cheap no scrip viagra

Sep 012014
 

Today we will look at the form मे mGs from रघुवंशम् verse 10-39.

विदितं तप्यमानं च तेन मे भुवनत्रयम्।
अकामोपनतेनेव साधोर्हृदयमेनसा।। १०-३९।।

टीका -
किञ्च । [अकामोपनतेन] अकामेनानिच्छयोपनतेन प्रमादादागतेन एनसा पापेन साधोः सज्जनस्य हृदयमिवतेन रक्षसा तप्यमानं संतप्यमानम्। तपेर्भौवादिकात्कर्मणि शानच्। भुवनत्रयं च मे विदितम्। मया ज्ञायत इत्यर्थः। ’3-2-188 मतिबुद्धिपूजार्थेभ्यश्च’ इत्यनेन वर्तमाने क्तः। ’2-3-67 क्तस्य च वर्तमाने’ इति षष्ठी ।।३९।।

Translation – And the three worlds are known to me as being harassed by him, like the heart of a good man by the sin unconsciously committed (39).

मे is षष्ठी-एकवचनम् of the सर्वनाम-प्रातिपदिकम् ‘अस्मद्’।

(1) अस्मद् + ङस् । By 4-1-2 स्वौजसमौट्छष्टाभ्याम्भिस्ङेभ्याम्भ्यस्ङसिँभ्याम्भ्यस्ङसोसाम्ङ्योस्सुप्। As per 2-3-67 क्तस्य च वर्तमाने – A sixth case affix (‘ङस्’, ‘ओस्’, ‘आम्’) is used (to denote कर्ता (the doer)) of an action denoted by (a word ending in) the affix ‘क्त’, provided the affix ‘क्त’ denotes the action in the present tense.
In the present example, as per the सूत्रम् 3-2-188 मतिबुद्धिपूजार्थेभ्यश्च the affix ‘क्त’ used in the form विदितम् denotes the action (of knowing) in the present tense. And since ‘अस्मद्’ (‘I’) denotes the कर्ता (the doer) of the action (of knowing) a sixth case affix is used with ‘अस्मद्’।

Note: The अनुवृत्ति: of ‘कर्तृकर्मणोः’ is coming down from 2-3-65 कर्तृकर्मणोः कृति in to this सूत्रम्। But since कर्म (the object) is already expressed by the affix ‘क्त’, the sixth case affix is used to denote only the कर्ता (the doer) and not the कर्म (the object.)

See question 2.

(2) मे । By 8-1-22 तेमयावेकवचनस्य – The प्रातिपदिके ‘युष्मद्’ and ‘अस्मद्’ along with a singular affix of the fourth or sixth case, get ‘ते’ and ‘मे’ as replacements respectively when the following conditions are satisfied:
1. There is a पदम् (which in the present example is तेन) in the same sentence preceding ‘युष्मद्’/’अस्मद्’।
2. ‘युष्मद्’/’अस्मद्’ is not at the beginning of a metrical पाद:।

Questions:

1. Where has the सूत्रम् 2-3-67 क्तस्य च वर्तमाने been used between verses 30 and 40 of Chapter Two of the गीता?

2. Commenting on the सूत्रम् 2-3-67 क्तस्य च वर्तमाने the सिद्धान्तकौमुदी says – ‘न लोकाव्यय-’ इति निषेधस्यापवाद:। Please explain.

3. Can you spot the augment मुँक् in the verse?

4. From which verbal root is the प्रातिपदिकम् ‘उपनत’ (used in the compound अकामोपनतेन) derived?

5. Which कृत् affix is used to derive the प्रातिपदिकम् ‘प्रमाद’ (used in the form प्रमादात् in the commentary)?

6. How would you say this in Sanskrit?
“I know the answer to this question.” Paraphrase to “The answer to this question is known to me.”

Easy questions:

1. Where has the सूत्रम् 6-1-110 ङसिङसोश्च been used in the verse?

2. Which सूत्रम् prescribes the affix यक् in the form ज्ञायते used in the commentary?

Aug 282014
 

Today we will look at the form अस्य nGs from श्रीमद्भागवतम् 5.19.12.

गायति चेदम् -
कर्तास्य सर्गादिषु यो न बध्यते न हन्यते देहगतोऽपि दैहिकैः । द्रष्टुर्न दृग्यस्य गुणैर्विदूष्यते तस्मै नमोऽसक्तविविक्तसाक्षिणे ।। ५-१९-१२ ।।
इदं हि योगेश्वर योगनैपुणं हिरण्यगर्भो भगवाञ्जगाद यत् । यदन्तकाले त्वयि निर्गुणे मनो भक्त्या दधीतोज्झितदुष्कलेवरः ।। ५-१९-१३ ।।

श्रीधर-स्वामि-टीका -
असक्तश्चासौ विविक्तश्च साक्षी च तस्मै नमः । असक्तत्वं दर्शयति । अस्य विश्वस्य सर्गादिषु कर्तापि यो न बध्यतेऽहं कर्तेति न मन्यते । विविक्तत्वमाह । देहगतोऽपि दैहिकैः क्षुत्पिपासादिभिर्यो न हन्यते नाभिभूयते । साक्षित्वमाह । यस्य द्रष्टुरपि सतो दृष्टिर्गुणैर्दृश्यैर्न विदूष्यते न विक्रियते ।। १२ ।। योगकौशलं निरूपयन्योगं प्रार्थयते – इदमिति त्रिभिः । हे योगेश्वर, हिरण्यगर्भो यद्योगनैपुणं जगाद इदमेव तत् । किम् । जन्मप्रभृति भक्त्यान्तकाले पुमांस्त्वयि मनो धारयेदिति यत् । कथंभूतः सन् । उज्झितं दुष्कलेवरं तदभिमानो येन ।। १३ ।।

Gita Press translation – Again, he sings the following (praises): – “Hail to Him who, though the Maker of this (universe), does not get bound to the functions of creation etc., (by recognizing Himself as the doer), who though invested with a body, is not affected by the attributes of a body (hunger, thirst and so on) and whose vision, though He is all-seeing, is not tainted by the qualities (of that which He sees) – (to sum up,) who is (absolutely) unattached, pure and a (mere) witness (12). Indeed herein, O Master of Yoga, lies the proficiency in Yoga (mind-control), of which the glorious Brahmā (who was born of a golden lotus sprung from the navel of Lord Viṣṇu) has spoke, viz., that, having given up (all) identification with the body, one should concentrate one’s mind on You, who are beyond the modes of Prakṛti (all material phenomena), at the last moment (of one’s life) through (the practice of) Devotion (continued from one’s very birth.) (13)

अस्य is नपुंसकलिङ्गे षष्ठी-एकवचनम् of the सर्वनाम-प्रातिपदिकम् ‘इदम्’।

(1) इदम् + ङस् । By 4-1-2 स्वौजसमौट्छष्टाभ्याम्भिस्ङेभ्याम्भ्यस्ङसिँभ्याम्भ्यस्ङसोसाम्ङ्योस्सुप्। As per the सूत्रम् 2-3-65 कर्तृकर्मणोः कृति – A sixth case affix (‘ङस्’, ‘ओस्’, ‘आम्’) is used to denote कर्ता (the doer) as well as कर्म (the object) of an action denoted by a (word ending in a) कृत् affix, provided the doer/object has not been expressed otherwise.
In the present example, ‘इदम्’ (‘this (universe)’) is the object of the action denoted by ‘कर्तृ’ (‘maker’) which ends in the कृत् affix तृच् (prescribed by the सूत्रम् 3-1-133 ण्वुल्तृचौ)। Hence ‘इदम्’ takes a sixth case affix.

Note: As per 1-4-104 विभक्तिश्च the affix ‘ङस्’ has the designation विभक्ति:। This allows 7-2-102 to apply in the next step.

(2) इद अ + ङस् । By 7-2-102 त्यदादीनामः – The ending letter of the pronouns, starting with ‘त्यद्’ and ending with ‘द्वि’, is replaced by ‘अ’ when followed by a विभक्ति: affix. As per 1-1-52 अलोऽन्त्यस्य, only the ending letter ‘म्’ of the अङ्गम् ‘इदम्’ is replaced by ‘अ’।

(3) इद + ङस् । By 6-1-97 अतो गुणे।

(4) इद + स्य । By 7-1-12 टाङसिङसामिनात्स्याः - Following a अङ्गम् ending in the letter ‘अ’, the affixes ‘टा’, ‘ङसिँ’ and ‘ङस्’ are replaced respectively by ‘इन’, ‘आत्’ and ‘स्य’। As per 1-1-55 अनेकाल्शित्सर्वस्य the entire affix ‘ङस्’ is replaced.

(5) अस्य । By 7-2-113 हलि लोपः, the ‘इद्’ of ‘इदम्’ that is without the letter ‘क्’ takes elision (लोपः), when the विभक्तिः affixes of the आप्-प्रत्याहारः, which begin with a consonant, follow. This rule is an अपवाद: (exception) to the prior rule 7-2-112 अनाप्यकः।
Only the letter ‘द्’ of ‘इद्’ would take लोपः by 1-1-52 अलोऽन्त्यस्य। But the following परिभाषा takes effect – नानर्थकेऽलोन्त्यविधिरनभ्यासविकारे।
This means that the rule 1-1-52 अलोऽन्त्यस्य does not apply in the case of a term that is devoid of meaning, except in the case which involves modification of an अभ्यास:।
In this example, the entire term ‘इदम्’ has meaning but the ‘इद्’ part does not. So 1-1-52 does not apply when it comes to operating on the ‘इद्’ part. Therefore, the ‘इद्’ part completely takes लोपः by 7-2-113.
Note: आप् is the प्रत्याहारः made of the सुँप् affixes from टा (तृतीया-एकवचनम्) until सुप् (सप्तमी-बहुवचनम्)।

Questions:

1. Where has the सूत्रम् 2-3-65 कर्तृकर्मणोः कृति been used in the first fifteen verses of Chapter Four of the गीता?

2. Under the सूत्रम् 2-3-65 कर्तृकर्मणोः कृति the सिद्धान्तकौमुदी gives the example – जगत: कर्ता कृष्ण:। Commenting on this example, the तत्त्वबोधिनी commentary says – कृष्णस्य तृचाभिहितत्वात् तत: षष्ठी न भवति। Please explain.

3. Which सूत्रम् prescribes the fourth case affix used in the form तस्मै used in the verses?

4. Can you spot the augment अम् in the verses?

5. Which कृत् affix is used to form the feminine प्रातिपदिकम् ‘पिपासा’ used in the compound क्षुत्पिपासादिभि: in the commentary?

6. How would you say this in Sanskrit?
“The Lord is the protector of everyone.”

Easy questions:

1. Which सूत्रम् prescribes the elision of the letter ‘न्’ in the form बध्यते?

2. Can you spot the augment सीयुट् in the verses?

Aug 252014
 

Today we will look at the form कवेः mGs from रघुवंशम् verse 15-69.

गेये को नु विनेता वां कस्य चेयं कृतिः कवेः ।
इति राज्ञा स्वयं पृष्टौ तौ वाल्मीकिमशंसताम्॥ १५-६९॥

टीका -
गेये गीते को नु वां युवयोः विनेता शिक्षकः । नुशब्दः प्रश्ने । ‘नु पृच्छायां वितर्के च’ (३-३-२४७) इत्यमरः । इयं च कस्य कवेः कृतिरिति राज्ञा स्वयं पृष्टौ तौ कुशलवौ वाल्मीकिमशंसताम् उक्तवन्तौ । विनेतारं कविं चेत्यर्थः । ‘गेये केन विनीतौ वाम्’ इति पाठे वामिति युष्मदर्थप्रतिपादकमव्ययं द्रष्टव्यम् । तथा चायमर्थः – केन पुंसा वां युवां गेये गीतविषये विनीतौ शिक्षितौ । कर्मणि निष्ठाप्रत्ययः ।।

Translation – “Who is your teacher in singing, and this composition is of which poet?” On being asked thus by the king himself, they pointed to Vālmīki (as the teacher and poet.) (69)

कवेः is षष्ठी-एकवचनम् of the पुंलिङ्ग-प्रातिपदिकम् ‘कवि’।

(1) कवि + ङस् । By 4-1-2 स्वौजसमौट्छष्टाभ्याम्भिस्ङेभ्याम्भ्यस्ङसिँभ्याम्भ्यस्ङसोसाम्ङ्योस्सुप्। As per the सूत्रम् 2-3-65 कर्तृकर्मणोः कृति – A sixth case affix (‘ङस्’, ‘ओस्’, ‘आम्’) is used to denote कर्ता (the doer) as well as कर्म (the object) of an action denoted by a (word ending in a) कृत् affix, provided the doer/object has not been expressed otherwise.
In the present example, ‘कवि’ (‘poet’) is the doer of the action denoted by ‘कृति’ (‘composition’) which ends in the कृत् affix क्तिन् (prescribed by the सूत्रम् 3-3-94 स्त्रियां क्तिन्)। Hence ‘कवि’ takes a sixth case affix.

Note: ‘कवि’ gets the घि-सञ्ज्ञा by 1-4-7 शेषो घ्यसखि – When a short ‘इ’ ending or short ‘उ’ ending term – except for ‘सखि’ – does not have the नदी-सञ्ज्ञा then it gets the घि-सञ्ज्ञा।

(2) कवि + अस् । अनुबन्ध-लोपः by 1-3-8 लशक्वतद्धिते and 1-3-9 तस्य लोपः1-3-4 न विभक्तौ तुस्माः prevents the ending letter ‘स्’ of the affix ‘ङस्’ from getting इत्-सञ्ज्ञा।

(3) कवे + अस् । By 7-3-111 घेर्ङिति – When a ङित् (having the letter ‘ङ्’ as a इत्) सुँप् affix follows, then a अङ्गम् having the घि-सञ्ज्ञा takes the गुण: substitution. Note: By 1-1-52 अलोऽन्त्यस्य, the गुण: substitution takes place only for the ending letter (in this case the letter ‘इ’) of the अङ्गम्।

(4) कवेस् । By 6-1-110 ङसिँङसोश्च – In place of a preceding एङ् (‘ए’, ‘ओ’) letter and the following short ‘अ’ of the affix ‘ङसिँ’ or ‘ङस्’, there is a single substitute of the former (एङ् letter.)

(5) कवेः । रुँत्व-विसर्गौ by 8-2-66 ससजुषो रुः and 8-3-15 खरवसानयोर्विसर्जनीयः

Questions:

1. Where has the सूत्रम् 2-3-65 कर्तृकर्मणोः कृति (used in step 1) been used for the last time in the गीता?

2. Commenting on the सूत्रम् 2-3-65 कर्तृकर्मणोः कृति the तत्त्वबोधिनी says – शेष इति निवृत्तम्। Please explain.

3. Commenting further on the same सूत्रम् the तत्त्वबोधिनी says – कर्तृकर्मणो: किम्? शस्त्रेण भेत्ता। Please explain.

4. Where has the सूत्रम् 3-1-133 ण्वुल्तृचौ been used in the verse?

5. Which कृत् affix is used to form the प्रातिपदिकम् ‘शिक्षक’ (used in the commentary?)

6. How would you say this in Sanskrit?
“The work/composition of Pāṇini is marvelous indeed.” Use the adjective प्रातिपदिकम् ‘अद्भुत’ for ‘marvelous.’ Use the अव्ययम् ‘हि’ for ‘indeed.’

Easy questions:

1. Where has the सूत्रम् 6-4-134 अल्लोपोऽनः been used in the verse?

2. Which सूत्रम् prescribes the substitution ताम् in the form अशंसताम्?

Aug 212014
 

Today we will look at the form तस्य nGs from श्रीमद्भागवतम् 6.8.39.

इमां विद्यां पुरा कश्चित्कौशिको धारयन्द्विजः । योगधारणया स्वाङ्गं जहौ स मरुधन्वनि ।। ६-८-३८ ।।
तस्योपरि विमानेन गन्धर्वपतिरेकदा । ययौ चित्ररथः स्त्रीभिर्वृतो यत्र द्विजक्षयः ।। ६-८-३९ ।।

श्रीधर-स्वामि-टीका -
एतद्विद्याप्रभावमितिहासेनाह – इमामिति सार्धैस्त्रिभिः । मरुधन्वनि निरुदके देशे । अनेन विद्यायाः क्षेत्रतीर्थानपेक्षत्वं दर्शितम् ।। ३८ ।। यत्र द्विजस्य क्षयो देहत्यागस्तस्योपरि ।। ३९ ।।

Gita Press translation – Of yore, a certain Brāhmaṇa, who was a scion of the sage Kauśika and had his mind fixed on this sacred text, cast off his body in a desert through concentration of mind accompanied by retention of breath (38). Surrounded by ladies, Citraratha, the chief of the Gandharvas once flew in his aerial car over the spot where the Brāhmaṇa had died (39).

तस्य is नपुंसकलिङ्गे षष्ठी-एकवचनम् of the सर्वनाम-प्रातिपदिकम् ‘तद्’।

(1) तद् + ङस् । By 4-1-2 स्वौजसमौट्छष्टाभ्याम्भिस्ङेभ्याम्भ्यस्ङसिँभ्याम्भ्यस्ङसोसाम्ङ्योस्सुप्। As per the 2-3-30 षष्ठ्यतसर्थप्रत्ययेन – A sixth case affix (‘ङस्’, ‘ओस्’, ‘आम्’) is used following a प्रातिपदिकम् (nominal stem) co-occurring with a word ending in an affix having the same meaning as that of the affix ‘अतसुँच्’ (ref. 5-3-28 दक्षिणोत्तराभ्यामतसुच्)।

See question 1.

Note: The section in which पाणिनि: prescribes affixes having the same meaning as that of the affix ‘अतसुँच्’ runs from 5-3-27 दिक्‌शब्देभ्यः सप्तमीपञ्चमीप्रथमाभ्यो दिग्देशकालेष्वस्तातिः down to 5-3-41 विभाषावरस्य

In the present example, the प्रातिपदिकम् ‘तद्’ co-occurs with the word ‘उपरि’ (prescribed by the सूत्रम् 5-3-31 उपर्युपरिष्टात्‌ which occurs in the section from 5-3-27 to 5-3-41.) Therefore ‘तद्’ takes the sixth case affix.

Note: As per 1-4-104 विभक्तिश्च the affix ‘ङस्’ has the designation विभक्ति:। This allows 7-2-102 to apply in the next step.

(2) त अ + ङस् । By 7-2-102 त्यदादीनामः – The ending letter of the pronouns, starting with ‘त्यद्’ and ending with ‘द्वि’, is replaced by ‘अ’ when followed by a विभक्ति: affix. As per 1-1-52 अलोऽन्त्यस्य, only the ending letter ‘द्’ of the अङ्गम् ‘तद्’ is replaced by ‘अ’।

(3) त + ङस् । By 6-1-97 अतो गुणे।

(4) तस्य । By 7-1-12 टाङसिङसामिनात्स्याः - Following a अङ्गम् ending in the letter ‘अ’, the affixes ‘टा’, ‘ङसिँ’ and ‘ङस्’ are replaced respectively by ‘इन’, ‘आत्’ and ‘स्य’। As per 1-1-55 अनेकाल्शित्सर्वस्य the entire affix ‘ङस्’ is replaced.

Questions:

1. The sixth case affix prescribed by the सूत्रम् 2-3-30 षष्ठ्यतसर्थप्रत्ययेन is a अपवाद: (exception) to which affix that would have been prescribed by which सूत्रम्?

2. Commenting on the सूत्रम् 2-3-30 षष्ठ्यतसर्थप्रत्ययेन the तत्त्वबोधिनी says – अतसुचोऽस्तात्यनन्तरत्वेऽपि लाघवानुरोधेन अस्तात्यर्थेति नोक्तमित्याहु:। Please explain.

3. Which कृत् affix is used to derive the feminine प्रातिपदिकम् ‘विद्या’ (used in the form विद्याम् (द्वितीया-एकवचनम्) in the verses)?

4. Which सूत्रम् prescribes the affix युच् used to derive the feminine प्रातिपदिकम् ‘धारणा’ (used in the compound योगधारणया in the verses)?

5. Where has the सूत्रम् 6-4-51 णेरनिटि been used in the commentary?

6. How would you say this in Sanskrit?
“Look at the plane flying over the mountains.” Use the verbal root √डी (डीङ् विहायसा गतौ १. ११२३, ४. ३०) for ‘to fly.’

Easy questions:

1. Where has the सूत्रम् 7-4-62 कुहोश्चुः been used in the verses?

2. Which सूत्रम् prescribes the substitution ‘औ’ in the form ययौ?

Aug 182014
 

Today we will look at the form हेतोः mGs from श्रीमद्भागवतम् verse 4-17-4.

विदुर उवाच
कस्माद्दधार गोरूपं धरित्री बहुरूपिणी । यां दुदोह पृथुस्तत्र को वत्सो दोहनं च किम् ।। ४-१७-३ ।।
प्रकृत्या विषमा देवी कृता तेन समा कथम् । तस्य मेध्यं हयं देवः कस्य हेतोरपाहरत् ।। ४-१७-४ ।।

श्रीधर-स्वामि-टीका -
दोहनं पात्रम् ।। ३ ।। मेध्यं यज्ञार्हम् ।। ४ ।।

Gita Press translation – Vidura said : Wherefore did Earth who could take any number of forms, (particularly) assume the form of a cow that Pṛthu milked? Who played the role of a calf for the time being and what served as the milk-pail? (3) Uneven (undulated) by nature, how was the earth made even (levelled) by him? And with what motive did the god (Indra) steal away his sacrificial horse? (4)

हेतोः is षष्ठी-एकवचनम् of the पुंलिङ्ग-प्रातिपदिकम् ‘हेतु’।

(1) हेतु + ङस् । By 4-1-2 स्वौजसमौट्छष्टाभ्याम्भिस्ङेभ्याम्भ्यस्ङसिँभ्याम्भ्यस्ङसोसाम्ङ्योस्सुप्। As per the वार्तिकम् (under 2-3-23 हेतौ in the महाभाष्यम्) निमित्तपर्यायप्रयोगे सर्वासां प्रायदर्शनम् – When the प्रातिपदिकम् ‘निमित्त’ (motive) or any of its synonyms – ‘कारण’ (reason), ‘हेतु’ (cause), ‘प्रयोजन’ (purpose) etc is used – generally any case affix may be assigned (following both the प्रातिपदिकम् ‘निमित्त’ etc as well as any प्रातिपदिकम् that is in apposition (has the same substratum) as ‘निमित्त’ etc.)

Note: नागेश: clarifies this वार्तिकम् as निमित्तादिप्रयोगे तेभ्यस्तत्समानाधिकरणशब्देभ्यश्चेत्यर्थ:।

Note: ‘हेतु’ gets the घि-सञ्ज्ञा by 1-4-7 शेषो घ्यसखि – When a short ‘इ’ ending or short ‘उ’ ending term – except for ‘सखि’ – does not have the नदी-सञ्ज्ञा then it gets the घि-सञ्ज्ञा।

(2) हेतु + अस् । अनुबन्ध-लोपः by 1-3-8 लशक्वतद्धिते and 1-3-9 तस्य लोपः1-3-4 न विभक्तौ तुस्माः prevents the ending letter ‘स्’ of the affix ‘ङस्’ from getting इत्-सञ्ज्ञा।

(3) हेतो + अस् । By 7-3-111 घेर्ङिति – When a ङित् (having the letter ‘ङ्’ as a इत्) सुँप् affix follows, then a अङ्गम् having the घि-सञ्ज्ञा takes the गुण: substitution. Note: By 1-1-52 अलोऽन्त्यस्य, the गुण: substitution takes place only for the ending letter (in this case the letter ‘उ’) of the अङ्गम्।

(4) हेतोस् । By 6-1-110 ङसिँङसोश्च – In place of a preceding एङ् (‘ए’, ‘ओ’) letter and the following short ‘अ’ of the affix ‘ङसिँ’ or ‘ङस्’, there is a single substitute of the former (एङ् letter.)

(5) हेतोः । रुँत्व-विसर्गौ by 8-2-66 ससजुषो रुः and 8-3-15 खरवसानयोर्विसर्जनीयः

Questions:

1. Where has the वार्तिकम् (under 2-3-23 हेतौ in the महाभाष्यम्) निमित्तपर्यायप्रयोगे सर्वासां प्रायदर्शनम् been used in Chapter One of the गीता?

2. Commenting on the वार्तिकम् ‘निमित्तपर्यायप्रयोगे सर्वासां प्रायदर्शनम्’ the सिद्धान्तकौमुदी says – प्रायग्रहणादसर्वनाम्न: प्रथमाद्वितीये न स्त:। Please explain.

3. Commenting on the same वार्तिकम् the तत्त्वबोधिनी says – एतद्वार्तिकेन ‘षष्ठी हेतुप्रयोगे’, ‘सर्वनाम्नस्तृतीया च’ इति सूत्रद्वयं गतार्थमिति बोध्यम्। Please explain.

4. Which कृत् affix is used to form the प्रातिपदिकम् ‘दोहन’ as used in the verses? Hint: The विग्रह: is दुह्यतेऽस्मिन्निति दोहनम्।

5. Which वार्तिकम् justifies the use of a third case affix in प्रकृत्या used in the verses?

6. How would you say this in Sanskrit?
“With what motive have you (sir) come here?”

Easy questions:

1. From which verbal root is दधार derived?

2. Can you spot the augment अट् in the verses?

Aug 142014
 

Today we will look at the form पृथुश्रवसः mGs from श्रीमद्भागवतम् 9.23.33.

चतुर्दशमहारत्नश्चक्रवर्त्यपराजितः । तस्य पत्नीसहस्राणां दशानां सुमहायशाः ।। ९-२३-३२ ।।
दशलक्षसहस्राणि पुत्राणां तास्वजीजनत् । तेषां तु षट्प्रधानानां पृथुश्रवस आत्मजः ।। ९-२३-३३ ।।
धर्मो नामोशना तस्य हयमेधशतस्य याट् । तत्सुतो रुचकस्तस्य पञ्चासन्नात्मजाः शृणु ।। ९-२३-३४ ।।

श्रीधर-स्वामि-टीका -
चतुर्दशमहारत्नानि तत्तज्जातिश्रेष्ठानि यस्य सः । तानि च मार्कण्डेयपुराणे वर्णितानि – ‘गजवाजिरथस्त्रीषुनिधिमाल्याम्बरद्रुमाः ।। शक्तिपाशमणिच्छत्रविमानानि चतुर्दश ।।’ इति । दशानां पत्नीसहस्राणां भार्यायुतस्य प्रत्येकं लक्षं लक्षमित्येवं तासु पुत्राणां दशलक्षसहस्राणि जनयामास ।। ३२ ।। पृथुश्रवाः पृथुकीर्तिः पृथुयशा इत्यादयः षट्प्रधानाः श्रेष्ठा येषां तेषां मध्ये ।। ३३ ।। पञ्च आत्मजा आसंस्तान् शृणु ।। ३४ ।।

Gita Press translation – He was possessed of (all) the fourteen varieties of excellent jewels, ruled over the entire globe and was invincible. Through his ten thousand wives that exceedingly renowned emperor begot a thousand million sons (a lakh through each). Of those (thousand million) sons, of whom six (viz., Pṛthuśravā and others) were the foremost, the son of Pṛthuśravā was Dharma by name, whose son was Uśanā, who performed a hundred horse-sacrifices. His son was Rucaka, who had five sons. (Please) hear of them (32-34).

पृथुश्रवसः is पुंलिङ्गे षष्ठी-एकवचनम् of the प्रातिपदिकम् ‘पृथुश्रवस्’।

(1) पृथुश्रवस् + ङस् । By 4-1-2 स्वौजसमौट्छष्टाभ्याम्भिस्ङेभ्याम्भ्यस्ङसिँभ्याम्भ्यस्ङसोसाम्ङ्योस्सुप्। As per the 2-3-50 षष्ठी शेषे – A sixth case affix (‘ङस्’, ‘ओस्’, ‘आम्’) is used in the remaining sense, which is that of a syntactic relation – for example the relation between the owner and the owned – which is other than that expressed by a कारकम् (a participant in the action) and that of (only) the meaning of the प्रातिपदिकम् (nominal stem.)
Note: It is the qualifier (विशेषणम्) which takes the sixth case affix, and not the one qualified (विशेष्यम्)।
In the present example, the sixth case affix in पृथुश्रवसः expresses जन्यजनकभावसम्बन्ध: – the relationship between the begotten (‘आत्मज’) and the begetter (‘पृथुश्रवस्’)। ‘आत्मज’ (the son) is being qualified by his relation to ‘पृथुश्रवस्’ (Pṛthuśravā, the father) and hence ‘पृथुश्रवस्’ takes the sixth case affix.

(2) पृथुश्रवस् + अस् । अनुबन्ध-लोपः by 1-3-8 लशक्वतद्धिते and 1-3-9 तस्य लोपः। 1-3-4 न विभक्तौ तुस्माः prevents the ending letter ‘स्’ of ‘ङस्’ from getting इत्-सञ्ज्ञा।

(3) पृथुश्रवसः । रुँत्व-विसर्गौ by 8-2-66 ससजुषो रुः and 8-3-15 खरवसानयोर्विसर्जनीयः

Questions:

1. In which verse of Chapter Eleven of the गीता has a sixth case affix been used to express जन्यजनकभावसम्बन्ध:?

2. Can you spot the affix ‘ड’ in the verses?

3. Where has the सूत्रम् 7-4-94 दीर्घो लघोः been used in the verses?

4. Which कृत् affix is used to form the प्रातिपदिकम् ‘निधि’ (used in the compound गजवाजिरथस्त्रीषुनिधिमाल्याम्बरद्रुमाः in the commentary)?

5. Which सूत्रम् prescribes the elision of the affix णिच् in the form वर्णितानि used in the commentary?

6. How would you say this in Sanskrit?
“Among the four sons of king Daśaratha, Śrī Rāma was the eldest.” Use the adjective प्रातिपदिकम् ‘ज्येष्ठ’ for ‘eldest.’

Easy questions:

1. Which सूत्रम् prescribes the substitution ‘अनँङ्’ in the form उशना?

2. Where has the गण-सूत्रम् – जनीजॄष्क्नसुरञ्जोऽमन्ताश्च been used in the commentary?

Aug 112014
 

Today we will look at the form वनस्पतेः mGs from श्रीमद्भागवतम् verse 10-63-32.

तस्यास्यतोऽस्त्राण्यसकृच्चक्रेण क्षुरनेमिना । चिच्छेद भगवान्बाहूञ्छाखा इव वनस्पतेः ।। १०-६३-३२ ।।
बाहुषुच्छिद्यमानेषु बाणस्य भगवान्भवः । भक्तानुकम्प्युपव्रज्य चक्रायुधमभाषत ।। १०-६३-३३ ।।

श्रीधर-स्वामि-टीका -
No commentary on these verses.

Gita Press translation – While he was (thus) discharging missiles again and again the Lord with His discus, keen-edged like a razor, cut off his arms like the boughs of a tree (32). (Even) as the arms of Bāṇa were being lopped off, Lord Śiva (the Source of the universe), took compassion on His devotee, approached Śrī Kṛṣṇa (the Wielder of a discus) and submitted to Him (as follows) (34).

वनस्पतेः is षष्ठी-एकवचनम् of the (compound) पुंलिङ्ग-प्रातिपदिकम् ‘वनस्पति’।

(1) वनस्पति + ङस् । By 4-1-2 स्वौजसमौट्छष्टाभ्याम्भिस्ङेभ्याम्भ्यस्ङसिँभ्याम्भ्यस्ङसोसाम्ङ्योस्सुप्। As per the सूत्रम् 2-3-50 षष्ठी शेषे – A sixth case affix (‘ङस्’, ‘ओस्’, ‘आम्’) is used in the remaining sense, which is that of a syntactic relation – for example the relation between the owner and the owned – which is other than that expressed by a कारकम् (a participant in the action) and that of (only) the meaning of the प्रातिपदिकम् (nominal stem.)
Note: It is the qualifier (विशेषणम्) which takes the sixth case affix, and not the one qualified (विशेष्यम्)।
In the present example, the sixth case affix in वनस्पते: expresses अवयवावयविभावसम्बन्ध: – the relationship between a part (‘शाखा’) and the whole (‘वनस्पति’)। ‘शाखा’ (the bough) is being qualified by the relation to ‘वनस्पति’ (the tree) and hence ‘वनस्पति’ takes the sixth case affix.

Note: The प्रातिपदिकम् ‘वनस्पति’ gets the घि-सञ्ज्ञा by 1-4-7 शेषो घ्यसखि – When a short ‘इ’ ending or short ‘उ’ ending term – except for ‘सखि’ – does not have the नदी-सञ्ज्ञा then it gets the घि-सञ्ज्ञा।

(2) वनस्पति + अस् । अनुबन्ध-लोपः by 1-3-8 लशक्वतद्धिते and 1-3-9 तस्य लोपः1-3-4 न विभक्तौ तुस्माः prevents the ending letter ‘स्’ of the affix ‘ङस्’ from getting इत्-सञ्ज्ञा।

(3) वनस्पते + अस् । By 7-3-111 घेर्ङिति – When a ङित् (having the letter ‘ङ्’ as a इत्) सुँप् affix follows, then a अङ्गम् having the घि-सञ्ज्ञा takes the गुण: substitution. Note: As per 1-1-52 अलोऽन्त्यस्य, the गुण: substitution takes the place of only the ending letter (in this case the letter ‘इ’) of the अङ्गम्।

(4) वनस्पतेस् । By 6-1-110 ङसिँङसोश्च – In place of a preceding एङ् (‘ए’, ‘ओ’) letter and the following short ‘अ’ of the affix ‘ङसिँ’ or ‘ङस्’, there is a single substitute of the former (एङ् letter.)

(5) वनस्पतेः । रुँत्व-विसर्गौ by 8-2-66 ससजुषो रुः and 8-3-15 खरवसानयोर्विसर्जनीयः

Questions:

1. In the first verse of which chapter of the गीता has a sixth case affix been used to express अवयवावयविभावसम्बन्ध:?

2. Where has the सूत्रम् 7-1-37 समासेऽनञ्पूर्वे क्त्वो ल्यप्‌ been used in the verses?

3. Can you spot the substitution ‘शतृँ’ (in the place of ‘लँट्’) in the verses?

4. Which कृत् affix is used to form the नपुंसकलिङ्ग-प्रातिपदिकम् ‘आयुध’ (used in the compound चक्रायुधम् in the verses)?

5. Which सूत्रम् prescribes the augment मुँक् in the form छिद्यमानेषु?

6. How would you say this in Sanskrit?
“Having climbed the branch of a tree, Śrī Hanumān observed Sītā.” Use the verbal root √ईक्ष् (ईक्षँ दर्शने १. ६९४) preceded by the उपसर्गः ‘निर्’ for ‘to observe.’

Easy questions:

1. Which सूत्रम् prescribes the augment तुँक् in the form चिच्छेद?

2. Where has the सूत्रम् 6-4-71 लुङ्लङ्लृङ्क्ष्वडुदात्तः been used in the verses?

Aug 072014
 

Today we will look at the form राज्ञः mGs from श्रीमद्भागवतम् verse 10-41-34.

स याचितो भगवता परिपूर्णेन सर्वतः । साक्षेपं रुषितः प्राह भृत्यो राज्ञः सुदुर्मदः ।। १०-४१-३४ ।।
ईदृशान्येव वासांसि नित्यं गिरिवनेचरः । परिधत्त किमुद्वृत्ता राजद्रव्याण्यभीप्सथ ।। १०-४१-३५ ।।

श्रीधर-स्वामि-टीका -
रुषितः कुपितः ।। ३४ ।। हे उद्वृत्ताः, गिरौ वने चरथ ये नित्यं ते यूयं पूर्वं परिधत्तेति संभावनायां लोट् । अभीप्सथ प्रार्थयध्वम् ।। ३५ ।।

Gita Press translation – Solicited (thus) by the Lord, who was most perfect in everyway, that extremely arrogant servant of Kaṁsa (the king of Mathurā), angrily and tauntingly replied (as follows): – (34) “Do you always wear such (excellent) clothes alone, roaming as you do on the mountain and in the woods, that, transcending all bounds of propriety, you dare seek to have royal goods?”(35)

राज्ञः is षष्ठी-एकवचनम् of the पुंलिङ्ग-प्रातिपदिकम् ‘राजन्’।

(1) राजन् + ङस् । By 4-1-2 स्वौजसमौट्छष्टाभ्याम्भिस्ङेभ्याम्भ्यस्ङसिँभ्याम्भ्यस्ङसोसाम्ङ्योस्सुप्। As per the सूत्रम् 2-3-50 षष्ठी शेषे – A sixth case affix (‘ङस्’, ‘ओस्’, ‘आम्’) is used in the remaining sense, which is that of a syntactic relation – for example the relation between the owner and the owned – which is other than that expressed by a कारकम् (a participant in the action) and that of (only) the meaning of the प्रातिपदिकम् (nominal stem.)
Note: It is the qualifier (विशेषणम्) which takes the sixth case affix, and not the one qualified (विशेष्यम्)।
In the present example, the sixth case affix in राज्ञ: expresses स्वस्वामिभावसम्बन्ध: – the relationship between the owned (‘भृत्य’) and the owner (‘राजन्’)। ‘भृत्य’ (the servant) is being qualified by his relation to ‘राजन्’ and hence ‘राजन्’ takes the sixth case affix.

(2) राजन् + अस् । अनुबन्ध-लोपः by 1-3-8 लशक्वतद्धिते and 1-3-9 तस्य लोपः। 1-3-4 न विभक्तौ तुस्माः prevents the ending letter ‘स्’ of the affix ‘ङस्’ from getting इत्-सञ्ज्ञा।
Note: The अङ्गम् ‘राजन्’ gets the भ-सञ्ज्ञा by 1-4-18 यचि भम्

(3) राज्न् + अस् । By 6-4-134 अल्लोपोऽनः – There is an elision of the letter ‘अ’ of ‘अन्’ when
i) the ‘अन्’ belongs to a अङ्गम् and
ii) the ‘अन्’ is (immediately) followed by a ‘स्वादि’ affix (ref. 4-1-2 स्वौजसमौट्छष्टाभ्याम्भिस्ङेभ्याम्भ्यस्ङसिभ्याम्भ्यस्ङसोसाम्ङ्योस्सुप्‌) which is not सर्वनामस्थानम् and which either begins with the letter ‘य्’ or a vowel (अच्)।

(4) राज्न् + अ: । रुँत्व-विसर्गौ by 8-2-66 ससजुषो रुः and 8-3-15 खरवसानयोर्विसर्जनीयः

(5) राज्ञः । By 8-4-40 स्तोः श्चुना श्चुः – When the letter ‘स्’ or a letter of the त-वर्ग: (‘त्’, ‘थ्’, ‘द्’, ‘ध्’, ‘न्’) comes in contact with either the letter ‘श्’ or a letter of the च-वर्ग: (‘च्’, ‘छ्’, ‘ज्’, ‘झ्’, ‘ञ्’), then it is replaced respectively by ‘श्’, च-वर्ग: (‘च्’, ‘छ्’, ‘ज्’, ‘झ्’, ‘ञ्’)।

Questions:

1. Where has the सूत्रम् 2-3-50 षष्ठी शेषे been used for the last time in the गीता?

2. In the सिद्धान्तकौमुदी the वृत्ति: of the सूत्रम् 2-3-50 षष्ठी शेषे (used in step 1) reads – कारकप्रातिपदिकार्थव्यतिरिक्त: स्वस्वामिभावादिसम्बन्ध: शेषस्तत्र षष्ठी स्यात्। On this the तत्त्वबोधिनी comments – उपयुक्तादन्य: शेष:। कर्मादयश्च प्रातिपदिकार्थपर्यन्ता उपयुक्तास्तत्र द्वितीयादीनां विधानादतो व्याचष्टे – ‘कारकप्रातिपदिकार्थव्यतिरिक्त’ इति। Please explain.

3. In which sense has the affix ‘क्त’ been used in the form रुषित: in the verses?
i) भावे ii) कर्तरि iii) कर्मणि iv) None of the above.

4. Which कृत् affix is used to derive the feminine प्रातिपदिकम् ‘संभावना’ (used in the commentary in the form संभावनायाम् (सप्तमी-एकवचनम्))?

5. How would you say this in Sanskrit?
Śrī Hanumān said to Śrī Rāma – “I am a servant of Sugrīva, the king of monkeys.”

Advanced question:

1. Derive the प्रातिपदिकम् ‘भृत्य’ from the verbal root √भृ (भृञ् भरणे १. १०४५). भृत्य: is explained as – ‘भ्रियते’ इति भृत्य: – A servant is one who is (fit to be) supported. Note: You will need to use the following सूत्रम् (which we have not studied so far) – 3-1-112 भृञोऽसंज्ञायाम् which has the अनुवृत्ति: of क्यप् coming down from 3-1-106 वदः सुपि क्यप् च। Hence the meaning of the सूत्रम् 3-1-112 भृञोऽसंज्ञायाम् is – The affix क्यप् may be used following the verbal root √भृ (भृञ् भरणे १. १०४५) provided the word so derived is not a proper name.

Easy questions:

1. Can you spot the affix सन् in the verses?

2. Where has the सूत्रम् 3-4-91 सवाभ्यां वामौ been used in the commentary?

Aug 042014
 

Today we will look at the form अन्तिकात् n-Ab-s from रघुवंशम् verse 1-85.

रजःकणैः खुरोद्धूतैः स्पृशद्भिर्गात्रमन्तिकात् । तीर्थाभिषेकजां शुद्धिमादधाना महीक्षितः ।। १-८५।।

टीका -
रज इति ।। खुरोद्धूतैरन्तिकात् समीपे गात्रं स्पृशद्भिः ‘दूरान्तिकार्थेभ्यो द्वितीया च’ इति चकारात् पञ्चमी । रजसां कणैः । महीं क्षियत ईष्टे इति महीक्षित् तस्य [महीक्षितः] । तीर्थाभिषेकेण जातां तीर्थाभिषेकजाम्शुद्धिमादधाना कुर्वाणा । एतेन वायव्यं स्नानमुक्तम् । उक्तं च मनुना – ‘आग्नेयं भस्मना स्नानमवगाह्यं तु वारुणम् । आपोहिष्ठेति च ब्राह्मं वायव्यं गोरजः स्मृतम् ।।’ इति ।।

Translation – Imparting to the king the sanctity  that arises from ablution in a holy stream, by means of the particles of dust raised by her hoofs and coming in close contact with his body.

अन्तिकात् is पञ्चमी-एकवचनम् of the नपुंसकलिङ्ग-प्रातिपदिकम् ‘अन्तिक’।

(1) अन्तिक + ङसिँ । By 4-1-2 स्वौजसमौट्छष्टाभ्याम्भिस्ङेभ्याम्भ्यस्ङसिँभ्याम्भ्यस्ङसोसाम्ङ्योस्सुप्। As per the 2-3-35 दूरान्तिकार्थेभ्यो द्वितीया च – A second case affix (‘अम्’) or a third case affix (‘टा’) or a fifth case affix (‘ङसिँ’) is used following a प्रातिपदिकम् (nominal stem) having the sense of either ‘far’ or ‘near.’
Note: प्रातिपदिकार्थमात्रे विधिरयम् – The case affix prescribed by this सूत्रम् denotes only the meaning of the प्रातिपदिकम् (nominal stem.)

(2) अन्तिक + आत् । By 7-1-12 टाङसिङसामिनात्स्याः – Following a अङ्गम् ending in the letter ‘अ’, the affixes ‘टा’, ‘ङसिँ’ and ‘ङस्’ are replaced respectively by ‘इन’, ‘आत्’ and ‘स्य’। Note: Since the substitute ‘आत्’ has more than one letter, as per the परिभाषा-सूत्रम् 1-1-55 अनेकाल्शित्सर्वस्य, the entire affix (and not just its last letter) is replaced by ‘आत्’।
1-3-4 न विभक्तौ तुस्माः prevents the ending letter ‘त्’ of ‘आत्’ from getting the इत्-सञ्ज्ञा।

(3) अन्तिकात् । By 6-1-101 अकः सवर्णे दीर्घः

Questions:

1. Commenting on the सूत्रम् 2-3-35 दूरान्तिकार्थेभ्यो द्वितीया च (used in step 1) the सिद्धान्तकौमुदी says – असत्त्ववचनस्येत्यनुवृत्तेर्नेह। दूर: पन्था:। Please explain.

2. Where has the सूत्रम् 3-2-124 लटः शतृशानचावप्रथमासमानाधिकरणे been used in the verse?

3. Can you spot the affix क्विप् in the verse?

4. In which sense has the third case affix in रजःकणैः been used?
i) कर्तरि ii) करणे iii) हेतौ iv) None of the above.

5. Which सूत्रम् justifies the use of a fifth case affix in the form चकारात् used in the commentary?

6. How would you say this in Sanskrit?
“Stay close to me.”

Easy questions:

1. Where has the सूत्रम् 2-4-72 अदिप्रभृतिभ्यः शपः been used in the commentary?

2. Which सूत्रम् prescribes the substitution ‘ना’ in the form मनुना (used in the commentary?)

Jul 312014
 

Today we will look at the form वृन्दावनात् n-Ab-s from श्रीमद्भागवतम् verse 10-22-29.

अथ गोपैः परिवृतो भगवान्देवकीसुतः । वृन्दावनाद्गतो दूरं चारयन्गाः सहाग्रजः ।। १०-२२-२९ ।।
निदाघार्कातपे तिग्मे छायाभिः स्वाभिरात्मनः । आतपत्रायितान्वीक्ष्य द्रुमानाह व्रजौकसः ।। १०-२२-३० ।।

श्रीधर-स्वामि-टीका -
No commentary on these verses.

Gita Press translation – Accompanied by cowherd boys and pasturing the cows Lord Śrī Kṛṣṇa (the Son of Devakī), one day (during the following hot weather), went far away from Vṛndāvana along-with His elder brother (Balarāma) (29). Perceiving the trees, which played the role of umbrellas to Him with their shade in the scorching rays of the summer sun, the Lord addressed the cowherd boys of Vraja (30).

वृन्दावनात् is पञ्चमी-एकवचनम् of the (compound) नपुंसकलिङ्ग-प्रातिपदिकम् ‘वृन्दावन’।

(1) वृन्दावन + ङसिँ । By 4-1-2 स्वौजसमौट्छष्टाभ्याम्भिस्ङेभ्याम्भ्यस्ङसिँभ्याम्भ्यस्ङसोसाम्ङ्योस्सुप्। As per the 2-3-34 दूरान्तिकार्थैः षष्ठ्यन्यतरस्याम्‌ – A sixth case affix (‘ङस्’, ‘ओस्’, ‘आम्’) or a fifth case affix (‘ङसिँ’, ‘भ्याम्’, ‘भ्यस्’) is used following a प्रातिपदिकम् (nominal stem) co-occurring with a word having the sense of either ‘far’ or ‘near.’

(2) वृन्दावन + आत् । By 7-1-12 टाङसिङसामिनात्स्याः – Following a अङ्गम् ending in the letter ‘अ’, the affixes ‘टा’, ‘ङसिँ’ and ‘ङस्’ are replaced respectively by ‘इन’, ‘आत्’ and ‘स्य’। Note: Since the substitute ‘आत्’ has more than one letter, as per the परिभाषा-सूत्रम् 1-1-55 अनेकाल्शित्सर्वस्य, the entire affix (and not just its last letter) is replaced by ‘आत्’।
1-3-4 न विभक्तौ तुस्माः prevents the ending letter ‘त्’ of ‘आत्’ from getting the इत्-सञ्ज्ञा।

(3) वृन्दावनात् । By 6-1-101 अकः सवर्णे दीर्घः

Questions:

1. Commenting on the सूत्रम् 2-3-34 दूरान्तिकार्थैः षष्ठ्यन्यतरस्याम्‌ (used in step 1) the तत्त्वबोधिनी commentary says – षष्ठ्यां प्राप्तायां पक्षे पञ्चम्यर्थं वचनम्। Please explain.

2. Commenting further on the same सूत्रम् the तत्त्वबोधिनी commentary says – इहान्यतरस्यांग्रहणं समुच्चयार्थं, तेन विप्रकृष्टापि पञ्चमी समुच्चीयते व्याख्यानात्, न तु संनिहिते अपि द्वितीयातृतीये। Please explain.

3. Can you spot the affix ‘क्यङ्’ in the verses?

4. Which सूत्रम् prescribes the substitution ‘ल्यप्‌’ (in place of ‘क्त्वा’) in the form वीक्ष्य?

5. Where has the सूत्रम् 3-2-3 आतोऽनुपसर्गे कः been used in the verses?

6. How would you say this in Sanskrit?
“The hospital is far away from my house.” Use the masculine (compound) प्रातिपदिकम् ‘रुग्णालय’ for ‘hospital.’

Easy questions:

1. Where has the सूत्रम् 6-1-93 औतोऽम्शसोः been used in the verses?

2. Which सूत्रम् prescribes the substitution ‘न्’ in the form द्रुमान्?