Feb 042016
 

Today we will look at the form अग्निसाक्षिकः  mNs from रघुवंशम् verse 11-48.

मैथिलः सपदि सत्यसंगरो राघवाय तनयामयोनिजाम् ।
संनिधौ द्युतिमतस्तपोनिधेरग्निसाक्षिक इवातिसृष्टवान् ॥ 11-48॥

मल्लिनाथ-टीका
सत्यसङ्गरः सत्यप्रतिज्ञ: । ‘अथ प्रतिज्ञाजिसंविदापत्सु सङ्गरः’ इत्यमरः । मैथिलो राघवायायोनिजां तनयां द्युतिमतस्तेजस्विनस्तपोनिधेः कौशिकस्य संनिधौ । अग्निः साक्षी यस्य सोऽग्निसाक्षिकः । ‘शेषाद्विभाषा’ इति कप्प्रत्ययः । स इवसपद्यतिसृष्टवान्दत्तवान् ।। ४८ ।।

Translation – The king of Mithilā, true to [his] promise, instantly gave away to Rāma [his] daughter – not born from the womb – in the presence of the lustrous ascetic, as though he had fire as the witness [for the offering].

(1) अग्निः साक्षी यस्य सः = अग्निशाक्षिकः (मैथिलः) – one (King Janaka) who had fire as the witness.

(2) अग्नि सुँ + साक्षिन् सुँ । By 2-2-24 अनेकमन्यपदार्थे – Two or more terms having the designation पदम् and ending in the nominative case may optionally compound to yield a बहुव्रीहि: compound provided the terms are employed to denote the sense of another पदम् (which is not part of the compound.)

(3) By सूत्रम् 1-2-43 प्रथमानिर्दिष्टं समास उपसर्जनम् – the term ‘अग्नि सुँ’ as well as ‘साक्षिन् सुँ’ gets the designation उपसर्जनम् because in the सूत्रम् 2-2-24 अनेकमन्यपदार्थे (which prescribes the compounding) the term अनेकम् ends in the nominative case. And hence 2-2-30 cannot help us in deciding which term to place in the prior position in the compound.

The adjective ‘अग्नि सुँ’ is placed in the prior position in the compound as per the सूत्रम् 2-2-35 सप्तमीविशेषणे बहुव्रीहौ – In a बहुव्रीहि: compound the पदम् which ends in a seventh case affix or is an adjective takes the prior position.

Note: ‘अग्नि सुँ + साक्षिन् सुँ’ gets the designation प्रातिपदिकम्‌ by 1-2-46 कृत्तद्धितसमासाश्च। This allows 2-4-71 to apply in the next step.

(4) अग्नि + साक्षिन् । By 2-4-71 सुपो धातुप्रातिपदिकयोः – A सुँप् affix takes a लुक् elision when it is a part of a धातुः or a प्रातिपदिकम्।

= अग्निसाक्षिन् ।

(5) अग्निसाक्षिन् कप् । By 5-4-154 शेषाद्विभाषा – Following a बहुव्रीहि: compound for which no other समासान्त: operation has been prescribed and which is composed using a rule in the अधिकार: of शेष: (which runs from 2-2-23 शेषो बहुव्रीहिः to 2-2-24 अनेकमन्यपदार्थे) the तद्धित: affix कप्‌ is optionally prescribed and this affix becomes the ending member of the compound.

See question 3.

(6) अग्निसाक्षिन् क । अनुबन्ध-लोपः by 1-3-3 हलन्त्यम् and 1-3-9 तस्य लोपः।
Note: ‘अग्निसाक्षिन्’ gets the designation पदम् here as per 1-4-17 स्वादिष्वसर्वनामस्थाने। This allows the सूत्रम् 8-2-7 to apply in the next step.

(7) अग्निसाक्षिक । By 8-2-7 नलोप: प्रातिपदिकान्तस्य – The ending letter ‘न्’ of a पदम् is dropped when the पदम् also has the designation प्रातिपदिकम्।

The gender of a बहुव्रीहि: compound matches that of which it qualifies. In the present example अग्निसाक्षिकः is qualifying मैथिलः (the king of Mithilā.) Hence we assign the masculine gender to the compound प्रातिपदिकम् ‘अग्निसाक्षिक’। It declines like राम-शब्द:।

The विवक्षा is प्रथमा-एकवचनम् ।

(8) अग्निसाक्षिक + सुँ । By 4-1-2 स्वौजसमौट्छष्टाभ्याम्भिस्ङेभ्याम्भ्यस्ङसिँभ्याम्भ्यस्ङसोसाम्ङ्योस्सुप्

(9) अग्निसाक्षिक + स् । अनुबन्ध-लोपः by 1-3-2 उपदेशेऽजनुनासिक इत् and 1-3-9 तस्य लोपः।

(10) अग्निसाक्षिक: । रुँत्व-विसर्गौ by 8-2-66 ससजुषो रुः and 8-3-15 खरवसानयोर्विसर्जनीयः

Questions:

1. Where has the सूत्रम् 5-4-154 शेषाद्विभाषा (used in step 5) been used in verses 25-30 of Chapter Eighteen of the गीता?

2. Which other (besides अग्निसाक्षिक:) compound used in the verses is a बहुव्रीहि: compound?

3. Commenting on the word शेष: used in the सूत्रम् 5-4-154 शेषाद्विभाषा the सिद्धान्तकौमुदी says – शेषशब्दोऽर्थद्वयपर:। Please explain.

4. Can you spot the negation particle नञ् in the verses?

5. In which word in the commentary has the सूत्रम् 7-4-46 दो दद् घोः been used?

6. How would you say this in Sanskrit?
“This entire universe has the Self as its witness.” Paraphrase to – “This entire universe is that which has the Self as its witness.” Construct a बहुव्रीहि: compound for ‘that which has the Self as its witness’ = ‘आत्मा साक्षी यस्य तत्’।

Easy Questions:

1. Where has the सूत्रम् 7-3-101 अतो दीर्घो यञि been used in the verses?

2. Which सूत्रम् prescribes the substitution ‘औ’ in the form संनिधौ (पुंलिङ्ग-प्रातिपदिकम् ‘संनिधि’, सप्तमी-एकवचनम्)?

Feb 012016
 

Today we will look at the form सहभर्तृकाः  fNp from श्रीमद्भागवतम् 10.84.46.

तन्महिष्यश्च मुदिता निष्ककण्ठ्यः सुवाससः । दीक्षाशालामुपाजग्मुरालिप्ता वस्तुपाणयः ।। १०-८४-४५ ।।
नेदुर्मृदङ्गपटहशङ्खभेर्यानकादयः । ननृतुर्नटनर्तक्यस्तुष्टुवुः सूतमागधाः । जगुः सुकण्ठ्यो गन्धर्व्यः सङ्गीतं सहभर्तृकाः ।। १०-८४-४६ ।।

श्रीधर-स्वामि-टीका
आलिप्ताः कुङ्कुमादिभिः । वस्तुपाणयो गृहीतार्हणहस्ताः ।। ४५ ।।

Gita Press translation – The consorts of Vasudeva too adorned themselves with gold necklaces and besmeared their bodies with sandal-paste and, clad in their best attire, joyously entered the sacrificial hall with offerings in their hands (45). Clay tom-toms, tabors, conchs, drums, kettledrums and other musical instruments were sounded (at the time); dancers, both male and female danced; bards and panegyrists uttered praises; Gandharva women with their husbands sang beautiful songs (46).

(1) भर्तृभि: सह (जगुर्गन्धर्व्यः) = सहभर्तृकाः (जगुर्गन्धर्व्यः) – With their spouses (the Gandharva women sang).
Note: The third case affix used in भर्तृभि: is as per the सूत्रम् 2-3-19 सहयुक्तेऽप्रधाने।

(2) सह + भर्तृ भिस् । As per the सूत्रम् 2-2-28 तेन सहेति तुल्ययोगे – The indeclinable सह when it denotes ‘equal connection (with an action)’ optionally compounds with a पदम् ending in a third case affix to yield a बहुव्रीहि: compound.

As per 1-2-43 प्रथमानिर्दिष्टं समास उपसर्जनम् the term सह gets the designation उपसर्जनम् because in the सूत्रम् 2-2-28 (which prescribes the compounding) the term सह ends in the nominative case. And hence as per 2-2-30 the term सह is placed in the prior position in the compound.

Note: ‘सह + भर्तृ भिस्’ gets the designation प्रातिपदिकम्‌ by 1-2-46 कृत्तद्धितसमासाश्च। This allows 2-4-71 सुपो धातुप्रातिपदिकयोः to apply in the next step.

(3) सह + भर्तृ । By 2-4-71 सुपो धातुप्रातिपदिकयोः – A सुँप् affix takes a लुक् elision when it is a part of a धातुः or a प्रातिपदिकम्।

(4) सह + भर्तृ / स + भर्तृ । By 6-3-82 वोपसर्जनस्य – When it is a part of a बहुव्रीहि: compound the indeclinable सह is optionally replaced by ‘स’।

= सहभर्तृ / सभर्तृ ।

(5) सहभर्तृ कप् । By 5-4-153 नद्यृतश्च – Following a बहुव्रीहि: compound whose final member either has the designation नदी or ends in the letter ‘ऋ’ the तद्धित: affix कप्‌ is prescribed and this affix becomes the ending member of the compound.

(6) सहभर्तृक । अनुबन्ध-लोपः by 1-3-3 हलन्त्यम् and 1-3-9 तस्य लोपः।

The gender of a बहुव्रीहि: compound matches that of which it qualifies. In the present example गन्धर्व्यः is being qualified. Hence we form the feminine प्रातिपदिकम् ‘सहभर्तृका’ by adding the feminine affix टाप्।

(7) सहभर्तृक + टाप् । By 4-1-4 अजाद्यतष्टाप्‌ – The प्रातिपदिकानि ‘अज’ etc. and प्रातिपदिकानि ending in the letter ‘अ’ get the टाप् affix in the feminine gender.

(8) सहभर्तृक + आ । अनुबन्ध-लोपः by 1-3-3 हलन्त्यम्, 1-3-7 चुटू, 1-3-9 तस्य लोपः

(9) सहभर्तृका । By 6-1-101 अकः सवर्णे दीर्घः

The विवक्षा is प्रथमा-बहुवचनम्।

(10) सहभर्तृका + जस् । By 4-1-2 स्वौजसमौट्छष्टाभ्याम्भिस्ङेभ्याम्भ्यस्ङसिँभ्याम्भ्यस्ङसोसाम्ङ्योस्सुप्

(11) सहभर्तृका + अस् । अनुबन्ध-लोपः by 1-3-7 चुटू and 1-3-9 तस्य लोपः। 1-3-4 न विभक्तौ तुस्माः prevents the ending letter ‘स्’ of ‘जस्’ from getting इत्-सञ्ज्ञा।

(12) सहभर्तृकास् । 6-1-102 प्रथमयो: पूर्वसवर्ण: – When a अक् letter is followed by a vowel (अच्) of the first (nominative) or second (accusative) case then for the two of them (अक् + अच्) there is a single substitute which is the elongated form of the first member (the अक् letter.)

(13) सहभर्तृकाः । रुँत्व-विसर्गौ by 8-2-66 ससजुषो रुः and 8-3-15 खरवसानयोर्विसर्जनीयः

Questions:

1. What is the विग्रह: of the compound वस्तुपाणयः (प्रातिपदिकम् ‘वस्तुपाणि’, स्त्रीलिङ्गे प्रथमा-बहुवचनम्) used in the verses?

2. In which word in the verses does the सूत्रम् 3-4-72 गत्यर्थाकर्मकश्लिषशीङ्स्थासवसजनरुहजीर्यतिभ्यश्च find application?

3. What type of compound is सुवाससः (प्रातिपदिकम् ‘सुवासस्’, स्त्रीलिङ्गे प्रथमा-बहुवचनम्) as used in the verses?
i. प्रादि-तत्पुरुष:
ii. कर्मधारय:
iii. गति-तत्पुरुष:
iv. बहुव्रीहि:

4. Which सूत्रम् prescribes the substitution ‘ई’ in the form सङ्गीतम् (नपुंसकलिङ्ग-प्रातिपदिकम् ‘सङ्गीत’, द्वितीया-एकवचनम्) used in the verses?

5. How would you say this in Sanskrit?
“The gods rejoiced seeing (having seen) Rāvaṇa executed by Śrī Rāma.” Paraphrase to “The gods rejoiced seeing (having seen) Rāvaṇa’s execution – whose doer was Śrī Rāma.” Construct a बहुव्रीहि: compound for ‘that (execution) which has Śrī Rāma as the doer’ = ‘श्रीराम: कर्ता यस्य स: (वध:)’। Use the verbal root √हृष् (हृषँ तुष्टौ ४.१४२) preceded by the उपसर्ग: ‘प्र’ for ‘to rejoice.’

6. How would you say this in Sanskrit?
“Along with his mothers, Bharata went to Citrakūṭa to meet (see) Śrī Rāma.” Construct a बहुव्रीहि: compound for ‘along with his mothers (Bharata went)’ = ‘मातृभि: सह (जगाम भरत:)’।

Easy questions:

1. In which word in the verses has the सूत्रम् 6-4-98 गमहनजनखनघसां लोपः क्ङित्यनङि been used?

2. Which सूत्रम् prescribes the substitution ‘ए’ in the form नेदु:?

Jan 282016
 

Today we will look at the form सस्त्रीकाः  mNp from श्रीमद्भागवतम् 10.33.5.

ततो दुन्दुभयो नेदुर्निपेतुः पुष्पवृष्टयः । जगुर्गन्धर्वपतयः सस्त्रीकास्तद्यशोऽमलम् ।। १०-३३-५ ।।
वलयानां नूपुराणां किङ्किणीनां च योषिताम् । सप्रियाणामभूच्छब्दस्तुमुलो रासमण्डले ।। १०-३३-६ ।।

श्रीधर-स्वामि-टीका
तत्तस्य भगवतः श्रीकृष्णस्यामलं निर्मलं यशो जगुरिति ।। ५ ।। सप्रियाणां कृष्णसहितानाम् । तुमुलः संकीर्णः ।। ६ ।।

Gita Press translation – Then sounded kettle-drums (beaten by heavenly beings), showers of flowers fell, and the chiefs of Gandharvas sang His immaculate glory in chorus with their spouses (5). There arose a confused din produced by (the jingling of) bangles and anklets and (the tinkling of) tiny bells attached to the girdle of the cowherd women joined with their beloved Lord in that ring of Rāsa dancers (6).

(1) स्त्रीभि: सह (जगुर्गन्धर्वपतय:) = सस्त्रीका: (जगुर्गन्धर्वपतय:) – With women (their spouses) (chiefs of Gandharvas sang).
Note: The third case affix used in स्त्रीभि: is as per the सूत्रम् 2-3-19 सहयुक्तेऽप्रधाने।

(2) सह + स्त्री भिस् । As per the सूत्रम् 2-2-28 तेन सहेति तुल्ययोगे – The indeclinable सह when it denotes ‘equal connection (with an action)’ optionally compounds with a पदम् ending in a third case affix to yield a बहुव्रीहि: compound.

As per 1-2-43 प्रथमानिर्दिष्टं समास उपसर्जनम् the term सह gets the designation उपसर्जनम् because in the सूत्रम् 2-2-28 (which prescribes the compounding) the term सह ends in the nominative case. And hence as per 2-2-30 the term सह is placed in the prior position in the compound.

Note: ‘सह + स्त्री भिस्’ gets the designation प्रातिपदिकम्‌ by 1-2-46 कृत्तद्धितसमासाश्च। This allows 2-4-71 सुपो धातुप्रातिपदिकयोः to apply in the next step.

(3) सह + स्त्री । By 2-4-71 सुपो धातुप्रातिपदिकयोः – A सुँप् affix takes a लुक् elision when it is a part of a धातुः or a प्रातिपदिकम्।

(4) सह + स्त्री / स + स्त्री । By 6-3-82 वोपसर्जनस्य – When it is a part of a बहुव्रीहि: compound the indeclinable सह is optionally replaced by ‘स’।

= सहस्त्री / सस्त्री ।

(5) सस्त्री कप् । By 5-4-153 नद्यृतश्च – Following a बहुव्रीहि: compound whose final member either has the designation नदी or ends in the letter ‘ऋ’ the तद्धित: affix कप्‌ is prescribed and this affix becomes the ending member of the compound.

(6) सस्त्रीक । अनुबन्ध-लोपः by 1-3-3 हलन्त्यम् and 1-3-9 तस्य लोपः।

Note: The long vowel ‘ई’ preceding the affix ‘क’ (‘कप्’) would have been shortened by the सूत्रम् 7-4-13 केऽणः – A long vowel belonging to the प्रत्याहार: ‘अण्’ is replaced by its short counterpart when followed by the affix ‘क’।
But it is prevented from doing so by the सूत्रम् 7-4-14 न कपि – A long vowel belonging to the प्रत्याहार: ‘अण्’ is not replaced by its short counterpart when followed by the affix ‘कप्’।

The gender of a बहुव्रीहि: compound matches that of which it qualifies. In the present example गन्धर्वपतयः is being qualified. Hence we assign the masculine gender to the compound प्रातिपदिकम् ‘सस्त्रीक’। It declines like राम-शब्द:।

The विवक्षा is प्रथमा-बहुवचनम्।

(7) सस्त्रीक + जस् । By 4-1-2 स्वौजसमौट्छष्टाभ्याम्भिस्ङेभ्याम्भ्यस्ङसिँभ्याम्भ्यस्ङसोसाम्ङ्योस्सुप्

(8) सस्त्रीक + अस् । अनुबन्ध-लोपः by 1-3-7 चुटू and 1-3-9 तस्य लोपः। 1-3-4 न विभक्तौ तुस्माः prevents the ending letter ‘स्’ of ‘जस्’ from getting इत्-सञ्ज्ञा।

(9) सस्त्रीकास् । 6-1-102 प्रथमयो: पूर्वसवर्ण: – When a अक् letter is followed by a vowel (अच्) of the first (nominative) or second (accusative) case then for the two of them (अक् + अच्) there is a single substitute which is the elongated form of the first member (the अक् letter.)

(10) सस्त्रीकाः । रुँत्व-विसर्गौ by 8-2-66 ससजुषो रुः and 8-3-15 खरवसानयोर्विसर्जनीयः

Questions:

1. Commenting on the सूत्रम् 5-4-153 नद्यृतश्च (used in step 5) the तत्त्वबोधिनी says – तपरत्वं स्पष्टार्थम्। Please explain.

2. Where else (besides in सस्त्रीकाः) has the सूत्रम् 2-2-28 तेन सहेति तुल्ययोगे been used in the verses?

3. Can you spot the negation particle ‘नञ्’ in the verses?

4. How would you say this in Sanskrit?
“The gods along with their spouses came to witness (see) the coronation of Śrī Rāma.” Construct a बहुव्रीहि: compound for ‘with (their) spouses’ = ‘स्त्रीभि: सह (आजग्मुर्देवा:)’। Use the masculine प्रातिपदिकम् ‘अभिषेक’ for ‘coronation.’

5. How would you say this in Sanskrit?
“Lord Nārāyaṇa along with (goddess) Lakṣmī resides in Vaikuṇṭha.” Construct a बहुव्रीहि: compound for ‘along with (goddess) Lakṣmī’ = ‘लक्ष्म्या सह (निवसति भगवान् नारायण:)’।

6. How would you say this in Sanskrit?
“My brother is not married.” Paraphrase to “My brother is one whose wife does not exist.” Construct a बहुव्रीहि: compound for ‘one whose wife does not exist’ = ‘अविद्यमाना पत्नी यस्य स:’।

Easy questions:

1. In which word(s) in the verses has the सूत्रम् 6-4-120 अत एकहल्मध्येऽनादेशादेर्लिटि been used?

2. From which verbal root is the form जगु: derived?

Jan 252016
 

Today we will look at the form अनर्थकम्  nAs from श्रीमद्-वाल्मीकि-रामायणम् 6.15.2.

बृहस्पतेस्तुल्यमतेर्वचस्तन्निशम्य यत्नेन विभीषणस्य । ततो महात्मा वचनं बभाषे तत्रेन्द्रजिन्नैरृतयूथमुख्यः ।। ६-१५-१ ।।
किं नाम ते तात कनिष्ठ वाक्यमनर्थकं वै बहुभीतवच्च । अस्मिन् कुले योऽपि भवेन्न जातः सोऽपीदृशं नैव वदेन्न कुर्यात् ।। ६-१५-२ ।।

Gita Press translation – Listening with restraint the foregoing speech of Vibhīṣaṇa, who was equal in wisdom to Sage Bṛihaspati (the preceptor of gods), the high-spirited Indrajit, the leader of ogre hordes, forthwith spoke as follows on that occasion: – (1) “Why on earth should you actually utter meaningless words like one who is greatly alarmed, O youngest uncle? Even he who is not born in this race (of Pulastya) would not utter such words or do such a thing (as is suggested by you) (2).

(1) अविद्यमानोऽर्थो यस्य तत् = अनर्थकं (वाक्यम्) = A meaningless statement.

(2) अविद्यमान सुँ + अर्थ सुँ । By 2-2-24 अनेकमन्यपदार्थे – Two or more terms having the designation पदम् and ending in the nominative case may optionally compound to yield a बहुव्रीहि: compound provided the terms are employed to denote the sense of another पदम् (which is not part of the compound.)

(3) The adjective ‘अविद्यमान सुँ’ is placed in the prior position in the compound as per the सूत्रम् 2-2-35 सप्तमीविशेषणे बहुव्रीहौ – In a बहुव्रीहि: compound the पदम् which ends in a seventh case affix or is an adjective takes the prior position.

Note: ‘अविद्यमान सुँ + अर्थ सुँ’ gets the designation प्रातिपदिकम्‌ by 1-2-46 कृत्तद्धितसमासाश्च। This allows 2-4-71 to apply in the next step.

(4) अविद्यमान + अर्थ । By 2-4-71 सुपो धातुप्रातिपदिकयोः – A सुँप् affix takes a लुक् elision when it is a part of a धातुः or a प्रातिपदिकम्।

(5) अ + अर्थ । By वार्तिकम् (under 2-2-24 अनेकमन्यपदार्थे) नञोऽस्त्यर्थानां वाच्यो वा चोत्तरपदलोपः – A compound पदम् in which the negation particle नञ् is followed by a उत्तर-पदम् (final member) that denotes the sense of ‘exists’ optionally drops this उत्तर-पदम् when it combines with another पदम् to yield a बहुव्रीहि: compound.
Note: Compounding is already prescribed by the सूत्रम् 2-2-24 itself. It is only for the elision of the उत्तरपदम् (of the compound पूर्वपदम्) that this वार्तिकम् is necessary.

(6) अ + नुँट् अर्थ । By 6-3-74 तस्मान्नुडचि – When preceded by the particle नञ्‌ whose letter ‘न्’ has been elided (by the prior सूत्रम् 6-3-73 नलोपो नञः), a final member (of a compound) which begins with a vowel takes the augment नुँट्।
Note: As per the परिभाषा ‘उभयनिर्देशे पञ्चमीनिर्देशो बलीयान्’ the fifth case affix used in तस्मात् has greater force than the seventh case affix used in अचि। Hence the operation (of attaching the augment नुँट्) takes place on the उत्तरपदम् and not on the particle नञ्‌।
Note: As per the परिभाषा-सूत्रम् 1-1-46 आद्यन्तौ टकितौ the augment नुँट् attaches at the beginning of the final member (of a compound) which begins with a vowel.

(7) अ + न् अर्थ । अनुबन्ध-लोपः by 1-3-2 उपदेशेऽजनुनासिक इत्, 1-3-3 हलन्त्यम् and 1-3-9 तस्य लोपः।

= अनर्थ ।

(8) अनर्थ + कप् । By the गण-सूत्रम् (in the उरःप्रभृतिगण: (ref. 5-4-151) of the गणपाठ:) अर्थान्नञ: – Following a बहुव्रीहि: compound which has the negation particle ‘नञ्’ as its prior member and ‘अर्थ’ as its final member the तद्धित: affix कप्‌ is prescribed and this affix becomes the ending member of the compound.

(9) अनर्थ + क । अनुबन्ध-लोपः by 1-3-3 हलन्त्यम् and 1-3-9 तस्य लोपः।

= अनर्थक ।

The gender of a बहुव्रीहि: compound matches that of which it qualifies. In the present example वाक्यम् is being qualified. Hence we assign the neuter gender to the compound प्रातिपदिकम् ‘अनर्थक’। It declines like वन-शब्द:।

The विवक्षा is द्वितीया-एकवचनम्।

(10) अनर्थक + अम् । By 4-1-2 स्वौजसमौट्छष्टाभ्याम्भिस्ङेभ्याम्भ्यस्ङसिभ्याम्भ्यस्ङसोसाम्ङ्योस्सुप्‌।

(11) अनर्थक + अम् । By 7-1-24 अतोऽम् – The affixes ‘सुँ’ and ‘अम्’ that follow a neuter अङ्गम् ending in the short vowel ‘अ’ take ‘अम्’ as their replacement. Note: 7-1-24 is required here to prevent 7-1-23 स्वमोर्नपुंसकात्‌ from applying.
1-3-4 न विभक्तौ तुस्माः prevents the ending letter ‘म्’ of the affix ‘अम्’ from getting इत्-सञ्ज्ञा।

(12) अनर्थकम् । By 6-1-107 अमि पूर्वः – In place of a preceding अक् letter and the following vowel (अच्) belonging to the affix ‘अम्’ there is a single substitute of that preceding अक् letter.

Questions:

1. Commenting on the गण-सूत्रम् (in the उरःप्रभृतिगण: (ref. 5-4-151) of the गणपाठ:) अर्थान्नञ: (used in step 8) the सिद्धान्तकौमुदी says – नञ: किम्? अपार्थम्। अपार्थकम्। Please explain.

2. In the verses can you spot a compound in which the पूर्व-पदम् (first member) has taken पुंवद्भाव: (a masculine-like form)?

3. Where has the सूत्रम् 3-3-90 यजयाचयतविच्छप्रच्छरक्षो नङ् been used in the verses?

4. Which कृत् affix is used to construct the प्रातिपदिकम् ‘विभीषण’ (used in the form विभीषणस्य (पुंलिङ्गे षष्ठी-एकवचनम्) in the verses)?

5. Which वार्त्तिकम् may be used to justify the use of a third case affix in the form यत्नेन in the verses?

6. How would you say this in Sanskrit?
“One should not speak useless words.”

Easy questions:

1. Which सूत्रम् prescribes the substitution ‘ए’ in the form बभाषे?

2. Where has the सूत्रम् 6-4-109 ये च been used in the verses?

Jan 212016
 

Today we will look at the form व्यूढोरस्कम्  mAs from श्रीमद्-वाल्मीकि-रामायणम् 4.17.11.

तं तथा पतितं संख्ये गतार्चिषमिवानलम् । ययातिमिव पुण्यान्ते देवलोकादिह च्युतम् ।। ४-१७-९ ।।
आदित्यमिव कालेन युगान्ते भुवि पातितम् । महेन्द्रमिव दुर्धर्षमुपेन्द्रमिव दुस्सहम् ।। ४-१७-१० ।।
महेन्द्रपुत्रं पतितं वालिनं हेममालिनम् । व्यूढोरस्कं महाबहुं दीप्तास्यं हरिलोचनम् ।। ४-१७-११ ।।
लक्ष्मणानुचरो रामो ददर्शोपससर्प च । तं तथा पतितं संख्ये गतार्चिषमिवानलम् ।। ४-१७-१२ ।।

Gita Press translation – Śrī Rāma, followed by Lakṣmaṇa, saw the aforesaid Vālī, son of the mighty Indra – who was adorned with a chain of gold, and was distinguished by a broad chest, long arms, a radiant face and yellow eyes, nay, who was difficult to overcome as the great Indra and hard to resist as Lord Viṣṇu (descended as a younger brother of Indra in the form of the Divine Dwarf) – fallen on the field of battle as mentioned in the foregoing lines like a fire without flame and resembling King Yayāti descended on earth from the realm of gods on the exhaustion of his merits (which entitled him to an abode in heaven) and (further) looking like the sun cast down on earth by the Time-Spirit at the end of the world cycle, and proceeded towards the aforesaid hero fallen as described above like a fire without flame (9-12).

(1) व्यूढमुरो यस्य स: = व्यूढोरस्क: – He who has a broad chest.

(2) व्यूढ सुँ + उरस् सुँ । By 2-2-24 अनेकमन्यपदार्थे – Two or more terms having the designation पदम् and ending in the nominative case may optionally compound to yield a बहुव्रीहि: compound provided the terms are employed to denote the sense of another पदम् (which is not part of the compound.)

(3) The adjective ‘व्यूढ सुँ’ is placed in the prior position in the compound as per the सूत्रम् 2-2-35 सप्तमीविशेषणे बहुव्रीहौ – In a बहुव्रीहि: compound the पदम् which ends in a seventh case affix or is an adjective takes the prior position.

Note: ‘व्यूढ सुँ + उरस् सुँ’ gets the designation प्रातिपदिकम्‌ by 1-2-46 कृत्तद्धितसमासाश्च। This allows 2-4-71 to apply in the next step.

(4) व्यूढ + उरस् । By 2-4-71 सुपो धातुप्रातिपदिकयोः – A सुँप् affix takes a लुक् elision when it is a part of a धातुः or a प्रातिपदिकम्।

(5) व्यूढोरस् । By 6-1-87 आद्गुणः

(6) व्यूढोरस् + कप् । By 5-4-151 उरःप्रभृतिभ्यः कप्‌ – Following a बहुव्रीहि: compound ending in one of the terms ‘उरस्’ etc the तद्धित: affix कप्‌ is prescribed and this affix becomes the ending member of the compound.
Note: The उर:प्रभृतिगण: is listed as follows – उरस् । सर्पिस् । उपानह् । पुमान् । अनड्वान् । पय: । नौ: । लक्ष्मी: । दधि । मधु । शालि । अर्थान्नञ: (गणसूत्रम्)।

(7) व्यूढोरस् + क । अनुबन्ध-लोपः by 1-3-3 हलन्त्यम् and 1-3-9 तस्य लोपः। Now ‘व्यूढोरस्’ gets the designation पदम् as per 1-4-17 स्वादिष्वसर्वनामस्थाने

(8) व्यूढोर: + क । रुँत्व-विसर्गौ – 8-2-66 ससजुषो रुः and 8-3-15 खरवसानयोर्विसर्जनीयः

(9) व्यूढोरस्क । By 8-3-38 सोऽपदादौ – The literal meaning of this सूत्रम् is that a विसर्ग: is replaced by the letter ‘स्’ when followed by a letter which is not at the beginning of a पदम् and belongs to either the क-वर्ग: or प-वर्ग:। The only time these conditions are satisfied is when a विसर्ग: is followed by either the affix ‘पाश’ or ‘कल्प’ or ‘क’ or ‘काम्य’। Hence this सूत्रम् effectively means that – when followed by the affix ‘पाश’ or ‘कल्प’ or ‘क’ or ‘काम्य’ a विसर्ग: is replaced by the letter ‘स्’।

The gender of a बहुव्रीहि: compound matches that of which it qualifies. In the present example वाली is being qualified. Hence we assign the masculine gender to the compound प्रातिपदिकम् ‘व्यूढोरस्क’। It declines like राम-शब्द:।

The विवक्षा is द्वितीया-एकवचनम्।

(6) व्यूढोरस्क + अम् । By 4-1-2 स्वौजसमौट्छष्टाभ्याम्भिस्ङेभ्याम्भ्यस्ङसिभ्याम्भ्यस्ङसोसाम्ङ्योस्सुप्‌।
Note: 1-3-4 न विभक्तौ तुस्माः prevents the ending letter ‘म्’ of the affix ‘अम्’ from getting इत्-सञ्ज्ञा।

(7) व्यूढोरस्कम् । By 6-1-107 अमि पूर्वः – In place of a preceding अक् letter and the following vowel (अच्) belonging to the affix ‘अम्’ there is a single substitute of that preceding अक् letter.

Questions:

1. Commenting on the उर:प्रभृतिगण: (referred to in the सूत्रम् 5-4-151 उरःप्रभृतिभ्यः कप्‌) the सिद्धान्तकौमुदी says – इह पुमान्‌, अनड्वान्‌, पय:, नौ, लक्षमीरित्येकवचनान्तानि पठ्यन्ते। द्विवचनबहुवचनान्तेभ्यस्तु ‘शेषाद्विभाषा (५-४-१५४)’ इति विकल्पेन कप्‌। द्विपुमान्‌। द्विपुंस्क:। Please explain.

2. Commenting on the affix कप् (prescribed by the सूत्रम् 5-4-151 उरःप्रभृतिभ्यः कप्‌) the तत्त्वबोधिनी says – तद्धितत्वात्कस्य नेत्वम्। Please explain.

3. Which other (besides व्यूढोरस्कम्) compounds used in the verses are बहुव्रीहि: compounds?

4. Where has the सौनाग-वार्तिकम् (under 2-2-18) अत्यादयः क्रान्ताद्यर्थे द्वितीयया been used in the verses?

5. Can you spot the affix ‘खल्’ in the verses?

6. How would you say this in Sanskrit?
“Seeing (having seen) the broad-chested Śrī Rāma, Śūrpaṇakhā became blinded by passion.” Form a तृतीया-समास: for ‘blinded by passion’ = ‘मदेनान्धा’।

Easy questions:

1. Which सूत्रम् prescribes the substitution ‘उवँङ्’ in the form भुवि (स्त्रीलिङ्ग-प्रातिपदिकम् ‘भू’, सप्तमी-एकवचनम्)?

2. In which two words in the verses has लिँट् been used?

Jan 182016
 

Today we will look at the form दुर्हृदाम्  mGp from श्रीमद्भागवतम् 10.73.32.

गत्वा ते खाण्डवप्रस्थं शङ्खान्दध्मुर्जितारयः । हर्षयन्तः स्वसुहृदो दुर्हृदां चासुखावहाः ।। १०-७३-३२ ।।
तच्छ्रुत्वा प्रीतमनस इन्द्रप्रस्थनिवासिनः । मेनिरे मागधं शान्तं राजा चाप्तमनोरथः ।। १०-७३-३३ ।।

श्रीधर-स्वामि-टीका
खाण्डवप्रस्थमिन्द्रप्रस्थम् ।। ३२ ।। शान्तं मृतम् । आप्तमनोरथो बभूव ।। ३३ ।।

Gita Press translation – On reaching the outskirts of the city, the three victorious heroes blew their respective conchs, bringing joy to their friends and sorrow to their enemies (32). The people of Indraprastha were extremely delighted at heart to hear the sound and concluded at once that Jarāsandha had been killed and that King Yudhiṣṭhira had well-nigh achieved his object (33).

(1) दु: (दुष्टं/अशोभनं) हृदयं यस्य स: = दुर्हृत् (अमित्र:) – An enemy.

(2) दुर् + हृदय सुँ । By 2-2-24 अनेकमन्यपदार्थे – Two or more terms having the designation पदम् and ending in the nominative case may optionally compound to yield a बहुव्रीहि: compound provided the terms are employed to denote the sense of another पदम् (which is not part of the compound.)

(3) The adjective ‘दुर्’ is placed in the prior position in the compound as per the सूत्रम् 2-2-35 सप्तमीविशेषणे बहुव्रीहौ – In a बहुव्रीहि: compound the पदम् which ends in a seventh case affix or is an adjective takes the prior position.

Note: ‘दुर् + हृदय सुँ’ gets the designation प्रातिपदिकम्‌ by 1-2-46 कृत्तद्धितसमासाश्च। This allows 2-4-71 to apply in the next step.

(4) दुर् + हृदय । By 2-4-71 सुपो धातुप्रातिपदिकयोः – A सुँप् affix takes a लुक् elision when it is a part of a धातुः or a प्रातिपदिकम्।

(5) दुर्हृद् । By 5-4-150 सुहृद्दुर्हृदौ मित्रामित्रयोः – ‘सुहृद्’ and ‘दुर्हृद्’ are given as two ready-made compounds in the meaning of ‘friend’ and ‘enemy’ respectively. Note: This implies that when following ‘सु’ and ‘दुर्’ the term ‘हृदय’ is replaced by ‘हृद्’ to derive compounds meaning ‘friend’ and ‘enemy’ respectively.
Note: The compounds ‘सुहृद्’ and ‘दुर्हृद्’ could also be formed by using the प्रातिपदिकम् ‘हृद्’ (instead of ‘हृदय’)। Hence the real purpose of this सूत्रम् is not to facilitate the construction of the compounds ‘सुहृद्’ and ‘दुर्हृद्’ but to prevent the construction of the compounds ‘सुहृदय’ and ‘दुर्हृदय’ in the meanings of ‘friend’ and ‘enemy’ respectively.

The gender of a बहुव्रीहि: compound matches that of which it qualifies. In the present example even though the qualified word is not specifically mentioned, from the context it can be taken to be the masculine noun ‘जन’। Hence we assign the masculine gender to the compound प्रातिपदिकम् ‘दुर्हृद्’।

The विवक्षा is षष्ठी-बहुवचनम् ।

(6) दुर्हृद् + आम् । By 4-1-2 स्वौजसमौट्छष्टाभ्याम्भिस्ङेभ्याम्भ्यस्ङसिँभ्याम्भ्यस्ङसोसाम्ङ्योस्सुप्
Note: 1-3-4 न विभक्तौ तुस्माः prevents the ending letter ‘म्’ of आम् from getting इत्-सञ्ज्ञा ।

= दुर्हृदाम् ।

Questions:

1. In which verse of Chapter One of the गीता has the सूत्रम् 5-4-150 सुहृद्दुर्हृदौ मित्रामित्रयोः (used in step 5) been used?

2. Where else (besides in दुर्हृदाम्) has the सूत्रम् 5-4-150 सुहृद्दुर्हृदौ मित्रामित्रयोः been used in the verses?

3. In which word in the verses does the सूत्रम् 1-4-52 गतिबुद्धिप्रत्यवसानार्थशब्दकर्माकर्मकाणामणि कर्ता स णौ find application?

4. What is the विग्रह: of the compound जितारयः (प्रातिपदिकम् ‘जितारि’, पुंलिङ्गे प्रथमा-बहुवचनम्) as used in the verses?

5. Which सूत्रम् prescribes the affix ‘णिनिँ’ used in the form इन्द्रप्रस्थनिवासिनः (प्रातिपदिकम् ‘इन्द्रप्रस्थनिवासिन्’, पुंलिङ्गे प्रथमा-बहुवचनम्)?

6. How would you say this in Sanskrit?
“I don’t consider anyone (to be) my enemy.”

Easy questions:

1. In which word in the verses has the सूत्रम् 6-4-120 अत एकहल्मध्येऽनादेशादेर्लिटि been used?

2. Which सूत्रम् prescribes the augment ‘वुक्’ in the form बभूव (used in the commentary)?

Jan 142016
 

Today we will look at the form सुहृदः  mNp from श्रीमद्भागवतम् 1.13.11.

भवद्विधा भागवतास्तीर्थभूताः स्वयं विभो । तीर्थीकुर्वन्ति तीर्थानि स्वान्तःस्थेन गदाभृता ।। १-१३-१० ।।
अपि नः सुहृदस्तात बान्धवाः कृष्णदेवताः । दृष्टाः श्रुता वा यदवः स्वपुर्यां सुखमासते ।। १-१३-११ ।।

श्रीधर-स्वामि-टीका
भवतां च तीर्थाटनं न स्वार्थं किंतु तीर्थानुग्रहार्थमित्याह – भवद्विधा इति । मलिनजनसंपर्केण मलिनानि तीर्थानि सन्तः पुनः स्वयं तीर्थीकुर्वन्ति । स्वान्तं मनस्तत्रस्थेन । स्वस्यान्तःस्थितेनेति वा ।। १० ।। अपि किं सुखमासते भवद्भिः क्वापि दृष्टाः श्रुता वा ।। ११ ।।

Gita Press translation – Devotees of God like you, my lord, are not only consecrated themselves; but it is they who revive the sanctity of sacred places (that get polluted by the contact of sinners) by the living presence of Lord Viṣṇu (the Wielder of a mace), in their heart (10). Dear uncle, are our friends and relations, the Yādavas, who took upon Śrī Kṛṣṇa as their deity, doing well in their own city (Dwārakā)? Did you happen to see or even hear of them? (11)

(1) सु (शोभनं) हृदयं यस्य स: = सुहृत् (मित्रम्) – A friend.

(2) सु + हृदय सुँ । By 2-2-24 अनेकमन्यपदार्थे – Two or more terms having the designation पदम् and ending in the nominative case may optionally compound to yield a बहुव्रीहि: compound provided the terms are employed to denote the sense of another पदम् (which is not part of the compound.)

(3) The adjective ‘सु’ is placed in the prior position in the compound as per the सूत्रम् 2-2-35 सप्तमीविशेषणे बहुव्रीहौ – In a बहुव्रीहि: compound the पदम् which ends in a seventh case affix or is an adjective takes the prior position.

Note: ‘सु + हृदय सुँ’ gets the designation प्रातिपदिकम्‌ by 1-2-46 कृत्तद्धितसमासाश्च। This allows 2-4-71 to apply in the next step.

(4) सु + हृदय । By 2-4-71 सुपो धातुप्रातिपदिकयोः – A सुँप् affix takes a लुक् elision when it is a part of a धातुः or a प्रातिपदिकम्।

(5) सुहृद् । By 5-4-150 सुहृद्दुर्हृदौ मित्रामित्रयोः – ‘सुहृद्’ and ‘दुर्हृद्’ are given as two ready-made compounds in the meaning of ‘friend’ and ‘enemy’ respectively. Note: This implies that when following ‘सु’ and ‘दुर्’ the term ‘हृदय’ is replaced by ‘हृद्’ to derive compounds meaning ‘friend’ and ‘enemy’ respectively.
Note: The compounds ‘सुहृद्’ and ‘दुर्हृद्’ could also be formed by using the प्रातिपदिकम् ‘हृद्’ (instead of ‘हृदय’)। Hence the real purpose of this सूत्रम् is not to facilitate the construction of the compounds ‘सुहृद्’ and ‘दुर्हृद्’ but to prevent the construction of the compounds ‘सुहृदय’ and ‘दुर्हृदय’ in the meanings of ‘friend’ and ‘enemy’ respectively.

The gender of a बहुव्रीहि: compound matches that of which it qualifies. In the present example यदवः (Yādavas) are being qualified. Hence we assign the masculine gender to the compound प्रातिपदिकम् ‘सुहृद्’।

The विवक्षा is प्रथमा-बहुवचनम् ।

(6) सुहृद् + जस् । By 4-1-2 स्वौजसमौट्छष्टाभ्याम्भिस्ङेभ्याम्भ्यस्ङसिँभ्याम्भ्यस्ङसोसाम्ङ्योस्सुप्

(7) सुहृद् + अस् । अनुबन्ध-लोपः by 1-3-7 चुटू and 1-3-9 तस्य लोपः। 1-3-4 न विभक्तौ तुस्माः prevents the ending letter ‘स्’ of जस् from getting इत्-सञ्ज्ञा ।

(8) सुहृदः । रुँत्व-विसर्गौ 8-2-66 ससजुषो रुः and 8-3-15 खरवसानयोर्विसर्जनीयः

Questions:

1. In the last verse of which chapter of the गीता has the compound ‘सुहृद्’ been used?

2. What is the विग्रह: of the compound कृष्णदेवताः (प्रातिपदिकम् ‘कृष्णदेवत’, पुंलिङ्गे प्रथमा-बहुवचनम्) used in the verses?

3. Can you spot the affix क्विँप् in the verses?

4. Which वार्तिकम् justifies the use of a second case affix in the form सुखम् used in the verses?

5. Why doesn’t the सूत्रम् 6-1-58 सृजिदृशोर्झल्यमकिति apply in the form दृष्टाः (प्रातिपदिकम् ‘दृष्ट’, पुंलिङ्गे प्रथमा-बहुवचनम्) used in the verses? (Which condition is not satisfied?)

6. How would you say this in Sanskrit?
“Without friends, there is no happiness in life.”

Easy questions:

1. Where has the सूत्रम् 7-3-108 ह्रस्वस्य गुणः been used in the verses?

2. Which सूत्रम् prescribes the substitution ‘अत्’ in the form आसते?

Jan 112016
 

Today we will look at the form द्विपदः  mAp from श्रीमद्भागवतम् 5.18.27.

अन्तर्बहिश्चाखिललोकपालकैरदृष्टरूपो विचरस्युरुस्वनः । स ईश्वरस्त्वं य इदं वशेऽनयन्नाम्ना यथा दारुमयीं नरः स्त्रियम् ।। ५-१८-२६ ।।
यं लोकपालाः किल मत्सरज्वरा हित्वा यतन्तोऽपि पृथक्समेत्य च । पातुं न शेकुर्द्विपदश्चतुष्पदः सरीसृपं स्थाणु यदत्र दृश्यते ॥ ५-१८-२७ ॥

श्रीधर-स्वामि-टीका
उरुः स्वनो वेदात्मको नादो यस्य । य इदं विश्वं ब्राह्मणादिनाम्ना विधिनिषेधालम्बनभूतेन वशेऽनयन्नियमितवान्स त्वमीश्वरः । तथाच श्रुतिः ‘तस्य वाक्तन्तिर्नामानि दामानि’ इति ।। २६ ।। नन्विन्द्रादयो वशं नयन्ति लोकपालत्वात्कुतोऽहं तत्राह – यमिति । मत्सर एव ज्वरो येषां ते यं हित्वा द्विपदश्चतुष्पदः सरीसृपं जङ्गमं स्थाणु स्थावरं च यदत्र दृश्यते तत्किंचिदपि पातुं न शक्ताः । स त्वमेव प्राणरूपेण पालक ईश्वरश्चेत्यर्थः । तथाच श्रुतिः ‘ता अहिंसन्ताहमुकमस्म्यहमुकमस्मि’ इत्यादि ॥ २७ ॥

Gita Press translation – Though Your form is unseen by (remains hidden from the view of) all the guardians of the spheres (Brahmā and others), You move about (in the form of the vital airs) within and (as the atmospheric air) without (all living beings), making a loud noise (in the form of the Vedas and thereby proclaiming Your existence). You are that (Supreme) Ruler who has brought this universe under control by means of (various) denominations (such as the Brāhmaṇa, which serve as a basis for the varied injunctions and interdictions of the scriptures), even as a showman controls a wooden puppet (by a wire) (26). Suffering from the fever of jealousy, the guardians of the (different) spheres (Indra and others) were unable without You (the life-giving principle) to protect the bipeds or quadrupeds, the mobile or the immobile creatures – (in short,) whatever is seen in this world – in spite of their striving severally as well as unitedly (27).

The verse 5.18.27 has appeared previously in the following post – http://avg-sanskrit.org/2012/08/03/सरीसृपम्-nns/

(1) द्वौ पादौ यस्य स: = द्विपात् – He (a man) who has two feet.

(2) द्वि औ + पाद औ । By 2-2-24 अनेकमन्यपदार्थे – Two or more terms having the designation पदम् and ending in the nominative case may optionally compound to yield a बहुव्रीहि: compound provided the terms are employed to denote the sense of another पदम् (which is not part of the compound.)

(3) The adjective ‘द्वि औ’ is placed in the prior position in the compound as per the सूत्रम् 2-2-35 सप्तमीविशेषणे बहुव्रीहौ – In a बहुव्रीहि: compound the पदम् which ends in a seventh case affix or is an adjective takes the prior position.

Note: ‘द्वि औ + पाद औ’ gets the designation प्रातिपदिकम्‌ by 1-2-46 कृत्तद्धितसमासाश्च। This allows 2-4-71 to apply in the next step.

(4) द्विपाद । By 2-4-71 सुपो धातुप्रातिपदिकयोः – A सुँप् affix takes a लुक् elision when it is a part of a धातुः or a प्रातिपदिकम्।

(5) द्विपाद् । By 5-4-140 संख्यासुपूर्वस्य – The ending letter of a बहुव्रीहि: compound in which the prior member either denotes a number or is the term ‘सु’ and the final member is ‘पाद’ is elided and this elision becomes the ending member of the compound.
Note: As per the परिभाषा-सूत्रम् 1-1-52 अलोऽन्त्यस्य only the ending letter of the compound – and not the entire compound – is elided.
Note: The purpose of specifying the elision as being the ending member of the compound is to prevent the application of 5-4-154 शेषाद्विभाषा which only applies if no other समासान्त: operation has been prescribed.

The gender of a बहुव्रीहि: compound matches that of which it qualifies. In the present example even though the qualified word is not specifically mentioned, from the context it can be taken to be the masculine noun ‘जन्तु’। Hence we assign the masculine gender to the compound प्रातिपदिकम् ‘द्विपाद्’।

The विवक्षा is द्वितीया-बहुवचनम् ।

(6) द्विपाद् + शस् । By 4-1-2 स्वौजसमौट्छष्टाभ्याम्भिस्ङेभ्याम्भ्यस्ङसिँभ्याम्भ्यस्ङसोसाम्ङ्योस्सुप्

(7) द्विपाद् + अस् । अनुबन्ध-लोपः by 1-3-8 लशक्वतद्धिते and 1-3-9 तस्य लोपः। 1-3-4 न विभक्तौ तुस्माः prevents the ending letter ‘स्’ of शस् from getting इत्-सञ्ज्ञा । Note: The अङ्गम् ‘द्विपाद्’ has the designation ‘भ’ here as per the सूत्रम् 1-4-18 यचि भम्। This allows 6-4-130 to apply below.

(8) द्विपद् + अस् । By 6-4-130 पादः पत् – The term ‘पद्’ is substituted in place of the term ‘पाद्’ which is part of a अङ्गम् (base) that i) has the designation ‘भ’ and ii) ends in the term ‘पाद्’।
Note: पादः is qualifying अङ्गस्य (which is coming down from 6-4-1 अङ्गस्य) and hence as per 1-1-72 येन विधिस्तदन्तस्य this सूत्रम् applies to a अङ्गम् ending in the term ‘पाद्’।
Note: The परिभाषा ‘निर्दिश्यमानस्यादेशा भवन्ति‘ states that ‘substitutes take the place of that (or part of that) which (in a rule) is actually enunciated.’ Hence it is the term ‘पाद्’ (which is actually enunciated in the सूत्रम् 6-4-130) and not the entire अङ्गम् which gets replaced. And since the substitute ‘पद्’ has more than one letter, as per the परिभाषा-सूत्रम् 1-1-55 अनेकाल्शित्सर्वस्य the entire term ‘पाद्’ is replaced by ‘पद्’।

(9) द्विपदः । रुँत्व-विसर्गौ 8-2-66 ससजुषो रुः and 8-3-15 खरवसानयोर्विसर्जनीयः

Questions:

1. In the verses can you spot another word (besides द्विपदः) in which the सूत्रम् 6-4-130 पादः पत् (used in step 8) has been used?

2. What type of compound is उरुस्वनः as used in the verses?
i. बहुव्रीहि:
ii. कर्मधारय:
iii. अव्ययीभाव:
iv. षष्ठी-तत्पुरुष:

3. In which compound in the verses has the negation particle नञ् been used?

4. Where has the सूत्रम् 7-4-85 नुगतोऽनुनासिकान्तस्य been used in the commentary?

5. Which कृत् affix is used to derive the form पालक: (used in the commentary)?

6. How would you say this in Sanskrit?
“The lion is the king of four-legged creatures.” Use the masculine प्रातिपदिकम् ‘जन्तु’ for ‘creature.’

Easy questions:

1. In which word in the verses has the सूत्रम् 3-4-100 इतश्च been used?

2. Which सूत्रम् prescribes the substitution ‘ए’ in the form शेकु:?

Jan 072016
 

Today we will look at the form सहस्रपात्  mNs from श्रीमद्भागवतम् 3.22.3.

मनुरुवाच
ब्रह्मासृजत्स्वमुखतो युष्मानात्मपरीप्सया । छन्दोमयस्तपोविद्यायोगयुक्तानलम्पटान् ।। ३-२२-२ ।।
तत्त्राणायासृजच्चास्मान्दोःसहस्रात्सहस्रपात् । हृदयं तस्य हि ब्रह्म क्षत्रमङ्गं प्रचक्षते ।। ३-२२-३ ।।

श्रीधर-स्वामि-टीका
मदीया कन्या त्वया परिणेयेति विज्ञापयिष्यन् युष्मदस्मत्संबन्धस्तावदीश्वरेण पूर्वमेव घटित इत्याह – ब्रह्मेति सार्धाभ्याम् । आत्मनः परीप्सया पर्याप्तुमिच्छया । छन्दोमयस्यात्मनः पर्याप्तिः पालनं वेदप्रवर्तनं तस्येच्छया । युष्मान् ब्राह्मणान् ।। २ ।। तत्त्राणाय ब्राह्मणपालनाय । ब्रह्म ब्राह्मणजातिः । क्षत्रं क्षत्रियजातिः ।। ३ ।।

Gita Press translation – The Manu said: The Cosmic Being, who is Veda personified, evolved you (the Brāhmaṇas), rich in austere penance, learning and Yoga (concentration of mind), and averse to the pleasures of sense, from his mouth for the protection (continuance) of his own self in the form of the Vedas (2). And for the protection of the Brāhmaṇas the same thousand-footed Being evolved us (Kṣatriyas) from His thousand arms. Hence they speak of the Brāhmaṇa race as His heart and the Kṣatriya race as His outer limbs (arms) (3).

(1) सहस्रं पादा यस्य स: = सहस्रपात् – He who has thousand feet.

(2) सहस्र सुँ + पाद जस् । By 2-2-24 अनेकमन्यपदार्थे – Two or more terms having the designation पदम् and ending in the nominative case may optionally compound to yield a बहुव्रीहि: compound provided the terms are employed to denote the sense of another पदम् (which is not part of the compound.)

(3) The adjective ‘सहस्र सुँ’ is placed in the prior position in the compound as per the सूत्रम् 2-2-35 सप्तमीविशेषणे बहुव्रीहौ – In a बहुव्रीहि: compound the पदम् which ends in a seventh case affix or is an adjective takes the prior position.

Note: ‘सहस्र सुँ + पाद जस्’ gets the designation प्रातिपदिकम्‌ by 1-2-46 कृत्तद्धितसमासाश्च। This allows 2-4-71 to apply in the next step.

(4) सहस्रपाद । By 2-4-71 सुपो धातुप्रातिपदिकयोः – A सुँप् affix takes a लुक् elision when it is a part of a धातुः or a प्रातिपदिकम्।

(5) सहस्रपाद् । By 5-4-140 संख्यासुपूर्वस्य – The ending letter of a बहुव्रीहि: compound in which the prior member either denotes a number or is the term ‘सु’ and the final member is ‘पाद’ is elided and this elision becomes the ending member of the compound.
Note: As per the परिभाषा-सूत्रम् 1-1-52 अलोऽन्त्यस्य only the ending letter of the compound – and not the entire compound – is elided.
Note: The purpose of specifying the elision as being the ending member of the compound is to prevent the application of 5-4-154 शेषाद्विभाषा which only applies if no other समासान्त: operation has been prescribed.

The gender of a बहुव्रीहि: compound matches that of which it qualifies. In the present example ब्रह्मा is being qualified. Hence we assign the masculine gender to the compound प्रातिपदिकम् ‘सहस्रपाद्’।

The विवक्षा is प्रथमा-एकवचनम् ।

(6) सहस्रपाद् + सुँ । By 4-1-2 स्वौजसमौट्छष्टाभ्याम्भिस्ङेभ्याम्भ्यस्ङसिँभ्याम्भ्यस्ङसोसाम्ङ्योस्सुप्

(7) सहस्रपाद् + स् । अनुबन्ध-लोपः by 1-3-2 उपदेशेऽजनुनासिक इत् and 1-3-9 तस्य लोपः

(8) सहस्रपाद् । By 6-1-68 हल्ङ्याब्भ्यो दीर्घात्‌ सुतिस्यपृक्तं हल् – A single letter affix ‘सुँ’, ‘ति’ or ‘सि’ is dropped following a base ending in a consonant or in the long feminine affix ‘ङी’ or ‘आप्’।
Note: Now ‘सहस्रपाद्’ gets पद-सञ्ज्ञा by 1-4-14 सुप्तिङन्तं पदम् with the help of 1-1-62 प्रत्ययलोपे प्रत्ययलक्षणम् । This allows the सूत्रम् 8-4-56 to apply in the next step.

(9) सहस्रपाद्/सहस्रपात् । By 8-4-56 वावसाने

Questions:

1. From which सूत्रम् does the अनुवृत्ति: of ‘पादस्य लोप:’ come in to the सूत्रम् 5-4-140 संख्यासुपूर्वस्य (used in step 5)?

2. Where has the सूत्रम् 7-4-55 आप्ज्ञप्यृधामीत्‌ been used in the verses?

3. Can you spot a नञ्-तत्पुरुष: compound in the verses?

4. Which सूत्रम् prescribes the substitution ‘शतृँ’ (in place of the affix ‘लृँट्’) in the form विज्ञापयिष्यन् used in the commentary?

5. In which word in the commentary has the affix यत् been used?

6. How would you say this in Sanskrit?
“On the earth there are many creatures with two legs and with four legs, but none with three legs.” Use the masculine प्रातिपदिकम् ‘जन्तु’ for ‘creature.’

Easy questions:

1. Can you spot the affix ‘श’ in the verses?

2. Where has the सूत्रम् 7-1-5 आत्मनेपदेष्वनतः been used in the verses?

Jan 042016
 

Today we will look at the form शार्ङ्गधन्वा mNs from श्रीमद्भागवतम् 4.10.30.

ध्रुवे प्रयुक्तामसुरैस्तां मायामतिदुस्तराम् । निशम्य तस्य मुनयः शमाशंसन्समागताः ।। ४-१०-२९ ।।
मुनय ऊचुः
औत्तानपादे भगवांस्तव शार्ङ्गधन्वा देवः क्षिणोत्ववनतार्तिहरो विपक्षान् । यन्नामधेयमभिधाय निशम्य चाद्धा लोकोऽञ्जसा तरति दुस्तरमङ्ग मृत्युम् ।। ४-१०-३० ।।

श्रीधर-स्वामि-टीका
तस्य शं कल्याणमाशंसन्प्रार्थितवन्तः ।। २९ ।। तव विपक्षान् शत्रून्नाशयतु । अद्धा साक्षात् । अञ्जसा सुखेनैव मृत्युं तरति ।। ३० ।।

Gita Press translation – Seeing the conjuring trick employed by the Yakṣas against Dhruva – a trick which was so very difficult to counteract – a number of hermits that had assembled there prayed for his welfare (in the following words) (29). The hermits said: O son of Uttānapāda may the almighty Lord Viṣṇu (the Wielder of the famous Śārṅga bow), who relives the agony of His suppliants, wipe out your enemies! By uttering and hearing His very Name people easily succeed in this very life in conquering death, which is so hard to overcome, O dear Dhruva (30).

(1) शार्ङ्गं धनुर्यस्य स: = शार्ङ्गधन्वा – He (Lord Viṣṇu) who has (wields) the bow (named) Śārṅga.

(2) शार्ङ्ग सुँ + धनुस् सुँ । By 2-2-24 अनेकमन्यपदार्थे – Two or more terms having the designation पदम् and ending in the nominative case may optionally compound to yield a बहुव्रीहि: compound provided the terms are employed to denote the sense of another पदम् (which is not part of the compound.)

(3) The adjective ‘शार्ङ्ग सुँ’ is placed in the prior position in the compound as per the सूत्रम् 2-2-35 सप्तमीविशेषणे बहुव्रीहौ – In a बहुव्रीहि: compound the पदम् which ends in a seventh case affix or is an adjective takes the prior position.

Note: ‘शार्ङ्ग सुँ + धनुस् सुँ’ gets the designation प्रातिपदिकम्‌ by 1-2-46 कृत्तद्धितसमासाश्च। This allows 2-4-71 to apply in the next step.

(4) शार्ङ्गधनुस् । By 2-4-71 सुपो धातुप्रातिपदिकयोः – A सुँप् affix takes a लुक् elision when it is a part of a धातुः or a प्रातिपदिकम्।

(5) शार्ङ्गधनु अनँङ् । By 5-4-132 धनुषश्च – The ending letter of a बहुव्रीहि: compound which ends in the term ‘धनुस्’ takes the substitution ‘अनँङ्’ and this substitution becomes the ending member of the compound. Note: As per the परिभाषा-सूत्रम् 1-1-53 ङिच्च only the ending letter of the compound – and not the entire compound – is replaced by ‘अनँङ्’।
Note: साहचर्यात् ङित्त्वश्रवणाच्चास्यादेशत्वम् – Based on the following two considerations we conclude that the ‘अनँङ्’ prescribed by this सूत्रम् is a आदेश: (substitute) and not a प्रत्यय: (affix) – i) The rules from 5-4-129 through 5-4-150 prescribe substitutions and not affixes. Since 5-4-132 is placed in this section it is logical to expect this सूत्रम् to prescribe a substitution ii) The purpose of the letter ‘ङ्’ as a इत् in ‘अनँङ्’ is to facilitate the application of 1-1-53 ङिच्च which only makes sense if ‘अनँङ्’ is a substitute.
Note: The purpose of specifying the substitution ‘अनँङ्’ as being the ending member of the compound is to prevent the application of 5-4-154 शेषाद्विभाषा which only applies if no other समासान्त: operation has been prescribed.

(6) शार्ङ्गधनु अन् । अनुबन्ध-लोपः by 1-3-2 उपदेशेऽजनुनासिक इत्, 1-3-3 हलन्त्यम् and 1-3-9 तस्य लोपः।

(7) शार्ङ्गधन्वन् । By 6-1-77 इको यणचि

The gender of a बहुव्रीहि: compound matches that of which it qualifies. In the present example विष्णुः is being qualified. Hence we assign the masculine gender to the compound प्रातिपदिकम् ‘शार्ङ्गधन्वन्’। It declines like ‘यज्वन्’-शब्द:।

The विवक्षा is प्रथमा-एकवचनम् ।

(8) शार्ङ्गधन्वन् + सुँ । By 4-1-2 स्वौजसमौट्छष्टाभ्याम्भिस्ङेभ्याम्भ्यस्ङसिँभ्याम्भ्यस्ङसोसाम्ङ्योस्सुप्। The affix ‘सुँ’ has the designation सर्वनामस्थानम् here as per the सूत्रम् 1-1-43 सुडनपुंसकस्य। This allows 6-4-8 to apply below.

(9) शार्ङ्गधन्वन् + स् । अनुबन्ध-लोपः by 1-3-2 उपदेशेऽजनुनासिक इत् and 1-3-9 तस्य लोपः

(10) शार्ङ्गधन्वान् + स् । By 6-4-8 सर्वनामस्थाने चाऽसम्बुद्धौ – The penultimate letter of the अङ्गम् (base) ending in the letter ‘न्’ gets elongated if it is followed by a non-vocative affix having the designation सर्वनामस्थानम्।

(11) शार्ङ्गधन्वान् । By 6-1-68 हल्ङ्याब्भ्यो दीर्घात्‌ सुतिस्यपृक्तं हल् – A single letter affix ‘सुँ’, ‘ति’ or ‘सि’ is dropped following a base ending in a consonant or in the long feminine affix ‘ङी’ or ‘आप्’।
Note: Now ‘शार्ङ्गधन्वान्’ gets पद-सञ्ज्ञा by 1-4-14 सुप्तिङन्तं पदम् with the help of 1-1-62 प्रत्ययलोपे प्रत्ययलक्षणम् । This allows the सूत्रम् 8-2-7 to apply in the next step.

(12) शार्ङ्गधन्वा । By 8-2-7 नलोप: प्रातिपदिकान्तस्य – The ending letter ‘न्’ of a पदम् is dropped when the पदम् also has the designation प्रातिपदिकम्।

Questions:

1. Can you spot another (besides शार्ङ्गधन्वा) बहुव्रीहि: compound in the verses?

2. In which sense has the affix ‘क्त’ been used in the form समागताः (प्रातिपदिकम् ‘समागत’, पुंलिङ्गे प्रथमा-बहुवचनम्) used in the verses?
i. कर्मणि
ii. कर्तरि
iii. भावे
iv. None of the above

3. Which कृत् affix is used to derive the form दुस्तरम् (प्रातिपदिकम् ‘दुस्तर’, पुंलिङ्गे द्वितीया-एकवचनम्) used in the verses?

4. Which वार्तिकम् justifies the use of a third case affix in the form सुखेन used in the commentary?

5. Can you spot the affix ‘क्तवतुँ’ in the commentary?

6. How would you say this in Sanskrit?
“The one (Cupid) who wields the flower-bow was burnt by the fire which emanated from the third eye of the one (Lord Śiva) who bears the Pināka bow.” Use the verbal root √गम् (गमॢँ गतौ १. ११३७) preceded by the उपसर्ग: ‘निर्’ for ‘to emanate.’ Construct a बहुव्रीहि: compound for ‘one who has (wields) the flower-bow’ = पुष्पं धनुर्यस्य स: and ‘one who has (wields) the Pināka bow’ = पिनाकं धनुर्यस्य स:। Use the adjective प्रातिपदिकम् ‘तृतीय’ for ‘third.’

Easy questions:

1. Where has the सूत्रम् 3-4-100 इतश्च been used in the verses?

2. Which सूत्रम् prescribes the substitution ‘उ’ in the form क्षिणोतु?