Apr 282016
 

Today we will look at the form मित्रावरुणयोः mGd from श्रीमद्भागवतम् 9.1.13.

अप्रजस्य मनोः पूर्वं वसिष्ठो भगवान्किल । मित्रावरुणयोरिष्टिं प्रजार्थमकरोत् प्रभुः ।। ९-१-१३ ।।
तत्र श्रद्धा मनोः पत्नी होतारं समयाचत । दुहित्रर्थमुपागम्य प्रणिपत्य पयोव्रता ।। ९-१-१४ ।।

श्रीधर-स्वामि-टीका
सूर्यपौत्रस्य सुद्युम्नस्य स्त्रीत्वे सति बुधात्पुरूरवःप्रभृतिसोमवंशसंचारं वक्तुं सप्रस्तावमिलोपाख्यानमाह – अप्रजस्य मनोः पूर्वमित्यादिना यावदध्यायसमाप्ति । पूर्वमिक्ष्वाकुप्रभृतीनामुत्पत्तेः प्राक् ।। १३ ।। दुहित्रर्थं मम कन्या यथा भवेत्तथा यजेति होतारं सम्यगयाचत । पय एव व्रतमाहारो नियतो यस्याः ।। १४ ।।

Gita Press translation – In the beginning (before Ikṣwāku and others were born) the glorious and powerful sage Vasiṣṭha (the preceptor of the solar race), it is said, conducted a sacrifice in propitiation of the gods Mitra and Varuṇa for the sake of a son to the Manu, who was (yet) issue-less (13). During that sacrificial performance the Manu’s wife, Śraddhā, who was subsisting on milk alone, approached the priest invoking the gods and reciting the Ṛgveda and, falling prostrate before him, humbly requested him to conduct the sacrifice in such a way as to ensure the birth of a daughter (14).

(1) मित्रश्च वरुणश्च = मित्रावरुणौ – (the deities) Mitra and Varuṇa

(2) मित्र सुँ + वरुण सुँ । By 2-2-29 चार्थे द्वन्द्वः – Two or more terms having the designation पदम् and standing in a relation expressible by ‘च’ (‘and’) may optionally compound to yield a compound called द्वन्द्वः।

(3) मित्र सुँ + वरुण सुँ । Note: ‘मित्र’ has two syllables while ‘वरुण’ has three. Hence ‘मित्र सुँ’ is placed in the prior position in this द्वन्द्व: compound as per 2-2-34 अल्पाच्तरम्‌ – In a द्वन्द्व: compound the term having the least number of syllables (vowels) is placed in the prior position.,

Note: ‘ मित्र सुँ + वरुण सुँ’ gets the designation प्रातिपदिकम्‌ by 1-2-46 कृत्तद्धितसमासाश्च। This allows 2-4-71 to apply in the next step.

(4) मित्र + वरुण । By 2-4-71 सुपो धातुप्रातिपदिकयोः – A सुँप् affix takes a लुक् elision when it is a part of a धातुः or a प्रातिपदिकम्।

(5) मित्र् आनँङ् + वरुण । By 6-3-26 देवताद्वन्द्वे च – When the final term of the compound follows, there is a substitution of ‘आनँङ्’ (in place of the penultimate term) in a द्वन्द्व: compound whose terms denote names of deities. As per 1-1-53 ङिच्च, only the ending letter ‘अ’ of ‘मित्र’ is substituted with ‘आनँङ्’।

(6) मित्रान् + वरुण । अनुबन्ध-लोपः by 1-3-2 उपदेशेऽजनुनासिक इत्, 1-3-3 हलन्त्यम् and 1-3-9 तस्य लोपः
Note: Here ‘मित्रान्’ has the designation पदम् by 1-4-14 सुप्तिङन्तं पदम् with the help of 1-1-62 प्रत्ययलोपे प्रत्ययलक्षणम्। This allows 8-2-7 नलोपः प्रातिपदिकान्तस्य to apply in the next step.

(7) मित्रावरुण । By 8-2-7 नलोपः प्रातिपदिकान्तस्य

As per the सूत्रम् 2-4-26 परवल्लिङ्गं द्वन्द्वतत्पुरुषयोः, the compound प्रातिपदिकम् ‘मित्रावरुण’ is masculine since the final member ‘वरुण’ of the compound is masculine. This द्वन्द्वः compound (which expresses इतरेतरयोगः) is dual in number because it has two members.

The विवक्षा is षष्ठी ।

(8) मित्रावरुण + ओस् । By 4-1-2 स्वौजसमौट्छष्टाभ्याम्भिस्ङेभ्याम्भ्यस्ङसिभ्याम्भ्यस्ङसोसाम्ङ्योस्सुप्‌1-3-4 न विभक्तौ तुस्माः prevents the ending letter ‘स्’ of ‘ओस्’ from getting the इत्-सञ्ज्ञा।

(9) मित्रावरुणे + ओस् । By 7-3-104 ओसि च, the ending letter ‘अ’ of a प्रातिपदिकम् changes to letter ‘ए’ when followed by the affix ‘ओस्’ ।

(10) मित्रावरुणयोस् । अयादेशः by 6-1-78 एचोऽयवायावः

(11) मित्रावरुणयोः । रुँत्व-विसर्गौ 8-2-66 ससजुषो रुः and 8-3-15 खरवसानयोर्विसर्जनीयः

Questions:

1. Commenting on the सूत्रम् 6-3-26 देवताद्वन्द्वे च (used in step 5) the सिद्धान्तकौमुदी says – पुनर्द्वन्द्वग्रहणं प्रसिद्धसाहचर्यस्य परिग्रहार्थम्‌। तेन ब्रह्मप्रजापती इत्यादौ नानङ्‌। एतद्धि नैकहविर्भागित्वेन श्रुतं नापि लोके प्रसिद्धं साहचर्यम्‌। Please explain.

2. The form अप्रजस्य used in the verses is a आर्ष-प्रयोग: (irregular grammatical usage.) What is the grammatically correct form?

3. What type of compound is पयोव्रता as used in the verses?
i. द्वन्द्व:
ii. कर्मधारय:
iii. बहुव्रीहि:
iv. षष्ठी-तत्पुरुष:

4. What is the alternate form for उपागम्य?

5. Which सूत्रम् justifies the use of a seventh case affix in स्त्रीत्वे and सति in the commentary?

6. How would you say this in Sanskrit?
“I have never seen a sacrifice (in propitiation) of (the gods) Mitra and Varuṇa.” Paraphrase to passive – “A sacrifice (in propitiation) of (the gods) Mitra and Varuṇa has never been seen by me.”

Easy questions:

1. Where has the सूत्रम् 6-4-11 अप्तृन्तृच्स्वसृनप्तृनेष्टृत्वष्टृक्षत्तृहोतृपोतृप्रशास्तॄणाम् been used in the verses?

2. In which word in the commentary has the affix ‘हि’ taken the लुक् elision?

Apr 252016
 

Today we will look at the form पितापुत्राभ्याम्  mId from श्रीमद्भागवतम् 5.1.9.

तत्र ह वा एनं देवर्षिर्हंसयानेन पितरं भगवन्तं हिरण्यगर्भमुपलभमानः सहसैवोत्थायार्हणेन सह पितापुत्राभ्यामवहिताञ्जलिरुपतस्थे ।। ५-१-९ ।।
भगवानपि भारत तदुपनीतार्हणः सूक्तवाकेनातितरामुदितगुणगणावतारसुजयः प्रियव्रतमादिपुरुषस्तं सदयहासावलोक इति होवाच ।। ५-१-१० ।।

श्रीधर-स्वामि-टीका
हंसयानेनोपलक्षणेनैनं पितरमुपलभमानो मत्पिताऽयमिति लक्षयन् पितापुत्राभ्यां मनुप्रियव्रताभ्यां सह नारदः कृताञ्जलिः सन्सहसैवाभ्युत्थायार्हणेन पूजया सहोपतस्थे तुष्टाव । प्रियव्रतं तदा मन्दरद्रोण्यां नारद उपदिशति मनुश्च तं नेतुमागतोऽस्तीति ज्ञातव्यम् ।। ९ ।। हे भारत, भगवानादिपुरुषो ब्रह्मापि तं प्रियव्रतमिति होवाचेत्यन्वयः । तेन नारदेनोपनीतमर्हणं यस्य सः । सूक्तवाकेन यथोचितवाक्येन । अतिशयेनोदिता वर्णिता गुणगणा अवताराः सुजयाः सर्वोत्कर्षाश्च यस्य ।। १० ।।

Gita Press translation – Recognizing there from his mount, a swan, that he was no other than his father, the glorious Brahmā, Nārada (the celestial sage) quickly rose and waited upon him with articles of worship along with the father (Swāyambhuva Manu) and son (Priyavrata), his palms joined (in prayer) (9). The glorious Brahmā too, the first among embodied beings, who was offered (many an article of) worship (by Nārada) and whose hosts of virtues, coming down to the earth (to bless his devotees), and excellent glories were sung in appropriate words, spoke as follows to Priyavrata, casting at him a smiling look full of compassion indeed (10).

(1) पिता च पुत्रश्च = पितापुत्रौ – father and son.

(2) पितृ सुँ + पुत्र सुँ । By 2-2-29 चार्थे द्वन्द्वः – Two or more terms having the designation पदम् and standing in a relation expressible by ‘च’ (‘and’) may optionally compound to yield a compound called द्वन्द्वः।

(3) पितृ सुँ + पुत्र सुँ । As per the वार्तिकम् (under 2-2-33 अजाद्यदन्तम्‌) अभ्यर्हितं च, we place ‘पितृ सुँ’ in the prior position in the compound because the father commands greater respect than the son. Even otherwise, as per the वार्तिकम् (under 2-2-33 अजाद्यदन्तम्‌) लघ्वक्षरं पूर्वम्‌ the term ‘पितृ सुँ’ would be placed in the prior position.

Note: ‘पितृ सुँ + पुत्र सुँ’ gets the designation प्रातिपदिकम्‌ by 1-2-46 कृत्तद्धितसमासाश्च। This allows 2-4-71 to apply in the next step.

(4) पितृ + पुत्र । By 2-4-71 सुपो धातुप्रातिपदिकयोः – A सुँप् affix takes a लुक् elision when it is a part of a धातुः or a प्रातिपदिकम्।

(5) पित् आनँङ् + पुत्र । By 6-3-25 आनङ् ऋतो द्वन्द्वे – When the final term of the compound follows, there is a substitution of ‘आनँङ्’ (in place of the penultimate term) in a द्वन्द्व: compound whose terms – i) all end in the letter ‘ऋ’ and ii) denote a relationship either via knowledge/study or birth.
Note: Even though ‘पुत्र’ does not end in the letter ‘ऋ’, the सूत्रम् 6-3-25 applies here because of the अनुवृत्ति: of ‘पुत्रे’ which comes down in to this सूत्रम् 6-3-25 from the सूत्रम् 6-3-22 पुत्रेऽन्यतरस्याम् via मण्डूकप्लुति: (frog-jump) – which means that the अनुवृत्ति: skips the intervening rules 6-3-23 and 6-3-24.

See question 1.

As per 1-1-53 ङिच्च, only the ending letter ‘ऋ’ of ‘पितृ’ is substituted with ‘आनँङ्’।

(6) पितान् + पुत्र । अनुबन्ध-लोपः by 1-3-2 उपदेशेऽजनुनासिक इत्, 1-3-3 हलन्त्यम् and 1-3-9 तस्य लोपः
Note: Here ‘पितान्’ has the designation पदम् by 1-4-14 सुप्तिङन्तं पदम् with the help of 1-1-62 प्रत्ययलोपे प्रत्ययलक्षणम्। This allows 8-2-7 नलोपः प्रातिपदिकान्तस्य to apply in the next step.

(7) पितापुत्र । By 8-2-7 नलोपः प्रातिपदिकान्तस्य

As per the सूत्रम् 2-4-26 परवल्लिङ्गं द्वन्द्वतत्पुरुषयोः, the compound प्रातिपदिकम् ‘पितापुत्र’ is masculine since the final member ‘पुत्र’ of the compound is masculine. This द्वन्द्वः compound (which expresses इतरेतरयोगः) is dual in number because it has two members.

The विवक्षा is तृतीया।

(8) पितापुत्र + भ्याम् । By 4-1-2 स्वौजसमौट्छष्टाभ्याम्भिस्ङेभ्याम्भ्यस्ङसिँभ्याम्भ्यस्ङसोसाम्ङ्योस्सुप्। Note: 1-3-4 न विभक्तौ तुस्माः prevents the ending letter ‘म्’ of the affix ‘भ्याम्’ from getting इत्-सञ्ज्ञा।

(9) पितापुत्रा + भ्याम् । By 7-3-102 सुपि च – The ending letter ‘अ’ of a प्रातिपदिकम् is elongated if it is followed by a सुँप् affix beginning with a letter of the यञ्-प्रत्याहार:।

= पितापुत्राभ्याम् ।

Questions:

1. Commenting on the example पितापुत्रौ the तत्त्वबोधिनी says – अनयोरपि योनिकृतः सम्बन्धो जन्यजनकभावलक्षणः। Please explain.

2. What type of compound is अवहिताञ्जलि: as used in the verses?
i. द्वन्द्व:
ii. कर्मधारय:
iii. बहुव्रीहि:
iv. तृतीया-तत्पुरुष:

3. Which सूत्रम् justifies the use of a third case affix in the form अर्हणेन used in the verses?

4. What is the विग्रह: of the compound तदुपनीतार्हणः used in the verses?

5. Where has the सूत्रम् 7-2-82 आने मुक् been used in the verses?

6. How would you say this in Sanskrit?
“Only a father and (his) son live in this house.” Use the adjective प्रातिपदिकम् ‘केवल’ for ‘only.’

Easy questions:

1. Where has the सूत्रम् 7-3-110 ऋतो ङिसर्वनामस्थानयोः been used in the verses?

2. From which verbal root is the form तुष्टाव (used in the commentary) derived?

Apr 212016
 

Today we will look at the form मातापितरौ  mAd from श्रीमद्भागवतम् 5.8.9.

अहो बतायं हरिणकुणकः कृपण ईश्वररथचरणपरिभ्रमणरयेण स्वगणसुहृद्बन्धुभ्यः परिवर्जितः शरणं च मोपसादितो मामेव मातापितरौ भ्रातृज्ञातीन्यौथिकांश्चैवोपेयाय नान्यं कञ्चन वेद मय्यतिविस्रब्धश्चात एव मया मत्परायणस्य पोषणपालनप्रीणनलालनमनसूयुनानुष्ठेयं शरण्योपेक्षादोषविदुषा ।। ५-८-९ ।।
नूनं ह्यार्याः साधव उपशमशीलाः कृपणसुहृद एवंविधार्थे स्वार्थानपि गुरुतरानुपेक्षन्ते ।। ५-८-१० ।।

श्रीधर-स्वामि-टीका
आसक्तिं प्रपञ्चयति – अहो इत्यादिना इति कृपानुषङ्ग इत्येतत्पर्यन्तेन । ईश्वररथचरणः कालचक्रं तस्य परिभ्रमणवेगेन स्वगणादिभ्यो विभ्रंशितः मा इति मां च शरणं प्रापितः मामेव मातापित्रादिबुद्ध्योपेयाय प्राप्तः । यौथिकान्यूथसंघातिनः । अनसूयुना एतन्निमित्तं मम स्वार्थो भ्रश्यतीति दोषदृष्टिमकुर्वता ।। ९ ।। तदेवाह – नूनं हीति ।। १० ।।

Gita Press translation – “Oh, torn from its class as well as from its near and dear ones and alas! brought under my protection by the fast rotating wheel of Time, this helpless young deer has accepted me alone for its parents, kith and kin and mates, knowing no one else, and has great confidence in me. Hence it behooves me (too) to nourish, protect (from enemies), gratify and fondle in an unavailing spirit this fawn exclusively depending on me, knowing as I do that it is sinful to forsake him who seeks my protection (9). Surely worthy and pious souls who are given to self-control and are friends of the poor ignore their own big interests for the sake of such (wretched) creatures (10).”

(1) माता च पिता च = मातापितरौ – parents (mother and father).

(2) मातृ सुँ + पितृ सुँ । By 2-2-29 चार्थे द्वन्द्वः – Two or more terms having the designation पदम् and standing in a relation expressible by ‘च’ (‘and’) may optionally compound to yield a compound called द्वन्द्वः।

(3) मातृ सुँ + पितृ सुँ । As per the वार्तिकम् (under 2-2-33 अजाद्यदन्तम्‌) अभ्यर्हितं च, we place ‘मातृ सुँ’ in the prior position in the compound because the mother commands greater respect than the father. Otherwise, as per the वार्तिकम् (under 2-2-33 अजाद्यदन्तम्‌) लघ्वक्षरं पूर्वम्‌ the term ‘पितृ सुँ’ would have been placed in the prior position.

Note: ‘मातृ सुँ + पितृ सुँ’ gets the designation प्रातिपदिकम्‌ by 1-2-46 कृत्तद्धितसमासाश्च। This allows 2-4-71 to apply in the next step.

(4) मातृ + पितृ । By 2-4-71 सुपो धातुप्रातिपदिकयोः – A सुँप् affix takes a लुक् elision when it is a part of a धातुः or a प्रातिपदिकम्।

(5) मात् आनँङ् + पितृ । By 6-3-25 आनङ् ऋतो द्वन्द्वे – When the final term of the compound follows, there is a substitution of ‘आनँङ्’ (in place of the penultimate term) in a द्वन्द्व: compound whose terms – i) all end in the letter ‘ऋ’ and ii) denote a relationship either via knowledge/study or birth. (Since the parents are jointly involved in the birth of their offspring, they do have a relationship via birth.)
As per 1-1-53 ङिच्च, only the ending letter ‘ऋ’ of ‘मातृ’ is substituted with ‘आनँङ्’।

(6) मातान् + पितृ । अनुबन्ध-लोपः by 1-3-2 उपदेशेऽजनुनासिक इत्, 1-3-3 हलन्त्यम् and 1-3-9 तस्य लोपः
Note: Here ‘मातान्’ has the designation पदम् by 1-4-14 सुप्तिङन्तं पदम् with the help of 1-1-62 प्रत्ययलोपे प्रत्ययलक्षणम्। This allows 8-2-7 नलोपः प्रातिपदिकान्तस्य to apply in the next step.

(7) मातापितृ । By 8-2-7 नलोपः प्रातिपदिकान्तस्य

As per the सूत्रम् 2-4-26 परवल्लिङ्गं द्वन्द्वतत्पुरुषयोः, the compound प्रातिपदिकम् ‘मातापितृ’ is masculine since the final member ‘पितृ’ of the compound is masculine. This द्वन्द्वः compound (which expresses इतरेतरयोगः) is dual in number because it has two members.

The विवक्षा is द्वितीया-द्विवचनम्।

(8) मातापितृ + औट् । By 4-1-2 स्वौजसमौट्छष्टाभ्याम्भिस्ङेभ्याम्भ्यस्ङसिँभ्याम्भ्यस्ङसोसाम्ङ्योस्सुप्। Note: The affix ‘औट्’ has the सर्वनामस्थान-सञ्ज्ञा here as per 1-1-43 सुडनपुंसकस्य। This allows 7-3-110 to apply below.

(9) मातापितृ + औ । अनुबन्ध-लोपः by 1-3-3 हलन्त्यम् and 1-3-9 तस्य लोपः

(10) मातापितर् + औ । By 7-3-110 ऋतो ङिसर्वनामस्थानयोः – The ending letter ‘ऋ’ of a अङ्गम् gets a गुणः replacement, when followed by the affix ‘ङि’ (सप्तमी-एकवचनम्) or an affix with the designation सर्वनामस्थानम्। By 1-1-51 उरण् रपरः, in the place of ऋवर्ण: if an अण् letter (‘अ’, ‘इ’, ‘उ’) comes as a substitute, it is always followed by a ‘रँ’ (‘र्’, ‘ल्’) letter.

= मातापितरौ ।

Questions:

1. Commenting on the सूत्रम् 6-3-25 आनङ् ऋतो द्वन्द्वे (used in step 5) the तत्त्वबोधिनी says – न चाकारमात्रमेव विधीयतामिति वाच्यम्। ‘उरण् रपरः’ इति रपरप्रसङ्गात्। Please explain.

2. Which compound in the verses is a द्वन्द्व: compound constructed समाहारे?

3. Can you spot the affix यत् in the verses?

4. From which verbal root is the प्रातिपदिकम् ‘आर्य’ (used in the form आर्या: (पुंलिङ्गे प्रथमा-बहुवचनम्) in the verses) derived?

5. Where has the सूत्रम् 6-3-74 तस्मान्नुडचि been used in the verses?

6. How would you say this in Sanskrit?
“My parents have passed away.” Paraphrase to “My parents have gone to heaven.” Use the अव्ययम् ‘स्वर्’ for ‘heaven.’

Easy questions:

1. Where has the verbal root √इ (इण् गतौ २. ४०) been used in the verses?

2. Which सूत्रम् prescribes the elision of the letter ‘न्’ in the form भ्रश्यति used in the commentary?

Apr 182016
 

Today we will look at the form बलाबलम्  nAs from श्रीमद्-वाल्मीकि-रामायणम् 5.34.25.

किं नु स्याच्चित्तमोहोऽयं भवेद्वातगतिस्त्वियम् । उन्मादजो विकारो वा स्यादयं मृगतृष्णिका ।। ५-३४-२३ ।।
अथवा नायमुन्मादो मोहोऽप्युन्मादलक्षणः । सम्बुध्ये चाहमात्मानमिमं चापि वनौकसम् ।। ५-३४-२४ ।।
इत्येवं बहुधा सीता सम्प्रधार्य बलाबलम् । रक्षसां कामरूपत्वान्मेने तं राक्षसाधिपम् ।। ५-३४-२५ ।।
एतां बुद्धिं तदा कृत्वा सीता सा तनुमध्यमा । न प्रतिव्याजहाराथ वानरं जनकात्मजा ।। ५-३४-२६ ।।

Gita Press translation – “Can this (meeting of mine with a monkey) be a delusion of my mind? Or it may be a delusion caused by my being possessed by a ghost (clothed with an aerial body). Or (again) it may be a malady born of insanity or it may be (only) an optic illusion (23). Or this may not be (a case of) insanity, nor even delusion showing symptoms similar to those of insanity, for I am conscious of my own self as well as of this monkey (24).” Having thus duly considered in many ways the strength of ogres and the weakness of monkeys (who cannot be expected to leap across a vast sea), and (also) considering the fact that the ogres are able to change their form at will, Sītā concluded Hanūmān to be Rāvaṇa (the suzerain ruler of ogres) (25). Having arrived at this conclusion at that time that lady of slender waist, Sītā, Janaka’s daughter, did not speak any more to the monkey (26).

(1) बलं चाबलं चानयो: समाहार: = बलाबलम् – a group (in which the individuality of the terms is subservient to the group) of strength and weakness.

(2) बल सुँ + अबल सुँ । By 2-2-29 चार्थे द्वन्द्वः – Two or more terms having the designation पदम् and standing in a relation expressible by ‘च’ (‘and’) may optionally compound to yield a compound called द्वन्द्वः।

(3) बल सुँ + अबल सुँ । As per the सूत्रम् 2-2-33 अजाद्यदन्तम्‌, ‘अबल सुँ’ should be placed in the prior position in the compound because ‘अबल’ begins with a vowel and ends in the letter ‘अ’ while ‘बल’ does not. But since ‘बल’ has only two syllables while ‘अबल’ has three syllables, ‘बल सुँ’ should be placed in the prior position in the compound as per the सूत्रम् 2-2-34 अल्पाच्तरम्‌ – In a द्वन्द्व: compound the term having the least number of syllables (vowels) is placed in the prior position.
Note: 2-2-34 अल्पाच्तरम्‌ being a later rule in the अष्टाध्यायी has greater force than the prior rule 2-2-33 अजाद्यदन्तम्‌। Therefore ‘बल सुँ’ is placed in the prior position in this compound.

Note: ‘बल सुँ + अबल सुँ’ gets the designation प्रातिपदिकम्‌ by 1-2-46 कृत्तद्धितसमासाश्च। This allows 2-4-71 to apply in the next step.

(4) बल + अबल । By 2-4-71 सुपो धातुप्रातिपदिकयोः – A सुँप् affix takes a लुक् elision when it is a part of a धातुः or a प्रातिपदिकम्।

(5) बलाबल । By 6-1-101 अकः सवर्णे दीर्घः

Since the terms of this द्वन्द्व: compound have opposite meanings and do not denote physical objects, it is optionally singular in number and hence expresses either a समाहार: (a group in which the individuality of the terms is subservient to the group) or इतरेतरयोग: (a group in which the individuality of the terms is evident) as per the सूत्रम् 2-4-13 विप्रतिषिद्धं चानधिकरणवाचि – A द्वन्द्व: compound whose terms have opposite meanings and do not denote physical objects is optionally singular in number and hence expresses either a समाहार: (a group in which the individuality of the terms is subservient to the group) or इतरेतरयोग: (a group in which the individuality of the terms is evident.).

In the present example, the compound is singular in number and hence expresses a समाहार:।

See questions 1 and 2.

And as per 2-4-17 स नपुंसकम्‌ it is neuter in gender. The compound declines like वन-शब्द:।

The विवक्षा is द्वितीया-एकवचनम्।

(6) बलाबल + अम् । By 4-1-2 स्वौजसमौट्छष्टाभ्याम्भिस्ङेभ्याम्भ्यस्ङसिभ्याम्भ्यस्ङसोसाम्ङ्योस्सुप्‌।

(7) बलाबल + अम् । By 7-1-24 अतोऽम् – The affixes ‘सुँ’ and ‘अम्’ that follow a neuter अङ्गम् ending in the short vowel ‘अ’ take ‘अम्’ as their replacement. Note: 7-1-24 is required here to prevent 7-1-23 स्वमोर्नपुंसकात्‌ from applying.
1-3-4 न विभक्तौ तुस्माः prevents the ending letter ‘म्’ of the affix ‘अम्’ from getting इत्-सञ्ज्ञा।

(8) बलाबलम् । By 6-1-107 अमि पूर्वः – In place of a preceding अक् letter and the following vowel (अच्) belonging to the affix ‘अम्’ there is a single substitute of that preceding अक् letter.

Questions:

1. What would be the final form in this example if the compound were to express इतरेतरयोग:?

2. Commenting on the सूत्रम् 2-4-13 विप्रतिषिद्धं चानधिकरणवाचि (used in step 5) the सिद्धान्तकौमुदी says – वैकल्पिक: समाहारद्वन्द्व: ‘चार्थे द्वन्द्वः’ इति सूत्रेण प्राप्त: स विरुद्धार्थानां यदि भवति तर्हि अद्रव्यवाचिनामेवेति नियमार्थमिदम्। तेन द्रव्यवाचिनामितरेतरयोग एव। शीतोष्णे उदके स्त:। Please explain.

3. Commenting further on the same सूत्रम् the सिद्धान्तकौमुदी says – विप्रतिषिद्धं किम्? नन्दकपाञ्चजन्यौ। इह पाक्षिक: समाहारद्वन्द्वो भवत्येव। Please explain.

4. What is the विग्रह: of the compound तनुमध्यमा as used in the verses?

5. Which सूत्रम् justifies the use of a fifth case affix in the form कामरूपत्वात् used in the verses?

6. How would you say this in Sanskrit?
“One should engage in war only after having duly considered the strength and weakness of the enemy.”

Easy questions:

1. Which सूत्रम् prescribes the elision of the letter ‘अ’ in the form स्यात्?

2. Where has the सूत्रम् 6-4-120 अत एकहल्मध्येऽनादेशादेर्लिटि been used in the verses?

Apr 142016
 

Today we will look at the form सुरासुराः  mNp from श्रीमद्भागवतम् 8.7.9.

तमुत्थितं वीक्ष्य कुलाचलं पुनः समुद्यता निर्मथितुं सुरासुराः । दधार पृष्ठेन स लक्षयोजनप्रस्तारिणा द्वीप इवापरो महान् ।। ८-७-९ ।।
सुरासुरेन्द्रैर्भुजवीर्यवेपितं परिभ्रमन्तं गिरिमङ्ग पृष्ठतः । बिभ्रत्तदावर्तनमादिकच्छपो मेनेऽङ्गकण्डूयनमप्रमेयः ।। ८-७-१० ।।

श्रीधर-स्वामि-टीका
लक्षयोजनः प्रस्तारो विस्तारोऽस्यास्तीति तथा तेन पृष्ठेन ।। ९ ।। यस्य गिरेरावर्तनं भ्रमणमङ्गकण्डूयनं मेने ।। १० ।।

Gita Press translation – On seeing the great mountain rising, the gods and demons girded their loins once more to proceed with the churning. Like another great division of the globe, the Lord (in the form of a tortoise) bore the mountain on His back, which was one lakh Yojanas or 8,00,0000 miles in extent (9). Supporting on His back, O dear Parīkṣit, the mountain shaken by the might of arms of the principal gods and demons and (consequently) set revolving, the infinite Lord, manifested as the First Tortoise regarded its revolution as the (mere) scratching of His back (10).

(1) सुराश्चासुराश्च = सुरासुराः – the gods and demons.

As per the सूत्रम् 2-4-9 येषां च विरोधः शाश्वतिकः – A द्वन्द्व: compound whose terms denote those among whom there is permanent enmity is always singular in number and hence always expresses a समाहार: (a group in which the individuality of the terms is subservient to the group) and not इतरेतरयोग: (a group in which the individuality of the terms is evident.)
But, the compound सुरासुरा: (which expresses इतरेतरयोग:) is allowed because the enmity between the सुरा: (gods) and असुरा: (demons) is not permanent. (They cooperated during the churning of the ocean.)

(2) सुर जस् + असुर जस् । As per the सूत्रम् 2-2-29 चार्थे द्वन्द्वः – Two or more terms having the designation पदम् and standing in a relation expressible by ‘च’ (‘and’) may optionally compound to yield a compound called द्वन्द्वः।

(3) सुर जस् + असुर जस् । As per the सूत्रम् 2-2-33 अजाद्यदन्तम्‌, ‘असुर जस्’ should be placed in the prior position in the compound because ‘असुर’ begins with a vowel and ends in the letter ‘अ’ while ‘सुर’ does not. But since ‘सुर’ has only two syllables while ‘असुर’ has three syllables, ‘सुर जस्’ should be placed in the prior position in the compound as per the सूत्रम् 2-2-34 अल्पाच्तरम्‌ – In a द्वन्द्व: compound the term having the least number of syllables (vowels) is placed in the prior position.
Note: 2-2-34 अल्पाच्तरम्‌ being a later rule in the अष्टाध्यायी has greater force than the prior rule 2-2-33 अजाद्यदन्तम्‌। Therefore ‘सुर जस्’ is placed in the prior position in this compound.

Note: ‘सुर जस् + असुर जस्’ gets the designation प्रातिपदिकम्‌ by 1-2-46 कृत्तद्धितसमासाश्च। This allows 2-4-71 to apply in the next step.

(4) सुर + असुर । By 2-4-71 सुपो धातुप्रातिपदिकयोः – A सुँप् affix takes a लुक् elision when it is a part of a धातुः or a प्रातिपदिकम्।

(5) सुरासुर । By 6-1-101 अकः सवर्णे दीर्घः

As per the सूत्रम् 2-4-26 परवल्लिङ्गं द्वन्द्वतत्पुरुषयोः, the compound प्रातिपदिकम् ‘सुरासुर’ is masculine since the final member ‘असुर’ of the compound is in the masculine.

The विवक्षा is प्रथमा-बहुवचनम् ।

(6) सुरासुर + जस् । By 4-1-2 स्वौजसमौट्छष्टाभ्याम्भिस्ङेभ्याम्भ्यस्ङसिँभ्याम्भ्यस्ङसोसाम्ङ्योस्सुप्

(7) सुरासुर + अस् । अनुबन्ध-लोपः by 1-3-7 चुटू and 1-3-9 तस्य लोपः। 1-3-4 न विभक्तौ तुस्माः prevents the ending letter ‘स्’ of ‘जस्’ from getting इत्-सञ्ज्ञा।

(8) सुरासुरास् । By 6-1-102 प्रथमयोः पूर्वसवर्णः

(9) सुरासुराः । रुँत्व-विसर्गौ by 8-2-66 ससजुषो रुः and 8-3-15 खरवसानयोर्विसर्जनीयः

Questions:

1. Commenting on the सूत्रम् 2-4-9 येषां च विरोधः शाश्वतिकः (referenced in step 1) the सिद्धान्तकौमुदी says – गोव्याघ्रम्। काकोलूकमित्यादौ परत्वात् ‘वृक्षमृगतृणधान्यव्यञ्जनपशुशकुन्यश्ववडवपूर्वापराधरोत्तराणाम्‌ ‘ इति प्राप्तं चाकारेण बाध्यते। Please explain.

2. Where has the सूत्रम् 2-1-32 कर्तृकरणे कृता बहुलम्‌ been used in the verses?

3. From which verbal root is the प्रातिपदिकम् ‘प्रमेय’ (used as part of the नञ्-तत्पुरुष: compound अप्रमेयः in the verses) derived?

4. Which सूत्रम् prescribes the substitution ‘इ’ in the form उत्थितम् used in the verses?

5. Which कृत् affix is used to construct the neuter प्रातिपदिकम् ‘आवर्तन’ (used in the form आवर्तनम् (प्रथमा-एकवचनम्) in the verses)?

6. How would you say this in Sanskrit?
“Requested by the gods and demons, (Lord) Śiva drank the frightful poison produced from the churning of the ocean.” Use the verbal root √अर्थ (अर्थ उपयाच्ञायाम् १०. ४४७) preceded by the उपसर्ग: ‘प्र’ for ‘to request.’ Use the adjective ‘घोर’ for ‘frightful.’ Use the verbal root √जन् (जनीँ प्रादुर्भावे ४. ४४) for ‘to be produced.’

Easy questions:

1. What prevents the augment नुँम् (prescribed by the सूत्रम् 7-1-70 उगिदचां सर्वनामस्थानेऽधातोः) from applying in the form बिभ्रत् (प्रातिपदिकम् ‘बिभ्रत्’, पुंलिङ्गे प्रथमा-एकवचनम्) used in the verses?

2. Where has the सूत्रम् 6-4-120 अत एकहल्मध्येऽनादेशादेर्लिटि been used in the verses?

Apr 112016
 

Today we will look at the form घृतपायससंयावम्  nNs from श्रीमद्भागवतम् 9.21.4.

वियद्वित्तस्य ददतो लब्धं लब्धं बुभुक्षतः । निष्किञ्चनस्य धीरस्य सकुटुम्बस्य सीदतः ।। ९-२१-३ ।।
व्यतीयुरष्टचत्वारिंशदहान्यपिबतः किल । घृतपायससंयावं तोयं प्रातरुपस्थितम् ।। ९-२१-४ ।।
कृच्छ्रप्राप्तकुटुम्बस्य क्षुत्तृड्भ्यां जातवेपथोः । अतिथिर्ब्राह्मणः काले भोक्तुकामस्य चागमत् ।। ९-२१-५ ।।

श्रीधर-स्वामि-टीका
वियद्वित्तस्य वियतो गगनादिवोद्यमं विना दैवादुपस्थितमेव वित्तं भोग्यं यस्य । यद्वा वियद्व्ययं प्राप्नुवद्वित्तं भोग्यं यस्य । तदेवाह – बुभुक्षतोऽपि सतो लब्धं लब्धं ददतः । तत्प्रपञ्चयति – निष्किंचनस्येत्यादिसार्धैः पञ्चदशभिः ।। ३ ।। अपिबतो जलपानमप्यकुर्वतः । घृतादित्रयाणां द्वन्द्वैक्यम् । तोयं च ।। ४ ।। ५ ।।

Gita Press translation – In the case of Rantideva, who subsisted on whatever was obtained without any effort and who, though feeling hungry (himself), gave away all that was got, and was thus rendered (utterly) destitute (having no provision even for the evening much less for the next day), and therefore suffering terrible hardship, along with his family – who were reduced to (great) straits – (nay), trembling due to (excessive) hunger and thirst, yet calm, passed (not less than) forty-eight days – so the tradition goes – without his taking (even) water. In the morning (of the forty-ninth day) there came to him (by chance) ghee, rice cooked in milk with sugar, Saṁyāva (a kind of porridge made of wheat flour with ghee and milk), as well as water. And when he was intending to partake of it, there arrived, at that (very) time, a newcomer in the person of a Brāhmaṇa (3-5).

(1) घृतं च पायसं च संयावश्चैषां समाहार: = घृतपायससंयावम् – (A collection of) ghee, rice cooked in milk with sugar and Saṁyāva (a kind of porridge made of wheat flour with ghee and milk.)

(2) घृत सुँ + पायस सुँ + संयाव सुँ । By 2-2-29 चार्थे द्वन्द्वः – Two or more terms having the designation पदम् and standing in a relation expressible by ‘च’ (‘and’) may optionally compound to yield a compound called द्वन्द्वः।

(3) घृत सुँ + पायस सुँ + संयाव सुँ । ‘घृत’ has only two syllables while ‘पायस’ as well as ‘संयाव’ has three syllables. Therefore ‘घृत सुँ’ is placed in the prior position in the compound as per the सूत्रम् 2-2-34 अल्पाच्तरम्‌ – In a द्वन्द्व: compound the term having the least number of syllables (vowels) is placed in the prior position.

Note: ‘घृत सुँ + पायस सुँ + संयाव सुँ’ gets the designation प्रातिपदिकम्‌ by 1-2-46 कृत्तद्धितसमासाश्च। This allows 2-4-71 to apply in the next step.

(4) घृत + पायस + संयाव । By 2-4-71 सुपो धातुप्रातिपदिकयोः – A सुँप् affix takes a लुक् elision when it is a part of a धातुः or a प्रातिपदिकम्।

= घृतपायससंयाव ।

Since the terms of this द्वन्द्व: compound denote classes (generic names) of things which are not living beings, it is always singular in number and hence always expresses a समाहार: (a group in which the individuality of the terms is subservient to the group) as per the सूत्रम् 2-4-6 जातिरप्राणिनाम्‌ – A द्वन्द्व: compound whose terms denote classes (generic names) of things which are not living beings is always singular in number and hence always expresses a समाहार: (a group in which the individuality of the terms is subservient to the group) and not इतरेतरयोग: (a group in which the individuality of the terms is evident.)

And as per 2-4-17 स नपुंसकम्‌ it is neuter in gender. The compound declines like वन-शब्द:।

The विवक्षा is प्रथमा-एकवचनम्।

(5) घृतपायससंयाव + सुँ । By 4-1-2 स्वौजसमौट्छष्टाभ्याम्भिस्ङेभ्याम्भ्यस्ङसिभ्याम्भ्यस्ङसोसाम्ङ्योस्सुप्‌।

(6) घृतपायससंयाव + अम् । By 7-1-24 अतोऽम् – The affixes ‘सुँ’ and ‘अम्’ that follow a neuter अङ्गम् ending in the short vowel ‘अ’ take ‘अम्’ as their replacement.
1-3-4 न विभक्तौ तुस्माः prevents the ending letter ‘म्’ of the affix ‘अम्’ from getting इत्-सञ्ज्ञा।

(7) घृतपायससंयावम् । By 6-1-107 अमि पूर्वः – In place of a preceding अक् letter and the following vowel (अच्) belonging to the affix ‘अम्’ there is a single substitute of that preceding अक् letter.

Questions:

1. Can you spot two other द्वन्द्व: compounds (besides घृतपायससंयावम्) in the verses?

2. Which type of compound is जातवेपथोः (प्रातिपदिकम् ‘जातवेपथु’, पुंलिङ्गे षष्ठी-एकवचनम्) as used in the verses?
i. द्वन्द्व:
ii. बहुव्रीहि:
iii. कर्मधारय:
iv. षष्ठी-तत्पुरुष:

3. In which word in the verses has the affix सन् been used?

4. Which compound used in the verses is a नञ्-तत्पुरुष: compound?

5. Which वार्तिकम् mandates the placement of the term ‘पञ्च’ in the prior position in the compound पञ्चदशभिः used in the commentary?

6. How would you say this in Sanskrit?
“I like cakes and sweetmeats.” Form a द्वन्द्व: compound for ‘(a group of) cakes and sweetmeats’ = शष्कुल्यश्च मोदकाश्चैषां समाहार:।

Easy questions:

1. From which verbal root is the form व्यतीयु: derived?

2. Where has the सूत्रम् 3-1-55 पुषादिद्युताद्यॢदितः परस्मैपदेषु been used in the verses?

Apr 072016
 

Today we will look at the form पाणिपादम्  nAs from श्रीमद्-वाल्मीकि-रामायणम् 6.48.13.

समग्रयवमच्छिद्रं पाणिपादं च वर्णवत् । मन्दस्मितेत्येव च मां कन्यालाक्षणिका विदुः ।। ६-४८-१३ ।।
अाधिराज्येऽभिषेको मे ब्राह्मणैः पतिना सह । कृतान्तकुशलैरुक्तं तत्सर्वं वितथीकृतम् ।। ६-४८-१४ ।।

Gita Press translation – Those capable of interpreting the bodily marks of maidens declared my hands and feet to be rosy, devoid of space between the fingers and toes and with the mark of a barley corn fully manifest on them and (also) spoke of me as distinguished by a gentle smile (which are all auspicious marks) (13). It was predicted by Brāhmaṇas well-versed in the conclusion of astrology that I should be consecrated along-with my husband on the imperial throne. All that has (however) been falsified (14).

(1) पाणी च पादौ चैषां समाहार: = पाणिपादम् – (A group of) (two) hands and (two) feet.

(2) पाणि औ + पाद औ । By 2-2-29 चार्थे द्वन्द्वः – Two or more terms having the designation पदम् and standing in a relation expressible by ‘च’ (‘and’) may optionally compound to yield a compound called द्वन्द्वः।

(3) पाणि औ + पाद औ । ‘पाणि’ has the designation ‘घि’ (as per the सूत्रम् 1-4-7 शेषो घ्यसखि) while ‘पाद’ does not. Hence ‘पाणि औ’ is placed in the prior position in this द्वन्द्व: compound as per the सूत्रम् 2-2-32 द्वन्द्वे घि – In a द्वन्द्व: compound the term having the designation ‘घि’ is placed in the prior position.

Note: ‘पाणि औ + पाद औ’ gets the designation प्रातिपदिकम्‌ by 1-2-46 कृत्तद्धितसमासाश्च। This allows 2-4-71 to apply in the next step.

(4) पाणि + पाद । By 2-4-71 सुपो धातुप्रातिपदिकयोः – A सुँप् affix takes a लुक् elision when it is a part of a धातुः or a प्रातिपदिकम्।

= पाणिपाद ।

Since the terms of this द्वन्द्व: compound denote the limbs of a living being, it is always singular in number and hence always expresses a समाहार: (a group in which the individuality of the terms is subservient to the group) as per the सूत्रम् 2-4-2 द्वन्द्वश्च प्राणितूर्यसेनाङ्गानाम्‌ – A द्वन्द्व: compound whose terms denote either the limbs of a living being or players of musical instruments in a band or parts of an army is always singular in number and hence always expresses a समाहार: (a group in which the individuality of the terms is subservient to the group) and not इतरेतरयोग: (a group in which the individuality of the terms is evident.)

And as per 2-4-17 स नपुंसकम्‌ it is neuter in gender. The compound declines like वन-शब्द:।

The विवक्षा is द्वितीया-एकवचनम्।

(5) पाणिपाद + अम् । By 4-1-2 स्वौजसमौट्छष्टाभ्याम्भिस्ङेभ्याम्भ्यस्ङसिभ्याम्भ्यस्ङसोसाम्ङ्योस्सुप्‌।

(6) पाणिपाद + अम् । By 7-1-24 अतोऽम् – The affixes ‘सुँ’ and ‘अम्’ that follow a neuter अङ्गम् ending in the short vowel ‘अ’ take ‘अम्’ as their replacement. Note: 7-1-24 is required here to prevent 7-1-23 स्वमोर्नपुंसकात्‌ from applying.
1-3-4 न विभक्तौ तुस्माः prevents the ending letter ‘म्’ of the affix ‘अम्’ from getting इत्-सञ्ज्ञा।

(7) पाणिपादम् । By 6-1-107 अमि पूर्वः – In place of a preceding अक् letter and the following vowel (अच्) belonging to the affix ‘अम्’ there is a single substitute of that preceding अक् letter.

Questions:

1. Commenting on the सूत्रम् 2-4-2 द्वन्द्वश्च प्राणितूर्यसेनाङ्गानाम्‌ (used in step 4) the सिद्धान्तकौमुदी says – समाहारस्यैकत्वादेकत्वे सिद्धे नियमार्थं प्रकरणम्‌। प्राण्यङ्गादीनां समाहार एव यथा स्यात्। Please explain.

2. Commenting on the same सूत्रम् the तत्त्वबोधिनी says – द्विगुरेकवचनमित्यत एकवचनं वर्तते। Please explain.

3. Where has the वार्तिकम् (under 2-2-24 अनेकमन्यपदार्थे) नञोऽस्त्यर्थानां वाच्यो वा चोत्तरपदलोपः been used in the verses?

4. What type of compound is मन्दस्मिता as used in the verses?
i. द्वन्द्व:
ii. कर्मधारय:
iii. बहुव्रीहि:
iv. सुप्सुपा

5. Which सूत्रम् justifies the use of a third case affix in the form पतिना used in the verses?

6. How would you say this in Sanskrit?
“Enter the temple only after washing (your) hands and feet.”

Easy questions:

1. The form पतिना used in the verses is आर्ष: (grammatically irregular.) What is the grammatically correct form?

2. What is the alternate form for विदुः?

Apr 042016
 

Today we will look at the form पञ्चदशभिः  mIp from श्रीमद्भागवतम् 8.11.23.

नमुचिः पञ्चदशभिः स्वर्णपुङ्खैर्महेषुभिः । आहत्य व्यनदत्सङ्ख्ये सतोय इव तोयदः ।। ८-११-२३ ।।
सर्वतः शरकूटेन शक्रं सरथसारथिम् । छादयामासुरसुराः प्रावृट्सूर्यमिवाम्बुदाः ।। ८-११-२४ ।।

श्रीधर-स्वामि-टीका
आहत्येन्द्रं विद्ध्वा ।। २३ ।। प्रावृट्कालीनं सूर्यम् ।। २४ ।।

Gita Press translation – Piercing Indra with fifteen large arrows furnished with hilts of gold, (the demon) Namuci roared on the field of the battle like a cloud charged with water (23). The demons covered Śakra (Indra) including his chariot and charioteer on all sides with a network of arrows (even) as clouds would obscure the sun in the rains (24).

(1) पञ्च च दश च = पञ्चदश – (five + ten =) fifteen.

(2) पञ्चन् जस् + दशन् जस् । By 2-2-29 चार्थे द्वन्द्वः – Two or more terms having the designation पदम् and standing in a relation expressible by ‘च’ (‘and’) may optionally compound to yield a compound called द्वन्द्वः।

(3) पञ्चन् जस् + दशन् जस् । Both the vowels (‘अ’) in ‘दशन्’ have the designation लघु as per the सूत्रम् 1-4-10 ह्रस्वं लघु। While in ‘पञ्चन्’ the first vowel ‘अ’ precedes the conjunct ‘ञ्च्’ and therefore does not have the designation लघु। It has the designation गुरु as per the सूत्रम् 1-4-11 संयोगे गुरु। Hence as per the वार्तिकम् ‘लघ्वक्षरं पूर्वम्‌’, ‘दशन्’ should have been placed in the prior position in this compound. But since ‘पञ्चन्’ denotes a smaller number it is placed in the prior position as per the वार्तिकम् (under 2-2-34 अल्पाच्तरम्‌) सङ्ख्याया अल्पीयस्याः पूर्वनिपातो वक्तव्यः – In a compound the term which denotes a smaller number is placed in the prior position.

Note: ‘पञ्चन् जस् + दशन् जस्’ gets the designation प्रातिपदिकम्‌ by 1-2-46 कृत्तद्धितसमासाश्च। This allows 2-4-71 to apply in the next step.

(4) पञ्चन् + दशन् । By 2-4-71 सुपो धातुप्रातिपदिकयोः – A सुँप् affix takes a लुक् elision when it is a part of a धातुः or a प्रातिपदिकम्। ‘पञ्चन्’ has the पद-सञ्ज्ञा here by 1-4-14 सुप्तिङन्तं पदम् with the help of 1-1-62 प्रत्ययलोपे प्रत्ययलक्षणम्। This allows 8-2-7 to apply in the next step.

(5) पञ्चदशन् । By 8-2-7 नलोपः प्रातिपदिकान्तस्य – The ending letter ‘न्’ of a पदम् is dropped when the पदम् also has the designation प्रातिपदिकम्।

As per the सूत्रम् 2-4-26 परवल्लिङ्गं द्वन्द्वतत्पुरुषयोः, the compound प्रातिपदिकम् ‘पञ्चदशन्’ is an adjective since the latter member ‘दशन्’ of the compound is an adjective. Here it is used in the masculine since it is an adjective to महेषुभिः।

The विवक्षा is तृतीया-बहुवचनम्।

(6) पञ्चदशन् + भिस् । By 4-1-2 स्वौजसमौट्छष्टाभ्याम्भिस्ङेभ्याम्भ्यस्ङसिभ्याम्भ्यस्ङसोसाम्ङ्योस्सुप्‌1-3-4 न विभक्तौ तुस्माः prevents the ending letter ‘स्’ of ‘भिस्’ from getting the इत्-सञ्ज्ञा। The अङ्गम् ‘पञ्चदशन्’ gets the designation पदम् here by 1-4-17 स्वादिष्वसर्वनामस्थाने। This allows 8-2-7 to apply in the next step.

(7) पञ्चदश + भिस् । By 8-2-7 नलोपः प्रातिपदिकान्तस्य – The ending letter ‘न्’ of a पदम् is dropped when the पदम् also has the designation प्रातिपदिकम्।

(8) पञ्चदशभिः । रुँत्व-विसर्गौ by 8-2-66 ससजुषो रुः and 8-3-15 खरवसानयोर्विसर्जनीयः।

Questions:

1. Which सूत्रम् prescribes the substitution ‘स’ in the compound सतोय:?

2. Which compound used in the verses is a नञ्-तत्पुरुष: compound?

3. Is there an alternate form for आहत्य? (Consider the सूत्रम् 6-4-38 वा ल्यपि।)

4. Can you spot the affix ‘क’ in the verses?

5. From which verbal root is the form विद्ध्वा (used in the commentary) derived?

6. How would you say this in Sanskrit?
“There are fifteen days in a fortnight.” Use the masculine noun ‘पक्ष’ for ‘fortnight.’

Easy questions:

1. Can you spot the augment ‘अट्’ in the verses?

2. Which सूत्रम् prescribes the substitution ‘उस्’ in the form छादयामासु:?

Mar 312016
 

Today we will look at the form युधिष्ठिरकिरीटिनोः mGd from महाभारतम् 1.2.273.

अतः परं कर्णपर्व प्रोच्यते परमाद्भुतम् । सारथ्ये विनियोगश्च मद्रराजस्य धीमतः ।। १-२-२६९ ।।
आख्यातं यत्र पौराणं त्रिपुरस्य निपातनम् । प्रयाणे परुषश्चात्र संवादः कर्णशल्ययोः ।। १-२-२७० ।।
हंसकाकीयमाख्यानं तत्रैवाक्षेपसंहितम् । वधः पाण्ड्यस्य च तथा अश्वत्थाम्ना महात्मना ।। १-२-२७१ ।।
दण्डसेनस्य च ततो दण्डस्य च वधस्तथा । द्वैरथे यत्र कर्णेन धर्मराजो युधिष्ठिरः ।। १-२-२७२ ।।
संशयं गमितो युद्धे मिषतां सर्वधन्विनाम् । अन्योन्यं प्रति च क्रोधो युधिष्ठिरकिरीटिनोः ।। १-२-२७३ ।।

Gita Press translation – After this is outlined the most wonderful Parva named after Karṇa. In it is described the appointment of the wise Śalya (king of the Madra) as the charioteer (of Karṇa) (269). Then is narrated the well-known legend of the destruction of Tripura as well as the interchange of strong words between Karṇa and Śalya on their setting out for battle (270). Then is told the story of the swan and the crow as an insulting allusion (to Karṇa) followed by an account of the death of Pāṇḍya at the hands of the high-souled Aśwathāma as well as the death of Danḍasena and then of Danḍa. In this same Parva (named after Karṇa) is the narration of a duel between Karṇa and Yudhiṣṭhira – witnessed by all the archers – in which the the former put the life of the latter in danger. Then comes the (display of) anger of Yudhiṣṭhira and Arjuna towards each other. (271-273)

(1) युधिष्ठिरश्च किरीटी च = युधिष्ठिरकिरीटिनौ – Yudhiṣṭhira and Arjuna.

(2) युधिष्ठिर सुँ + किरीटिन् सुँ । By 2-2-29 चार्थे द्वन्द्वः – Two or more terms having the designation पदम् and standing in a relation expressible by ‘च’ (‘and’) may optionally compound to yield a compound called द्वन्द्वः।

(3) युधिष्ठिर सुँ + किरीटिन् सुँ । As per the सूत्रम् 2-2-34 अल्पाच्तरम्‌, ‘किरीटिन्’ should have been placed in the prior position in this compound because ‘युधिष्ठिर’ has four syllables while ‘किरीटिन्’ has only three. But since ‘युधिष्ठिर’ is the name of the elder brother while ‘किरीटिन्’ refers to the younger brother (Arjuna), ‘युधिष्ठिर सुँ’ is placed in the prior position as per the वार्तिकम् (under 2-2-34 अल्पाच्तरम्‌) भ्रातुर्ज्यायस: – In a द्वन्द्व: compound the name of an elder brother is placed in the prior position.

Note: ‘युधिष्ठिर सुँ + किरीटिन् सुँ’ gets the designation प्रातिपदिकम्‌ by 1-2-46 कृत्तद्धितसमासाश्च। This allows 2-4-71 to apply in the next step.

(4) युधिष्ठिर + किरीटिन् । By 2-4-71 सुपो धातुप्रातिपदिकयोः – A सुँप् affix takes a लुक् elision when it is a part of a धातुः or a प्रातिपदिकम्।

= युधिष्ठिरकिरीटिन् ।

The विवक्षा is षष्ठी-द्विवचनम् ।

(5) युधिष्ठिरकिरीटिन् + ओस् । By 4-1-2 स्वौजसमौट्छष्टाभ्याम्भिस्ङेभ्याम्भ्यस्ङसिभ्याम्भ्यस्ङसोसाम्ङ्योस्सुप्‌1-3-4 न विभक्तौ तुस्माः prevents the ending letter ‘स्’ of ‘ओस्’ from getting the इत्-सञ्ज्ञा।

(6) युधिष्ठिरकिरीटिनोः । रुँत्व-विसर्गौ 8-2-66 ससजुषो रुः and 8-3-15 खरवसानयोर्विसर्जनीयः

Questions:

1. In which compound in the verses has the affix टच् been used?

2. Can you spot a term which is used as a कर्मप्रवचनीय: in the verses?

3. Which सूत्रम् justifies the formation of the compound सर्वधन्विनाम् (षष्ठी-बहुवचनम्) used in the verses?

4. From which verbal root is the form वधः derived?

5. In which word in the verses has the गण-सूत्रम् (in the धातुपाठ:, below the गण-सूत्रम् ‘घटादयो मित:’) – जनीजॄष्क्नसुरञ्जोऽमन्ताश्च been used?

6. How would you say this in Sanskrit?
“Both Yudhiṣṭhira and Arjuna were devotees of Śrī Kṛṣṇa.”

Easy questions:

1. Which सूत्रम् prescribes the सम्प्रसारणम् in the form उच्यते?

2. Where has the सूत्रम् 6-4-134 अल्लोपोऽनः been used in the verses?

Mar 282016
 

Today we will look at the form केशवार्जुनयोः  mGd from श्रीमद्भागवद्गीता 18.76

इत्यहं वासुदेवस्य पार्थस्य च महात्मनः । संवादमिममश्रौषमद्भुतं रोमहर्षणम्‌ ।। १८-७४ ।।
व्यासप्रसादाच्छ्रुतवानेतद्गुह्यमहं परम्‌ । योगं योगेश्वरात्कृष्णात्साक्षात्कथयतः स्वयम्‌ ।। १८-७५ ।।
राजन्संस्मृत्य संस्मृत्य संवादमिममद्भुतम्‌ । केशवार्जुनयोः पुण्यं हृष्यामि च मुहुर्मुहुः ।। १८-७६ ।।
तच्च संस्मृत्य संस्मृत्य रूपमत्यद्भुतं हरेः । विस्मयो मे महान्‌ राजन्हृष्यामि च पुनः पुनः ।। १८-७७ ।।
यत्र योगेश्वरः कृष्णो यत्र पार्थो धनुर्धरः । तत्र श्रीर्विजयो भूतिर्ध्रुवा नीतिर्मतिर्मम ।। १८-७८ ।।

श्रीधर-स्वामि-टीका
तदेवं धृतराष्ट्रं प्रति श्रीकृष्णार्जुनसंवादं कथयित्वा प्रस्तुतां कथामनुसंदधानः संजय उवाच – इतीति । रोमहर्षणं रोमाञ्चकरं संवादमश्रौषं श्रुतवानहम् । स्पष्टमन्यत् ।। ७४ ।। आत्मनस्तच्छ्रवणे संभावनामाह – व्यासप्रसादादिति । भगवता व्यासेन दिव्यं चक्षुःश्रोत्रादि मह्यं दत्तम्, अतो व्यासस्य प्रसादादेतदहं श्रुतवानस्मि । किं तदित्यपेक्षायामाह परं योगम् । परत्वमाविष्करोति । योगेश्वराच्छ्रीकृष्णात्स्वयमेसाक्षात्कथयतः श्रुतावानिति ।। ७५ ।। किंच – राजन्निति । हृष्यामि रोमाञ्चितो भवामि हर्षं प्राप्नोमीति वा । स्पष्टमन्यत् ।। ७६ ।। किंच तच्चेति । तदिति विश्वरूपं निर्दिशति । स्पष्टमन्यत् ।। ७७ ।। अतस्त्वं पुत्राणां राज्यादिशङ्कां परित्यजेत्याशयेनाह – यत्रैति । यत्र येषां पाण्डवानां पक्षे योगेश्वरः श्रीकृष्णो वर्तते, यत्रपार्थो गाण्डीवधनुर्धरः तत्रैश्री राज्यलक्ष्मीः तत्रैव च विजयः तत्रैव च भूतिरुत्तरोत्तराभिवृद्धिश्च, तत्रैनीतिर्नयोऽपि ध्रुवा निश्चितेति सर्वत्र संबद्ध्यते । इति मम मतिर्निश्चयः । अत इदानीमपि तावत्सपुत्रस्त्वं श्रीकृष्णं शरणमुपेत्य पाण्डवान्प्रसाद्य सर्वस्वं च तेभ्यो निवेद्य पुत्रप्राणरक्षणं कुर्विति भावः ।। ७८ ।।

Gita Press translation – Sañjaya said: Thus I heard the mysterious and thrilling conversation between Śrī Kṛṣṇa and the high-souled Arjuna, the son of Kuntī (74). Having been blessed with the divine vision by the grace of Śrī Vyāsa, I heard in person this supremely esoteric gospel from the Lord of Yoga, Śrī Kṛṣṇa Himself, imparting it to Arjuna (75). Remembering, over and over, that sacred and mystic conversation between Bhagavān Śrī Kṛṣṇa and Arjuna, O King! I rejoice again and yet again (76). Remembering also, again and again, that most wonderful form of Śrī Kṛṣṇa, great is my wonder and I am thrilled over and over again (77). Wherever there is Bhagavān Śrī Kṛṣṇa, the Lord of Yoga, and wherever there is Arjuna, the wielder of the Gāṇḍīva bow, goodness, victory, glory and unfailing righteousness will surely be there : such is my conviction (78).

(1) केशवश्चार्जुनश्च = केशवार्जुनौ – Śrī Kṛṣṇa and Arjuna.

(2) केशव सुँ + अर्जुन सुँ । By 2-2-29 चार्थे द्वन्द्वः – Two or more terms having the designation पदम् and standing in a relation expressible by ‘च’ (‘and’) may optionally compound to yield a compound called द्वन्द्वः।

(3) केशव सुँ + अर्जुन सुँ । As per the सूत्रम् 2-2-33 अजाद्यदन्तम्‌, ‘अर्जुन’ should be placed in the prior position in the compound because ‘अर्जुन’ begins with a vowel and ends in the letter ‘अ’ while ‘केशव’ does not. But as per the वार्तिकम् (under 2-2-34 अल्पाच्तरम्‌) अभ्यर्हितं च – In a द्वन्द्व: compound the term which denotes that which commands greater respect is placed in the prior position. In the present example, ‘केशव’ is the name of the Lord/teacher while ‘अर्जुन’ is the name of the devotee/student hence clearly ‘केशव सुँ’ denotes that which commands greater respect and is placed in the prior position in the compound.
Note: This वार्तिकम् over-rides all the other rules which prescribe placement in a prior position in a द्वन्द्व: compound.

Note: ‘केशव सुँ + अर्जुन सुँ’ gets the designation प्रातिपदिकम्‌ by 1-2-46 कृत्तद्धितसमासाश्च। This allows 2-4-71 to apply in the next step.

(4) केशव + अर्जुन । By 2-4-71 सुपो धातुप्रातिपदिकयोः – A सुँप् affix takes a लुक् elision when it is a part of a धातुः or a प्रातिपदिकम्।

(5) केशवार्जुन । By 6-1-101 अकः सवर्णे दीर्घः

The विवक्षा is षष्ठी-द्विवचनम् ।

(6) केशवार्जुन + ओस् । By 4-1-2 स्वौजसमौट्छष्टाभ्याम्भिस्ङेभ्याम्भ्यस्ङसिभ्याम्भ्यस्ङसोसाम्ङ्योस्सुप्‌1-3-4 न विभक्तौ तुस्माः prevents the ending letter ‘स्’ of ‘ओस्’ from getting the इत्-सञ्ज्ञा।

(7) केशवार्जुने + ओस् । By 7-3-104 ओसि च, the ending letter ‘अ’ of a प्रातिपदिकम् changes to letter ‘ए’ when followed by the affix ‘ओस्’ ।

(8) केशवार्जुनयोस् । अयादेशः by 6-1-78 एचोऽयवायावः

(9) केशवार्जुनयोः । रुँत्व-विसर्गौ 8-2-66 ससजुषो रुः and 8-3-15 खरवसानयोर्विसर्जनीयः

Questions:

1. What is the विग्रह: of the compound धनुर्धरः used in the verses?

2. Which सूत्रम् prescribes the substitution ‘आ’ in the form महात्मनः (प्रातिपदिकम् ‘महात्मन्’, पुंलिङ्गे षष्ठी-एकवचनम्) used in the verses?

3. Which word in the verses is composed using the वार्तिकम् (under 3-2-178 अन्येभ्योऽपि दृश्यते) क्विब्वचिप्रच्छ्यायतस्तुकटप्रुजुश्रीणां दीर्घोऽसम्प्रसारणं च?

4. Can you spot the affix ‘ट’ in the commentary?

5. What kind of compound is सपुत्र: used in the commentary?
i. द्वन्द्व:
ii. बहुव्रीहि:
iii. अव्ययीभाव:
iv. प्रादि-तत्पुरुष:

6. How would you say this in Sanskrit?
“The sacred conversation between Śrī Kṛṣṇa and Arjuna should be studied by everyone.”

Easy questions:

1. Which सूत्रम् prescribes the वृद्धि: substitution in the form अश्रौषम्?

2. Where has the सूत्रम् 6-4-110 अत उत्‌ सार्वधातुके been used in the commentary?