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Jul 062015
 

Today we will look at the form कृताकृतम् nNs from महाभारतम् 12.175.20.

तं पुत्रपशुसम्पन्नं व्यासक्तमनसं नरम् । सुप्तं व्याघ्रो मृगमिव मृत्युरादाय गच्छति ।। १२-१७५-१८ ।।
सञ्चिन्वानकमेवैनं कामानामवितृप्तकम् । व्याघ्रः पशुमिवादाय मृत्युरादाय गच्छति ।। १२-१७५-१९ ।।
इदं कृतमिदं कार्यमिदमन्यत्कृताकृतम् । एवमीहासुखासक्तं कृतान्तः कुरुते वशे ।। १२-१७५-२० ।।

Translation – Like a tiger takes away its prey, death takes away that man who endowed with sons and cattle has his mind engrossed (in worldly pursuits) (18). Like a tiger takes away a beast, death takes away this man who is ever a despicable hoarder not satiated with objects of desire (19). The terminator (death) brings under its control the one who is attached to the happiness that accrues from the gratification of desire and is (still) thinking, ‘This has been done; this is to be done; this has been partly done.’

(1) कृतं च तदकृतम् = कृताकृतम् – (Something which is) done and not-done.
Note: How can the same thing be at the same time done and not-done? एकदेशकरणात् कृतम्। एकदेशान्तरस्याकरणात्तदेवाकृतम् – When a part of something is done but another part of it is not-done then we say that the same thing is done and at the same time not-done.

अलौकिक-विग्रह: –
(2) कृत सुँ + अकृत सुँ । By 2-1-60 क्तेन नञ्विशिष्टेनानञ् – (नञ्मात्राधिकेन नञ्रहितं समस्यत इति सूत्रार्थः।) A सुबन्तं (ending in a सुँप् affix) पदम् composed by adding a सुँप् affix to a प्रातिपदिकम् ending in the affix ‘क्त’ optionally compounds with a सुबन्तं (ending in a सुँप् affix) पदम् which refers to the same item and is identical to the prior पदम् – the only difference being that while the latter पदम् has the additional negation particle ‘नञ्’ (ref. 2-2-6 नञ्‌) the prior पदम् does not – and the resulting compound is a तत्पुरुष:।
Note: As per the परिभाषा-सूत्रम् 1-1-72 येन विधिस्तदन्तस्य, the term क्तेन (used in the सूत्रम् 2-1-60 क्तेन नञ्विशिष्टेनानञ्) is interpreted as क्तान्तेन।

(3) By 1-2-43 प्रथमानिर्दिष्टं समास उपसर्जनम् – the term ‘कृत सुँ’ gets the designation उपसर्जनम् because in the सूत्रम् 2-1-60 (which prescribes the compounding) the term अनञ् ends in the nominative case. Hence ‘कृत सुँ’ (which does not contain the negation particle ‘नञ्’) is placed in the prior position in the compound as per the सूत्रम् 2-2-30 उपसर्जनं पूर्वम्‌ – In a compound a term which has the designation ‘उपसर्जन’ should be placed in the prior position.

Note: ‘कृत सुँ + अकृत सुँ’ gets the designation प्रातिपदिकम्‌ by 1-2-46 कृत्तद्धितसमासाश्च। This allows 2-4-71 to apply in the next step.

(4) कृत + अकृत । By 2-4-71 सुपो धातुप्रातिपदिकयोः – A सुँप् affix takes a लुक् elision when it is a part of a धातुः or a प्रातिपदिकम्।

(5) कृताकृत । By 6-1-101 अकः सवर्णे दीर्घः

As per the सूत्रम् 2-4-26 परवल्लिङ्गं द्वन्द्वतत्पुरुषयोः, the compound प्रातिपदिकम् ‘कृताकृत’ is neuter since the latter member ‘अकृत’ of the compound is used in the neuter here. The compound declines like वन-शब्द:।

The विवक्षा is प्रथमा-एकवचनम्।

(6) कृताकृत + सुँ । By 4-1-2 स्वौजसमौट्छष्टाभ्याम्भिस्ङेभ्याम्भ्यस्ङसिभ्याम्भ्यस्ङसोसाम्ङ्योस्सुप्‌।

(7) कृताकृत + अम् । By 7-1-24 अतोऽम् – The affixes ‘सुँ’ and ‘अम्’ that follow a neuter अङ्गम् ending in the short vowel ‘अ’ take ‘अम्’ as their replacement.
1-3-4 न विभक्तौ तुस्माः prevents the ending letter ‘म्’ of the affix ‘अम्’ from getting इत्-सञ्ज्ञा।

(8) कृताकृतम् । By 6-1-107 अमि पूर्वः – In place of a preceding अक् letter and the following vowel (अच्) belonging to the affix ‘अम्’ there is a single substitute of that preceding अक् letter.

Questions:

1. Commenting on the सूत्रम् 2-1-60 क्तेन नञ्विशिष्टेनानञ्, the तत्त्वबोधिनी says – नञ्मात्राधिकेन नञ्रहितं समस्यत इति सूत्रार्थः। तेनेह न – सिद्धं च तदभुक्तम्। Please explain.

2. Commenting further on the same सूत्रम् the तत्त्वबोधिनी quotes a वार्तिकम् which states – ‘नुडिडधिकेनापि’ इति वाच्यम्। The two examples given are अशितानशितम् and क्लिष्टाक्लिशितम्। Please explain.

3. Can you spot a सम्प्रसारणम् in the verses?

4. Which कृत् affix is used to form the feminine प्रातिपदिकम् ‘ईहा’ (seen in the compound ईहासुखासक्तम् in the verses)?

5. How would you say this in Sanskrit?
“The construction of our new house is partly done.” Use the neuter प्रातिपदिकम् ‘निर्माण’ for ‘construction.’

6. How would you say this in Sanskrit?
“In the war with the demons, the army of monkeys was partly destroyed.” Form a कर्मधारय: compound for ‘partly destroyed’ = नष्टं च तदनष्टम्।

Easy questions:

1. Which सूत्रम् prescribes the substitution ‘छ्’ in the form गच्छति?

2. Can you spot the affix ‘उ’ in the verses?

Jul 022015
 

Today we will look at the form प्रवृद्धभक्त्या fIs from श्रीमद्भागवतम् 3.5.45.

तान्वै ह्यसद्वृत्तिभिरक्षिभिर्ये पराहृतान्तर्मनसः परेश । अथो न पश्यन्त्युरुगाय नूनं ये ते पदन्यासविलासलक्ष्म्या: ।। ३-५-४४ ।।
पानेन ते देव कथासुधायाः प्रवृद्धभक्त्या विशदाशया ये । वैराग्यसारं प्रतिलभ्य बोधं यथाञ्जसान्वीयुरकुण्ठधिष्ण्यम् ।। ३-५-४५ ।।

श्रीधर-स्वामि-टीका
ननु यदि हृदिस्थस्यापि पदाब्जं केषांचित्सुदूरं तर्ह्यन्येषामपि तथैव स्यादविशेषादित्याशङ्क्याहुः – तानिति । असद्वृत्तिभिर्बहिर्मुखैरक्षिभिरिन्द्रियैः पराहृतं दूरमपहृतमन्त:स्थं मनो येषां ते । अथो अत एव ते नूनं तान्न पश्यन्तिवै प्रसिद्धम् । कुतः पुनस्तेषां तत्सङ्गः स्यात् । कान् । ते तव पदन्यासो गमनं तस्य विलासो विभ्रमस्तस्य लक्ष्मीः शोभा तस्या ये । त्वल्लीलाकथादिभिः शोभमानांस्त्वद्भक्तानित्यर्थः । पथ इति लक्ष्या इति च पाठे त्वत्पदन्यासविलासो लक्ष्यो येषां तान् । पथस्त्वन्मार्गभूतान्सतो मार्गान्वा श्रवणादीन्न पश्यन्तीत्यर्थः । यद्वा ये एवंभूता भागवतास्ते तानुन्मत्तान्नूनं नैपश्यन्तीत्यन्वयः । सत्सङ्गाभावेन हरिकथाश्रवणाभावाद्धृदि स्थितमपि तेषां सुदूरमिति भावः ।। ४४ ।। एतदेव स्फुटयन्ति – पानेनेति द्वाभ्याम् । वैराग्यं सारो बलं यस्य बोधस्य तं लब्ध्वा । अन्वीयुः प्राप्नुयुः । अकुण्ठधिष्ण्यं वैकुण्ठलोकम् ।। ४५ ।।

Gita Press translation – They whose inner mind is led astray by their senses, that are ever moving among the unworthy objects of the world, O suzerain Lord of wide renown! are, therefore, surely unable to see those devotees who enjoy the privilege of beholding the elegance of Your graceful footsteps (44). They, on the other hand,O Lord, whose heart has been purified through devotion intensified by drinking the nectar of Your stories, duly attain that spiritual insight whose essence lies in dispassion, and easily ascend to Your eternal Abode (Vaikuṇṭha) (45).

(1) प्रवृद्धा चासौ भक्तिः = प्रवृद्धभक्तिः – intensified devotion.

अलौकिक-विग्रह: –
(2) प्रवृद्धा सुँ + भक्ति सुँ । By 2-1-57 विशेषणं विशेष्येण बहुलम्‌ – A सुबन्तं (ending in a सुँप् affix) पदम् denoting a qualifier (adjective) variously compounds with another सुबन्तं (ending in a सुँप् affix) पदम् which denotes that which is qualified – provided both the सुबन्त-पदे refer to the same item – and the resulting compound is a तत्पुरुष:।

(3) By 1-2-43 प्रथमानिर्दिष्टं समास उपसर्जनम् – the term ‘प्रवृद्धा सुँ’ gets the designation उपसर्जनम् because in the सूत्रम् 2-1-57 (which prescribes the compounding) the term विशेषणम्‌ ends in the nominative case. Hence the adjective ‘प्रवृद्धा सुँ’ is placed in the prior position in the compound as per the सूत्रम् 2-2-30 उपसर्जनं पूर्वम्‌ – In a compound a term which has the designation ‘उपसर्जन’ should be placed in the prior position.

Note: ‘प्रवृद्धा सुँ + भक्ति सुँ’ gets the designation प्रातिपदिकम्‌ by 1-2-46 कृत्तद्धितसमासाश्च। This allows 2-4-71 to apply in the next step.

(4) प्रवृद्धा + भक्ति । By 2-4-71 सुपो धातुप्रातिपदिकयोः – A सुँप् affix takes a लुक् elision when it is a part of a धातुः or a प्रातिपदिकम्।

(5) प्रवृद्ध + भक्ति । By 6-3-42 पुंवत्‌ कर्मधारयजातीयदेशीयेषु – A feminine adjective which does not end in the feminine affix ‘ऊङ्’ (ref. 4-1-66 ऊङुतः etc) and is formed from a masculine base denoting the same meaning becomes masculine-like when it is either the prior member of a कर्मधारय: compound or is followed by the affix ‘जातीय’ (ref. 5-3-69 प्रकारवचने जातीयर्) or ‘देशीय’ (ref. 5-3-67 ईषदसमाप्तौ कल्पब्देश्यदेशीयरः)।
Note: In the compound ‘प्रवृद्धा + भक्ति’ the latter member ‘भक्ति’ belongs to the प्रियादिगण:। And since the सूत्रम् 6-3-34 स्त्रियाः पुंवद्भाषितपुंस्कादनूङ् समानाधिकरणे स्त्रियामपूरणीप्रियादिषु contains the exclusion पूरणीप्रियादिषु it cannot be used here. Therefore the सूत्रम् 6-3-42 is necessary for bringing about पुंवद्भाव: in ‘प्रवृद्धा + भक्ति’।

= प्रवृद्धभक्ति ।

Note: As per the सूत्रम् 2-4-26 परवल्लिङ्गं द्वन्द्वतत्पुरुषयोः, the compound प्रातिपदिकम् ‘प्रवृद्धभक्ति’ is feminine since the latter member ‘भक्ति’ of the compound is feminine.

The विवक्षा is तृतीया-एकवचनम्।

(6) प्रवृद्धभक्ति + टा । By 4-1-2 स्वौजसमौट्छष्टाभ्याम्भिस्ङेभ्याम्भ्यस्ङसिँभ्याम्भ्यस्ङसोसाम्ङ्योस्सुप्

(7) प्रवृद्धभक्ति + आ । अनुबन्ध-लोपः by 1-3-7 चुटू, 1-3-9 तस्य लोपः

(8) प्रवृद्धभक्त्या । By 6-1-77 इको यणचि

Questions:

1. In which compound used in verses 20-25 of Chapter Nine of the गीता does the सूत्रम् 6-3-42 पुंवत्‌ कर्मधारयजातीयदेशीयेषु (used in step 5 above) find application?

2. Which कृत् affix is used to form the neuter प्रातिपदिकम् ‘पान’ (seen in the form पानेन (तृतीया-एकवचनम्) in the verses)?

3. Can you spot the substitution ‘ल्यप्’ (in place of the affix ‘क्त्वा’) in the verses?

4. Where has the सूत्रम् 2-1-56 उपमितं व्याघ्रादिभिः सामान्याप्रयोगे been used in the commentary?

5. Which सूत्रम् prescribes the augment ‘मुँक्’ in the form शोभमानान् (प्रातिपदिकम् ‘शोभमान’, पुंलिङ्गे द्वितीया-बहुवचनम्) in the commentary?

6. How would you say this in Sanskrit?
“One should worship the Lord with pure devotion.” Construct a कर्मधारय: compound for ‘pure devotion’ = शुद्धा चासौ भक्तिः।

Easy questions:

1. Where has the verbal root √इ (इण् गतौ २. ४०) been used in the verses?

2. Can you spot the affix ‘श्नु’ in the commentary?

Jun 292015
 

Today we will look at the form सितसप्तम्याम् fLs from श्रीमद्भागवतम् 7.14.22.

अयने विषुवे कुर्याद्व्यतीपाते दिनक्षये । चन्द्रादित्योपरागे च द्वादश्यां श्रवणेषु च ।। ७-१४-२० ।।
तृतीयायां शुक्लपक्षे नवम्यामथ कार्तिके । चतसृष्वप्यष्टकासु हेमन्ते शिशिरे तथा ।। ७-१४-२१ ।।
माघे च सितसप्तम्यां मघाराकासमागमे । राकया चानुमत्या वा मासर्क्षाणि युतान्यपि ।। ७-१४-२२ ।।
द्वादश्यामनुराधा स्याच्छ्रवणस्तिस्र उत्तराः । तिसृष्वेकादशी वाऽऽसु जन्मर्क्षश्रोणयोगयुक् ।। ७-१४-२३ ।।

श्रीधर-स्वामि-टीका
शुक्लपक्षे । अक्षय्यतृतीयायामित्यर्थः । हेमन्ते शिशिरे च मार्गशीर्षादिमासचतुष्टयेऽपि याश्चतस्रोऽष्टकास्तासु ।। २१ ।। संपूर्णचन्द्रा पौर्णमासी राका । न्यूनचन्द्रा सैवानुमतिः । तथा मासर्क्षाणि तत्तन्मासनामप्रवृत्तिनिमित्तानि नक्षत्राणि युतानि यदा स्युस्तदा । तदुक्तं त्रिकाण्ड्याम् – ‘पुष्ययुक्ता पौर्णमासी पौषी मासे तु यत्र सा ।। नाम्ना स पौषो माघाद्याश्चैवमेकादशापरे ।।’ इति ।। २२ ।। अनुराधा श्रवण उत्तराफाल्गुनी उत्तराषाढा उत्तराभाद्रपदा वा द्वादश्यां यदा स्यात्आसूत्तरास्वेकादशी वा यदा स्यात्तदा च । जन्मर्क्षश्रोणयोगयुक् जन्मनक्षत्रस्य श्रवणस्य वा योगेन युक्तं दिनं यदा तदा । योगग्रहणं संबन्धबाहुल्यार्थम् ।। २३ ।।

Gita Press translation – He should (similarly) perform their Śrāddha at the time of the summer and winter solstices and the vernal and autumnal equinoxes; during the particular (seventeenth) astronomical division of time called Vyatīpāta; on the day when a Tithi (a lunar day) begins and ends without one sunrise or between two sunrises; during a lunar or solar eclipse; on a twelfth lunar day as well as during the period when the constellations known by the name of Śravaṇa, Dhaniṣṭhā and Śatabhiṣā are ascendant; on the third (lunar day) of the bright half of Vaiśākha as well as the ninth (lunar day) of the bright half of Kārtika; on the four Aṣṭakās (the eighth lunar days of the dark fortnight) during the seasons known by the name of Hemanta and Śiśira (the months of Mārgaśīrṣa, Pauṣa, Māgha and Phālguna); on the seventh (lunar day) of the bright fortnight of the month of Māgha; on the full-moon day (of Māgha) when the constellation called Maghā is ascendant; (nay,) even when the constellations associated with the name of Uttarā (namely, Uttarā Phālgunī, Uttarāṣāḍhā and Uttarā Bhādrapadā) are ascendant; or when the eleventh lunar day (of any month) is conjoined with (any of) these (constellations); (and lastly) on any day when the constellation under which one was born or (the constellation of) Śravaṇa is ascendant (20-23).

(1) सिता चासौ सप्तमी = सितसप्तमी – the bright seventh (lunar day.)

अलौकिक-विग्रह: –
(2) सिता सुँ + सप्तमी सुँ । By 2-1-57 विशेषणं विशेष्येण बहुलम्‌ – A सुबन्तं (ending in a सुँप् affix) पदम् denoting a qualifier (adjective) variously compounds with another सुबन्तं (ending in a सुँप् affix) पदम् which denotes that which is qualified – provided both the सुबन्त-पदे refer to the same item – and the resulting compound is a तत्पुरुष:।

(3) By 1-2-43 प्रथमानिर्दिष्टं समास उपसर्जनम् – the term ‘सिता सुँ’ gets the designation उपसर्जनम् because in the सूत्रम् 2-1-57 (which prescribes the compounding) the term विशेषणम्‌ ends in the nominative case. Hence the adjective ‘सिता सुँ’ is placed in the prior position in the compound as per the सूत्रम् 2-2-30 उपसर्जनं पूर्वम्‌ – In a compound a term which has the designation ‘उपसर्जन’ should be placed in the prior position.

Note: ‘सिता सुँ + सप्तमी सुँ’ gets the designation प्रातिपदिकम्‌ by 1-2-46 कृत्तद्धितसमासाश्च। This allows 2-4-71 to apply in the next step.

(4) सिता + सप्तमी । By 2-4-71 सुपो धातुप्रातिपदिकयोः – A सुँप् affix takes a लुक् elision when it is a part of a धातुः or a प्रातिपदिकम्।

(5) सित + सप्तमी । By 6-3-42 पुंवत्‌ कर्मधारयजातीयदेशीयेषु – A feminine adjective which does not end in the feminine affix ‘ऊङ्’ (ref. 4-1-66 ऊङुतः etc) and is formed from a masculine base denoting the same meaning becomes masculine-like when it is either the prior member of a कर्मधारय: compound or is followed by the affix ‘जातीय’ (ref. 5-3-69 प्रकारवचने जातीयर्) or ‘देशीय’ (ref. 5-3-67 ईषदसमाप्तौ कल्पब्देश्यदेशीयरः)।
Note: In the compound ‘सिता + सप्तमी’ the latter member ‘सप्तमी’ is a पूरणी (ordinal number) because it ends in the पूरण-प्रत्यय: (ordinal affix) ‘डट्’ (prescribed by the सूत्रम् 5-2-48 तस्य पूरणे डट्)। And since the सूत्रम् 6-3-34 स्त्रियाः पुंवद्भाषितपुंस्कादनूङ् समानाधिकरणे स्त्रियामपूरणीप्रियादिषु contains the exclusion अपूरणीप्रियादिषु it cannot be used here. Therefore the सूत्रम् 6-3-42 is necessary for bringing about पुंवद्भाव: in ‘सिता + सप्तमी’।

= सितसप्तमी ।

Note: As per the सूत्रम् 2-4-26 परवल्लिङ्गं द्वन्द्वतत्पुरुषयोः, the compound प्रातिपदिकम् ‘ सितसप्तमी’ is feminine since the latter member ‘सप्तमी’ of the compound is feminine.

The विवक्षा is सप्तमी-एकवचनम्।

(6) सितसप्तमी + ङि । By 4-1-2 स्वौजसमौट्छष्टाभ्याम्भिस्ङेभ्याम्भ्यस्ङसिभ्याम्भ्यस्ङसोसाम्ङ्योस्सुप्‌
Note: ‘सितसप्तमी’gets the नदी-सञ्ज्ञा by 1-4-3 यू स्त्र्याख्यौ नदी – A term ending in long ‘ई’ or long ‘ऊ’ gets the सञ्ज्ञा ‘नदी’ if it is used exclusively in the feminine gender. This allows 7-3-116 to apply in the next step.

(7) सितसप्तमी + आम् । By 7-3-116 ङेराम्नद्याम्नीभ्यः – The affix ‘ङि’, following a base ending in ‘नदी’ (ref. 1-4-3 यू स्त्र्याख्यौ नदी) or ‘आप्’ or following the term ‘नी’, gets ‘आम्’ as the substitute. 1-3-4 न विभक्तौ तुस्माः prevents the ending letter ‘म्’ of ‘आम्’ from getting the इत्-सञ्ज्ञा।

(8) सितसप्तम्याम् । By 6-1-77 इको यणचि

Questions:

1. In which compound used in verses 10-20 of Chapter Seven of the गीता does the सूत्रम् 6-3-42 पुंवत्‌ कर्मधारयजातीयदेशीयेषु (used in step 5 above) find application?

2. Which other compound (besides सितसप्तम्याम्) used in the verses is a कर्मधारय: compound?

3. Which कृत् affix is used to form the प्रातिपदिकम् ‘समागम’ (seen in the compound मघाराकासमागमे in the verses)?

4. Which सूत्रम् justifies the formation of the compound पुष्ययुक्ता used in the commentary?

5. Can you spot a द्विगु: compound in the commentary?

6. How would you say this in Sanskrit?
“When Śrī Rāma went to the forest, king Daśaratha experienced intense anguish.” Use the verbal root √भू (भू सत्तायाम् १. १) preceded by the उपसर्ग: ‘अनु’ for ‘to experience.’ Construct a कर्मधारय: compound for ‘intense anguish’ = तीव्रा चासौ वेदना।

Easy questions:

1. Where has the सूत्रम् 6-4-109 ये च been used in the verses?

2. Which सूत्रम् prescribes the लोप: (elision) of the letter ‘अ’ in the word स्यात्?

Jun 252015
 

Today we will look at the form सर्वनारीणाम् fGp from श्रीमद्-वाल्मीकि-रामायणम् 2.118.11.

सावित्री पतिशुश्रूषां कृत्वा स्वर्गे महीयते । तथावृत्तिश्च याता त्वं पतिशुश्रूषया दिवम् ।। २-११८-१० ।।
वरिष्ठा सर्वनारीणामेषा च दिवि देवता । रोहिणी न विना चन्द्रं मुहूर्तमपि दृश्यते ।। २-११८-११ ।।
एवंविधाश्च प्रवराः स्त्रियो भर्तृदृढव्रताः । देवलोके महीयन्ते पुण्येन स्वेन कर्मणा ।। २-११८-१२ ।।

Gita Press translation – Having rendered service to her husband (all her life), Sāvitrī (the celebrated wife of Prince Satyavān) is (now) greatly respected in heaven; nay, conducting yourself in the same way, you (too) have virtually ascended to heaven through service to your husband (10). (By virtue of her devotion to her spouse) this Rohiṇī (the most favorite consort of the moon-god, presiding over a constellation of the same name), the most excellent of all women and (now) dwelling in heaven as a deity, is not seen (in the heavens) without the moon even for a while (11). Nay, steadfast in their vow of fidelity to their husband, (more) such exalted women are highly respected in the realm of gods by virtue of their meritorious action (12).

(1) सर्वाश्च ता नार्यः = सर्वनार्यः – all women.

अलौकिक-विग्रह: –
(2) सर्वा जस् + नारी जस् । By 2-1-49 पूर्वकालैकसर्वजरत्पुराणनवकेवलाः समानाधिकरणेन – A सुबन्तं (ending in a सुँप् affix) पदम् which either i) denotes an action which naturally precedes in time or ii) is (composed by adding a सुँप् affix to) ‘एक’/‘सर्व’/’जरत्’/’पुराण’/’नव’/’केवल’ optionally compounds with another सुबन्तं (ending in a सुँप् affix) पदम् – provided both the सुबन्त-पदे refer to the same item – and the resulting compound is a तत्पुरुष:।

(3) By 1-2-43 प्रथमानिर्दिष्टं समास उपसर्जनम् – the term ‘सर्वा जस्’ gets the designation उपसर्जनम् because in the सूत्रम् 2-1-49 (which prescribes the compounding) the term पूर्वकालैकसर्वजरत्पुराणनवकेवलाः ends in the nominative case. Hence ‘सर्वा जस्’ is placed in the prior position in the compound as per the सूत्रम् 2-2-30 उपसर्जनं पूर्वम्‌ – In a compound a term which has the designation ‘उपसर्जन’ should be placed in the prior position.

Note: ‘सर्वा जस् + नारी जस्’ gets the designation प्रातिपदिकम्‌ by 1-2-46 कृत्तद्धितसमासाश्च। This allows 2-4-71 to apply in the next step.

(4) सर्वा + नारी । By 2-4-71 सुपो धातुप्रातिपदिकयोः – A सुँप् affix takes a लुक् elision when it is a part of a धातुः or a प्रातिपदिकम्।

(5) सर्व + नारी । By 6-3-42 पुंवत्‌ कर्मधारयजातीयदेशीयेषु – A feminine adjective which does not end in the feminine affix ‘ऊङ्’ (ref. 4-1-66 ऊङुतः etc) and is formed from a masculine base denoting the same meaning becomes masculine-like when it is either the prior member of a कर्मधारय: compound or is followed by the affix ‘जातीय’ (ref. 5-3-69 प्रकारवचने जातीयर्) or ‘देशीय’ (ref. 5-3-67 ईषदसमाप्तौ कल्पब्देश्यदेशीयरः)।

= सर्वनारी ।

Note: As per the सूत्रम् 2-4-26 परवल्लिङ्गं द्वन्द्वतत्पुरुषयोः, the compound प्रातिपदिकम् ‘सर्वनारी’ is feminine since the latter member ‘नारी’ of the compound is feminine.

The विवक्षा is षष्ठी-बहुवचनम्।

(6) सर्वनारी + आम् । By 4-1-2 स्वौजसमौट्छष्टाभ्याम्भिस्ङेभ्याम्भ्यस्ङसिँभ्याम्भ्यस्ङसोसाम्ङ्योस्सुप्1-3-4 न विभक्तौ तुस्माः prevents the ending letter ‘म्’ of ‘आम्’ from getting इत्-सञ्ज्ञा।
Note: ‘सर्वनारी’gets the नदी-सञ्ज्ञा by 1-4-3 यू स्त्र्याख्यौ नदी – A term ending in long ‘ई’ or long ‘ऊ’ gets the सञ्ज्ञा ‘नदी’ if it is used exclusively in the feminine gender. This allows 7-1-54 to apply in the next step.

(7) सर्वनारी + नुँट् आम् । By 7-1-54 ह्रस्वनद्यापो नुँट् – The affix ‘आम्’ takes the augment ‘नुँट्’ when it follows a प्रातिपदिकम् which either ends in a short vowel or has the नदी-सञ्ज्ञा or ends in the feminine affix ‘आप्’। As per the परिभाषा-सूत्रम् 1-1-46 आद्यन्तौ टकितौ this augment attaches to the beginning of the affix ‘आम्’।

(8) सर्वनारी + नाम् । अनुबन्ध-लोपः by 1-3-2 उपदेशेऽजनुनासिक इत्, 1-3-3 हलन्त्यम् and 1-3-9 तस्य लोपः।

(9) सर्वनारीणाम् । By 8-4-2 अट्कुप्वाङ्नुम्व्यवायेऽपि – The letter ‘न्’ is replaced by ‘ण्’ when either ‘र्’ or ‘ष्’ precedes, even if intervened by a letter of the अट्-प्रत्याहार: or by a letter of the क-वर्ग: or प-वर्गः or the term ‘आङ्’ or ‘नुँम्’ (अनुस्वारः) either singly or in any combination.

Questions:

1. In which word(s) in the verses has the सूत्रम् 3-1-27 कण्ड्वादिभ्यो यक् been used?

2. Can you spot the affix ‘सन्’ in the verses?

3. Which सूत्रम् justifies the use of a second case affix in the word मुहूर्तम् used in the verses?

4. Which other case ending (besides a second case ending) could have been used in the form चन्द्रम् used in the verses?

5. In which sense has a third case ending been used in the words पुण्येन स्वेन कर्मणा in the verses?
i. कर्तरि
ii. कर्मणि
iii. हेतौ
iv. None of the above

6. How would you say this in Sanskrit?
“If you want to worship all the deities, then worship a cow because all the deities reside in her body.” Construct a कर्मधारय: compound for ‘all the deities’ = सर्वाश्च ता देवता:। Use the combination of indeclinables ‘यत: + हि = यतो हि’ for ‘because.’

Easy questions:

1. Which सूत्रम् prescribes the substitution ‘इयँङ्’ seen in the form स्त्रिय: (स्त्रीलिङ्ग-प्रातिपदिकम् ‘स्त्री’, प्रथमा-बहुवचनम्) used in the verses?

2. Where has the सूत्रम् 3-1-67 सार्वधातुके यक् been used in the verses?

Jun 222015
 

Today we will look at the form मृष्टकन्याः fNp from श्रीमद्भागवतम् 4.21.4.

प्रजास्तं दीपबलिभिः सम्भृताशेषमङ्गलैः । अभीयुर्मृष्टकन्याश्च मृष्टकुण्डलमण्डिताः ।। ४-२१-४ ।।
शङ्खदुन्दुभिघोषेण ब्रह्मघोषेण चर्त्विजाम् । विवेश भवनं वीरः स्तूयमानो गतस्मयः ।। ४-२१-५ ।।

श्रीधर-स्वामि-टीका
संभृतान्यशेषाणि मङ्गलानि दध्यादीनि तैः सहाभिजग्मुः । मृष्टा उज्ज्वलाः कन्याश्च ।। ४ ।। गतस्मयो निरहंकारः ।। ५ ।।

Gita Press translation – People of the city and (particularly) fair-looking maids adorned with polished ear-rings advanced to greet him with lights and presents as well as with all kinds of auspicious substances (such as curds etc.) collected (for the occasion) (4). Extolled (by bards and minstrels), yet free from pride, the hero entered the palace in the midst of a flourish of conchs and the crash of kettledrums and the chant of Vedic hymns by the priests (5).

(1) मृष्टा चासौ कन्या = मृष्टकन्या – fair-looking maiden.

अलौकिक-विग्रह: –
(2) मृष्टा सुँ + कन्या सुँ । By 2-1-57 विशेषणं विशेष्येण बहुलम्‌ – A सुबन्तं (ending in a सुँप् affix) पदम् denoting a qualifier (adjective) variously compounds with another सुबन्तं (ending in a सुँप् affix) पदम् which denotes that which is qualified – provided both the सुबन्त-पदे refer to the same item – and the resulting compound is a तत्पुरुष:।

(3) By 1-2-43 प्रथमानिर्दिष्टं समास उपसर्जनम् – the term ‘मृष्टा सुँ’ gets the designation उपसर्जनम् because in the सूत्रम् 2-1-57 (which prescribes the compounding) the term विशेषणम्‌ ends in the nominative case. Hence the adjective ‘मृष्टा सुँ’ is placed in the prior position in the compound as per the सूत्रम् 2-2-30 उपसर्जनं पूर्वम्‌ – In a compound a term which has the designation ‘उपसर्जन’ should be placed in the prior position.

Note: ‘मृष्टा सुँ + कन्या सुँ’ gets the designation प्रातिपदिकम्‌ by 1-2-46 कृत्तद्धितसमासाश्च। This allows 2-4-71 to apply in the next step.

(4) मृष्टा + कन्या । By 2-4-71 सुपो धातुप्रातिपदिकयोः – A सुँप् affix takes a लुक् elision when it is a part of a धातुः or a प्रातिपदिकम्।

(5) मृष्ट + कन्या । By 6-3-42 पुंवत्‌ कर्मधारयजातीयदेशीयेषु – A feminine adjective which does not end in the feminine affix ‘ऊङ्’ (ref. 4-1-66 ऊङुतः etc) and is formed from a masculine base denoting the same meaning becomes masculine-like when it is either the prior member of a कर्मधारय: compound or is followed by the affix ‘जातीय’ (ref. 5-3-69 प्रकारवचने जातीयर्) or ‘देशीय’ (ref. 5-3-67 ईषदसमाप्तौ कल्पब्देश्यदेशीयरः)।

= मृष्टकन्या ।

Note: As per the सूत्रम् 2-4-26 परवल्लिङ्गं द्वन्द्वतत्पुरुषयोः, the compound प्रातिपदिकम् ‘मृष्टकन्या’ is feminine since the latter member ‘कन्या’ of the compound is feminine.

The विवक्षा is प्रथमा-बहुवचनम्

(6) मृष्टकन्या + जस् । By 4-1-2 स्वौजसमौट्छष्टाभ्याम्भिस्ङेभ्याम्भ्यस्ङसिँभ्याम्भ्यस्ङसोसाम्ङ्योस्सुप्

(7) मृष्टकन्या + अस् । अनुबन्ध-लोपः by 1-3-7 चुटू and 1-3-9 तस्य लोपः। 1-3-4 न विभक्तौ तुस्माः prevents the ending letter ‘स्’ of ‘जस्’ from getting इत्-सञ्ज्ञा।

(8) मृष्टकन्यास् । By 6-1-101 अकः सवर्णे दीर्घः

(9) मृष्टकन्याः । रुँत्व-विसर्गौ by 8-2-66 ससजुषो रुः and 8-3-15 खरवसानयोर्विसर्जनीयः

Questions:

1. Commenting on the सूत्रम् 6-3-42 पुंवत्‌ कर्मधारयजातीयदेशीयेषु (used in step 5) the सिद्धन्तकौमुदी says – पूरणीप्रियादिष्वप्राप्त: पुंवद्भावोऽनेन विधीयते। Please explain.

2. In which word in the verses has the कृत् affix ‘ड’ been used?

3. Which सूत्रम् justifies the use of a third case affix in the words दीपबलिभिः and सम्भृताशेषमङ्गलैः used in the verses?

4. What is the विग्रह-वाक्यम् for the compound मृष्टकुण्डलमण्डिताः used in the verses? Hint: First form the कर्मधारय: compound ‘मृष्टकुण्डल’ and use that to form the तृतीया-तत्पुरुष: compound ‘मृष्टकुण्डलमण्डिता’।

5. Where has the सूत्रम् 7-2-82 आने मुक् been used in the verses?

6. How would you say this in Sanskrit?
“Śrī Hanumān saw Sītā surrounded by ferocious ogresses.” Construct a कर्मधारय: compound for ‘ferocious ogress’ = उग्रा चासौ राक्षसी।

Easy questions:

1. Where has the सूत्रम् 7-4-69 दीर्घ इणः किति been used in the verses?

2. Which सूत्रम् prescribes the लोप: (elision) of the letter ‘अ’ in the form अभिजग्मुः used in the commentary?

Jun 182015
 

Today we will look at the form मुखाम्बुजम्  nAs from श्रीमद्भागवतम् 8.5.45.

स त्वं नो दर्शयात्मानमस्मत्करणगोचरम् । प्रपन्नानां दिदृक्षूणां सस्मितं ते मुखाम्बुजम् ।। ८-५-४५ ।।
तैस्तैः स्वेच्छाधृतै रूपैः काले काले स्वयं विभो । कर्म दुर्विषहं यन्नो भगवांस्तत्करोति हि ।। ८-५-४६ ।।

श्रीधर-स्वामि-टीका
सस्मितं मुखाम्बुजं दिदृक्षूणां नोऽस्मच्चक्षुरादिकरणगोचरं यथा भवत्येवं चात्मानं दर्शय ।। ४५ ।। भक्तेच्छानुवर्तित्वं च तव बहुशो दृष्टमेवेत्याह – तैस्तैरिति । यन्नो दुर्विषहमशक्यं कर्म तद्भगवान्स्वयमेकरोति हि ।। ४६ ।।

Gita Press translation – Such as You are, be pleased to reveal Yourself – in such a way as to come within the range of our senses (of perception) – to us, that have resorted to You (for protection) and are eager to behold Your smiling lotus-like countenance (45). For, through diverse forms assumed at His own sweet will from time to time, O Lord, the Almighty Himself (in You) does that work which is beyond our capacity (46).

(1) मुखमम्बुजमिव = मुखाम्बुजम् – A countenance (beautiful) as a lotus.

अलौकिक-विग्रह: –
(2) मुख सुँ + अम्बुज सुँ । By 2-1-56 उपमितं व्याघ्रादिभिः सामान्याप्रयोगे – A सुबन्तं (ending in a सुँप् affix) पदम् which denotes that which is to be compared optionally compounds with another सुबन्तं (ending in a सुँप् affix) पदम् composed by adding a सुँप् affix to ‘व्याघ्र’ etc – provided both the सुबन्त-पदे refer to the same item and the common attribute is not mentioned – and the resulting compound is a तत्पुरुष:।
Note: उपमेयमुपमितम् – The word उपमितम् used in this सूत्रम् stands for उपमेयम् – that which is to be compared.
Note: व्याघ्रादिराकृतिगण: – The व्याघ्रादि-गण: (list of terms ‘व्याघ्र’ etc.) is a आकृतिगण: – which is a class or group of words in which some words are actually mentioned and room is left to include others which are found undergoing the same operations. Hence the compound मुखमम्बुजमिव = मुखाम्बुजम् is justified even though अम्बुजम् may not be specifically listed in the व्याघ्रादि-गण:

(3) As per 1-2-43 प्रथमानिर्दिष्टं समास उपसर्जनम् the term ‘मुख सुँ’ – which denotes that which is to be compared – gets the designation उपसर्जनम् because in the सूत्रम् 2-1-56 (which prescribes the compounding) the term उपमितम् ends in the nominative case. And hence the term ‘मुख सुँ’ is placed in the prior position in the compound as per the सूत्रम् 2-2-30 उपसर्जनं पूर्वम्‌ – In a compound a term which has the designation ‘उपसर्जन’ should be placed in the prior position.
Note: ‘मुख सुँ + अम्बुज सुँ’ gets the designation प्रातिपदिकम्‌ by 1-2-46 कृत्तद्धितसमासाश्च। This allows 2-4-71 to apply in the next step.

(4) मुख + अम्बुज । By 2-4-71 सुपो धातुप्रातिपदिकयोः – A सुँप् affix takes a लुक् elision when it is a part of a धातुः or a प्रातिपदिकम्।

(5) मुखाम्बुज । By 6-1-101 अकः सवर्णे दीर्घः

As per the सूत्रम् 2-4-26 परवल्लिङ्गं द्वन्द्वतत्पुरुषयोः, the compound प्रातिपदिकम् ‘मुखाम्बुज’ is neuter since the latter member ‘अम्बुज’ of the compound is neuter. The compound declines like वन-शब्द:।

The विवक्षा is द्वितीया-एकवचनम्।

(6) मुखाम्बुज + अम् । By 4-1-2 स्वौजसमौट्छष्टाभ्याम्भिस्ङेभ्याम्भ्यस्ङसिभ्याम्भ्यस्ङसोसाम्ङ्योस्सुप्‌।

(7) मुखाम्बुज + अम् । By 7-1-24 अतोऽम् – The affixes ‘सुँ’ and ‘अम्’ that follow a neuter अङ्गम् ending in the short vowel ‘अ’ take ‘अम्’ as their replacement. Note: 7-1-24 is required here to prevent 7-1-23 स्वमोर्नपुंसकात्‌ from applying.
1-3-4 न विभक्तौ तुस्माः prevents the ending letter ‘म्’ of the affix ‘अम्’ from getting इत्-सञ्ज्ञा।

(8) मुखाम्बुजम् । By 6-1-107 अमि पूर्वः – In place of a preceding अक् letter and the following vowel (अच्) belonging to the affix ‘अम्’ there is a single substitute of that preceding अक् letter.

Questions:

1. Where has the सूत्रम् 2-1-56 उपमितं व्याघ्रादिभिः सामान्याप्रयोगे been used in verses 10-20 of Chapter Two of the गीता?

2. Can you spot the affix ‘सन्’ in the verses?

3. Which कृत् affix is used to form the प्रातिपदिकम् ‘दुर्विषह’ (seen in the form दुर्विषहम् (नपुंसकलिङ्गे प्रथमा-एकवचनम्) in the verses)?

4. In which word in the verses has the verbal root √पद् (पदँ गतौ ४. ६५) been used?

5. Which सूत्रम् prescribes the seventh case affix used in the form काले in the verses?

6. How would you say this in Sanskrit?
Śrī Rāma said to Lakṣmaṇa – “I long (desire) to see Sītā’s lotus-like countenance.”

Easy questions:

1. Which सूत्रम् prescribes the affix ‘उ’ used in the form करोति?

2. Where has the सूत्रम् 6-4-105 अतो हेः been used in the verses?

Jun 152015
 

Today we will look at the form पुरुषव्याघ्र mVs from श्रीमद्भागवतम् 1.14.13.

शस्ताः कुर्वन्ति मां सव्यं दक्षिणं पशवोऽपरे । वाहांश्च पुरुषव्याघ्र लक्षये रुदतो मम ।। १-१४-१३ ।।
मृत्युदूतः कपोतोऽयमुलूकः कम्पयन्मनः । प्रत्युलूकश्च कुह्वानैरनिद्रौ शून्यमिच्छतः ।। १-१४-१४ ।।

श्रीधर-स्वामि-टीका
शस्ता गवादयो मां सव्यं वामं कुर्वन्ति । अपरे गर्दभाद्याः प्रदक्षिणं कुर्वन्ति वाहानश्वान् ।। १३ ।। अयं कपोतो मृत्युदूतो मृत्युसूचकः । उलूको घूकः । प्रत्युलूकस्तत्प्रतिपक्षो घूकः काको वा । कुह्वानैः कुत्सितशब्दैर्विश्वं शून्यं कर्तुमिच्छतः ।। १४ ।।

Gita Press translation – Good animals (such as the cow) pass by to my left, while other (inauspicious) animals (as the donkey etc.) turn to my right. Nay, I see my horses weeping, O tiger among men (13). This dove, the harbinger of death, as well as the owl and its enemy, the crow, keeping awake all the night, make my heart shudder with their horrible cries and would have the world converted into a desert (14). 

(1) पुरुषो व्याघ्र इव = पुरुषव्याघ्र: – A man (mighty) as a tiger.

अलौकिक-विग्रह: –
(2) पुरुष सुँ + व्याघ्र सुँ । By 2-1-56 उपमितं व्याघ्रादिभिः सामान्याप्रयोगे – A सुबन्तं (ending in a सुँप् affix) पदम् which denotes that which is to be compared optionally compounds with another सुबन्तं (ending in a सुँप् affix) पदम् composed by adding a सुँप् affix to ‘व्याघ्र’ etc – provided both the सुबन्त-पदे refer to the same item and the common attribute is not mentioned – and the resulting compound is a तत्पुरुष:।
Note: उपमेयमुपमितम् – The word उपमितम् used in this सूत्रम् stands for उपमेयम् – that which is to be compared.

(3) As per 1-2-43 प्रथमानिर्दिष्टं समास उपसर्जनम् the term ‘पुरुष सुँ’ – which denotes that which is to be compared – gets the designation उपसर्जनम् because in the सूत्रम् 2-1-56 (which prescribes the compounding) the term उपमितम् ends in the nominative case. And hence the term ‘पुरुष सुँ’ is placed in the prior position in the compound as per the सूत्रम् 2-2-30 उपसर्जनं पूर्वम्‌ – In a compound a term which has the designation ‘उपसर्जन’ should be placed in the prior position.
Note: ‘पुरुष सुँ + व्याघ्र सुँ’ gets the designation प्रातिपदिकम्‌ by 1-2-46 कृत्तद्धितसमासाश्च। This allows 2-4-71 to apply in the next step.

(4) पुरुष + व्याघ्र । By 2-4-71 सुपो धातुप्रातिपदिकयोः – A सुँप् affix takes a लुक् elision when it is a part of a धातुः or a प्रातिपदिकम्।

= पुरुषव्याघ्र ।

As per the सूत्रम् 2-4-26 परवल्लिङ्गं द्वन्द्वतत्पुरुषयोः, the compound प्रातिपदिकम् ‘ पुरुषव्याघ्र’ is masculine since the latter member ‘व्याघ्र’ of the compound is masculine. The compound declines like राम-शब्द:।

The विवक्षा is सम्बुद्धिः। By 2-3-49 एकवचनं सम्बुद्धि: – The nominative singular affix (‘सुँ’) when used in a vocative form gets the designation सम्बुद्धि:।

(5) (हे) पुरुषव्याघ्र + सुँ । By 4-1-2 स्वौजसमौट्छष्टाभ्याम्भिस्ङेभ्याम्भ्यस्ङसिभ्याम्भ्यस्ङसोसाम्ङ्योस्सुप्‌। By 2-3-47 सम्बोधने च – A first case affix (‘सुँ’, ‘औ’, ‘जस्’) is used to denote ‘address’ (in addition to the meaning of the nominal stem) also. Note: सम् (सम्मुखीकृत्य) बोधनम् (ज्ञापनम्) = सम्बोधनम्। सम्बोधनम् means drawing someone’s attention (to inform him/her of something.)

(6) (हे) पुरुषव्याघ्र + स् । अनुबन्ध-लोप: by 1-3-2 उपदेशेऽजनुनासिक इत् and 1-3-9 तस्य लोपः

(7) (हे) पुरुषव्याघ्र । By 6-1-69 एङ्ह्रस्वात्‌ सम्बुद्धेः – Following a अङ्गम् ending in ‘एङ्’ (letter ‘ए’ or ‘ओ’) or a short vowel, a consonant is dropped if it belongs to a सम्बुद्धि: affix.

Questions:

1. Where has the form पुरुषव्याघ्र been used in the गीता?

2. Commenting on the सूत्रम् 2-1-56 उपमितं व्याघ्रादिभिः सामान्याप्रयोगे (used in step 2) the सिद्धान्तकौमुदी says – विशेष्यस्य पूर्वनिपातार्थं सूत्रम्‌। Please explain.

3. Commenting further on the same सूत्रम् the सिद्धान्तकौमुदी says – सामान्याप्रयोगे किम्‌? पुरुषो व्याघ्र इव शूर:। Please explain.

4. Can you spot a षष्ठी-तत्पुरुष: compound in the verses? Can you spot a कर्मधारय: compound in the commentary?

5. Which कृत् affix is used to form the प्रातिपदिकम् ‘सूचक’ (used in the compound मृत्युसूचकः in the commentary?)

6. How would you say this in Sanskrit?
Śrī Kṛṣṇa said to Arjuna – “You are a man who is (brave) like a tiger. Get up and fight. You shall conquer the enemies in battle.” Use the verbal root √स्था (ष्ठा गतिनिवृत्तौ १. १०७७) preceded by the उपसर्ग: ‘उद्’ for ‘to get up.’

Easy questions:

1. Where has the सूत्रम् 8-2-79 न भकुर्छुराम् been used in the verses?

2. Which सूत्रम् prescribes the substitution ‘छ्’ in the form इच्छतः used in the verses?

Jun 112015
 

Today we will look at the form मृणालगौरम् mAs from श्रीमद्भागवतम् 6.16.30.

मृणालगौरं शितिवाससं स्फुरत्किरीटकेयूरकटित्रकङ्कणम् । प्रसन्नवक्त्रारुणलोचनं वृतं ददर्श सिद्धेश्वरमण्डलैः प्रभुम् ।। ६-१६-३० ।।
तद्दर्शनध्वस्तसमस्तकिल्बिषः स्वच्छामलान्तःकरणोऽभ्ययान्मुनिः । प्रवृद्धभक्त्या प्रणयाश्रुलोचनः प्रहृष्टरोमानमदादिपुरुषम् ।। ६-१६-३१ ।।

श्रीधर-स्वामि-टीका
मृणालवद्गौरम् । शितिवाससं नीलाम्बरम् । स्फुरन्ति किरीटादीनि यस्य । कटित्रं कटिसूत्रम् । प्रसन्नानि वक्त्राणि यस्य । अरुणानि लोचनानि यस्य तं च तं च ।। ३० ।। दृष्ट्वा च तमादिपूरुषमभ्ययाच्छरणं गतः । अनमन्ननाम । कथंभूतः । तस्य दर्शनेन ध्वस्तं समस्तं किल्बिषं यस्य । स्वच्छममलं चान्तःकरणं यस्य । प्रणयेनाश्रुयुक्ते लोचने यस्य । प्रहृष्टानि रोमाणि यस्य सः ।। ३१ ।।

Gita Press Translation – He saw the Lord in a form white as a lotus fiber, clad in blue and adorned with a brilliant diadem, armlets, griddle and wristlets, marked with a cheerful countenance and reddish eyes and surrounded by rings of Siddheśwaras (the chief among those who have attained perfection) (30). All his sins having been wiped out by the (very) sight of the Lord, and his mind clear and rid of all impurities, Citraketu silently approached the most ancient Person with intensified devotion; and with tears of love in his eyes and hair standing on end, he bowed to Him (31).

(1) मृणाल इव गौर: = मृणालगौरः – white as a lotus fiber.

अलौकिक-विग्रह: –
(2) मृणाल सुँ + गौर सुँ । As per 2-1-55 उपमानानि सामान्यवचनैः – सुबन्तानि (ending in a सुँप् affix) पदानि which denote a standard of comparison optionally compound with सुबन्तानि (ending in a सुँप् affix) पदानि which have denoted the common attribute – provided both the सुबन्त-पदे refer to the same item – and the resulting compound is a तत्पुरुष:।
Note: उपमीयते येन तदुपमानम् – That to which something is compared is called उपमानम् – the standard of comparison.
Note: ये शब्दा: पूर्वं साधारणधर्ममुक्त्वाधुना तद्वति द्रव्ये वर्तन्ते ते सामान्यवचना इत्युच्यन्ते – Those words which having previously described a common attribute, presently denote the thing/substance which possesses that common attribute are known as सामान्यवचना:।

(3) As per 1-2-43 प्रथमानिर्दिष्टं समास उपसर्जनम् the term ‘मृणाल सुँ’ – which denotes a standard of comparison – gets the designation उपसर्जनम् because in the सूत्रम् 2-1-55 (which prescribes the compounding) the term उपमानानि ends in the nominative case. And hence the term ‘मृणाल सुँ’ is placed in the prior position in the compound as per the सूत्रम् 2-2-30 उपसर्जनं पूर्वम्‌ – In a compound a term which has the designation ‘उपसर्जन’ should be placed in the prior position.
Note: ‘मृणाल सुँ + गौर सुँ’ gets the designation प्रातिपदिकम्‌ by 1-2-46 कृत्तद्धितसमासाश्च। This allows 2-4-71 to apply in the next step.

(4) मृणाल + गौर । By 2-4-71 सुपो धातुप्रातिपदिकयोः – A सुँप् affix takes a लुक् elision when it is a part of a धातुः or a प्रातिपदिकम्।

= मृणालगौर ।

As per the सूत्रम् 2-4-26 परवल्लिङ्गं द्वन्द्वतत्पुरुषयोः, the compound प्रातिपदिकम् ‘मृणालगौर’ is masculine since the latter member ‘गौर’ of the compound is used here in the masculine. The compound declines like राम-शब्द:।

The विवक्षा is द्वितीया-एकवचनम्। The compound is qualifying प्रभुम् (the Lord.)

(5) मृणालगौर + अम् । By 4-1-2 स्वौजसमौट्छष्टाभ्याम्भिस्ङेभ्याम्भ्यस्ङसिभ्याम्भ्यस्ङसोसाम्ङ्योस्सुप्‌।
Note: 1-3-4 न विभक्तौ तुस्माः prevents the ending letter ‘म्’ of the affix ‘अम्’ from getting इत्-सञ्ज्ञा।

(6) मृणालगौरम् । By 6-1-107 अमि पूर्वः – In place of a preceding अक् letter and the following vowel (अच्) belonging to the affix ‘अम्’ there is a single substitute of that preceding अक् letter.

Questions:

1. Which सूत्रम् prescribes the affix ल्युट् used to form the प्रातिपदिकम् ‘लोचन’ (which is part of the compounds प्रसन्नवक्त्रारुणलोचनम् and प्रणयाश्रुलोचनः used in the verses)?

2. What is the विग्रह-वाक्यम् of the compound ‘सिद्धेश्वरमण्डल’ (used in the form सिद्धेश्वरमण्डलैः (तृतीया-बहुवचनम्) in the verses)? Hint: First construct the षष्ठी-समास: ‘सिद्धेश्वर’ and use that to construct the final षष्ठी-समास: ‘सिद्धेश्वरमण्डल’।

3. From which verbal root is the participle ‘सन्न’ (used in the compound प्रसन्नवक्त्रारुणलोचनम् in the verses) formed?

4. In which word in the commentary has the सूत्रम् 6-4-24 अनिदितां हल उपधायाः क्ङिति been used?

5. In which sense has a third case affix been used in the form प्रणयेन in the commentary?
i) कर्तरि
ii) करणे
iii) हेतौ
iv) None of the above.

6. How would you say this in Sanskrit?
“When Śrī Rāma returned from the forest, the citizens of Ayodhyā rejoiced seeing (having seen) again his countenance (which was as) beautiful as the moon.” Use the verbal root √वृत् (वृतुँ वर्तने १. ८६२) preceded by the उपसर्ग: ‘नि’ for ‘to return.’ Use the masculine प्रातिपदिकम् ‘पौर’ for ‘citizen.’ Use the verbal root √हृष् (हृषँ तुष्टौ ४.१४२) preceded by the उपसर्ग: ‘प्र’ for ‘to return.’ Construct a कर्मधारय: compound for ‘beautiful as the moon’ = सोम एव सुन्दरम्।

Easy questions:

1. In which word in the verses has the substitution ‘णल्’ (in place of the affix ‘तिप्’) been used?

2. In the verses can you spot two places where the सूत्रम् 6-4-71 लुङ्लङ्लृङ्क्ष्वडुदात्तः has been used?

Jun 082015
 

Today we will look at the form मेघश्यामः mNs from श्रीमद्भागवतम् 8.7.17.

मथ्यमानात्तथा सिन्धोर्देवासुरवरूथपैः । यदा सुधा न जायेत निर्ममन्थाजितः स्वयम् ।। ८-७-१६ ।।
मेघश्यामः कनकपरिधिः कर्णविद्योतविद्युन् मूर्ध्नि भ्राजद्विलुलितकचः स्रग्धरो रक्तनेत्रः । जैत्रैर्दोर्भिर्जगदभयदैर्दन्दशूकं गृहीत्वा मथ्नन्मथ्ना प्रतिगिरिरिवाशोभताथो धृताद्रिः ।। ८-७-१७ ।।

श्रीधर-स्वामि-टीका
धृतोऽद्रिर्येन स धृताद्रिर्भगवान्परमपुरुषोऽनन्तरमशोभतेत्यन्वयः । कथंभूतः । कनकपरिधिः पीतवासाः । कर्णयोर्विद्योतमाना विद्युत्कुण्डललक्षणा यस्य । तथा मूर्ध्नि भ्राजन्तो विलुलिताः कचा यस्य स तथा । जैत्रैर्जिष्णुभिः । दन्दशूकं सर्पम् । प्रतिगिरिः प्रतिद्वन्द्वी पर्वतः ।। १७ ।।

Translation – When nectar (however) did not appear from the ocean (of milk), being churned in the aforesaid manner by the commanders of the heavenly and Asura forces, Lord Ajita Himself took up the churning (16). Holding the serpent (Vāsuki) with His (four) triumphant arms vouchsafing protection to the world, and agitating the ocean with the churn-dasher (in the form of Mount Mandara), the Lord – who was dark-brown like a cloud, had a cloth of golden hue wrapped about His loins, was adorned with a garland (of sylvan flowers) and a pair of ear-rings that flashed like lightning, wore glossy and wavy locks on His head and was possessed of reddish eyes, and who (in the form of the divine Tortoise) bore Mount Mandara (on His back), now shone like a rival mountain (17).

(1) मेघ इव श्‍याम: = मेघश्‍यामः – Dark like a cloud.

See question 1.

अलौकिक-विग्रह: –
(2) मेघ सुँ + श्याम सुँ । As per 2-1-55 उपमानानि सामान्यवचनैः – सुबन्तानि (ending in a सुँप् affix) पदानि which denote a standard of comparison optionally compound with सुबन्तानि (ending in a सुँप् affix) पदानि which have denoted the common attribute – provided both the सुबन्त-पदे refer to the same item – and the resulting compound is a तत्पुरुष:।
Note: उपमीयते येन तदुपमानम् – That to which something is compared is called उपमानम् – the standard of comparison.
Note: ये शब्दा: पूर्वं साधारणधर्ममुक्त्वाधुना तद्वति द्रव्ये वर्तन्ते ते सामान्यवचना इत्युच्यन्ते – Those words which having previously described a common attribute, presently denote the thing/substance which possesses that common attribute are known as सामान्यवचना:।

See question 2.

(3) As per 1-2-43 प्रथमानिर्दिष्टं समास उपसर्जनम् the term ‘मेघ सुँ’ – which denotes a standard of comparison – gets the designation उपसर्जनम् because in the सूत्रम् 2-1-55 (which prescribes the compounding) the term उपमानानि ends in the nominative case. And hence the term ‘मेघ सुँ’ is placed in the prior position in the compound as per the सूत्रम् 2-2-30 उपसर्जनं पूर्वम्‌ – In a compound a term which has the designation ‘उपसर्जन’ should be placed in the prior position.
Note: ‘मेघ सुँ + श्याम सुँ’ gets the designation प्रातिपदिकम्‌ by 1-2-46 कृत्तद्धितसमासाश्च। This allows 2-4-71 to apply in the next step.

(4) मेघ + श्याम । By 2-4-71 सुपो धातुप्रातिपदिकयोः – A सुँप् affix takes a लुक् elision when it is a part of a धातुः or a प्रातिपदिकम्।

= मेघश्याम ।

As per the सूत्रम् 2-4-26 परवल्लिङ्गं द्वन्द्वतत्पुरुषयोः, the compound प्रातिपदिकम् ‘मेघश्याम’ is masculine since the latter member ‘श्याम’ of the compound is used here in the masculine. The compound declines like राम-शब्द:।

The विवक्षा is प्रथमा-एकवचनम्। The compound is qualifying अजितः (Lord Ajita.)

(5) मेघश्याम + सुँ । By 4-1-2 स्वौजसमौट्छष्टाभ्याम्भिस्ङेभ्याम्भ्यस्ङसिँभ्याम्भ्यस्ङसोसाम्ङ्योस्सुप्

(6) मेघश्याम + स् । अनुबन्ध-लोपः by 1-3-2 उपदेशेऽजनुनासिक इत् and 1-3-9 तस्य लोपः।

(7) मेघश्याम: । रुँत्व-विसर्गौ by 8-2-66 ससजुषो रुः and 8-3-15 खरवसानयोर्विसर्जनीयः

Questions:

1. Commenting on the विग्रह-वाक्यम् – मेघ इव श्‍याम: – of this compound, the सिद्धान्तकौमुदी says – इह पूर्वपदं तत्सदृशे लाक्षणिकमिति सूचयितुं लौकिकविग्रहे ‘इव’शब्द: प्रयुज्यते। Please explain.

2. Commenting on the सूत्रम् 2-1-55 उपमानानि सामान्यवचनैः (used in step 2) the सिद्धान्तकौमुदी says – पूर्वनिपातनियमार्थं सूत्रम्। Please explain.

3. Which सूत्रम् justifies the used of a fifth case affix in the form सिन्धो: (and मथ्यमानात्) used in the verse?

4. In the verses can you spot a word in which सम्प्रसारणम् has taken place?

5. Where has the सूत्रम् 3-2-139 ग्लाजिस्थश्च ग्स्नु: been used in the commentary?

6. How would you say this in Sanskrit?
“Kumbhakarṇa who was tall as a mountain was killed by Śrī Rāma with a single arrow.” Construct a कर्मधारय: compound for ‘tall as a mountain’ = गिरिरिव तुङ्ग:।

Easy questions:

1. Can you spot the augment सीयुट् in the verses?

2. Where has the सूत्रम् 6-4-71 लुङ्लङ्लृङ्क्ष्वडुदात्तः been used in the verses?

Jun 042015
 

Today we will look at the form त्रिसन्ध्यम् nAs from शिशुपालवधम् verse 1-46.

स संचरिष्णुर्भुवनान्तरेषु यां यदृच्छयाशिश्रियदाश्रयः श्रियः । अकारि तस्यै मुकुटोपलस्खलत्करैस्त्रिसन्ध्यं त्रिदशैर्दिशे नमः ।। १-४६ ।।

टीका
इति । अन्येषु भुवनेषु भुवनान्तरेषु । ‘सुप्सुपा’ इति समासः । संचरिष्णुः संचरणशीलः । ‘3-2-136 अलंकृञ्’ इत्यादिना चरेरिष्णुच् । श्रियो लक्ष्म्या आश्रयः स हिरण्यकशिपुः । यदृच्छया स्वैरवृत्त्या । ‘यदृच्छा स्वैरवृत्तिः’ इत्यमरः । यां दिशमशिश्रियदगमत् । श्रयतेर्लुङ् ‘3-1-48 णिश्रि-‘ इत्यादिना चङि द्विर्भाव इयङादेशः । मुकुटोपलेषु मौलिरत्नेषु स्खलन्तः करा येषां तैः । शिरसि बद्धाञ्जलिभिरित्यर्थः । ‘उपल प्रस्तरे रत्ने’ इति विश्वः । तिस्रो दशा बाल्यकौमारयौवनानि, जन्मसत्तावृद्धयो वा येषां तैस्त्रिदशैर्देवैः । यद्वा त्रिर्दश परिमाणमेषामिति ‘5-4-73 बहुव्रीहौ संख्येये डजबहुगणात्‌’ इति समासान्तः । तिस्रः सन्ध्याः समाहृतास्त्रिसन्ध्यम् । ‘2-1-51 तद्धितार्थोत्तरपद-‘ इत्यादिना समाहारे द्विगुः । ‘2-4-1 द्विगुरेकवचनम्‌’ वा टाबन्त इति पक्षे नपुंसकत्वम् । अत्यन्तसंयोगे द्वितीया । तस्यै दिशे करैर्हस्तैः । ‘2-3-16 नमःस्वस्ति-‘ इत्यादिना चतुर्थी । नमः नमस्कारोऽकारि कृतम् । कृञः कर्मणि लुङ् । ‘3-1-66 चिण् भावकर्मणोः’ इति चिण् । सन्ध्यावन्दनेऽपि दिङ्नियमं परित्यज्य तदागमनभयात्तस्यै दिशे नमस्कारः कृत इति भावः ।

Translation – Hiraṇyakaśipu, who was the seat of Goddess Śrī (Lakṣmī – prosperity), habitually roamed the other worlds and whichever direction he traveled to by his will – to that direction salutation was offered by all the gods, with their hands tottering on their crown-gems, at the three junctions of the day (dawn, noon and dusk) (46).

(1) तिसृणां सन्ध्यानां समाहारः = त्रिसन्ध्यम् – the three junctions of the day (dawn, noon and dusk).

अलौकिक-विग्रह: –
(2) त्रि आम् + सन्ध्या आम् । By 2-1-51 तद्धितार्थोत्तरपदसमाहारे च – In the following three situations a सुबन्तं (ending in a सुँप् affix) पदम् denoting either a direction of the compass or a numeral combines with another सुबन्तं (ending in a सुँप् affix) पदम् referring to the same item and the resulting compound is a तत्पुरुष: –
i) in the context where the sense of a तद्धित: affix is to be expressed
ii) when a उत्तरपदम् (a final member) of a compound follows
iii) when the compound denotes a समाहार: (aggregate.)

(3) As per 1-2-43 प्रथमानिर्दिष्टं समास उपसर्जनम् the term ‘त्रि आम्’ – which denotes a numeral – gets the designation उपसर्जनम् because in the सूत्रम् 2-1-51 (which prescribes the compounding) the term दिक्संख्ये (which comes as अनुवृत्ति: from the सूत्रम् 2-1-50 दिक्संख्ये संज्ञायाम्‌) ends in the nominative case. And hence the term ‘त्रि आम्’ is placed in the prior position in the compound as per the सूत्रम् 2-2-30 उपसर्जनं पूर्वम्‌ – In a compound a term which has the designation ‘उपसर्जन’ should be placed in the prior position.
Note: ‘त्रि आम् + सन्ध्या आम्’ gets the designation प्रातिपदिकम्‌ by 1-2-46 कृत्तद्धितसमासाश्च। This allows 2-4-71 to apply in the next step.

(4) त्रि + सन्ध्या । By 2-4-71 सुपो धातुप्रातिपदिकयोः – A सुँप् affix takes a लुक् elision when it is a part of a धातुः or a प्रातिपदिकम्।

Note: This compound is used in the neuter gender as per the सूत्रम् 2-4-17 स नपुंसकम्‌ – A द्विगुः/द्वन्द्व: compound which expresses a समाहार: (aggregation) is used (only) in the neuter gender.

See advanced question.

(5) त्रिसन्ध्य । By 1-2-47 ह्रस्वो नपुंसके प्रातिपदिकस्य – In the neuter gender, the ending vowel (if any) of a प्रातिपदिकम् is shortened.

This compound is used only in the singular as per the सूत्रम् 2-4-1 द्विगुरेकवचनम्‌ – A द्विगुः compound which expresses a समाहार: (aggregation) is used (only) in the singular.

The विवक्षा is द्वितीया।

(6) त्रिसन्ध्य + अम् । By 4-1-2 स्वौजसमौट्छष्टाभ्याम्भिस्ङेभ्याम्भ्यस्ङसिभ्याम्भ्यस्ङसोसाम्ङ्योस्सुप्‌।

See question 1.

(7) त्रिसन्ध्य + अम् । By 7-1-24 अतोऽम् – The affixes ‘सुँ’ and ‘अम्’ that follow a neuter अङ्गम् ending in the short vowel ‘अ’ take ‘अम्’ as their replacement. Note: 7-1-24 is required here to prevent 7-1-23 स्वमोर्नपुंसकात्‌ from applying.
1-3-4 न विभक्तौ तुस्माः prevents the ending letter ‘म्’ of the affix ‘अम्’ from getting इत्-सञ्ज्ञा।

(8) त्रिसन्ध्यम् । By 6-1-107 अमि पूर्वः – In place of a preceding अक् letter and the following vowel (अच्) belonging to the affix ‘अम्’ there is a single substitute of that preceding अक् letter.

Questions:

1. Which सूत्रम् justifies the use of a second case affix used in this form त्रिसन्ध्यम् in the verse?

2. Which कृत् affix is used to derived the form संचरिष्णुः (पुंलिङ्गे प्रथमा-एकवचनम्)?

3. Where has the सूत्रम् 2-3-16 नमःस्वस्तिस्वाहास्वधालंवषड्योगाच्च been used in the verse?

4. In the commentary can you spot a word in which the substitution ‘ल्यप्’ has been done (in place of the affix ‘क्त्वा’)?

5. How would you say this in Sanskrit?
“One who mutters the Gāyatrī at the three junctions of the day (dawn, noon and dusk) is freed from (by) all sins.” Use (a passive form of) the verbal root √मुच् (मुचॢँ मोक्षणे (मोचने) ६. १६६) preceded by the उपसर्ग: ‘प्र’ for ‘to be freed.’

Advanced question:

1. Under the सूत्रम् 2-4-17 स नपुंसकम्‌ (used in step 4) there is a वार्तिकम् – आबन्तो वा which states that – A द्विगुः compound which expresses a समाहार: (aggregation) and whose final member ends in the feminine affix ‘आप्’ is used in the feminine gender optionally.
This वार्तिकम् does apply in the present example since the final member ‘सन्ध्या’ of the द्विगुः compound ‘त्रिसन्ध्या’ ends in the feminine affix ‘आप्’। Derive the final (optional) feminine form of this compound. Hint: The तत्त्वबोधिनी comments on the derivation as follows – उपसर्जनह्रस्वत्वे सत्यदन्तत्वात् ‘द्विगो:’ इति स्त्रीत्वपक्षे ङीप्।

Easy questions:

1. Where has the सूत्रम् 3-1-48 णिश्रिद्रुस्रुभ्यः कर्तरि चङ् been used in the verses?

2. Which सूत्रम् prescribes the लुक् elision of the affix ‘त’ in the form अकारि?