ of the negation particle नञ्‌ is elided when followed by a final member of a compound.

(7) अ + नुँट् ऋत । By 6-3-74 तस्मान्नुडचि – When preceded by the particle नञ्‌ whose letter ‘न्’ has been elided (by the prior सूत्रम् 6-3-73 नलोपो नञः), a final member (of a compound) which begins with a vowel takes the augment नुँट्।
Note: As per the परिभाषा ‘उभयनिर्देशे पञ्चमीनिर्देशो बलीयान्’ the fifth case affix used in तस्मात् has greater force than the seventh case affix used in अचि। Hence the operation (of attaching the augment नुँट्) takes place on the उत्तरपदम् and not on the particle नञ्‌।
Note: As per the परिभाषा-सूत्रम् 1-1-46 आद्यन्तौ टकितौ the augment नुँट् attaches at the beginning of the final member (of a compound) which begins with a vowel.

(8) अ + न् ऋत । अनुबन्ध-लोपः by 1-3-2 उपदेशेऽजनुनासिक इत्, 1-3-3 हलन्त्यम् and 1-3-9 तस्य लोपः।

= अनृत ।

As per the सूत्रम् 2-4-26 परवल्लिङ्गं द्वन्द्वतत्पुरुषयोः, the compound प्रातिपदिकम् ‘ अनृत’ is neuter since the latter member ‘ऋत’ of the compound is neuter. The compound declines like वन-शब्द:।

The विवक्षा is द्वितीया-एकवचनम्।

(9) अनृत + अम् । By 4-1-2 स्वौजसमौट्छष्टाभ्याम्भिस्ङेभ्याम्भ्यस्ङसिभ्याम्भ्यस्ङसोसाम्ङ्योस्सुप्‌।

(10) अनृत + अम् । By 7-1-24 अतोऽम् – The affixes ‘सुँ’ and ‘अम्’ that follow a neuter अङ्गम् ending in the short vowel ‘अ’ take ‘अम्’ as their replacement. Note: 7-1-24 is required here to prevent 7-1-23 स्वमोर्नपुंसकात्‌ from applying.
1-3-4 न विभक्तौ तुस्माः prevents the ending letter ‘म्’ of the affix ‘अम्’ from getting इत्-सञ्ज्ञा।

(11) अनृतम् । By 6-1-107 अमि पूर्वः – In place of a preceding अक् letter and the following vowel (अच्) belonging to the affix ‘अम्’ there is a single substitute of that preceding अक् letter.

Questions:

1. The first verse of which Chapter(s) of the गीता begins with a नञ्-तत्पुरुष: compound?

2. What kind of compound is असत्यम् (नपुंसकलिङ्ग-प्रातिपदिकम् ‘अस्त्य’, प्रथमा-एकवचनम्) used in the verses?
i. अव्ययीभाव:
ii. षष्ठी-तत्पुरुष:
iii. नञ्-तत्पुरुष:
iv. कर्मधारय:

3. Commenting on the सूत्रम् 6-3-74 (used in step 7) the सिद्धान्तकौमुदी says – नैकधेत्‍यादौ तु नशब्‍देन सह सुप्‍सुपेति समासः। Please explain.

4. Which सूत्रम् justifies the use of a seventh case affix in the form जगद्गुरौ?

5. Where has the सूत्रम् 7-1-37 समासेऽनञ्पूर्वे क्त्वो ल्यप्‌ been used in the verses?

6. How would you say this in Sanskrit?
“Yudhiṣṭhira never uttered a falsehood.”

Easy questions:

1. Which सूत्रम् prescribes the substitution आम् in the form प्रतीयताम्?

2. In which word in the verses has लुँट् been used?

Aug 172015
 

Today we will look at the form अकाले mLs from श्रीमद्-वाल्मीकि-रामायणम् 7.73.5.

रुदन्बहुविधा वाचः स्नेहदुःखसमन्वितः । असकृत्पुत्रपुत्रेति वाक्यमेतदुवाच ह ।। ७-७३-३ ।।
किं नु मे दुष्कृतं कर्म पुरा देहान्तरे कृतम् । यदहं पुत्रमेकं तु पश्यामि निधनं गतम् ।। ७-७३-४ ।।
अप्राप्तयौवनं बालं पञ्चवर्षसहस्रकम् । अकाले कालमापन्नं दुःखाय मम पुत्रक ।। ७-७३-५ ।।

Translation – Filled with affection and sorrow, and lamenting in various words and repeatedly exclaiming ‘O son! O son!’ (he) said the following – What evil deed have I committed in my former birth that I should see my only son dead (3-4). O son, seeing you, a boy of (mere) five thousand days (about fourteen years), who has met with untimely death before reaching youth, leads to my sorrow (5).

(1) न काल: = अकाल: – inopportune time.

अलौकिक-विग्रह: –
(2) नञ्‌ + काल सुँ । By 2-2-6 नञ्‌ – The negation particle नञ्‌ (meaning ‘not’) optionally compounds with a सुबन्तं (ending in a सुँप् affix) पदम् and the resulting compound is a तत्पुरुष:।
Note: The negation particle नञ्‌ belongs to the चादि-गणः (referenced in 1-4-57 चादयोऽसत्त्वे)। Hence it gets the designation निपात: by 1-4-56 प्राग्रीश्वरान्निपाताः and the designation अव्ययम् by 1-1-37 स्वरादिनिपातमव्ययम्।
Note: तत्सादृश्यमभावश्च तदन्यत्वं तदल्पता । अप्राशस्त्यं विरोधश्च नञर्था: षट् प्रकीर्तिता: ॥ The negation particle नञ्‌ may convey any of the following senses –
i) तत्सादृश्यम् – similarity to that which is being negated.
ii) अभाव: – absence of that which is being negated.
iii) तदन्यत्वम् – different from that which is being negated.
iv) तदल्पता – smallness of that which is being negated.
v) अप्राशस्त्यम् – non-praiseworthiness.
vi) विरोध: – opposite of that which is being negated.
In the present example the negation particle नञ्‌ conveys the sense of अप्राशस्त्यम् – non-praiseworthiness. अकालः – An inopportune time.

(3) By 1-2-43 प्रथमानिर्दिष्टं समास उपसर्जनम् – the term नञ् gets the designation उपसर्जनम् because in the सूत्रम् 2-2-6 (which prescribes the compounding) the term नञ् ends in the nominative case. Hence the term नञ् is placed in the prior position in the compound as per the सूत्रम् 2-2-30 उपसर्जनं पूर्वम्‌ – In a compound a term which has the designation ‘उपसर्जन’ should be placed in the prior position.

(4) न + काल सुँ । अनुबन्ध-लोप: by 1-3-3 हलन्त्यम् and 1-3-9 तस्य लोपः
Note: ‘न + काल सुँ’ gets the designation प्रातिपदिकम्‌ by 1-2-46 कृत्तद्धितसमासाश्च। This allows 2-4-71 to apply in the next step.

(5) न + काल । By 2-4-71 सुपो धातुप्रातिपदिकयोः – A सुँप् affix takes a लुक् elision when it is a part of a धातुः or a प्रातिपदिकम्।

(6) अकाल । By 6-3-73 नलोपो नञः – The letter ‘न्’ of the negation particle नञ्‌ is elided when followed by a final member of a compound.

As per the सूत्रम् 2-4-26 परवल्लिङ्गं द्वन्द्वतत्पुरुषयोः, the compound प्रातिपदिकम् ‘अकाल’ is masculine since the latter member ‘काल’ of the compound is masculine. The compound declines like राम-शब्द:।

The विवक्षा is सप्तमी-एकवचनम्।

(7) अकाल + ङि । By 4-1-2 स्वौजसमौट्छष्टाभ्याम्भिस्ङेभ्याम्भ्यस्ङसिभ्याम्भ्यस्ङसोसाम्ङ्योस्सुप्‌

(8) अकाल + इ । अनुबन्ध-लोपः by 1-3-8 लशक्वतद्धिते and 1-3-9 तस्य लोपः।

(9) अकाले । By 6-1-87 आद्गुणः

Questions:

1. The last verse of which Chapter of the गीता begins with a नञ्‌-तत्पुरुष: compound?

2. Can you spot a नञ्‌-तत्पुरुष: compound in verse ७-७३-३ (from the रामायणम्) above?

3. In the verses can you spot a compound which may be justified using the सूत्रम् 2-1-72 मयूरव्यंसकादयश्च?

4. Where has the सूत्रम् 8-2-42 रदाभ्यां निष्ठातो नः पूर्वस्य च दः been used in the verses?

5. How would you say this in Sanskrit?
“One who flees from a righteous war is not fit to be called a Kṣatriya.” Use the adjective प्रातिपदिकम् ‘धर्म्य’ for ‘righteous.’ Use the verbal root √अय् (अयँ [गतौ] १. ५४६) preceded by the उपसर्ग: ‘परा’ for ‘to flee.’ (Remember to apply the सूत्रम् 8-2-19 उपसर्गस्यायतौ।) Construct a नञ्-तत्पुरुष: compound for ‘not fit to be called a Kṣatriya’ = ‘not a (praiseworthy) Kṣatriya’ = न क्षत्रिय:।

6. How would you say this in Sanskrit?
“One who does not serve (his) parents is not fit to be called a son.” Use the masculine प्रातिपदिकम् ‘पितृ’ (in the dual) for ‘parent.’ Construct a नञ्-तत्पुरुष: compound for ‘not fit to be called a son’ = ‘not a (praiseworthy) son’ = न पुत्र:।

Easy questions:

1. Where has the सूत्रम् 7-3-78 पाघ्राध्मास्थाम्नादाण्दृश्यर्त्तिसर्त्तिशदसदां पिबजिघ्रधमतिष्ठमनयच्छपश्यर्च्छधौशीयसीदाः been used in the verses?

2. In which word in the verses has सम्प्रसारणम् occurred?

Aug 132015
 

Today we will look at the form असंशयः mNs from श्रीमद्भागवद्गीता 18.68

सर्वधर्मान्परित्यज्य मामेकं शरणं व्रज । अहं त्वा सर्वपापेभ्यो मोक्षयिष्यामि मा शुचः ।। 18-66 ।।
इदं ते नातपस्काय नाभक्ताय कदाचन । न चाशुश्रूषवे वाच्यं न च मां योऽभ्यसूयति ।। 18-67 ।।
य इदं परमं गुह्यं मद्भक्तेष्वभिधास्यति । भक्तिं मयि परां कृत्वा मामेवैष्यत्यसंशयः ।। 18-68 ।।

श्रीधर-स्वामि-टीका
ततोऽपि गुह्यतममाह – सर्वेति । मद्भक्तस्यैव सर्वं भविष्यतीति दृढविश्वासेन विधिकैंकर्यं त्यक्त्वा मदेकशरणो भव । एवंवर्तमानः कर्मत्यागनिमित्तं पापं स्यादिति मा शुचः शोकं मा कार्षीः । यतस्त्वा त्वां मदेकशरणं सर्वपापेभ्योऽहं मोक्षयिष्यामि ।। ६६ ।। एवं गीतार्थतत्त्वमुपदिश्य तत्संप्रदायप्रवर्तने नियममाह – इदमिति । इदं गीतार्थतत्त्वं ते त्वयाऽतपस्काय स्वधर्मानुष्ठानहीनाय न वाच्यं, न चाभक्ताय गुरौ ईश्वरे च भक्तिशून्याय कदाचिदपि न वाच्यं, न चाशुश्रूषवे परिचर्यामकुर्वते वाच्यं, मां परमेश्वरं योऽभ्यसूयति मनुष्यदृष्ट्या दोषारोपेण निन्दति तस्मै च न वाच्यम् ।। ६७ ।। एतैर्दोषैर्विरहितेभ्यो मद्भक्तेभ्यो गीताशास्त्रोपदेष्टुः फलमाह – इति । मद्भक्तेष्वभिधास्यति मद्भक्तेभ्यो यो वक्ष्यति स मयि परां भक्तिं करोति । ततो निःसंशयः सन् मामेव प्राप्नोतीत्यर्थः ।। ६८ ।।

Gita Press translation – Resigning all your duties to Me, the all-powerful and all supporting Lord, take refuge in Me alone; I shall absolve you of all sins, worry not (66). This secret gospel of the Gītā should never be imparted to a man who lacks in austerity, nor to him who is wanting in devotion, nor even to him who is not willing to hear; and in no case to him who finds fault with Me (67). He who, offering the highest love to Me, preaches the most profound gospel of the Gītā among my devotees, shall come to Me alone; there is no doubt about it (68).

Note: श्रीधर-स्वामी has taken असंशयः as a बहुव्रीहि: compound (meaning ‘one who is free of doubt’) here. Gita Press has translated it as a तत्पुरुष: compound (meaning ‘no doubt.’) In the steps below we have analyzed the compound as a तत्पुरुष:।

(1) न संशय: = असंशय: – No doubt.

अलौकिक-विग्रह: –
(2) नञ्‌ + संशय सुँ । By 2-2-6 नञ्‌ – The negation particle नञ्‌ (meaning ‘not’) optionally compounds with a सुबन्तं (ending in a सुँप् affix) पदम् and the resulting compound is a तत्पुरुष:।
Note: The negation particle नञ्‌ belongs to the चादि-गणः (referenced in 1-4-57 चादयोऽसत्त्वे)। Hence it gets the designation निपात: by 1-4-56 प्राग्रीश्वरान्निपाताः and the designation अव्ययम् by 1-1-37 स्वरादिनिपातमव्ययम्।
Note: तत्सादृश्यमभावश्च तदन्यत्वं तदल्पता । अप्राशस्त्यं विरोधश्च नञर्था: षट् प्रकीर्तिता: ॥ The negation particle नञ्‌ may convey any of the following senses –
i) तत्सादृश्यम् – similarity to that which is being negated.
ii) अभाव: – absence of that which is being negated.
iii) तदन्यत्वम् – different from that which is being negated.
iv) तदल्पता – smallness of that which is being negated.
v) अप्राशस्त्यम् – non-praiseworthiness.
vi) विरोध: – opposite of that which is being negated.
In the present example the negation particle नञ्‌ conveys the sense of अभाव: – absence of that which is being negated. An absence of doubt.

(3) By 1-2-43 प्रथमानिर्दिष्टं समास उपसर्जनम् – the term नञ् gets the designation उपसर्जनम् because in the सूत्रम् 2-2-6 (which prescribes the compounding) the term नञ् ends in the nominative case. Hence the term नञ् is placed in the prior position in the compound as per the सूत्रम् 2-2-30 उपसर्जनं पूर्वम्‌ – In a compound a term which has the designation ‘उपसर्जन’ should be placed in the prior position.

(4) न + संशय सुँ । अनुबन्ध-लोप: by 1-3-3 हलन्त्यम् and 1-3-9 तस्य लोपः
Note: ‘न + संशय सुँ’ gets the designation प्रातिपदिकम्‌ by 1-2-46 कृत्तद्धितसमासाश्च। This allows 2-4-71 to apply in the next step.

(5) न + संशय । By 2-4-71 सुपो धातुप्रातिपदिकयोः – A सुँप् affix takes a लुक् elision when it is a part of a धातुः or a प्रातिपदिकम्।

(6) असंशय । By 6-3-73 नलोपो नञः – The letter ‘न्’ of the negation particle नञ्‌ is elided when followed by a final member of a compound.

As per the सूत्रम् 2-4-26 परवल्लिङ्गं द्वन्द्वतत्पुरुषयोः, the compound प्रातिपदिकम् ‘असंशय’ is masculine since the latter member ‘संशय’ of the compound is masculine. The compound declines like राम-शब्द:।

The विवक्षा is प्रथमा-एकवचनम् ।

(7) असंशय + सुँ । By 4-1-2 स्वौजसमौट्छष्टाभ्याम्भिस्ङेभ्याम्भ्यस्ङसिँभ्याम्भ्यस्ङसोसाम्ङ्योस्सुप्

(8) असंशय + स् । अनुबन्ध-लोपः by 1-3-2 उपदेशेऽजनुनासिक इत् and 1-3-9 तस्य लोपः।

(9) असंशय: । रुँत्व-विसर्गौ by 8-2-66 ससजुषो रुः and 8-3-15 खरवसानयोर्विसर्जनीयः

Questions:

1. Where has the सूत्रम् 2-2-6 नञ्‌ (used in step 2) been used for the first time in Chapter Eighteen of the गीता?

2. Can you spot two other (besides असंशय:) नञ्-तत्पुरुष: compounds in the verses?

3. In which word(s) in the verses has the सूत्रम् 2-1-49 पूर्वकालैकसर्वजरत्पुराणनवकेवलाः समानाधिकरणेन been used?

4. Which कृत्य-प्रत्यय: is used to derive the प्रातिपदिकम् ‘वाच्य’ (used in the form वाच्यम् (नपुंसकलिङ्गे, प्रथमा-एकवचनम्) in the verses)?

5. What kind of compound is दृढविश्वासेन (पुंलिङ्ग-प्रातिपदिकम् ‘दृढविश्वास’, तृतीया-एकवचनम्) used in the commentary?
i. अव्ययीभाव:
ii. नञ्-तत्पुरुष:
iii. कर्मधारय:
iv. षष्ठी-तत्पुरुष:

6. How would you say this in Sanskrit?
“It’s definitely going to rain tomorrow.” Paraphrase to “There will be rain tomorrow. (There is) no doubt.” Use the feminine प्रातिपदिकम् ‘वर्षा’ for ‘rain.’

Easy questions:

1. Where has the सूत्रम् 3-1-27 कण्ड्वादिभ्यो यक् been used in the verses?

2. Can you spot the affix णिच् in the verses?

Aug 102015
 

Today we will look at the form अब्राह्मणः mNs from महाभारतम् 1.92.13.

ययातिरुवाच
नास्मद्विधो ब्राह्मणो ब्रह्मविच्च प्रतिग्रहे वर्तते राजमुख्य । यथा प्रदेयं सततं द्विजेभ्यस्तथाददं पूर्वमहं नरेन्द्र ।। १-९२-१२ ।।
नाब्राह्मणः कृपणो जातु जीवेद्याच्ञापि स्याद्ब्राह्मणी वीरपत्नी । सोऽहं नैवाकृतपूर्वं चरेयं विधित्समानः किमु तत्र साधु ।। १-९२-१३ ।।

Translation – Yayāti said: O best of kings! A Brāhmaṇa, and that too only one who knows the Veda, accepts gifts; not men (Kṣatriyas) like us. O king! Previously I myself have always engaged in charity towards Brāhmaṇas, as it should be done (12). One who is not a Brāhmaṇa should never live a wretched life (accepting charity.) And solicitation is (like) the wife of a Brāhmaṇa who has conquered the world by (his) knowledge. (Meaning that – only such a Brāhmaṇa should engage in accepting charity.) How indeed can I, who am desirous of doing virtuous deeds there (in the land of karma), perform an action which has never been done before? (Meaning that – I should not perform such an action.) (13)

(1) न ब्राह्मण: = अब्राह्मण: – Not a Brāhmaṇa.

अलौकिक-विग्रह: –
(2) नञ्‌ + ब्राह्मण सुँ । By 2-2-6 नञ्‌ – The negation particle नञ्‌ (meaning ‘not’) optionally compounds with a सुबन्तं (ending in a सुँप् affix) पदम् and the resulting compound is a तत्पुरुष:।
Note: The negation particle नञ्‌ belongs to the चादि-गणः (referenced in 1-4-57 चादयोऽसत्त्वे)। Hence it gets the designation निपात: by 1-4-56 प्राग्रीश्वरान्निपाताः and the designation अव्ययम् by 1-1-37 स्वरादिनिपातमव्ययम्।
Note: तत्सादृश्यमभावश्च तदन्यत्वं तदल्पता । अप्राशस्त्यं विरोधश्च नञर्था: षट् प्रकीर्तिता: ॥ The negation particle नञ्‌ may convey any of the following senses –
i) तत्सादृश्यम् – similarity to that which is being negated.
ii) अभाव: – absence of that which is being negated.
iii) तदन्यत्वम् – different from that which is being negated.
iv) तदल्पता – smallness of that which is being negated.
v) अप्राशस्त्यम् – non-praiseworthiness.
vi) विरोध: – opposite of that which is being negated.
In the present example the negation particle नञ्‌ conveys the sense of तत्सादृश्यम् – similarity to that which is being negated. अब्राह्मण: refers to one who is different from yet similar to a Brāhmaṇa. Hence the compound refers to a man and not an animal or an inanimate object.

(3) By 1-2-43 प्रथमानिर्दिष्टं समास उपसर्जनम् – the term नञ् gets the designation उपसर्जनम् because in the सूत्रम् 2-2-6 (which prescribes the compounding) the term नञ् ends in the nominative case. Hence the term नञ् is placed in the prior position in the compound as per the सूत्रम् 2-2-30 उपसर्जनं पूर्वम्‌ – In a compound a term which has the designation ‘उपसर्जन’ should be placed in the prior position.

(4) न + ब्राह्मण सुँ । अनुबन्ध-लोप: by 1-3-3 हलन्त्यम् and 1-3-9 तस्य लोपः
Note: ‘न + ब्राह्मण सुँ’ gets the designation प्रातिपदिकम्‌ by 1-2-46 कृत्तद्धितसमासाश्च। This allows 2-4-71 to apply in the next step.

(5) न + ब्राह्मण । By 2-4-71 सुपो धातुप्रातिपदिकयोः – A सुँप् affix takes a लुक् elision when it is a part of a धातुः or a प्रातिपदिकम्।

(6) अब्राह्मण । By 6-3-73 नलोपो नञः – The letter ‘न्’ of the negation particle नञ्‌ is elided when followed by a final member of a compound.

As per the सूत्रम् 2-4-26 परवल्लिङ्गं द्वन्द्वतत्पुरुषयोः, the compound प्रातिपदिकम् ‘अब्राह्मण’ is masculine since the latter member ‘ब्राह्मण’ of the compound is masculine. The compound declines like राम-शब्द:।

The विवक्षा is प्रथमा-एकवचनम् ।

(7) अब्राह्मण + सुँ । By 4-1-2 स्वौजसमौट्छष्टाभ्याम्भिस्ङेभ्याम्भ्यस्ङसिँभ्याम्भ्यस्ङसोसाम्ङ्योस्सुप्

(8) अब्राह्मण + स् । अनुबन्ध-लोपः by 1-3-2 उपदेशेऽजनुनासिक इत् and 1-3-9 तस्य लोपः।

(9) अब्राह्मण: । रुँत्व-विसर्गौ by 8-2-66 ससजुषो रुः and 8-3-15 खरवसानयोर्विसर्जनीयः

Questions:

1. Where has the सूत्रम् 2-2-6 नञ्‌ (used in step 2) been used for the first time in the गीता?

2. Where else (besides in अब्राह्मण:) has नञ्‌ been used in the verses?

3. Commenting on the सूत्रम् 2-2-6 नञ्‌ the तत्त्वबोधिनी says – इह ‘नलोपो नञः’ इत्यत्र विशेषणार्थो ञकारः। तत्फलं च नैकधेत्यत्रालोपः। Please explain.

4. The वृत्ति: of the सूत्रम् 6-3-73 नलोपो नञः (used in step 6) in the सिद्धान्तकौमुदी says – नञो नस्‍य लोप: स्यादुत्तरपदे। Commenting on this the तत्त्वबोधिनी says – ‘अलुगुत्तरपदे’ इत्यधिकारादिति भावः। Please explain.

5. Where has the सूत्रम् 7-4-54 सनि मीमाघुरभलभशकपतपदामच इस् been used in the verses?

6. How would you say this in Sanskrit?
“One who is not Rudra should not drink poison.” Construct a तत्पुरुष: compound for ‘one who is not Rudra’ = न रुद्र:।

Easy questions:

1. Which सूत्रम् prescribes the substitution ‘ए’ in the form वर्तते?

2. Where has the सूत्रम् 7-2-80 अतो येयः been used in the verses?

Aug 062015
 

Today we will look at the form प्रवरान्तरम्  nAs from श्रीमद्भागवतम् 9.16.37

एष वः कुशिका वीरो देवरातस्तमन्वित । अन्ये चाष्टकहारीतजयक्रतुमदादयः ।। ९-१६-३६ ।।
एवं कौशिकगोत्रं तु विश्वामित्रैः पृथग्विधम् । प्रवरान्तरमापन्नं तद्धि चैवं प्रकल्पितम् ।। ९-१६-३७ ।।

श्रीधर-स्वामि-टीका
हे कुशिकाः, एष देवरातो वो युष्मदीयः कौशिक एव । यतो वीरो मत्पुत्रस्तमेमन्वितानुगच्छत । अन्ये चाष्टकादयस्तस्य सुता आसन् ।। ३६ ।। उपसंहरति – एवमिति । एके शप्ता एकेऽनुगृहीता अन्यस्तु पुत्रत्वेन स्वीकृत इत्येवं कौशिकगोत्रं पृथग्विधं नानाप्रकारं जातं तच्च प्रवरान्तरमापन्नं प्राप्तम् । हि यस्मादेवं देवरातज्येष्ठत्वेन तत्प्रकल्पितम् ।। ३७ ।।

Gita Press translation – “This valiant Devarāta is one of you (as good a scion of Kuśika as you), O scions of Kuśika! (Hence) follow him (as an elder brother).” There were other sons too of Viśwāmitra – Aṣṭaka, Hārita, Jaya, Kratumān and so on (36). Thus, of course, the line of Kuśika was ramified into various off-shoots due to the sons of Viśwāmitra. And it acquired a different Pravara (branch name, viz., that of Devarāta) inasmuch as it was given a new shape (with Devarāta as the eldest son of Viśwāmitra) (37).

(1) अन्यः प्रवरः = प्रवरान्तरम् – different Pravara (branch name.)

(2) प्रवर सुँ + अन्तर सुँ । As per 2-1-72 मयूरव्यंसकादयश्च – ‘मयूरव्यंसक’ etc are given as ready-made तत्पुरुषः compounds.
Note: अविहितलक्षणस्तत्पुरुषो मयूरव्यंसकादिषु द्रष्टव्य: – A तत्पुरुषः compound that is accepted in usage but is not prescribed by any rule should be considered to be part of the मयूरव्यंसकादि-गण:। Hence even though the तत्पुरुषः compound प्रवरान्तरम् is not specifically listed in the मयूरव्यंसकादिगण: we may consider it to be included therein.
Note: ‘अन्तर’ is used in the sense of ‘अन्य’ (another)/ ‘भिन्न’ (different) here and it has been placed in the latter position in the compound even though it is the adjective. The सूत्रम् 2-1-72 मयूरव्यंसकादयश्च is necessary to justify this compound because if we were to use the सूत्रम् 2-1-57 विशेषणं विशेष्येण बहुलम्‌ the विशेषम् (adjective) ‘अन्तर’ would have to be placed in the prior position in the compound.
Note: ‘प्रवर सुँ + अन्तर सुँ’ gets the designation प्रातिपदिकम्‌ by 1-2-46 कृत्तद्धितसमासाश्च। This allows 2-4-71 to apply in the next step.

(3) प्रवर + अन्तर । By 2-4-71 सुपो धातुप्रातिपदिकयोः – A सुँप् affix takes a लुक् elision when it is a part of a धातुः or a प्रातिपदिकम्।

(4) प्रवरान्तर । By 6-1-101 अकः सवर्णे दीर्घः

Note: Even though ‘प्रवर’ is masculine, the compound ‘प्रवरान्तर’ is used in the neuter gender because that is how it is (considered to be ) listed in the मयूरव्यंसकादिगण:। It declines like वन-शब्द:।

The विवक्षा is द्वितीया-एकवचनम्।

(5) प्रवरान्तर + अम् । By 4-1-2 स्वौजसमौट्छष्टाभ्याम्भिस्ङेभ्याम्भ्यस्ङसिभ्याम्भ्यस्ङसोसाम्ङ्योस्सुप्‌।

(6) प्रवरान्तर + अम् । By 7-1-24 अतोऽम् – The affixes ‘सुँ’ and ‘अम्’ that follow a neuter अङ्गम् ending in the short vowel ‘अ’ take ‘अम्’ as their replacement. 1-3-4 न विभक्तौ तुस्माः prevents the ending letter ‘म्’ of the affix ‘अम्’ from getting इत्-सञ्ज्ञा।
Note: 7-1-24 is required here to prevent 7-1-23 स्वमोर्नपुंसकात्‌ from applying.

(7) प्रवरान्तरम् । By 6-1-107 अमि पूर्वः – In place of a preceding अक् letter and the following vowel (अच्) belonging to the affix ‘अम्’ there is a single substitute of that preceding अक् letter.

Questions:

1. Commenting on the सूत्रम् 2-1-72 मयूरव्यंसकादयश्च (used in step 2) the तत्त्वबोधिनी says – चकारोऽत्रावधारणार्थः। तेन ‘परममयूरव्यंसकः’ इत्यादि समासान्तरं न भवति। Please explain.

2. Where does the सूत्रम् 3-4-72 गत्यर्थाकर्मकश्लिषशीङ्स्थासवसजनरुहजीर्यतिभ्यश्च find application in the verses?

3. In which word in the verses has the affix णिच् been elided?

4. Which वार्त्तिकम् justifies the use of a third case affix in the word पुत्रत्वेन in the commentary?

5. In the commentary can you spot a word in which सम्प्रसारणम् has taken place?

6. How would you say this in Sanskrit?
“I don’t want to have (get) another birth.” Form a तत्पुरुष: compound for ‘another birth’ = अन्यज्जन्म।

Easy questions:

1. Where has the सूत्रम् 3-4-101 तस्थस्थमिपां तांतंतामः been used in the verses?

2. Can you spot the augment आट् in the commentary?

Aug 032015
 

Today we will look at the form किन्नरान्  mAp from श्रीमद्भागवतम् 3.20.45.

सिद्धान्विद्याधरांश्चैव तिरोधानेन सोऽसृजत् । तेभ्योऽददात्तमात्मानमन्तर्धानाख्यमद्भुतम् ।। ३-२०-४४ ।।
स किन्नरान्किम्पुरुषान्प्रत्यात्म्येनासृजत्प्रभुः । मानयन्नात्मनात्मानमात्माभासं विलोकयन् ।। ३-२०-४५ ।।
ते तु तज्जगृहू रूपं त्यक्तं यत्परमेष्ठिना । मिथुनीभूय गायन्तस्तमेवोषसि कर्मभिः ।। ।। ३-२०-४६ ।।

श्रीधर-स्वामि-टीका
तिरोधानेन दृश्यत्वे सत्यप्यन्तर्धानशक्त्या ।। ४४ ।। प्रत्यात्म्येन प्रतिबिम्बेन । आत्माभासं प्रतिबिम्बमात्मनात्मनो मानः प्रतिबिम्बदर्शिनः सुन्दरस्य शिरःकम्पादिचेष्टा । अत एव तत्सृष्टानां मिथः संमाननेन नित्यं मिथुनीभावः ।। ४५ ।। तत् प्रतिबिम्बरूपम् । कर्मभिस्तत्पराक्रमानुवर्णनैः ।। ४६ ।।

Gita Press translation – By his faculty of remaining hidden from view Brahmā evolved the species of living beings called the Siddhas and the Vidyādharas, and gave them that marvelous form of his, known by the name of Antardhāna (the faculty of remaining hidden from view) (44). One day Brahmā (the lord of beings) beheld his own reflection (in water) and, admiring himself through that, evolved the Kimpuruṣas as well as the Kinnaras out of that very reflection (45). They took possession of that (shadowy) form, which was left by Brahmā. That is why they sing his praises by recounting his exploits at daybreak (every morning) with their spouses (46).

(1) कुत्सितो नरः = किन्नरः – A bad (deformed) man (a mythical being with a human figure and the head of a horse.)

अलौकिक-विग्रह: –
(2) किम् सुँ + नर सुँ । By 2-1-64 किं क्षेपे – A सुबन्तं (ending in a सुँप् affix) पदम् which is composed by adding a सुँप् affix to ‘किम्’ when indicating censure compounds with another सुबन्तं (ending in a सुँप् affix) पदम् – provided both the सुबन्त-पदे refer to the same item – and the resulting compound is a तत्पुरुष:।
Note: This सूत्रम् prescribes a नित्य-समास: because in order to convey the meaning of क्षेपे (censure) the लौकिक-विग्रह: has to be constructed using words other than those present in the compound.

(3) By 1-2-43 प्रथमानिर्दिष्टं समास उपसर्जनम् – the term ‘किम् सुँ’ gets the designation उपसर्जनम् because in the सूत्रम् 2-1-64 (which prescribes the compounding) the term किम् ends in the nominative case. Hence ‘किम् सुँ’ is placed in the prior position in the compound as per the सूत्रम् 2-2-30 उपसर्जनं पूर्वम्‌ – In a compound a term which has the designation ‘उपसर्जन’ should be placed in the prior position.

Note: ‘किम् सुँ + नर सुँ’ gets the designation प्रातिपदिकम्‌ by 1-2-46 कृत्तद्धितसमासाश्च। This allows 2-4-71 to apply in the next step.

(4) किम् + नर । By 2-4-71 सुपो धातुप्रातिपदिकयोः – A सुँप् affix takes a लुक् elision when it is a part of a धातुः or a प्रातिपदिकम्।

(5) किं + नर । By 8-3-23 मोऽनुस्वारः।

(6) किन्नर । By 8-4-59 वा पदान्तस्य – When an अनुस्वारः occurs at the end of a पदम् and is followed by a यय् letter, then it is optionally substituted by a letter which is सवर्ण: with that following यय् letter.

Note: At this point the सूत्रम् 5-4-91 राजाह:सखिभ्यष्टच्‌ comes for application but it is blocked by the सूत्रम् 5-4-70 in the following step.

(7) As per 5-4-70 किमः क्षेपे – Affixes prescribed in the अधिकार: ‘5-4-68 समासान्ताः‘ are not allowed following a compound which ends in a term which follows the term ‘किम्’ used in the sense of contempt. 5-4-70 blocks the application of the affix टच् which would have been prescribed by the सूत्रम् 5-4-91 राजाह:सखिभ्यष्टच्‌।

As per the सूत्रम् 2-4-26 परवल्लिङ्गं द्वन्द्वतत्पुरुषयोः, the compound प्रातिपदिकम् ‘किन्नर’ is masculine since the latter member ‘नर’ of the compound is masculine. The compound declines like ‘राम’-शब्द:।

The विवक्षा is द्वितीया-बहुवचनम्।

(8) किन्नर + शस् । By 4-1-2 स्वौजसमौट्छष्टाभ्याम्भिस्ङेभ्याम्भ्यस्ङसिभ्याम्भ्यस्ङसोसाम्ङ्योस्सुप्‌

(9) किन्नर + अस् । अनुबन्ध-लोपः by 1-3-8 लशक्वतद्धिते and 1-3-9 तस्य लोपः1-3-4 न विभक्तौ तुस्माः prevents the ending letter ‘स्’ of ‘शस्’ from getting the इत्-सञ्ज्ञा ।

(10) किन्नरास् । By 6-1-102 प्रथमयोः पूर्वसवर्णः – When a अक् letter is followed by a vowel (अच्) of the first (nominative) or second (accusative) case then for the two of them (अक् + अच्) there is a single substitute which is the elongated form of the first member (the अक् letter.)

(11) किन्नरान् । By 6-1-103 तस्माच्छसो नः पुंसि – In the masculine gender, when the letter ‘स्’ of the affix ‘शस्’ follows a vowel which has been elongated by 6-1-102 then it is replaced by the letter ‘न्’।

Questions:

1. In the verses, can you spot another compound (besides ‘किन्नर’) which is constructed using the सूत्रम् 2-1-64 किं क्षेपे?

2. Commenting on the सूत्रम् 2-1-64 किं क्षेपे the तत्त्वबोधिनी says – क्षेपे किम्? को राजा पाटलिपुत्रे। Please explain.

3. What kind of compound is ‘विद्याधर’ (used in the form विद्याधरान् (पुंलिङ्गे द्वितीया-बहुवचनम्) in the verses)?
i. कर्मधारय:
ii. षष्ठी-तत्पुरुष:
iii. अव्ययीभाव:
iv. उपपद-तत्पुरुष:

4. Which सूत्रम् justifies the use of a fourth case affix in the form तेभ्य: used in the verses?

5. Where has the कृत् affix ‘णिनिँ’ been used in the commentary?

6. How would you say this in Sanskrit?
“A contemptible king is one who does not protect (his) subjects.” Construct a कर्मधारय: compound for ‘contemptible king’ = कुत्सितो राजा।

Easy questions:

1. Can you spot the affix ‘श’ in the verses?

2. In which word in the verses has सम्प्रसारणम् taken place?