भैक्षम् nAs

Today we will look at the form भैक्षम् nAs from श्रीमद्वाल्मीकि-रामायणम् 2.43.4

अथास्मिन् नगरे रामश्चरन् भैक्षं गृहे वसेत् । 
कामकारो वरं दातुमपि दासं ममात्मजम् ∥ २-४३-४ ∥

Gita Press translation – Even if Rāma were allowed to remain at his home in Ayodhyā living on alms, it would be preferable (to me in comparison to his exile). (Nay), it would be better even to consign my son to her as a slave (4).

भिक्षाणां समूहः = भैक्षम् – alms (a collection of items got from begging)
In the verses the विवक्षा is द्वितीया-एकवचनम्। Hence the form is भैक्षम्।

(1) भिक्षा आम् + अण् । By 4-2-38 भिक्षादिभ्योऽण् – To denote a collection, the तद्धित: affix ‘अण्’ may be optionally applied following a syntactically related पदम् in which the सन्धिः operations have been performed, provided the पदम् ends in a genitive case affix and has ‘भिक्षा’ etc (listed in the भिक्षादि-गण:) as its base.

Note: First the सूत्रम् 4-2-37 तस्य समूहः prescribes the default affix ‘अण्’। But since ‘भिक्षा’ denotes an inanimate object, the default affix ‘अण्’ is over-ruled by the affix ‘ठक्’ prescribed by the सूत्रम् 4-2-47 अचित्तहस्तिधेनोष्ठक्। Finally the सूत्रम् 4-2-38 भिक्षादिभ्योऽण् re-prescribes the affix ‘अण्’।

Note: The form ‘भैक्ष’ may also be derived स्वार्थे (without a change in meaning) from the प्रातिपदिकम् ‘भिक्षा’ by applying the affix ‘अण्’ as per the सूत्रम् 5-4-38 प्रज्ञादिभ्यश्च। Even though ‘भिक्षा’ is not listed in the प्रज्ञादि-गणः, the सूत्रम् 5-4-38 may still be applied here, since the प्रज्ञादि-गणः is considered to be a आकृति-गणः।

(2) भिक्षा आम् + अ । अनुबन्ध-लोपः by 1-3-3 हलन्त्यम्, 1-3-9 तस्य लोपः ।

Note: ‘भिक्षा आम् + अ’ gets the designation प्रातिपदिकम्‌ by 1-2-46 कृत्तद्धितसमासाश्च। This allows 2-4-71 सुपो धातुप्रातिपदिकयोः to apply in the next step.

(3) भिक्षा + अ । By 2-4-71 सुपो धातुप्रातिपदिकयोः – A सुँप् affix takes a लुक् elision when it is a part of a धातुः or a प्रातिपदिकम्।

Note: The affix ‘अण्’ is a णित् (has the letter ‘ण्’ as इत्). This allows 7-2-117 तद्धितेष्वचामादेः to apply in the next step to perform the वृद्धिः substitution in place of the letter ’इ’, which is the first vowel of the अङ्गम् ‘भिक्षा’।

(4) भैक्षा + अ । By 7-2-117 तद्धितेष्वचामादेः – The first vowel among the vowels of a अङ्गम् which is followed by a तद्धित: affix (ref. 4-1-76 तद्धिताः) which is either a ञित् (has the letter ‘ञ्’ as a इत्) or a णित् (has the letter ‘ण्’ as a इत्) takes the वृद्धि: (ref. 1-1-1 वृद्धिरादैच्) substitute.

Note: The अङ्गम् ‘भैक्षा’ gets the भ-सञ्ज्ञा by 1-4-18 यचि भम् which allows 6-4-148 यस्येति च to apply in the next step.

(5) भैक्ष् + अ । By 6-4-148 यस्येति च – When the letter ‘ई’ or a ‘तद्धित’ affix follows, the (ending) इ-वर्ण: (letter ‘इ’ or ‘ई’) or the (ending) अवर्ण: (letter ‘अ’ or ‘आ’) of the अङ्गम् with the भ-सञ्ज्ञा takes elision (लोपः)।

= भैक्ष । Note: Words ending in तद्धिताः affixes denoting a collection are used in the language in the neuter gender. Hence the प्रातिपदिकम् ‘भैक्ष’ declines like वन-शब्दः।

धैनुकपालने nLs

Today we will look at the form धैनुकपालने nLs from नारायणीयम् 53.5.

समुद्यतो धैनुकपालनेऽहं वधं कथं धैनुकमद्य कुर्वे ।
इतीव मत्वा ध्रुवमग्रजेन सुरौघयोद्धारमजीघतस्त्वम् ∥ ५३-५ ∥

टीका
त्वम् अग्रजेन तं सुरौघयोद्धारम् अजीघतःत्वं श्रीकृष्णः प्रयोजकः । अग्रजेन ज्येष्ठेन बलभद्रेण प्रयोजनेन । तम् आपतन्तम् । सुरौघयोद्धारं धेनुकाख्यमसुरम् । अत्र सुरौघयोद्धारमित्युक्त्या देवानामपि दुर्जयत्वं तस्य ध्वन्यते । अजीघतः घातितवानसि । बलभद्रेण धेनुकासुरघातने हेतुमुत्प्रेक्षते – इति मत्वा इति । इति एवम् । मत्वा निश्चित्य । इवेति संभावनायाम् । मननप्रकारमाह – अहम् अद्य धैनुकं वधं कथं कुर्वे ध्रुवमिति । अद्य अधुना । धैनुकं धेनुकासुरसम्बन्धिनम् । वधं निग्रहम् । कथं कुर्वे न करोमीत्यर्थः । ध्रुवं निश्चितम् । ननु का क्षतिः धेनुकवधे इत्याशङ्कायामाह – धैनुकपालने समुद्यत इति । धैनुकपालने धैनुकस्य धेनुसमूहस्य पालने रक्षणे । समुद्यतः सम्यगुद्यतः उद्युक्तः । धैनुकपालनोद्युक्तस्य सतो धैनुकवधस्यायुक्तत्वादिति भावः । अत्र धेनुसमूहधेनुकासुरसम्बधिनोः श्लेषभित्तिकाभेदाध्यवसायः ।

Translation – “How can I can perform the killing of Dhenuka now, engaged as I am in the protection of the herd of cows.” As though having thought thus, you certainly had that demon Dhenuka, who battled with hordes of Gods, killed by your elder brother.

Note: There is a pun on the word ‘धैनुक’, which means ‘a herd of cows’, as well as ‘of Dhenuka (the demon)’.

The प्रातिपदिकम् ‘धैनुक’ used in the form धैनुकपालने is derived as follows –
धेनूनां समूहः = धैनुकम् – a herd of cows

(1) धेनु आम् + ठक् । By 4-2-47 अचित्तहस्तिधेनोष्ठक् – To denote a collection, the तद्धित: affix ‘ठक्’ may be optionally applied following a syntactically related पदम् in which the सन्धिः operations have been performed, provided the पदम् ends in a genitive case affix and has as its base a term denoting an inanimate object, or the term ‘हस्तिन्’ or धेनु

(2) धेनु आम् + ठ् । अनुबन्ध-लोपः by 1-3-3 हलन्त्यम्, 1-3-9 तस्य लोपः। The letter ‘अ’ in the affix ‘ठक्’ is is only for the sake of pronunciation (उच्चारणार्थ:)।
Note: The fact that 7-3-50 ठस्येकः and 7-3-51 इसुसुक्तान्तात्कः (used in step 4) specifically prescribe the substitutions ‘इक’ and ‘क’ respectively in place of the letter ‘ठ्’ occurring in the beginning of an affix, obviously implies that this letter ‘ठ्’ does not get the इत्-सञ्ज्ञा by 1-3-7 चुटू‌। Because, otherwise the letter ‘ठ्’ would be elided by 1-3-9 तस्य लोपः।

Note: ‘धेनु आम् + ठ्’ gets the designation प्रातिपदिकम्‌ by 1-2-46 कृत्तद्धितसमासाश्च। This allows 2-4-71 सुपो धातुप्रातिपदिकयोः to apply in the next step.

(3) धेनु + ठ् । By 2-4-71 सुपो धातुप्रातिपदिकयोः – A सुँप् affix takes a लुक् elision when it is a part of a धातुः or a प्रातिपदिकम्।

(4) धेनु + क । By 7-3-51 इसुसुक्तान्तात्कः – ‘क’ is substituted in place of the letter ‘ठ्’, when it follows a अङ्गम् ending in ‘इस्’ or ‘उस्’ or a letter of the उक्-प्रत्याहारः or the letter ‘त्’।

Note: The affix ‘ठक्’ is a कित् (has the letter ‘क्’ as इत्)। This allows 7-2-118 किति च to apply in the next step.

(5) धैनु + क । By 7-2-118 किति च – The first vowel among the vowels of a अङ्गम् which is followed by a तद्धित: affix (ref. 4-1-76 तद्धिताः) which is a कित् (has the letter ‘क्’ as a इत्) takes the वृद्धि: (ref. 1-1-1 वृद्धिरादैच्) substitute.

= धैनुक । Note: Words ending in तद्धिताः affixes denoting a collection are used in the language in the neuter gender. Hence the प्रातिपदिकम् ‘धैनुक’ declines like वन-शब्दः।

Note: ‘धैनुकपालन’ is a षष्ठी-तत्पुरुष-समासः explained as –
धैनुकस्य पालनम् = धैनुकपालनम् – protection of a herd of cows.

अलौकिक-विग्रह: –
(6) धैनुक ङस् + पालन सुँ । By 2-2-8 षष्ठी – A पदम् ending in a sixth case affix optionally compounds with a (syntactically related) पदम् ending in a सुँप् affix and the resulting compound gets the designation तत्पुरुष:।

By 1-2-43 प्रथमानिर्दिष्टं समास उपसर्जनम् – the term ‘धैनुक ङस्’ gets the designation उपसर्जनम् because in the सूत्रम् 2-2-8 (which prescribes the compounding) the term षष्ठी ends in the nominative case. Hence ‘धैनुक ङस्’ is placed in the prior position in the compound as per the सूत्रम् 2-2-30 उपसर्जनं पूर्वम्‌ – In a compound a term which has the designation ‘उपसर्जन’ should be placed in the prior position.

Note: ‘धैनुक ङस् + पालन सुँ’ gets the designation प्रातिपदिकम्‌ by 1-2-46 कृत्तद्धितसमासाश्च। This allows 2-4-71 सुपो धातुप्रातिपदिकयोः to apply in the next step.

(7) धैनुक + पालन । By 2-4-71 सुपो धातुप्रातिपदिकयोः – A सुँप् affix takes a लुक् elision when it is a part of a धातुः or a प्रातिपदिकम्।

= धैनुकपालन ।

As per the सूत्रम् 2-4-26 परवल्लिङ्गं द्वन्द्वतत्पुरुषयोः, the compound प्रातिपदिकम् ‘धैनुकपालन’ is neuter since the latter member ‘पालन’ of the compound is neuter. The compound declines like वन-शब्द:। सप्तमी-एकवचनम् is धैनुकपालने।

हास्तिकानि

Today we will look at the form हास्तिकानि nNp from शिशुपालवधम् 5.30.

आलोलपुष्करमुखोल्लसितैरभीक्ष्णमुक्षाम्बभूवुरभितो वपुरम्बुवर्षैः ।
खेदायतश्वसितवेगनिरस्तमुग्धमूर्धन्यरत्ननिकरैरिव हास्तिकानि ∥ ५-३० ∥

मल्लिनाथ-टीका
आलोलेति । हस्तिनां समूहा हास्तिकानि । ‘अचित्तहस्तिधेनोष्ठक्’ । आलोलानि यानि पुष्कराणि हस्ताग्राणि । ‘पुष्करं करिहस्ताग्रे’ इत्यमरः । तेषां मुखै रन्ध्रैरुल्लसितान्युत्क्षिप्तानि तैरम्बुवर्षैः खेदेनाध्वश्रमेणायतेन द्राघीयसा श्वसितस्योच्छ्वासमारुतस्य वेगेन निरस्ता बहिरुत्क्षिप्ता ये मुग्धाः सुन्दरा मूर्धन्या मूर्धनि भवाः । ‘शरीरावयवयाच्च’ इति यत्प्रत्ययः । ‘ये चाभावकर्मणोः’ इति प्रकृतिभावात् ‘नस्तद्धिते’ इति टिलोपाभावः । रत्ननिकरा मुक्ताफलप्रकरास्तैरिवेत्युत्प्रेक्षा । वपुरभीक्ष्णमुक्षांबभूवुः सिषिचुः। ‘उक्ष सेचने’ ‘इजादेश्च गुरुमतोऽनृच्छः’ इत्याम्प्रत्ययः । ‘गजेन्द्रजीमूतवराहशङ्खमत्स्याहिशुक्त्युद्भववेणुजानि । मुक्ताफलानि प्रथितानि लोके तेषां तु शुक्त्युद्भवमेव भूरि ∥’ इति गजानां मुक्ताकरत्वे प्रमाणम् ∥ ३० ∥

Translation – The herds of elephants repeatedly sprinkled (their) body with showers of water that were tossed up by the snouts at the tips of (their) swinging trunks, as though with heaps of beautiful pearls on their foreheads that were thrown out by the force of long drawn exhalation resulting from exhaustion.

हस्तिनां समूहः = हास्तिकम् – a herd of elephants
In the verses the विवक्षा is प्रथमा-बहुवचनम्। Hence the form is हास्तिकानि।

(1) हस्तिन् आम् + ठक् । By 4-2-47 अचित्तहस्तिधेनोष्ठक् – To denote a collection, the तद्धित: affix ‘ठक्’ may be optionally applied following a syntactically related पदम् in which the सन्धिः operations have been performed, provided the पदम् ends in a genitive case affix and has as its base a term denoting an inanimate object, or the term हस्तिन् or ‘धेनु’।

(2) हस्तिन् आम् + ठ् । अनुबन्ध-लोपः by 1-3-3 हलन्त्यम्, 1-3-9 तस्य लोपः । The letter ‘अ’ in the affix ‘ठक्’ is is only for the sake of pronunciation (उच्चारणार्थ:)।
Note: The fact that the सूत्रम् 7-3-50 ठस्येकः (used in step 4) specifically prescribes the substitution ‘इक’ in place of the letter ‘ठ्’ occurring in the beginning of an affix, obviously implies that this letter ‘ठ्’ does not get the इत्-सञ्ज्ञा by 1-3-7 चुटू‌। Because, otherwise the letter ‘ठ्’ would be elided by 1-3-9 तस्य लोपः।
Note: ‘हस्तिन् आम् + ठ्’ gets the designation प्रातिपदिकम्‌ by 1-2-46 कृत्तद्धितसमासाश्च। This allows 2-4-71 सुपो धातुप्रातिपदिकयोः to apply in the next step.

(3) हस्तिन् + ठ् । By 2-4-71 सुपो धातुप्रातिपदिकयोः – A सुँप् affix takes a लुक् elision when it is a part of a धातुः or a प्रातिपदिकम्।

(4) हस्तिन् + इक । By 7-3-50 ठस्येकः – ‘इक’ is substituted in place of the letter ‘ठ्’, when it follows a अङ्गम्।

Note: The affix ‘ठक्’ is a कित् (has the letter ‘क्’ as इत्)। This allows 7-2-118 किति च to apply in the next step.

(5) हास्तिन् + इक । By 7-2-118 किति च – The first vowel among the vowels of a अङ्गम् which is followed by a तद्धित: affix (ref. 4-1-76 तद्धिताः) which is either a कित् (has the letter ‘क्’ as a इत्) or a णित् (has the letter ‘ण्’ as a इत्) takes the वृद्धि: (ref. 1-1-1 वृद्धिरादैच्) substitute.

Note: The अङ्गम् ‘हास्तिन्’ gets the भ-सञ्ज्ञा by 1-4-18 यचि भम् which allows 6-4-144 नस्तद्धिते to apply in the next step.

(6) हास्त् + इक । By 6-4-144 नस्तद्धिते – The ‘टि’ portion (ref. 1-1-64 अचोऽन्त्यादि टि) of a अङ्गम् (base) is elided provided the अङ्गम् –
i) has the designation ‘भ’ (ref. 1-4-18 यचि भम्)
ii) ends in the letter ‘न्’ and
iii) is followed by a तद्धित: affix
Note: The ‘इन्’ part of the अङ्गम् ‘हास्तिन्’ has the designation ‘टि’ by the सूत्रम् 1-1-64 अचोऽन्त्यादि टि – That part of a group of sounds which begins with the last vowel of the group (and goes to the end of the group) gets the designation ‘टि’।

= हास्तिक । Note: Words ending in तद्धिताः affixes denoting a collection are used in the language in the neuter gender. Hence the प्रातिपदिकम् ‘हास्तिक’ declines like वन-शब्दः।

आपगाः fNp

Today we will look at the form आपगाः fNp from श्रीमद्भागवतम् Sb10.47.33.

एतदन्तः समाम्नायो योगः साङ्ख्यं मनीषिणाम् ।
त्यागस्तपो दमः सत्यं समुद्रान्ता इवापगाः ∥ १०-४७-३३ ∥

श्रीधर-स्वामि-टीका
तावता च कृतार्थो भवतीत्याह – एतदन्त इति । एष मनोनिरोधः अन्तः समाप्तिः फलं यस्य सः । समाम्नायो वेदः। स तत्र पर्यवस्यतीत्यर्थः । योगोऽष्टाङ्गः । सांख्यमात्मानात्मविवेकः। त्यागः संन्यासः। तपः स्वधर्मः। दम इन्द्रियदमनम्। मार्गभेदेऽप्येकत्र पर्यवसाने दृष्टान्तः – समुद्रान्ता आपगा नद्य इवेति ∥ ३३ ∥

Gita Press translation – “In the eyes of the wise, (the teachings of) the Vedas, the (eightfold) path of Yoga, the Sāṅkhya system of philosophy (which differentiates Matter from the Spirit), renunciation, suffering hardships for the sake of one’s faith, subjugation of one’s senses and truthfulness have their goal in mind-control even as rivers terminate in the ocean (33).

The प्रातिपदिकम् ‘आप’ used in the compound आपगाः is derived as follows –
अपां समूहः = आपम् – a collection of waters

(1) अप् आम् + अण् । By 4-2-37 तस्य समूहः – To denote a collection, the तद्धित: affix ‘अण्’ (prescribed by 4-1-83 प्राग्दीव्यतोऽण्) may be optionally applied following a syntactically related पदम् in which the सन्धिः operations have been performed, provided the पदम् ends in a genitive case affix and has a base denoting that of which the collection is intended.
Note: As per the सूत्रम् 4-2-47 अचित्तहस्तिधेनोष्ठक् – To denote a collection, the तद्धित: affix ‘ठक्’ may be optionally applied following a syntactically related पदम् in which the सन्धिः operations have been performed, provided the पदम् ends in a genitive case affix and has as its base a term denoting an inanimate object, or the term ‘हस्तिन्’ or ‘धेनु’।
Hence if waters were considered inanimate, as per the सूत्रम् 4-2-47, the affix ‘ठक्’ would have applied in the present example. By the fact that the affix ‘अण्’ (and not the affix ‘ठक्’) has been used to form the प्रातिपदिकम् ‘आप’, we can infer that waters are not considered inanimate.

(2) अप् आम् + अ । अनुबन्ध-लोपः by 1-3-3 हलन्त्यम्, 1-3-9 तस्य लोपः

Note: ‘अप् आम् + अ’ gets the designation प्रातिपदिकम्‌ by 1-2-46 कृत्तद्धितसमासाश्च। This allows 2-4-71 सुपो धातुप्रातिपदिकयोः to apply in the next step.

(3) अप् + अ । By 2-4-71 सुपो धातुप्रातिपदिकयोः – A सुँप् affix takes a लुक् elision when it is a part of a धातुः or a प्रातिपदिकम्।

Note: The affix ‘अण्’ is a णित् (has the letter ‘ण्’ as इत्)। This allows 7-2-117 तद्धितेष्वचामादेः to apply in the next step.

(4) आप् + अ । By 7-2-117 तद्धितेष्वचामादेः – The first vowel among the vowels of a अङ्गम् which is followed by a तद्धित: affix (ref. 4-1-76 तद्धिताः) which is either a ञित् (has the letter ‘ञ्’ as a इत्) or a णित् (has the letter ‘ण्’ as a इत्) takes the वृद्धि: (ref. 1-1-1 वृद्धिरादैच्) substitute.

= आप ।

We can similarly derive the following –
१) काकानां समूहः = काकम् – a flock of crows
२) वकानां समूहः = वाकम् – a fight of cranes
३) वृकाणां समूहः = वार्कम् – a pack of wolves

The प्रातिपदिकम् ‘आपगा’ is a उपपद-समासः, derived as follows –
आपेन गच्छतीति = आपगा (नदी) – (a river) which goes (flows) with a collection of waters

(5) आप + टा + गम् + ड । By the वार्तिकम् (under 3-2-48 अन्तात्यन्ताध्वदूरपारसर्वानन्तेषु डः) अन्यत्रापि दृश्यत इति वक्तव्यम् – The affix ‘ड’ may be used after the verbal root √गम् (गमॢँ गतौ १. ११३७) when in composition with a उपपदम् which could be other than those specifically listed in 3-2-48 अन्तात्यन्ताध्वदूरपारसर्वानन्तेषु डः।
Note: In the above वार्तिकम्, the term अन्यत्र is in the seventh (locative) case. Hence ‘आप + टा’ gets the उपपद-सञ्ज्ञा here by 3-1-92 तत्रोपपदं सप्तमीस्थम्‌।

(6) आप + टा + गम् + अ । अनुबन्ध-लोप: by 1-3-7 चुटू and 1-3-9 तस्य लोपः

(7) आप + टा + ग् + अ । By 6-4-143 टेः – When the अङ्गम् has the भ-सञ्ज्ञा, then its टि portion takes लोप: when followed by an affix that has the letter ‘ड्’ as an indicatory letter. Note: The अङ्गम् does not have the भ-सञ्ज्ञा here. But still टि-लोप: is done because otherwise no purpose would be served by having the letter ‘ड्’ as a इत् in the affix ‘ड’। डित्वसामर्थ्यादभस्यापि टेर्लोपः।

= आप + टा + ग ।

We form a compound between ‘आप + टा’ (which is the उपपदम्) and ‘ग’ by using the सूत्रम् 2-2-19 उपपदमतिङ् – A सुबन्तम् (term ending in a सुँप् affix) having the designation ‘उपपद’ (in this case ‘आप टा’) invariably compounds with a syntactically related term (in this case ‘ग’) as long as the compound does not end in a तिङ् affix.

In the compound, ‘आप + टा’ is placed in the prior position as per 2-2-30 उपसर्जनं पूर्वम्‌ – In a compound a term which has the designation ‘उपसर्जन’ should be placed in the prior position. Note: Here ‘आप + टा’ is the उपपदम् and hence it gets the उपसर्जन-सञ्ज्ञा by 1-2-43 प्रथमानिर्दिष्टं समास उपसर्जनम् – A term denoted by a word (in this case ‘उपपदम्’) ending in a nominative case in a सूत्रम् (in this case 2-2-19 उपपदमतिङ्) which prescribes a compound gets the designation ‘उपसर्जन’।

‘आप + टा + ग’ gets प्रातिपदिक-सञ्ज्ञा by 1-2-46 कृत्तद्धितसमासाश्च। This allows 2-4-71 सुपो धातुप्रातिपदिकयोः to apply in the next step.

(8) आप + ग । By 2-4-71 सुपो धातुप्रातिपदिकयोः – A सुँप् affix takes a लुक् elision when it is a part of a धातुः or a प्रातिपदिकम्।

= आपग ।

The प्रातिपदिकम् ‘आपग’ is an adjective. In the present example, it refers to the feminine noun ‘नदी’। Hence we form the feminine प्रातिपदिकम् ‘आपगा’ by adding the feminine affix टाप् as follows –

(9) आपग + टाप् । By 4-1-4 अजाद्यतष्टाप्‌ – The प्रातिपदिकानि ‘अज’ etc. and प्रातिपदिकानि ending in the letter ‘अ’ get the टाप् affix in the feminine gender.

(10) आपग + आ । अनुबन्ध-लोपः by 1-3-3 हलन्त्यम्, 1-3-7 चुटू, 1-3-9 तस्य लोपः

(11) आपगा । By 6-1-101 अकः सवर्णे दीर्घः

The विवक्षा is प्रथमा-बहुवचनम्। Hence the form is आपगाः।

पितामही fNs

Today we will look at the form पितामही fNs from श्रीमद्भागवतम् Sb9.24.55.

अष्टमस्तु तयोरासीत्स्वयमेव हरिः किल ।
सुभद्रा च महाभागा तव राजन्पितामही ∥ ९-२४-५५ ∥

श्रीधर-स्वामि-टीका
अष्टमस्तु स्वयमेवासीन्नतु कर्मादिना हेतुना ताभ्यां जनितो वा, यतोऽसौ हरिः ∥ ५५ ∥

Gita Press translation- While the eighth son of (the blessed) Vasudeva and Devakī indeed was Lord Śrī Hari Himself. And the highly blessed Subhadrā, your grandmother was their daughter, O king! (55)”

पितुर्माता = पितामही – grandmother (father’s mother)

First, we derive the masculine form ‘पितामह’ as follows –

(1) पितृ ङस् + डामहच् । By 4-2-36 पितृव्यमातुलमातामहपितामहाः – The forms ‘पितृव्य’, ‘मातुल’, ‘मातामह’ and ‘पितामह’ are given as ready-made forms. They are used in the meaning of ‘father’s brother’, ‘mother’s brother’, ‘mother’s father’ and ‘father’s father’ respectively.
Note: As per the वार्तिकम् ‘मातृपितृभ्यां पितरि डामहच्’ – The affix ‘डामहच्’ is to be applied to get the final forms ‘पितामह’ and ‘मातामह’ (listed in the सूत्रम् 4-2-36) – which denote father’s father and mother’s father respectively.

(2) पितृ ङस् + आमह । अनुबन्ध-लोपः by 1-3-3 हलन्त्यम्, 1-3-7 चुटू, 1-3-9 तस्य लोपः

Note: ‘पितृ ङस् + आमह’ gets the designation प्रातिपदिकम्‌ by 1-2-46 कृत्तद्धितसमासाश्च। This allows 2-4-71 सुपो धातुप्रातिपदिकयोः to apply in the next step.

(3) पितृ + आमह । By 2-4-71 सुपो धातुप्रातिपदिकयोः – A सुँप् affix takes a लुक् elision when it is a part of a धातुः or a प्रातिपदिकम्।

Note: The affix ‘डामहच्’ is a डित् (has the letter ‘ड्’ as a इत्) and the अङ्गम् ‘पितृ’ gets the भ-सञ्ज्ञा by 1-4-18 यचि भम्। This allows 6-4-143 टेः to apply in the next step.

(4) पित् + आमह । By 6-4-143 टेः – When the अङ्गम् has the भ-सञ्ज्ञा, then its टि-portion (ref: 1-1-64 अचोऽन्त्यादि टि) takes लोप: when followed by an affix that has the letter ‘ड्’ as an indicatory letter.

= पितामह ।

Now we apply the appropriate feminine affix.

(5) पितामह + ङीष् । By 4-1-41 षिद्गौरादिभ्यश्च – In the feminine gender the affix ‘ङीष्’ is prescribed following a प्रातिपदिकम् which either (i) contains the letter ‘ष्’ as a ‘इत्’ or (ii) belongs to the class of words beginning with ‘गौर’।
Note: The affix ‘डामहच्’ is considered to be a षित् (having the letter ‘ष्’ as a इत्) as per the वार्तिकम् (under 4-2-36 पितृव्यमातुलमातामहपितामहाः) ‘मातरि षिच्च’ – When used in the sense of a mother, the affix ‘डामहच्’ (implied by the ready-made forms ‘मातामह’ and ‘पितामह’ listed in the सूत्रम् 4-2-36) is considered to be a षित् (having the letter ‘ष्’ as a इत्)। This enables 4-1-41 षिद्गौरादिभ्यश्च to apply.
Note: Some grammarians consider the forms ‘मातामह’ and ‘पितामह’ as belonging to the गौरादि-गणः, which enables the application of the सूत्रम् 4-1-41 षिद्गौरादिभ्यश्च। Hence according to them the वार्तिकम् ‘मातरि षिच्च’ is not necessary.

(6) पितामह + ई । अनुबन्ध-लोपः by 1-3-3 हलन्त्यम्, 1-3-8 लशक्वतद्धिते , 1-3-9 तस्य लोपः

Note: The अङ्गम् ‘पितामह’ has the भ-सञ्ज्ञा here as per the सूत्रम् 1-4-18 यचि भम्। This allows the सूत्रम् 6-4-148 यस्येति च to apply in the next step.

(7) पितामह् + ई । By 6-4-148 यस्येति च – When the letter ‘ई’ or a ‘तद्धित’ affix follows, the (ending) इ-वर्ण: (letter ‘इ’ or ‘ई’) or the (ending) अवर्ण: (letter ‘अ’ or ‘आ’) of the अङ्गम् with the भ-सञ्ज्ञा takes elision (लोपः)।

= पितामही । The प्रातिपदिकम् ‘पितामही’ declines like नदी-शब्द:।

Similarly, we can derive the form –
१) मातुर्माता = मातामही – grandmother (mother’s mother)

पितृव्यः mNs

Today we will look at the form पितृव्यः mNs from श्रीमद्भागवतम् Sb10.48.29.

श्रीभगवानुवाच
त्वं नो गुरुः पितृव्यश्च श्लाघ्यो बन्धुश्च नित्यदा ।
वयं तु रक्ष्याः पोष्याश्च अनुकम्प्याः प्रजा हि वः ∥ १०-४८-२९ ∥

श्रीधर-स्वामि-टीका
वो युष्माकं प्रजाः पुत्रा हि वयमिति ∥ २९ ∥

Gita Press translation – The glorious Lord said: “You are our preceptor (counsellor) and uncle, nay, our praiseworthy friend. We ever deserve to be protected, nourished and treated with compassion by you, as a matter of fact, since we are your children (29).”

पितुर्भ्राता = पितृव्यः – uncle (father’s brother)

(1) पितृ ङस् + व्यत् । By 4-2-36 पितृव्यमातुलमातामहपितामहाः – The forms ‘पितृव्य’, ‘मातुल’, ‘मातामह’ and ‘पितामह’ are given as ready-made forms. They are used in the meaning of father’s brother, mother’s brother, mother’s father and father’s father respectively.

Note: As per the वार्तिकम् ‘पितुर्भ्रातरि व्यत्’ – The affix ‘व्यत्’ is to be applied to get the final form ‘पितृव्य’ (listed in the सूत्रम् 4-2-36) – which denotes father’s brother.

(2) पितृ ङस् + व्य । अनुबन्ध-लोपः by 1-3-3 हलन्त्यम्, 1-3-9 तस्य लोपः

Note: ‘पितृ ङस् + व्य’ gets the designation प्रातिपदिकम्‌ by 1-2-46 कृत्तद्धितसमासाश्च। This allows 2-4-71 सुपो धातुप्रातिपदिकयोः to apply in the next step.

(3) पितृ + व्य । By 2-4-71 सुपो धातुप्रातिपदिकयोः – A सुँप् affix takes a लुक् elision when it is a part of a धातुः or a प्रातिपदिकम्।

= पितृव्य । Note: The प्रातिपदिकम् ‘पितृव्य’ declines like राम-शब्दः।

आग्नेयस्य nGs

Today we will look at the form आग्नेयस्य nGs from श्रीमद्भागवतम् Sb10.63.13.

ब्रह्मास्त्रस्य च ब्रह्मास्त्रं वायव्यस्य च पार्वतम् ।
आग्नेयस्य च पार्जन्यं नैजं पाशुपतस्य च ∥ १०-६३-१३ ∥

श्रीधर-स्वामि-टीका
प्रत्यस्त्राण्येवाह – ब्रह्मास्त्रस्येति । नैजं नारायणास्त्रम् ∥ १३ ∥

Gita Press translation “Against Brahmāstra He employed Brahmāstra; against Vāyavyāstra He employed the Pārvatāstra; against the fiery missile He employed the Pārjanyāstra and against the Pāśupatāstra He employed His own Nārāyaṇāstra (13).

The above verse has previously appeared in the following posts – पाशुपतस्य nGs and वायव्यस्य nGs

अग्निर्देवतास्‍येति = आग्नेयम् (अस्त्रम्) – (a missile) of which Agni is the presiding deity.
In the verses the विवक्षा is षष्ठी-एकवचनम्। Hence the form is आग्नेयस्य।

(1) अग्नि सुँ + ढक् । By 4-2-33 अग्नेर्ढक् – To denote something of the deity ‘अग्नि’, the तद्धित: affix ‘ढक्’ may be optionally applied following a syntactically related पदम् in which the सन्धिः operations have been performed, provided the पदम् ends in a nominative case affix and has a base denoting the name of the presiding deity ‘अग्नि’।
Note: The affix ‘ढक्’ prescribed by 4-2-33 अग्नेर्ढक् is अपवादः to the affix ‘अण्’ which would have applied (as per the सूत्रम् 4-2-24 सास्य देवता)।

(2) अग्नि सुँ + ढ । अनुबन्ध-लोपः by 1-3-3 हलन्त्यम्, 1-3-9 तस्य लोपः। Note: The fact that the सूत्रम् 7-1-2 आयनेयीनीयियः फढखछघां प्रत्ययादीनाम्‌ (used in step 4) specifically prescribes the substitution ‘एय्’ in place of the letter ‘ढ्’ occurring in the beginning of an affix, obviously implies that the letter ‘ढ्’ in the beginning of an affix (such as ढक्) does not get the इत्-सञ्ज्ञा by 1-3-7 चुटू‌। Because, otherwise the letter ‘ढ्’ would be elided by 1-3-9 तस्य लोपः।

Note: ‘अग्नि सुँ + ढ’ gets the designation प्रातिपदिकम्‌ by 1-2-46 कृत्तद्धितसमासाश्च। This allows 2-4-71 सुपो धातुप्रातिपदिकयोः to apply in the next step.

(3) अग्नि + ढ । By 2-4-71 सुपो धातुप्रातिपदिकयोः – A सुँप् affix takes a लुक् elision when it is a part of a धातुः or a प्रातिपदिकम्।

(4) अग्नि + एय् अ । By 7-1-2 आयनेयीनीयियः फढखछघां प्रत्ययादीनाम्‌ – The letters ‘फ्’, ‘ढ्’, ‘ख्’, ‘छ्’ and ‘घ्’ – when they occur at the beginning of a प्रत्यय: (affix) – are replaced respectively by ‘आयन्’, ‘एय्’, ‘ईन्’, ‘ईय्’ and ‘इय्’।
Note: As per the सूत्रम् 1-3-10 यथासंख्यमनुदेशः समानाम्, the substitutions take place respectively.

Note: The affix ढक् is a कित् (has the letter ‘क्’ as a इत्) and this allows 7-2-118 to apply in the next step.

(5) आग्नि + एय । By 7-2-118 किति च – The first vowel among the vowels of a अङ्गम् which is followed by a तद्धित: affix (ref. 4-1-76 तद्धिताः) which is a कित् (has the letter ‘क्’ as a इत्) takes the वृद्धि: (ref. 1-1-1 वृद्धिरादैच्) substitute.

Note: The अङ्गम् ‘आग्नि’ gets the भ-सञ्ज्ञा by 1-4-18 यचि भम् which allows 6-4-148 यस्येति च to apply in the next step.

(6) आग्न् + एय । By 6-4-148 यस्येति च – When the letter ‘ई’ or a ‘तद्धित’ affix follows, the (ending) इ-वर्ण: (letter ‘इ’ or ‘ई’) or the (ending) अवर्ण: (letter ‘अ’ or ‘आ’) of the अङ्गम् with the भ-सञ्ज्ञा takes elision (लोपः)।

= आग्नेय । Note: The प्रातिपदिकम् ‘आग्नेय’ is an adjective. In the present example, it is qualifying the neuter noun अस्त्रम्। Hence, it declines like वन-शब्दः।

वायव्यस्य nGs

Today we will look at the form वायव्यस्य nGs from श्रीमद्भागवतम् Sb10.63.13.

ब्रह्मास्त्रस्य च ब्रह्मास्त्रं वायव्यस्य च पार्वतम् ।
आग्नेयस्य च पार्जन्यं नैजं पाशुपतस्य च ∥१०-६३-१३∥

श्रीधर-स्वामि-टीका
प्रत्यस्त्राण्येवाह – ब्रह्मास्त्रस्येति । नैजं नारायणास्त्रम् ∥१३∥

Gita Press translation – “Against Brahmāstra He employed Brahmāstra; against Vāyavyāstra He employed the Pārvatāstra; against the fiery missile He employed the Pārjanyāstra and against the Pāśupatāstra He employed His own Nārāyaṇāstra (13).

The above verse has previously appeared in the following post – पाशुपतस्य nGs

वायुर्देवतास्‍येति = वायव्यम् (अस्त्रम्) – (a missile) of which Vāyu is the presiding deity.
In the verses the विवक्षा is षष्ठी-एकवचनम्। Hence the form is वायव्यस्य।

(1) वायु सुँ + यत् । By 4-2-31 वाय्वृतुपित्रुषसो यत्‌ – To denote something of the deity ‘वायु’ or ‘ऋतु’ or ‘पितृ’ or ‘उषस्’, the तद्धित: affix ‘यत्’ may be optionally applied following a syntactically related पदम् in which the सन्धिः operations have been performed, provided the पदम् ends in a nominative case affix and has a base denoting the name of that presiding deity.

Note: The affix ‘यत्’ prescribed by the सूत्रम् 4-2-31 वाय्वृतुपित्रुषसो यत्‌ is अपवादः to the affix ‘अण्’ which would have applied (as per the सूत्रम् 4-2-24 सास्य देवता)।

(2) वायु सुँ + य । अनुबन्ध-लोपः by 1-3-3 हलन्त्यम्, 1-3-9 तस्य लोपः

Note: ‘वायु सुँ + य’ gets the designation प्रातिपदिकम्‌ by 1-2-46 कृत्तद्धितसमासाश्च। This allows 2-4-71 सुपो धातुप्रातिपदिकयोः to apply in the next step.

(3) वायु + य । By 2-4-71 सुपो धातुप्रातिपदिकयोः – A सुँप् affix takes a लुक् elision when it is a part of a धातुः or a प्रातिपदिकम्।

Note: The अङ्गम् ‘वायु’ gets the भ-सञ्ज्ञा by 1-4-18 यचि भम् which allows 6-4-146 ओर्गुणः to apply in the next step.

(4) वायो + य । By 6-4-146 ओर्गुणः – When followed by a तद्धितः affix, the ending letter ‘उ’/’ऊ’ of a अङ्गम् which has the भ-सञ्ज्ञा (ref. 1-4-18 यचि भम्) takes the गुण: substitution (‘ओ’)।

(5) वायव् + य । By 6-1-79 वान्तो यि प्रत्यये – When followed by an affix which begins with the letter ‘य्’, the letters ‘ओ’ and ‘औ’ are replaced by ‘अव्’ and ‘आव्’ respectively.

= वायव्य । Note: The प्रातिपदिकम् ‘वायव्य’ is an adjective. In the present example, it is qualifying the neuter noun अस्त्रम्। Hence, it declines like वन-शब्दः।

Similarly, we can derive the following –
१) ऋतुर्देवतास्‍येति = ऋतव्यम् (हविः) – (an oblation) of which Ṛtu is the presiding deity.

पाशुपतस्य nGs

Today we will look at the form पाशुपतस्य nGs from श्रीमद्भागवतम् Sb10.63.13.

ब्रह्मास्त्रस्य च ब्रह्मास्त्रं वायव्यस्य च पार्वतम् ।
आग्नेयस्य च पार्जन्यं नैजं पाशुपतस्य च ∥ १०-६३-१३ ∥

श्रीधर-स्वामि-टीका
प्रत्यस्त्राण्येवाह – ब्रह्मास्त्रस्येति । नैजं नारायणास्त्रम् ∥ १३ ∥

Gita Press translation “Against Brahmāstra He employed Brahmāstra; against Vāyavyāstra He employed the Pārvatāstra; against the fiery missile He employed the Pārjanyāstra and against the Pāśupatāstra He employed His own Nārāyaṇāstra (13).

पशुपतिर्देवतास्‍येति = पाशुपतम् (अस्त्रम्) – (a missile) of which Lord Śiva is the presiding deity.
In the verses the विवक्षा is षष्ठी-एकवचनम्। Hence the form is पाशुपतस्य।

(1) पशुपति सुँ + अण् । By 4-2-24 सास्य देवता – To denote something of a particular deity, the तद्धित: affix ‘अण्’ (prescribed by 4-1-83 प्राग्दीव्यतोऽण्) may be optionally applied following a syntactically related पदम् in which the सन्धिः operations have been performed, provided the पदम् ends in a nominative case affix and has a base denoting the name of that presiding deity.
Note: Since the base ‘पशुपति’ is a compound with ‘पति’ as its final member, the affix ‘ण्य’ (prescribed by the सूत्रम् 4-1-85 दित्यदित्यादित्यपत्युत्तरपदाण्ण्यः) overrules the default affix ‘अण्’ (prescribed by the सूत्रम् 4-1-83 प्राग्दीव्यतोऽण्)। But since ‘पशुपति’ is specifically listed in the अश्वपत्यादि-गण:, the affix ‘ण्य’ is in turn overruled by the affix ‘अण्’ prescribed by the सूत्रम् 4-1-84 अश्वपत्यादिभ्यश्च – The तद्धित: affix ‘अण्’ is authorized for all rules from here (4-1-84) down prior to the सूत्रम् 4-4-2 तेन दीव्यति खनति जयति जितम्, provided it is applied to a पदम् which has ‘अश्वपति’ etc (listed in the अश्वपत्यादि-गण:) as its base.

(2) पशुपति सुँ + अ । अनुबन्ध-लोपः by 1-3-3 हलन्त्यम्, 1-3-9 तस्य लोपः

Note: ‘पशुपति सुँ + अ’ gets the designation प्रातिपदिकम्‌ by 1-2-46 कृत्तद्धितसमासाश्च। This allows 2-4-71 सुपो धातुप्रातिपदिकयोः to apply in the next step.

(3) पशुपति + अ । By 2-4-71 सुपो धातुप्रातिपदिकयोः – A सुँप् affix takes a लुक् elision when it is a part of a धातुः or a प्रातिपदिकम्।

Note: The affix ‘अण्’ is a णित् (has the letter ‘ण्’ as इत्)। This allows 7-2-117 तद्धितेष्वचामादेः to apply in the next step.

(4) पाशुपति + अ । By 7-2-117 तद्धितेष्वचामादेः – The first vowel among the vowels of a अङ्गम् which is followed by a तद्धित: affix (ref. 4-1-76 तद्धिताः) which is either a ञित् (has the letter ‘ञ्’ as a इत्) or a णित् (has the letter ‘ण्’ as a इत्) takes the वृद्धि: (ref. 1-1-1 वृद्धिरादैच्) substitute.

Note: The अङ्गम् ‘पाशुपति’ gets the भ-सञ्ज्ञा by 1-4-18 यचि भम् which allows 6-4-148 यस्येति च to apply in the next step.

(5) पाशुपत् + अ । By 6-4-148 यस्येति च – When the letter ‘ई’ or a ‘तद्धित’ affix follows, the (ending) इ-वर्ण: (letter ‘इ’ or ‘ई’) or the (ending) अवर्ण: (letter ‘अ’ or ‘आ’) of the अङ्गम् with the भ-सञ्ज्ञा takes elision (लोपः)।

= पाशुपत । Note: The प्रातिपदिकम् ‘पाशुपत’ is an adjective. In the present example, it is qualifying the neuter noun अस्त्रम्। Hence, it declines like वन-शब्दः।

Similarly, we can derive the following –
१) गणपतिर्देवतास्‍येति = गाणपतः (मन्त्रः) – (a mantra) of which Lord Gaṇeśa is the presiding deity.

शैवम् nAs

Today we will look at the form शैवम् nAs from श्रीमद्वाल्मीकि-रामायणम् 1.27.6.

तानि दिव्यानि भद्रं ते ददाम्यस्त्राणि सर्वशः । दण्डचक्रं महद्दिव्यं तव दास्यामि राघव ∥ १-२७-४ ∥
धर्मचक्रं ततो वीर कालचक्रं तथैव च । विष्णुचक्रं तथात्युग्रमैन्द्रमस्त्रं तथैव च ∥ १-२७-५ ∥
वज्रमस्त्रं नरश्रेष्ठ शैवं शूलवरं तथा । अस्त्रं ब्रह्मशिरश्चैव ऐषीकमपि राघव ∥ १-२७-६ ∥

Gita Press Translation – “I deliver to you all those celestial missiles, may good betide you! I shall deliver to you, O scion of Raghu, the great and ethereal Daṇḍa-Cakra and then the Dharma-Cakra, O gallant prince, as well as the Kāla-Cakra, also the Viṣṇu-Cakra as well as the most formidable Indra-Cakra and the missile in the shape of a thunderbolt, O jewel among men, similarly the Śūla (of Śiva), the best among all, presided over by Lord Śiva, as well as the missile called Brahmaśirā and even the Aiṣīka (that employed through the medium of a reed, rush or stem of grass). O scion of Raghu!” (4-6)

शिवो देवतास्‍येति = शैवम् (शूलम्) – (The trident) of which Lord Śiva is the presiding deity.
In the verses the विवक्षा is द्वितीया-एकवचनम्। Hence the form is शैवम्।

(1) शिव सुँ + अण् । By 4-2-24 सास्य देवता – To denote something of a particular deity, the तद्धित: affix ‘अण्’ (prescribed by 4-1-83 प्राग्दीव्यतोऽण्) may be optionally applied following a syntactically related पदम् in which the सन्धिः operations have been performed, provided the पदम् ends in a nominative case affix and has a base denoting the name of that presiding deity.

(2) शिव सुँ + अ । अनुबन्ध-लोपः by 1-3-3 हलन्त्यम्, 1-3-9 तस्य लोपः

Note: ‘शिव सुँ + अ’ gets the designation प्रातिपदिकम्‌ by 1-2-46 कृत्तद्धितसमासाश्च। This allows 2-4-71 सुपो धातुप्रातिपदिकयोः to apply in the next step.

(3) शिव + अ । By 2-4-71 सुपो धातुप्रातिपदिकयोः – A सुँप् affix takes a लुक् elision when it is a part of a धातुः or a प्रातिपदिकम्।

Note: The affix ‘अण्’ is a णित् (has the letter ‘ण्’ as इत्)। This allows 7-2-117 तद्धितेष्वचामादेः to apply in the next step.

(4) शैव + अ । By 7-2-117 तद्धितेष्वचामादेः – The first vowel among the vowels of a अङ्गम् which is followed by a तद्धित: affix (ref. 4-1-76 तद्धिताः) which is either a ञित् (has the letter ‘ञ्’ as a इत्) or a णित् (has the letter ‘ण्’ as a इत्) takes the वृद्धि: (ref. 1-1-1 वृद्धिरादैच्) substitute.

Note: The अङ्गम् ‘शैव’ gets the भ-सञ्ज्ञा by 1-4-18 यचि भम् which allows 6-4-148 यस्येति च to apply in the next step.

(5) शैव् + अ । By 6-4-148 यस्येति च – When the letter ‘ई’ or a ‘तद्धित’ affix follows, the (ending) इ-वर्ण: (letter ‘इ’ or ‘ई’) or the (ending) अवर्ण: (letter ‘अ’ or ‘आ’) of the अङ्गम् with the भ-सञ्ज्ञा takes elision (लोपः)।

= शैव । Note: The प्रातिपदिकम् ‘शैव’ is an adjective. In the present example, it is qualifying the neuter noun शूलम्। Hence, it declines like वन-शब्दः।

We can similarly derive the following –
१) इन्‍द्रो देवतास्‍येति = ऐन्‍द्रम् (हविः) – (an oblation) of which Indra is the presiding deity.

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