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Feb 262015
 

Today we will look at the form आत्महितम्  nAs from श्रीमद्-वाल्मीकि-रामायणम् 6.59.107.

द्वाभ्यामूर्ध्वं तु मासाभ्यां भर्तारं मामनिच्छतीम् । मम त्वां प्रातराशार्थे सूदाश्छेत्स्यन्ति खण्डश: ।। ५-२२-९ ।।
तां भर्त्स्यमानां सम्प्रेक्ष्य राक्षसेन्द्रेण जानकीम् । देवगन्धर्वकन्यास्ता विषेदुर्विकृतेक्षणाः ।। ५-२२-१० ।।
ओष्ठप्रकारैरपरा नेत्रैर्वक्त्रैस्तथापराः । सीतामाश्वासयामासुस्तर्जितां तेन रक्षसा ।। ५-२२-११ ।।
ताभिराश्वासिता सीता रावणं राक्षसाधिपम् । उवाचात्महितं वाक्यं वृत्तशौटीर्यगर्वितम् ।। ५-२२-१२ ।।

Gita Press translation – “My cooks will mince you for my morning repast in case you do not wish to have me for your husband even after two months (from now) (9).” Gazing on that daughter of Janaka being threatened by Rāvaṇa (the lord of ogres), those daughters of gods and Gandharvas ( who had been forcibly borne away like Sītā) grew melancholy with troubled eyes (10). Some (of them) reassured by the expression of their lips and others by their eyes and faces Sītā who was menaced (as above) by that ogre (11). Restored to confidence by them, Sītā addressed to Rāvaṇa, the suzerain lord of ogres, the following reply, which was in his own interest and which was full of pride for her (own) morality as well as for her husband’s valor (12).

लौकिक-विग्रह: -
(1) आत्महितम् = आत्मने हितम् – for (one’s) own benefit/interest.
Note: The fourth case affix used following the प्रातिपदिकम् ‘आत्मन्’ is justified by the following वार्तिकम् (under 2-3-13 चतुर्थी सम्प्रदाने) हितयोगे चतुर्थी वाच्या – A fourth case affix (‘ङे’, ‘भ्याम्’, ‘भ्यस्’) is used following a प्रातिपदिकम् (nominal stem) which is in connection with the word ‘हित’ (beneficial.)

अलौकिक-विग्रह: -
(2) आत्मन् ङे + हित सुँ । By 2-1-36 चतुर्थी तदर्थार्थबलिहितसुखरक्षितैः – A पदम् ending in a fourth case affix optionally compounds with a (syntactically related) पदम् denoting that which is for the purpose of that which is denoted by the पदम् ending in the fourth case affix, and so also with a (syntactically related) पदम् (formed by adding a सुँप् affix to) ‘अर्थ’ or ‘बलि’ or ‘हित’ or ‘सुख’ or ‘रक्षित’ and the resulting compound gets the designation तत्पुरुष:।

See question 1.

(3) By 1-2-43 प्रथमानिर्दिष्टं समास उपसर्जनम् – the term ‘आत्मन् ङे’ gets the designation उपसर्जनम् because in the सूत्रम् 2-1-36 (which prescribes the compounding) the term चतुर्थी ends in the nominative case. Hence ‘आत्मन् ङे’ is placed in the prior position in the compound as per the सूत्रम् 2-2-30 उपसर्जनं पूर्वम्‌ – In a compound a term which has the designation ‘उपसर्जन’ should be placed in the prior position.

Note: ‘आत्मन् ङे + हित सुँ’ gets the designation प्रातिपदिकम्‌ by 1-2-46 कृत्तद्धितसमासाश्च। This allows 2-4-71 to apply in the next step.

(4) आत्मन् + हित । By 2-4-71 सुपो धातुप्रातिपदिकयोः – A सुँप् affix takes a लुक् elision when it is a part of a धातुः or a प्रातिपदिकम्।

Note: ‘आत्मन्’ has पद-सञ्ज्ञा here by 1-4-14 सुप्तिङन्तं पदम् with the help of 1-1-62 प्रत्यय-लोपे प्रत्ययलक्षणम् – When an affix (in this case ‘ङे’) takes लोपः(elision), the operations that were ordained by that affix are still carried out.

(5) आत्महित । By 8-2-7 नलोप: प्रातिपदिकान्तस्य – The ending letter ‘न्’ of a पदम् is dropped when the पदम् also has the designation प्रातिपदिकम्।

As per the सूत्रम् 2-4-26 परवल्लिङ्गं द्वन्द्वतत्पुरुषयोः, the compound प्रातिपदिकम् ‘आत्महित’ is neuter here since the latter member ‘हित’ of the compound is used here in the neuter. (The entire compound is qualifying वाक्यम्।)

The विवक्षा is द्वितीया-एकवचनम्।

(6) आत्महित + अम् । By 4-1-2 स्वौजसमौट्छष्टाभ्याम्भिस्ङेभ्याम्भ्यस्ङसिभ्याम्भ्यस्ङसोसाम्ङ्योस्सुप्‌।

(7) आत्महित + अम् । By 7-1-24 अतोऽम् – The affixes ‘सुँ’ and ‘अम्’ that follow a neuter अङ्गम् ending in the short vowel ‘अ’ take ‘अम्’ as their replacement. Note: 7-1-24 is required here to prevent 7-1-23 स्वमोर्नपुंसकात्‌ from applying.
1-3-4 न विभक्तौ तुस्माः prevents the ending letter ‘म्’ of the affix ‘अम्’ from getting इत्-सञ्ज्ञा।

(8) आत्महितम् । By 6-1-107 अमि पूर्वः – In place of a preceding अक् letter and the following vowel (अच्) belonging to the affix ‘अम्’ there is a single substitute of that preceding अक् letter.

Questions:

1. Commenting on the सूत्रम् 2-1-36 चतुर्थी तदर्थार्थबलिहितसुखरक्षितैः (used in step 2) the सिद्धान्तकौमुदी says – तदर्थेन प्रकृतिविकृतिभाव एव गृह्यते। बलिरक्षितग्रहणाज्ज्ञापकात्‌। Please explain.

2. Which सूत्रम् justifies the use of a fifth case affix in द्वाभ्याम् and मासाभ्याम् used in the verses?

3. Which कृत् affix is used to form the neuter प्रातिपदिकम् ‘नेत्र’ used in the form नेत्रै: (तृतीया-बहुवचनम्) in the verses?

4. Where has the सूत्रम् 7-1-37 समासेऽनञ्पूर्वे क्त्वो ल्यप्‌ been used in the verses?

5. How would you say this in Sanskrit?
“Say that which is beneficial for everyone.” Form a compound for ‘beneficial for everyone’ = सर्वस्मै हितम्।

6. How would you say this in Sanskrit?
“This seat is reserved for the teacher.” Form a compound for ‘reserved for the teacher’ = गुरवे रक्षितम्।

Easy questions:

1. Which सूत्रम् prescribes the affix ‘स्य’ in the form छेत्स्यन्ति?

2. Where has the सूत्रम् 3-1-40 कृञ् चानुप्रयुज्यते लिटि been used in the verses?

Feb 232015
 

Today we will look at the form मदान्धः mNs from श्रीमद्भागवतम् 4.14.5.

एवं मदान्ध उत्सिक्तो निरङ्कुश इव द्विपः । पर्यटन् रथमास्थाय कम्पयन्निव रोदसी ।। ४-१४-५ ।।
न यष्टव्यं न दातव्यं न होतव्यं द्विजाः क्वचित् । इति न्यवारयद्धर्मं भेरीघोषेण सर्वशः ।। ४-१४-६ ।।

श्रीधर-स्वामि-टीका
No comments on these verses.

Gita Press translation – Thus blinded with the intoxication of power and proud like an elephant not governed by a goad, he mounted a chariot and touring (all over his vast dominion) and shaking heaven and earth as it were, banned all religious performances, proclaiming by beat of drum as follows: ‘You shall never perform sacrifices nor bestow gifts nor pour oblations into the sacred fire under any circumstance, O members of the twice born classes!’ (5-6)

लौकिक-विग्रह: -
(1) मदान्धः = मदेनान्धः – blinded with the intoxication (of power.)

अलौकिक-विग्रह: -
(2) मद टा + अन्ध सुँ । By 2-1-32 कर्तृकरणे कृता बहुलम्‌ – A पदम् ending in a third case affix – denoting either the agent or the instrument of the action – variously compounds with (a syntactically related पदम् composed by adding a सुँप् affix to) a term ending in a कृत् affix (ref. 3-1-93 कृदतिङ्) and the resulting compound gets the designation तत्पुरुष:।
Note: बहुलग्रहणं सर्वोपाधिव्यभिचारार्थम्‌। The mention of बहुलम्‌ in the सूत्रम् 2-1-32 कर्तृकरणे कृता बहुल tells us that all conditions may be relaxed. तेन दात्रेण लूनवानित्यादौ न – hence no compounding is allowed in examples such as दात्रेण लूनवान् (someone) has cut off with a sickle, हस्तेन कुर्वन् making by hand, etc.
And conversely, we sometimes do see compounding taking place even when the condition कर्तृकरणे is not satisfied as in the current example where the third case affix used in मदेन denotes the हेतु: (cause/reason) and not the doer or the agent. But still compounding has taken place. The mention of बहुलम्‌ in this सूत्रम् may be used to justify such compounds.
The सूत्रम् 2-3-23 हेतौ justifies the third case affix used following the प्रातिपदिकम् ‘मद’ which denotes the हेतु: (cause/reason) for the intoxication.

(3) By 1-2-43 प्रथमानिर्दिष्टं समास उपसर्जनम् – the term ‘मद टा’ gets the designation उपसर्जनम् because in the सूत्रम् 2-1-32 (which justifies the compounding) the term तृतीया (which comes as अनुवृत्ति: from 2-1-30 तृतीया तत्कृतार्थेन गुणवचनेन) ends in the nominative case. Hence ‘मद टा’ is placed in the prior position in the compound as per the सूत्रम् 2-2-30 उपसर्जनं पूर्वम्‌ – In a compound a term which has the designation ‘उपसर्जन’ should be placed in the prior position.

Note: ‘मद टा + अन्ध सुँ’ gets the designation प्रातिपदिकम्‌ by 1-2-46 कृत्तद्धितसमासाश्च। This allows 2-4-71 to apply in the next step.

(4) मद + अन्ध । By 2-4-71 सुपो धातुप्रातिपदिकयोः – A सुँप् affix takes a लुक् elision when it is a part of a धातुः or a प्रातिपदिकम्।

(5) मदान्ध । By 6-1-101 अकः सवर्णे दीर्घः

As per the सूत्रम् 2-4-26 परवल्लिङ्गं द्वन्द्वतत्पुरुषयोः, the compound प्रातिपदिकम् ‘ मदान्ध’ is masculine here since the latter member ‘अन्ध’ of the compound is used here in the masculine. (The entire compound is qualifying ‘he’ – वेनः।)

The विवक्षा is प्रथमा-एकवचनम्।

(6) मदान्ध + सुँ । By 4-1-2 स्वौजसमौट्छष्टाभ्याम्भिस्ङेभ्याम्भ्यस्ङसिँभ्याम्भ्यस्ङसोसाम्ङ्योस्सुप्

(7) मदान्ध + स् । अनुबन्ध-लोपः by 1-3-2 उपदेशेऽजनुनासिक इत् and 1-3-9 तस्य लोपः।

(8) मदान्ध: । रुँत्व-विसर्गौ by 8-2-66 ससजुषो रुः and 8-3-15 खरवसानयोर्विसर्जनीयः

Questions:

1. Where has the सूत्रम् 2-1-32 कर्तृकरणे कृता बहुलम्‌ (used in step 2) been used in verses 20-25 of Chapter Eighteen of the गीता?

2. Where has the कृत् affix ‘क’ been used in the verses?

3. In the verses can you spot two words in which the substitution ‘शतृँ’ (in place of ‘लँट्’) has been used?

4. Where has the सूत्रम् 7-1-37 समासेऽनञ्पूर्वे क्त्वो ल्यप्‌ been used in the verses?

5. Which सूत्रम् prescribes the affix ‘तव्यत्’/’तव्य’ in the words यष्टव्यम्, दातव्यम् and होतव्यम् used in the verses?

6. How would you say this in Sanskrit?
“Seeing (having seen) Śrī Rāma, Śūrpaṇakhā became blinded by passion.’

Easy questions:

1. In the verses can you spot a प्रातिपदिकम् which is always used only in the dual (no singular or plural)?

2. Where has the सूत्रम् 6-4-71 लुङ्लङ्लृङ्क्ष्वडुदात्तः been used in the verses?

Feb 192015
 

Today we will look at the form इन्द्रनिर्मितैः nIp from श्रीमद्भागवतम् 4.19.35.

मास्मिन्महाराज कृथाः स्म चिन्तां निशामयास्मद्वच आदृतात्मा । यद्ध्यायतो दैवहतं नु कर्तुं मनोऽतिरुष्टं विशते तमोऽन्धम् ।। ४-१९-३४ ।।
क्रतुर्विरमतामेष देवेषु दुरवग्रहः । धर्मव्यतिकरो यत्र पाखण्डैरिन्द्रनिर्मितैः ।। ४-१९-३५ ।।

श्रीधर-स्वामि-टीका
तथापि क्रतुसमाप्तिमेव ध्यायन्तं प्रत्याह । अस्मिन्यज्ञविघ्ने चिन्तां मा स्म कृथाःयद्यस्माद्दैवहतं कार्यं कर्तुं ध्यायतो मनो नु निश्चितमतिरुष्टंदन्धं तमो मोहं विशति तु शान्तिं लभते ।। ३४ ।। अत एव तव क्रतुर्विरमतु । नन्विद्रः किं न निवार्यतेऽत आह । यतो देवेषु दुराग्रहो भवतीति । यत्र क्रतौ ।। ३५ ।।

Gita Press translation – Brood no more over this incident, O mighty monarch, and listen to our word with an attentive mind. For the mind of the man who contemplates achieving what has been thwarted by Providence gets highly enraged and is steeped in blind infatuation (34). Let this sacrificial performance cease; for the gods are obstinate (by nature). It is due to this performance that Dharma is being violated through pseudo-religious practices started by Indra (35).

लौकिक-विग्रह: -
(1) इन्द्रनिर्मितम् = इन्द्रेण निर्मितम् – (practice) started by Indra.

Note: As per the सूत्रम् 2-3-18 कर्तृकरणयोस्तृतीया a third case affix is used following the प्रातिपदिकम् ‘इन्द्र’ which denotes the agent of the action.

अलौकिक-विग्रह: -
(2) इन्द्र टा + निर्मित सुँ । By 2-1-32 कर्तृकरणे कृता बहुलम्‌ – A पदम् ending in a third case affix – denoting either the agent or the instrument of the action – variously compounds with (a syntactically related पदम् composed by adding a सुँप् affix to) a term ending in a कृत् affix (ref. 3-1-93 कृदतिङ्) and the resulting compound gets the designation तत्पुरुष:।
Note: In spite of the presence of उपसर्ग: ‘निर्’ (in ‘निर्मित’) the compounding is allowed as per the परिभाषा ‘कृद्ग्रहणे गतिकारकपूर्वस्यापि ग्रहणम्‌’ – whenever a (term ending in a) कृत् affix is employed in grammar, it also includes such terms as are (ending in that कृत् affix and) preceded by either a उपसर्ग: (preposition) or a कारक: (a word denoting a case relation with the word ending in the कृत् affix.)

(3) By 1-2-43 प्रथमानिर्दिष्टं समास उपसर्जनम् – the term ‘इन्द्र टा’ gets the designation उपसर्जनम् because in the सूत्रम् 2-1-32 (which prescribes the compounding) the term तृतीया (which comes as अनुवृत्ति: from 2-1-30 तृतीया तत्कृतार्थेन गुणवचनेन) ends in the nominative case. Hence ‘इन्द्र टा’ is placed in the prior position in the compound as per the सूत्रम् 2-2-30 उपसर्जनं पूर्वम्‌ – In a compound a term which has the designation ‘उपसर्जन’ should be placed in the prior position.

Note: ‘इन्द्र टा + निर्मित सुँ’ gets the designation प्रातिपदिकम्‌ by 1-2-46 कृत्तद्धितसमासाश्च। This allows 2-4-71 to apply in the next step.

(4) इन्द्र + निर्मित । By 2-4-71 सुपो धातुप्रातिपदिकयोः – A सुँप् affix takes a लुक् elision when it is a part of a धातुः or a प्रातिपदिकम्।

= इन्द्रनिर्मित ।

As per the सूत्रम् 2-4-26 परवल्लिङ्गं द्वन्द्वतत्पुरुषयोः, the compound प्रातिपदिकम् ‘इन्द्रनिर्मित’ is neuter here since the latter member ‘निर्मित’ of the compound is used here in the neuter assuming that the entire compound is qualifying ‘आचरण’ which is not explicitly mentioned in the verses. Or if we take the the entire compound as qualifying ‘आचार’ then its gender will be masculine.

The विवक्षा is तृतीया-बहुवचनम्।

(5) इन्द्रनिर्मित + भिस् । By 4-1-2 स्वौजसमौट्छष्टाभ्याम्भिस्ङेभ्याम्भ्यस्ङसिँभ्याम्भ्यस्ङसोसाम्ङ्योस्सुप्

(6) इन्द्रनिर्मित + ऐस् । By 7-1-9 अतो भिस ऐस् – Following a अङ्गम् ending in the letter ‘अ’, the affix ‘भिस्’ is replaced by ‘ऐस्’। As per the परिभाषा-सूत्रम् 1-1-55 अनेकाल्शित्सर्वस्य the entire affix ‘भिस्’ is replaced by ‘ऐस्’। 1-3-4 न विभक्तौ तुस्माः prevents the ending letter ‘स्’ of ‘ऐस्’ from getting the इत्-सञ्ज्ञा।

(7) इन्द्रनिर्मितैस् । By 6-1-88 वृद्धिरेचि

(8) इन्द्रनिर्मितैः । रुँत्व-विसर्गौ by 8-2-66 ससजुषो रुः and 8-3-15 खरवसानयोर्विसर्जनीयः

Questions:

1. In verses 12-17 of Chapter 17 of the गीता can you spot a compound composed using the सूत्रम् 2-1-32 कर्तृकरणे कृता बहुलम्‌ with the help of the परिभाषा ‘कृद्ग्रहणे गतिकारकपूर्वस्यापि ग्रहणम्‌’ (used in step 2)?

2. In the verses can you spot another compound (besides ‘इन्द्रनिर्मित’) which is composed using the सूत्रम् 2-1-32 कर्तृकरणे कृता बहुलम्‌?

3. Where has the affix खल् been used in the verses?

4. Which कृत् affix is used to derive the feminine प्रातिपदिकम् ‘चिन्ता’ used in the form चिन्ताम् (द्वितीया-एकवचनम्) in the verses?

5. Where has the सूत्रम् 3-2-124 लटः शतृशानचावप्रथमासमानाधिकरणे been used in the verses?

6. How would you say this in Sanskrit?
“This ritual has not been ordained by the scriptures.” Use the verbal root √धा (डुधाञ् धारणपोषणयोः | दान इत्यप्येके ३. ११) preceded by the उपसर्ग: ‘वि’ for ‘to ordain.’

Easy questions:

1. Where has the सूत्रम् 6-4-74 न माङ्योगे been used in the verses?

2. Why is the form विरमताम् used in the verses a आर्ष-प्रयोग: (irregular grammatical usage)?

Feb 162015
 

Today we will look at the form शरताडितः  mNs from श्रीमद्-वाल्मीकि-रामायणम् 6.59.107.

निकृत्तचापं त्रिभिराजघान बाणैस्तदा दाशरथिः शिताग्रैः । स सायकार्तो विचचाल राजा कृच्छ्राच्च संज्ञां पुनराससाद ।। ६-५९-१०६ ।।
स कृत्तचापः शरताडितश्च मेदार्द्रगात्रो रुधिरावसिक्तः । जग्राह शक्तिं स्वयमुग्रशक्तिः स्वयम्भुदत्तां युधि देवशत्रुः ।। ६-५९-१०७ ।।
स तां सधूमानलसंनिकाशां वित्रासनां संयति वानराणाम् । चिक्षेप शक्तिं तरसा ज्वलन्तीं सौमित्रये राक्षसराष्ट्रनाथः ।। ६-५९-१०८ ।।

Gita Press translation – Lakṣmaṇa (son of Daśaratha) then struck Rāvaṇa (whose bow had been cut to pieces) with three sharp-pointed arrows. Hurt by the shafts, the aforesaid king swooned and recovered his consciousness with difficulty (106). Struck with arrows and bathed in blood, his bow having been cut, and his limbs splattered with fat, Rāvaṇa (the enemy of gods), who was himself endowed with formidable energy, seized on the battlefield a javelin gifted (to him) by Brahmā (the self-born creator) (107). That guardian of the ogre kingdom flung with fury at Lakṣmaṇa that flaming javelin, which shone brightly like a fire crowned with smoke and constituted the terror of the monkeys on the field of battle (108).

लौकिक-विग्रह: -
(1) शरताडितः = शरैस्ताडितः – Struck with arrows.
Note: As per the सूत्रम् 2-3-18 कर्तृकरणयोस्तृतीया a third case affix is used following the प्रातिपदिकम् ‘शर’ which denotes the instrument of the action.

अलौकिक-विग्रह: -
(2) शर भिस् + ताडित सुँ । By 2-1-32 कर्तृकरणे कृता बहुलम्‌ – A पदम् ending in a third case affix – denoting either the agent or the instrument of the action – variously compounds with (a syntactically related पदम् composed by adding a सुँप् affix to) a term ending in a कृत् affix (ref. 3-1-93 कृदतिङ्) and the resulting compound gets the designation तत्पुरुष:।

(3) By 1-2-43 प्रथमानिर्दिष्टं समास उपसर्जनम् – the term ‘शर भिस्’ gets the designation उपसर्जनम् because in the सूत्रम् 2-1-32 (which prescribes the compounding) the term तृतीया (which comes as अनुवृत्ति: from 2-1-30 तृतीया तत्कृतार्थेन गुणवचनेन) ends in the nominative case. Hence ‘शर भिस्’ is placed in the prior position in the compound as per the सूत्रम् 2-2-30 उपसर्जनं पूर्वम्‌ – In a compound a term which has the designation ‘उपसर्जन’ should be placed in the prior position.

Note: ‘शर भिस् + ताडित सुँ’ gets the designation प्रातिपदिकम्‌ by 1-2-46 कृत्तद्धितसमासाश्च। This allows 2-4-71 to apply in the next step.

(4) शर + ताडित । By 2-4-71 सुपो धातुप्रातिपदिकयोः – A सुँप् affix takes a लुक् elision when it is a part of a धातुः or a प्रातिपदिकम्।

= शरताडित ।

As per the सूत्रम् 2-4-26 परवल्लिङ्गं द्वन्द्वतत्पुरुषयोः, the compound प्रातिपदिकम् ‘शरताडित’ is masculine here since the latter member ‘ताडित’ of the compound is used here in the masculine. (The entire compound is qualifying सः (रावणः)।)

The विवक्षा is प्रथमा-एकवचनम्।

(5) शरताडित + सुँ । By 4-1-2 स्वौजसमौट्छष्टाभ्याम्भिस्ङेभ्याम्भ्यस्ङसिँभ्याम्भ्यस्ङसोसाम्ङ्योस्सुप्

(6) शरताडित + स् । अनुबन्ध-लोपः by 1-3-2 उपदेशेऽजनुनासिक इत् and 1-3-9 तस्य लोपः।

(7) शरताडित: । रुँत्व-विसर्गौ by 8-2-66 ससजुषो रुः and 8-3-15 खरवसानयोर्विसर्जनीयः

Questions:

1. Where has the सूत्रम् 2-1-32 कर्तृकरणे कृता बहुलम्‌ been used in the last five verses of Chapter Seventeen of the गीता?

2. Which सूत्रम् prescribes the elision of the affix णिच् in the form ‘ताडित’?

3. Which कृत् affix is used to form the feminine प्रातिपदिकम् ‘संज्ञा’ used in the form संज्ञाम् (द्वितीया-एकवचनम्) in the verses?

4. Where has the सूत्रम् 3-2-124 लटः शतृशानचावप्रथमासमानाधिकरणे been used in the verses?

5. Which वार्तिकम् justifies the use of the affix क्विँप् in the formation of the feminine प्रातिपदिकम् ‘युध्’ used in the form युधि (सप्तमी-एकवचनम्) in the verses?

6. How would you say this in Sanskrit?
“That which is seen by the eyes is real.” Use the adjective ‘सत्य’ for ‘real.’

Easy questions:

1. Why doesn’t the सूत्रम् 6-4-120 अत एकहल्मध्येऽनादेशादेर्लिटि apply in the form विचचाल? (Which condition is not satisfied?)

2. In how many places in the verses has the सूत्रम् 7-4-62 कुहोश्चुः been used?

Feb 122015
 

Today we will look at the form देवकृतः  mNs from श्रीमद्भागवतम् 5.20.13.

एवं सुरोदाद्बहिस्तद्द्विगुणः समानेनावृतो घृतोदेन यथापूर्वः कुशद्वीपो यस्मिन्कुशस्तम्बो देवकृतस्तद्द्वीपाख्याकरो ज्वलन इवापरः स्वशष्परोचिषा दिशो विराजयति ।। ५-२०-१३ ।।
तद्द्वीपपतिः प्रैयव्रतो राजन्हिरण्यरेता नाम स्वं द्वीपं सप्तभ्यः स्वपुत्रेभ्यो यथाभागं विभज्य स्वयं तप आतिष्ठत वसुवसुदानदृढरुचिनाभिगुप्तस्तुत्यव्रतविविक्तवामदेवनामभ्यः ।। ५-२०-१४ ।।

श्रीधर-स्वामि-टीका
एवं सुरोदाद्बहिर्घृतोदेनावृतः कुशद्वीप इत्यन्वयः । स्वशष्पाणि स्वकोमलशिखास्तेषां रोचिषा ।। १३ ।। १४ ।।

Translation – Similarly, beyond the ocean of wine and twice as large, the Kuśadwīpa, which like the Śālmaladwīpa, (mentioned in passage 7 above), is encircled (on the other side) by an equally wide ocean of clarified butter. In that Dwīpa there is a clump of Kuśa grass, created by the Lord (Himself), which is responsible for the name of the Dwīpa, and which, like another (heatless) flaming fire, illuminates the quarters by the effulgence of its (tender) shoots (13). Its (first) ruler, O Parīkṣit, king Hiraṇyaretā by name, (the fourth) son of Priyavrata, divided his Dwīpa, in due proportion among his seven sons – Vasu, Vasudāna, Dṛḍharuci, Nābhigupta, Stutyavrata, Vivikta and Vāmadeva – and himself took to religious austerities (14).

लौकिक-विग्रह: -
(1) देवकृतः = देवेन कृतः – created by the Lord.
Note: As per the सूत्रम् 2-3-18 कर्तृकरणयोस्तृतीया a third case affix is used following the प्रातिपदिकम् ‘देव’ which denotes the agent of the action.

अलौकिक-विग्रह: -
(2) देव टा + कृत सुँ । By 2-1-32 कर्तृकरणे कृता बहुलम्‌ – A पदम् ending in a third case affix – denoting either the agent or the instrument of the action – variously compounds with (a syntactically related पदम् composed by adding a सुँप् affix to) a term ending in a कृत् affix (ref. 3-1-93 कृदतिङ्) and the resulting compound gets the designation तत्पुरुष:।

(3) By 1-2-43 प्रथमानिर्दिष्टं समास उपसर्जनम् – the term ‘देव टा’ gets the designation उपसर्जनम् because in the सूत्रम् 2-1-32 (which prescribes the compounding) the term तृतीया (which comes as अनुवृत्ति: from 2-1-30 तृतीया तत्कृतार्थेन गुणवचनेन) ends in the nominative case. Hence ‘देव टा’ is placed in the prior position in the compound as per the सूत्रम् 2-2-30 उपसर्जनं पूर्वम्‌ – In a compound a term which has the designation ‘उपसर्जन’ should be placed in the prior position.

Note: ‘देव टा + कृत सुँ’ gets the designation प्रातिपदिकम्‌ by 1-2-46 कृत्तद्धितसमासाश्च। This allows 2-4-71 to apply in the next step.

(4) देव + कृत । By 2-4-71 सुपो धातुप्रातिपदिकयोः – A सुँप् affix takes a लुक् elision when it is a part of a धातुः or a प्रातिपदिकम्।

= देवकृत ।

As per the सूत्रम् 2-4-26 परवल्लिङ्गं द्वन्द्वतत्पुरुषयोः, the compound प्रातिपदिकम् ‘देवकृत’ is masculine here since the latter member ‘कृत’ of the compound is used here in the masculine. (The entire compound is qualifying कुशस्तम्ब:।)

The विवक्षा is प्रथमा-एकवचनम्।

(5) देवकृत + सुँ । By 4-1-2 स्वौजसमौट्छष्टाभ्याम्भिस्ङेभ्याम्भ्यस्ङसिँभ्याम्भ्यस्ङसोसाम्ङ्योस्सुप्

(6) देवकृत + स् । अनुबन्ध-लोपः by 1-3-2 उपदेशेऽजनुनासिक इत् and 1-3-9 तस्य लोपः।

(7) देवकृत: । रुँत्व-विसर्गौ by 8-2-66 ससजुषो रुः and 8-3-15 खरवसानयोर्विसर्जनीयः

Questions:

1. Where has the सूत्रम् 2-1-32 कर्तृकरणे कृता बहुलम्‌ (used in step 2) been used in verses 7-12 of Chapter Seventeen of the गीता?

2. Commenting on the सूत्रम् 2-1-32 कर्तृकरणे कृता बहुलम्‌ the सिद्धान्तकौमुदी says – ‘कर्तृकरणे’ इति किम्‌? भिक्षाभिरुषित:। हेतावेषा तृतीया। Please explain.

3. Commenting further on the same सूत्रम् the सिद्धान्तकौमुदी says – कृता किम्‌? काष्ठै: पचतितराम्‌। Please explain.

4. What is the विग्रह-वाक्यम् of the अव्ययीभाव: compound यथाभागम् used in the verses?

5. How would you say this in Sanskrit?
“I consider this entire universe (to be) created by the Lord.” Use the verbal root √मन् (मनँ ज्ञाने ४. ७३) for ‘to consider.’ Use the adjective ‘कृत्स्न’ for ‘entire.’

6. How would you say this in Sanskrit?
“Seeing (having seen) Ravana killed by Sri Rama, all the monkeys rejoiced.” Use the verbal root √हृष् (हृषँ तुष्टौ ४. १४२) preceded by the उपसर्ग: ‘प्र’ for ‘to rejoice.’

Easy questions:

1. Which सूत्रम् prescribes the affix णिच् used in the form विराजयति?

2. Why doesn’t the सूत्रम् 7-3-103 बहुवचने झल्येत्‌ apply in the form सप्तभ्यः?

Feb 092015
 

Today we will look at the form शाठ्यमिश्रम् nAs from श्रीमद्भागवतम् 1.14.4.

कालस्य च गतिं रौद्रां विपर्यस्तर्तुधर्मिणः । पापीयसीं नृणां वार्तां क्रोधलोभानृतात्मनाम् ।। १-१४-३ ।।
जिह्मप्रायं व्यवहृतं शाठ्यमिश्रं च सौहृदम् । पितृमातृसुहृद्भ्रातृदम्पतीनां च कल्कनम् ।। १-१४-४ ।।

श्रीधर-स्वामि-टीका
रौद्रां घोराम् । तदेवाह । विपर्यस्ता ऋतुधर्मा यस्मिंस्तस्य । वार्तां जीविकाम् । क्रोधलोभानृतैर्युक्त आत्मा येषाम् ।। ३ ।। जिह्मप्रायं कपटबहुलम् । व्यवहृतं व्यवहारम् । शाठ्यं वञ्चनं तन्मिश्रं सौहृदं सख्यम् । पित्रादीनां स्वप्रतियोगिभिः कल्कनं कलहादि ।। ४ ।।

Gita Press translation – Time had taken a dreadful turn, (as was clear from the fact that) the characteristics of the seasons had totally changed. People had taken to sinful ways of living, their heart possessed with anger, greed and falsehood (3). Their dealings had become crooked; even friendship was marred by deceitfulness; there were quarrels between parents and sons, relations and relations, brothers and brothers, and even between husbands and wives (4).

लौकिक-विग्रह: -
(1) शाठ्यमिश्रम् = शाठ्येन मिश्रम् – marred (tainted/mixed) by deceitfulness.
Note: The use of a third case affix following the प्रातिपदिकम् (nominal stem) ‘शाठ्य’ co-occurring with ‘मिश्र’ may be justified by the very fact that the सूत्रम् 2-1-31 prescribes compounding between a पदम् ending in a third case affix and ‘मिश्र’। Or the सूत्रम् 2-3-23 हेतौ may be used to justify the third case affix.

अलौकिक-विग्रह: -
(2) शाठ्य टा + मिश्र सुँ । By 2-1-31 पूर्वसदृशसमोनार्थकलहनिपुणमिश्रश्लक्ष्णैः – A पदम् ending in a third case affix optionally compounds with (a syntactically related पदम् composed by adding a सुँप् affix to) any one of the following and the resulting compound gets the designation तत्पुरुष: -
i) ‘पूर्व’ (prior)
ii) ‘सदृश’ (like/similar)
iii) ‘सम’ (equal to)
iv) ‘ऊनार्थ’ – ‘ऊन’ (less) or any of its synonyms
v) ‘कलह’ (quarrel)
vi) ‘निपुण’ (skillful)
vii) ‘मिश्र’ (mixed)
viii) ‘श्लक्ष्ण’ (gentle/polished.)

(3) By 1-2-43 प्रथमानिर्दिष्टं समास उपसर्जनम् – the term ‘शाठ्य टा’ gets the designation उपसर्जनम् because in the सूत्रम् 2-1-31 (which prescribes the compounding) the term तृतीया (which comes as अनुवृत्ति: from 2-1-30 तृतीया तत्कृतार्थेन गुणवचनेन) ends in the nominative case. Hence ‘शाठ्य टा’ is placed in the prior position in the compound as per the सूत्रम् 2-2-30 उपसर्जनं पूर्वम्‌ – In a compound a term which has the designation ‘उपसर्जन’ should be placed in the prior position.

Note: ‘शाठ्य टा + मिश्र सुँ’ gets the designation प्रातिपदिकम्‌ by 1-2-46 कृत्तद्धितसमासाश्च। This allows 2-4-71 to apply in the next step.

(4) शाठ्य + मिश्र । By 2-4-71 सुपो धातुप्रातिपदिकयोः – A सुँप् affix takes a लुक् elision when it is a part of a धातुः or a प्रातिपदिकम्।

= शाठ्यमिश्र ।

As per the सूत्रम् 2-4-26 परवल्लिङ्गं द्वन्द्वतत्पुरुषयोः, the compound प्रातिपदिकम् ‘शाठ्यमिश्र’ is neuter here since the latter member ‘मिश्र’ of the compound is used here in the neuter. (The entire compound is qualifying सौहृदम्।)

The विवक्षा is द्वितीया-एकवचनम्।

(5) शाठ्यमिश्र + अम् । By 4-1-2 स्वौजसमौट्छष्टाभ्याम्भिस्ङेभ्याम्भ्यस्ङसिभ्याम्भ्यस्ङसोसाम्ङ्योस्सुप्‌।

(6) शाठ्यमिश्र + अम् । By 7-1-24 अतोऽम् – The affixes ‘सुँ’ and ‘अम्’ that follow a neuter अङ्गम् ending in the short vowel ‘अ’ take ‘अम्’ as their replacement. Note: 7-1-24 is required here to prevent 7-1-23 स्वमोर्नपुंसकात्‌ from applying.
1-3-4 न विभक्तौ तुस्माः prevents the ending letter ‘म्’ of the affix ‘अम्’ from getting इत्-सञ्ज्ञा।

(7) शाठ्यमिश्रम् । By 6-1-107 अमि पूर्वः – In place of a preceding अक् letter and the following vowel (अच्) belonging to the affix ‘अम्’ there is a single substitute of that preceding अक् letter.

Questions:

1. Commenting on the सूत्रम् 2-1-31 (used in step 2) the सिद्धान्तकौमुदी says – मिश्रग्रहणे सोपसर्गस्यापि ग्रहणम्‌। ‘६-२-१५४ मिश्रं चानुपसर्गमसंधौ’ इत्यत्रानुपसर्गग्रहणात्‌। Please explain.

2. Which सूत्रम् prescribes the elision of the nasal consonant ‘म्’ (of the verbal root √गम् (गमॢँ गतौ १. ११३७)) in the feminine प्रातिपदिकम् ‘गति’ used in the form गतिम् (द्वितीया-एकवचनम्) in the verses?

3. Where has the सूत्रम् 3-3-114 नपुंसके भावे क्तः been used in the verses?

4. Which कृत् affix is used to form the masculine प्रातिपदिकम् ‘व्यवहार’ used in the form व्यवहारम् (द्वितीया-एकवचनम्) in the commentary? Which one is used to form the neuter प्रातिपदिकम् ‘वञ्चन’ used in the form वञ्चनम् (द्वितीया-एकवचनम्) in the commentary?

5. How would you say this in Sanskrit?
“Give me some salt water.” Paraphrase to “Give me some water mixed with salt.”

6. How would you say this in Sanskrit?
“I suspect that this food is mixed with poison.” Use the verbal root √शङ्क् (शकिँ शङ्कायाम् १. ९१) for ‘to suspect’ and use the अव्ययम् ‘इति’ to covey the meaning of ‘that.’

Easy questions:

1. What is the alternate form for नृणाम् (पुंलिङ्ग-प्रातिपदिकम् ‘नृ’, षष्ठी-बहुवचनम्)?

2. Where has the verbal root √ब्रू (ब्रूञ् व्यक्तायां वाचि २. ३९) been used in the commentary?

Feb 052015
 

Today we will look at the form अग्निसदृशम्  nAs from श्रीमद्-वाल्मीकि-रामायणम् 3.51.14.

तच्चाग्निसदृशं दीप्तं रावणस्य शरावरम् । पक्षाभ्यां च महातेजा व्यधुनोत्पतगेश्वरः ।। ३-५१-१४ ।।
काञ्चनोरश्छदान् दिव्यान् पिशाचवदनान् खरान् । तांश्चास्य जवसम्पन्नाञ्जघान समरे बली ।। ३-५१-१५ ।।
अथ त्रिवेणुसम्पन्नं कामगं पावकार्चिषम् । मणिसोपानचित्राङ्गं बभञ्ज च महारथम् ।। ३-५१-१६ ।।
पूर्णचन्द्रप्रतीकाशं छत्रं च व्यजनैः सह । पातयामास वेगेन ग्राहिभी राक्षसैः सह ।। ३-५१-१७ ।।

Translation – The king of birds, who was endowed with great energy, also broke with his wings Rāvaṇa’s coat of mail, blazing like fire (14). The mighty bird further killed in the course of the encounter the celebrated swift-going heavenly mules of Rāvaṇa, endowed with the heads of fiends and protected by breast-plates of gold (15). Jaṭāyu presently smashed the huge chariot as well (of Rāvaṇa) provided with a pole to which the yoke is fixed and flaming like fire, which could go wherever one liked and whose frame looked charming with its steps of gems (16). Jaṭāyu also knocked down with vehemence the canopy (over the seat of Rāvaṇa) shining as the full moon, along with the whisks as also with the ogres holding them (17).

लौकिक-विग्रह: -
(1) अग्निसदृशम् = अग्निना सदृशम् – like fire.
Note: The सूत्रम् 2-3-72 तुल्यार्थैरतुलोपमाभ्यां तृतीयान्यतरस्याम्‌ justifies the use of a third case affix following the प्रातिपदिकम् (nominal stem) ‘अग्नि’ which is co-occurring with ‘सदृश’।

अलौकिक-विग्रह: -
(2) अग्नि टा + सदृश सुँ । By 2-1-31 पूर्वसदृशसमोनार्थकलहनिपुणमिश्रश्लक्ष्णैः – A पदम् ending in a third case affix optionally compounds with (a syntactically related पदम् composed by adding a सुँप् affix to) any one of the following and the resulting compound gets the designation तत्पुरुष: -
i) ‘पूर्व’ (prior)
ii) ‘सदृश’ (like/similar)
iii) ‘सम’ (equal to)
iv) ‘ऊनार्थ’ – ‘ऊन’ (less) or any of its synonyms
v) ‘कलह’ (quarrel)
vi) ‘निपुण’ (skillful)
vii) ‘मिश्र’ (mixed)
viii) ‘श्लक्ष्ण’ (gentle/polished.)

See question 1.

(3) By 1-2-43 प्रथमानिर्दिष्टं समास उपसर्जनम् – the term ‘अग्नि टा’ gets the designation उपसर्जनम् because in the सूत्रम् 2-1-31 (which prescribes the compounding) the term तृतीया (which comes as अनुवृत्ति: from 2-1-30 तृतीया तत्कृतार्थेन गुणवचनेन) ends in the nominative case. Hence ‘अग्नि टा’ is placed in the prior position in the compound as per the सूत्रम् 2-2-30 उपसर्जनं पूर्वम्‌ – In a compound a term which has the designation ‘उपसर्जन’ should be placed in the prior position.

Note: ‘अग्नि टा + सदृश सुँ’ gets the designation प्रातिपदिकम्‌ by 1-2-46 कृत्तद्धितसमासाश्च। This allows 2-4-71 to apply in the next step.

(4) अग्नि + सदृश । By 2-4-71 सुपो धातुप्रातिपदिकयोः – A सुँप् affix takes a लुक् elision when it is a part of a धातुः or a प्रातिपदिकम्।

= अग्निसदृश ।

As per the सूत्रम् 2-4-26 परवल्लिङ्गं द्वन्द्वतत्पुरुषयोः, the compound प्रातिपदिकम् ‘अग्निसदृश’ is neuter here since the latter member ‘सदृश’ of the compound is used here in the neuter. (The entire compound is qualifying शरावरम्।)

The विवक्षा is द्वितीया-एकवचनम्।

(5) अग्निसदृश + अम् । By 4-1-2 स्वौजसमौट्छष्टाभ्याम्भिस्ङेभ्याम्भ्यस्ङसिभ्याम्भ्यस्ङसोसाम्ङ्योस्सुप्‌।

(6) अग्निसदृश + अम् । By 7-1-24 अतोऽम् – The affixes ‘सुँ’ and ‘अम्’ that follow a neuter अङ्गम् ending in the short vowel ‘अ’ take ‘अम्’ as their replacement. Note: 7-1-24 is required here to prevent 7-1-23 स्वमोर्नपुंसकात्‌ from applying.
1-3-4 न विभक्तौ तुस्माः prevents the ending letter ‘म्’ of the affix ‘अम्’ from getting इत्-सञ्ज्ञा।

(7) अग्निसदृशम् । By 6-1-107 अमि पूर्वः – In place of a preceding अक् letter and the following vowel (अच्) belonging to the affix ‘अम्’ there is a single substitute of that preceding अक् letter.

Questions:

1. Commenting on the सूत्रम् 2-1-31 पूर्वसदृशसमोनार्थकलहनिपुणमिश्रश्लक्ष्णैः (used in step 2) the तत्त्वबोधिनी says – इह समसदृशाभ्यां योगे ‘२-३-७२ तुल्यार्थैरतुलोपमाभ्यां तृतीयान्यतरस्याम्‌’ इति तृतीया। अन्यैर्योगे त्वत एव वचनात्, ‘२-३-२३ हेतौ’ इति वा तृतीया। Please explain.

2. In which sense has the third case affix been used in the form पक्षाभ्याम् used in the verses?
i) कर्तरि
ii) करणे
iii) हेतौ
iv) None of the above

3. Where has the सूत्रम् 2-3-36 सप्तम्यधिकरणे च been used in the verses?

4. In the verses can you spot a word in which the कृत् affix ‘ड’ has been used?

5. Which कृत् affix is used to derive the form ग्राहिभि: (प्रातिपदिकम् ‘ग्राहिन्’, पुंलिङ्गे तृतीया-बहुवचनम्) used in the verses?

6. How would you say this in Sanskrit?
“There has not been and will not be a warrior like Arjuna.”

Easy questions:

1. Can you spot the affix ‘श्नु’ in the verses?

2. Why doesn’t the सूत्रम् 2-4-52 अस्तेर्भूः apply in the form पातयामास?

Feb 022015
 

Today we will look at the form तारकाचित्रम्  nNs from रामोपाख्यानम् in the महाभारतम् 3.275.20.

ततोऽन्तरिक्षं तत्सर्वं देवगन्धर्वसंकुलम् । शुशुभे तारकाचित्रं शरदीव नभस्तलम् ।। ३-२७५-२० ।।
तत उत्थाय वैदेही तेषां मध्ये यशस्विनी । उवाच वाक्यं कल्याणी रामं पृथुलवक्षसम् ।। ३-२७४-२१ ।।
राजपुत्र न ते कोपं करोमि विदिता हि मे । गतिः स्त्रीणां नराणां च शृणु चेदं वचो मम ।। ३-२७४-२२ ।।

Translation – Then the entire atmosphere filled with gods and Gandharvas shone like the surface of the sky bright with stars in autumn (20).Then the noble princess of Videha stood up glorious in their midst and spoke this speech to the broad chested Rāma: “Prince, I am not angry at you, for I know the way of women and of men, but listen to my speech.” (21-22)

लौकिक-विग्रह: -
(1) तारकाभिश्चित्रम् = तारकाचित्रम् – bright with stars.
Note: As per the सूत्रम् 2-3-18 कर्तृकरणयोस्तृतीया a third case affix is used following the प्रातिपदिकम् ‘तारका’ which denotes the करणम् (instrument) of the action of making bright.

अलौकिक-विग्रह: -
(2) तारका भिस् + चित्र सुँ । By 2-1-30 तृतीया तत्कृतार्थेन गुणवचनेन – (As per the महाभाष्यम्) this सूत्रम् consists of two parts – i) तृतीया तत्कृतेन गुणवचनेन – A पदम् ending in a third case affix optionally compounds with a (syntactically related) पदम् which denotes that which possesses a property instrumentally caused by that which is denoted by the पदम् ending in a third case affix and the resulting compound gets the designation तत्पुरुष:।
ii) अर्थेन – A पदम् ending in a third case affix optionally compounds with a (syntactically related) पदम् (composed by adding a सुँप् affix to) ‘अर्थ’ (wealth) and the resulting compound gets the designation तत्पुरुष:।

See question 1.

(3) By 1-2-43 प्रथमानिर्दिष्टं समास उपसर्जनम् – the term ‘तारका भिस्’ gets the designation उपसर्जनम् because in the सूत्रम् 2-1-30 (which prescribes the compounding) the term तृतीया ends in the nominative case. Hence ‘तारका भिस्’ is placed in the prior position in the compound as per the सूत्रम् 2-2-30 उपसर्जनं पूर्वम्‌ – In a compound a term which has the designation ‘उपसर्जन’ should be placed in the prior position.

Note: ‘तारका भिस् + चित्र सुँ’ gets the designation प्रातिपदिकम्‌ by 1-2-46 कृत्तद्धितसमासाश्च। This allows 2-4-71 to apply in the next step.

(4) तारका + चित्र । By 2-4-71 सुपो धातुप्रातिपदिकयोः – A सुँप् affix takes a लुक् elision when it is a part of a धातुः or a प्रातिपदिकम्।

= तारकाचित्र ।

As per the सूत्रम् 2-4-26 परवल्लिङ्गं द्वन्द्वतत्पुरुषयोः, the compound प्रातिपदिकम् ‘तारकाचित्र’ is neuter here since the latter member ‘चित्र’ of the compound is used here in the neuter. (The entire compound is qualifying नभस्तलम्।)

The विवक्षा is प्रथमा-एकवचनम्।

(5) तारकाचित्र + सुँ । By 4-1-2 स्वौजसमौट्छष्टाभ्याम्भिस्ङेभ्याम्भ्यस्ङसिभ्याम्भ्यस्ङसोसाम्ङ्योस्सुप्‌।

(6) तारकाचित्र + अम् । By 7-1-24 अतोऽम् – The affixes ‘सुँ’ and ‘अम्’ that follow a neuter अङ्गम् ending in the short vowel ‘अ’ take ‘अम्’ as their replacement.
1-3-4 न विभक्तौ तुस्माः prevents the ending letter ‘म्’ of the affix ‘अम्’ from getting इत्-सञ्ज्ञा।

(7) तारकाचित्रम् । By 6-1-107 अमि पूर्वः – In place of a preceding अक् letter and the following vowel (अच्) belonging to the affix ‘अम्’ there is a single substitute of that preceding अक् letter.

Questions:

1. Commenting on the सूत्रम् 2-1-30 तृतीया तत्कृतार्थेन गुणवचनेन (used in step 2) the सिद्धान्तकौमुदी says तत्कृतेति लुप्ततृतीयाकम्‌। Please explain.

2. Commenting further on the same सूत्रम् the सिद्धान्तकौमुदी says तत्कृतेति किम्‌? अक्ष्णा काण:। Please explain.

3. Commenting on the same सूत्रम् the तत्त्वबोधिनी says – गुणवचनेनेति किम्? गोभिर्वपावान्। गोसंबन्धिदध्यादिभोजनेन देवदत्तस्य वपावत्त्वमित्यस्ति तत्कृतत्वं, न त्वसौ गुणवचनः। Please explain.

4. Where has the सूत्रम् 7-1-37 समासेऽनञ्पूर्वे क्त्वो ल्यप्‌ been used in the verses?

5. Which सूत्रम् prescribes the affix क्तिन् in the form गति:?

6. How would you say this in Sanskrit?
“The ground here is white with snow.”

Easy questions:

1. Which सूत्रम् prescribes the substitution ‘ए’ in the form शुशुभे?

2. Where has the सूत्रम् 6-4-106 उतश्च प्रत्ययादसंयोगपूर्वात्‌ been used in the verses?

Jan 292015
 

Today we will look at the form मुहूर्तसेवया fIs from श्रीमद्भागवतम् 10.84.12.

न ह्यम्मयानि तीर्थानि न देवा मृच्छिलामयाः । ते पुनन्त्युरुकालेन दर्शनादेव साधवः ।। १०-८४-११ ।।
नाग्निर्न सूर्यो न च चन्द्रतारका न भूर्जलं खं श्वसनोऽथ वाङ्मनः । उपासिता भेदकृतो हरन्त्यघं विपश्चितो घ्नन्ति मुहूर्तसेवया ।। १०-८४-१२ ।।

श्रीधर-स्वामि-टीका
एतत्प्रपञ्चयति – न ह्यम्मयानीति त्रिभिः ।। ११ ।। वाङ्मनसयोरप्युपासनाविषयत्वम्, ‘यो वाचं ब्रह्मेत्युपास्ते मनो ब्रह्मेत्युपास्ते’ इति श्रुतेः । अघं तन्मूलमज्ञानं न हरन्ति । अत्र हेतुः – भेदकर्तारः यद्वा भेदबुद्धिं कुर्वतः पुंसः । विपश्चितो निरस्तभेदाः । ते तु मुहूर्तमात्रसेवयैवाघं घ्नन्तीति ।। १२ ।।

Translation – Sacred waters alone do not possess purificatory virtues, nor do images of clay and stone alone represent the deities. Whereas these purify a man after one has recourse to them and worshiped them for a long time, holy men purify by their very sight (11). The gods presiding over fire, the sun, the moon, the stars, the earth, water, ether, air, speech and mind, when worshiped, cannot completely wash off our sins, inasmuch as they promote our sense of diversity; whereas on account of (our) service (to them) even for a few minutes, the wise wipe off our sins (12).

लौकिक-विग्रह: -
(1) मुहूर्तं सेवा = मुहूर्तसेवा – service for a short time.
Note: As per the सूत्रम् 2-3-5 कालाध्वनोरत्यन्तसंयोगे a second case affix is used following the प्रातिपदिकम् ‘मुहूर्त’।

अलौकिक-विग्रह: -
(2) मुहूर्त अम् + सेवा सुँ । By 2-1-29 अत्यन्तसंयोगे च – When uninterrupted connection is meant, words ending in a second case affix and denoting (a period of) time optionally compound with a (syntactically related) पदम् ending in a सुँप् affix and the resulting compound gets the designation तत्पुरुष:।
Note: The अनुवृत्ति: of काला: comes down from the prior सूत्रम् 2-1-28 कालाः in to this सूत्रम् 2-1-29. But the अनुवृत्ति: of क्तेन does not come down (from the सूत्रम् 2-1-25 स्वयं क्तेन) in to this सूत्रम् 2-1-29.

(3) By 1-2-43 प्रथमानिर्दिष्टं समास उपसर्जनम् – the term ‘मुहूर्त अम्’ gets the designation उपसर्जनम् because in the सूत्रम् 2-1-29 (which prescribes the compounding) the term द्वितीया (which comes as अनुवृत्ति: from 2-1-24 द्वितीया श्रितातीतपतितगतात्यस्तप्राप्तापन्नैः) ends in the nominative case. Hence ‘मुहूर्त अम्’ is placed in the prior position in the compound as per the सूत्रम् 2-2-30 उपसर्जनं पूर्वम्‌ – In a compound a term which has the designation ‘उपसर्जन’ should be placed in the prior position.

Note: ‘मुहूर्त अम् + सेवा सुँ’ gets the designation प्रातिपदिकम्‌ by 1-2-46 कृत्तद्धितसमासाश्च। This allows 2-4-71 to apply in the next step.

(4) मुहूर्त + सेवा । By 2-4-71 सुपो धातुप्रातिपदिकयोः – A सुँप् affix takes a लुक् elision when it is a part of a धातुः or a प्रातिपदिकम्।

= मुहूर्तसेवा ।

As per the सूत्रम् 2-4-26 परवल्लिङ्गं द्वन्द्वतत्पुरुषयोः, the compound प्रातिपदिकम् ‘ मुहूर्तसेवा’ is feminine since the latter member ‘सेवा’ of the compound is feminine.

(5) मुहूर्तसेवा + टा । By 4-1-2 स्वौजसमौट्छष्टाभ्याम्भिस्ङेभ्याम्भ्यस्ङसिँभ्याम्भ्यस्ङसोसाम्ङ्योस्सुप् 

See question 1.

(6) मुहूर्तसेवा + आ । अनुबन्ध-लोपः by 1-3-7 चुटू, 1-3-9 तस्य लोपः

(7) मुहूर्तसेवे + आ । By 7-3-105 आङि चापः – ‘आप्’ ending bases get the letter ‘ए’ as the substitute when followed by the affix ‘आङ्’ (‘टा’) or ‘ओस्’। Note: As per the परिभाषा-सूत्रम् 1-1-52 अलोऽन्त्यस्य only the ending letter ‘आ’ of the base ‘मुहूर्तसेवा’ is replaced by ‘ए’।

(8) मुहूर्तसेवया । By 6-1-78 एचोऽयवायावः

Questions:

1. Which सूत्रम् justifies the use of a third case affix in the form मुहूर्तसेवया?

2. Commenting on the सूत्रम् 2-1-29 अत्यन्तसंयोगे च (used in step 2) the सिद्धान्तकौमुदी says – अक्तान्तार्थं वचनम्। Please explain.

3. Which कृत् affix is used to form the neuter प्रातिपदिकम् ‘दर्शन’ used in the form दर्शनात् (पञ्चमी-एकवचनम्) in the verses?

4. In which word in the verses has the affix ‘क्विँप्’ been used?

5. Where has the सूत्रम् 3-2-124 लटः शतृशानचावप्रथमासमानाधिकरणे been used in the commentary?

6. How would you say this in Sanskrit?
“The objects of sense give (only) momentary happiness.” Use the masculine noun ‘विषय’ for ‘object of sense.’ Form a compound for ‘momentary happiness’ = ‘happiness for a moment’ = मुहूर्तं सुखम्।

Easy questions:

1. Where has the सूत्रम् 6-4-112 श्नाभ्यस्तयोरातः been used in the verses?

2. Which सूत्रम् prescribes the substitution ‘घ्’ in the form घ्नन्ति?

Jan 262015
 

Today we will look at the form सुहृद्दिदृक्षवः fNp from श्रीमद्भागवतम् 4.3.9.

सत्युवाच
प्रजापतेस्ते श्वशुरस्य साम्प्रतं निर्यापितो यज्ञमहोत्सवः किल । वयं च तत्राभिसराम वाम ते यद्यर्थितामी विबुधा व्रजन्ति हि ।। ४-३-८ ।।
तस्मिन्भगिन्यो मम भर्तृभिः स्वकैर्ध्रुवं गमिष्यन्ति सुहृद्दिदृक्षवः । अहं च तस्मिन्भवताभिकामये सहोपनीतं परिबर्हमर्हितुम् ।। ४-३-९ ।।

श्रीधर-स्वामि-टीका
निर्यापितः प्रवर्तितः । हे वाम शिव, ते यद्यर्थिता इच्छा तर्हि वयं च तत्राभिसराम गच्छामः । न चाद्यापि यागो निवृत्तः । यतोऽमी विबुधा व्रजन्ति ।। ८ ।। औत्सुक्यं प्रकटयन्त्याह – तस्मिन्निति षड्भिः । पितृभ्यामुपनीतं दत्तं परिबर्हमलंकारादिद्रव्यं भवता सहार्हितुं स्वीकर्तुमभिकामये । अर्हितमिति पाठे तत्कृतं परिबर्हमिच्छामीति ।। ९ ।।

Translation – Satī said: I hear a grand sacrificial festival has been set on foot at the residence of Your father-in-law, the lord of created beings. Let us also move thither, if You so desire, O Vāmadeva; these heavenly beings are (all) going there (8). My sisters will surely attend it with their husbands, desiring to see friends (and relations.) I too long to be there with You and receive the presents that will be bestowed (on me by my parents) (9).

लौकिक-विग्रह: -
(1) सुहृदो दिदृक्षुः = सुहृद्दिदृक्षुः – ‘(one who is) desiring to see friends.’ Note: द्वितीया विभक्ति: is used in सुहृद: as per 2-3-2 कर्मणि द्वितीया because 2-3-69 न लोकाव्ययनिष्ठाखलर्थतृनाम्‌ blocks 2-3-65 कर्तृकर्मणोः कृति।

अलौकिक-विग्रह: -
(2) सुहृद् शस् + दिदृक्षु सुँ । By वार्तिकम् (under 2-1-24 द्वितीया श्रितातीतपतितगतात्यस्तप्राप्तापन्नैः) गम्यादीनामुपसंख्यानम्‌। – The terms ‘गमिन्’ etc. should be added to the list of terms ‘श्रित’ etc (mentioned in the सूत्रम् 2-1-24 द्वितीया श्रितातीतपतितगतात्यस्तप्राप्तापन्नैः।) Hence a पदम् ending in a second case affix optionally compounds with a (syntactically related) पदम् composed by adding a सुँप् affix to either ‘श्रित’ etc or ‘गमिन्’ etc and the resulting compound gets the designation तत्पुरुष:।
Note: The प्रातिपदिकम् ‘गमिन्’ is formed using the उणादि-सूत्रम् 4-6 गमेरिनि:। As per the सूत्रम् 3-3-3 भविष्यति गम्यादयः, the affix ‘इनिँ’ used to form the प्रातिपदिकम् ‘गमिन्’ denotes an action in the future tense. गमिष्यतीति गमी।
Note: गम्यादयश्च प्रयोगतो ज्ञेया: – the list of terms ‘गमिन्’ etc is to be known from the usages (of the scholars) encountered in the language. Hence even though ‘दिदृक्षु’ may not be specifically listed, we have to take it to be included in the the list of terms ‘गमिन्’ etc based on the usage of the compound सुहृद्दिदृक्षवः seen here.

(3) By 1-2-43 प्रथमानिर्दिष्टं समास उपसर्जनम् – the term ‘सुहृद् शस्’ gets the designation उपसर्जनम् because the वार्तिकम् – गम्यादीनामुपसंख्यानम्‌ (which prescribes the compounding) is under the सूत्रम् 2-1-24 in which the term द्वितीया ends in the nominative case. Hence ‘सुहृद् शस्’ is placed in the prior position in the compound as per the सूत्रम् 2-2-30 उपसर्जनं पूर्वम्‌ – In a compound a term which has the designation ‘उपसर्जन’ should be placed in the prior position.

Note: ‘सुहृद् शस् + दिदृक्षु सुँ’ gets the designation प्रातिपदिकम्‌ by 1-2-46 कृत्तद्धितसमासाश्च। This allows 2-4-71 to apply in the next step.

(4) सुहृद् + दिदृक्षु । By 2-4-71 सुपो धातुप्रातिपदिकयोः – A सुँप् affix takes a लुक् elision when it is a part of a धातुः or a प्रातिपदिकम्।

= सुहृद्दिदृक्षु ।

As per the सूत्रम् 2-4-26 परवल्लिङ्गं द्वन्द्वतत्पुरुषयोः, the compound प्रातिपदिकम् ‘सुहृद्दिदृक्षु’ is feminine here since the latter member ‘दिदृक्षु’ of the compound is used here in the feminine. (The entire compound is qualifying भगिन्य:।)

(5) सुहृद्दिदृक्षु + जस् । By 4-1-2 स्वौजसमौट्छष्टाभ्याम्भिस्ङेभ्याम्भ्यस्ङसिँभ्याम्भ्यस्ङसोसाम्ङ्योस्सुप्

(6) सुहृद्दिदृक्षु + अस् । अनुबन्ध-लोपः by 1-3-7 चुटू and 1-3-9 तस्य लोपः। 1-3-4 न विभक्तौ तुस्माः prevents the ending letter ‘स्’ of ‘जस्’ from getting इत्-सञ्ज्ञा।

(7) सुहृद्दिदृक्षो + अस् । 7-3-109 जसि च – When the affix ‘जस्’ follows, there is a गुण: substitute for the (ending letter of) of an अङ्गम् ending in a short vowel.

(8) सुहृद्दिदृक्षवस् । By 6-1-78 एचोऽयवायावः ।

(9) सुहृद्दिदृक्षवः । रुँत्व-विसर्गौ by 8-2-66 ससजुषो रुः and 8-3-15 खरवसानयोर्विसर्जनीयः

Questions:

1. Where has the वार्तिकम् (under 2-1-24 द्वितीया श्रितातीतपतितगतात्यस्तप्राप्तापन्नैः) गम्यादीनामुपसंख्यानम्‌ been used in the verses 20-30 of Chapter One of the गीता?

2. Which सूत्रम् prescribes the third case affix in the form भर्तृभिः used in the verses?

3. Can you spot the augment ‘पुक्’ in the verses?

4. Where has the सूत्रम् 3-3-158 समानकर्तृकेषु तुमुन् been used in the verses?

5. How would you say this in Sanskrit?
“I went to India to see (my) mother.” Paraphrase to “Desiring to see (my mother), I went to India.” Form a compound for ‘desiring to see (my) mother.’

6. How would you say this in Sanskrit?
“Desiring to obtain nectar, the gods and demons churned the ocean.” Form a compound for ‘desiring to obtain nectar.’

Easy questions:

1. Which सूत्रम् prescribes the augment इट् in the form गमिष्यन्ति?

2. Can you spot the affix ‘णिङ्’ in the verses?