हंसः mNs

Today we will look at the form हंसः  mNs from श्रीमद्भागवतम् 4.28.64.

यथा पुरुष आत्मानमेकमादर्शचक्षुषोः । द्विधाभूतमवेक्षेत तथैवान्तरमावयोः ।। ४-२८-६३ ।।
एवं स मानसो हंसो हंसेन प्रतिबोधितः । स्वस्थस्तद्व्यभिचारेण नष्टामाप पुनः स्मृतिम् ।। ४-२८-६४ ।।

श्रीधर-स्वामि-टीका
तर्हि कथमावयोरज्ञत्वसर्वज्ञत्वादिधर्मभेदस्तत्राह – यथेति । आत्मानं देहमादर्शे निर्मलं महान्तं स्थिरं चावेक्षेत । परस्य चक्षुषि च तद्विपरीतम् । विद्याविद्योपाधिकृतो धर्मभेद इत्यर्थः ।। ६३ ।। एवममुना प्रकारेण मानसो हंसः क्षेत्रज्ञो हंसेन परमात्मना बोधितः सन्स्वस्थ आत्मनि स्थितः संश्चिरं ध्यात्वा तद्व्यभिचारेणेश्वरवियोगेन विषयाभिलाषबुद्ध्या नष्टां स्मृतिमहं ब्रह्मास्मीति ज्ञानं पुनः प्राप्तवान् ।। ६४ ।।

Gita Press translation – Just as a man sees himself (his image) differently in a mirror and in the pupil of another’s eye, the difference between us two is of the same type (63). Admonished thus by the fellow-swan, the swan of the Mānasa lake was (once more) established in his own self and regained his self-consciousness, which had been lost due to his having parted company with his friend (64).

हंस: (a swan) may be derived as हन्ति (गच्छति – one who goes/moves) – from the verbal root √हन् (हनँ हिंसागत्योः २. २) as follows –

(1) हन् + अच् । By 3-1-134 नन्दिग्रहिपचादिभ्यो ल्युणिन्यचः – The affix ‘ल्यु’ may be used after a verbal root belonging to the group headed by ‘नन्दि’; the affix ‘णिनिँ’ may be used after a verbal root belonging to the group headed by ‘ग्रहि’; and the affix ‘अच्’ may be used after a verbal root belonging to the group headed by ‘पच्’।
Note: The पचादि-गणः is a आकृतिगणः – which is a class or group of words in which some words are actually mentioned and room is left to include others which are found undergoing the same operations. Hence even though हंस: may not be specifically listed in the पचादि-गणः we may consider it to be a part of the पचादि-गणः based on the usage seen in the language.

(2) हन् + अ । अनुबन्ध-लोपः by 1-3-3 हलन्त्यम्, 1-3-9 तस्य लोपः

(3) हन् सँक् + अ । As per 6-3-109 पृषोदरादीनि यथोपदिष्टम् – The forms such as ‘पृषोदर’ etc (which contain irregular operations – like an elision or an augment or a transformation of a letter – not prescribed by any rule) are to be taken as valid forms as they are used by the scholars.
Note: The पृषोदरादि-गणः is a आकृतिगणः – which is a class or group of words in which some words are actually mentioned and room is left to include others which are found undergoing the same operations. Hence even though हंस: may not be specifically listed in the पृषोदरादि-गणः we may consider it to be a part of the पृषोदरादि-गणः based on the usage seen in the language.
6-3-109 is used to justify the ad hoc addition of the augment ‘सँक्’ at the end (ref. 1-1-46 आद्यन्तौ टकितौ) of the base ‘हन्’ in order to arrive at the final form ‘हंस’ which is accepted by the scholars.

(4) हन्स । अनुबन्ध-लोपः by 1-3-3 हलन्त्यम्, 1-3-2 उपदेशेऽजनुनासिक इत्, 1-3-9 तस्य लोपः

(5) हंस । By 8-3-24 नश्चापदान्तस्य झलि – The letter ‘न्’ and the letter ‘म्’ which do not occur at the end of a पदम् get अनुस्वारः as replacement when a झल् letter follows.

The विवक्षा is पुंलिङ्गे प्रथमा-एकवचनम् ।

(6) हंस + सुँ । By 4-1-2 स्वौजसमौट्छष्टाभ्याम्भिस्ङेभ्याम्भ्यस्ङसिँभ्याम्भ्यस्ङसोसाम्ङ्योस्सुप्

(7) हंस + स् । अनुबन्ध-लोपः by 1-3-2 उपदेशेऽजनुनासिक इत् and 1-3-9 तस्य लोपः।

(8) हंस: । रुँत्व-विसर्गौ by 8-2-66 ससजुषो रुः and 8-3-15 खरवसानयोर्विसर्जनीयः

Questions:

1. Can you spot a द्वन्द्व: compound in the verses?

2. Where has the सूत्रम् 7-2-15 यस्य विभाषा been used in the verses?

3. In which word in the verses has the affix णिच् been elided?

4. Which सूत्रम् prescribes the affix ‘क’ in the form स्वस्थ: used in the verses? Which one prescribes it in the form क्षेत्रज्ञ: used in the commentary?

5. From which verbal root is the form ध्यात्वा (used in the commentary) derived?

6. How would you say this in Sanskrit?
“Look at that beautiful swan, white as snow.” Construct a कर्मधारय: compound for ‘white as snow’ = ‘तुषार इव गौर:’।

Easy questions:

1. Can you spot the augment सीयुट् in the verses?

2. Where has the सूत्रम् 3-4-82 परस्मैपदानां णलतुसुस्थलथुसणल्वमाः been used in the verses?

सिंहः mNs

Today we will look at the form सिंहः mNs from श्रीमद्भागवतम् 10.50.31.

जग्राह विरथं रामो जरासन्धं महाबलम् । हतानीकावशिष्टासुं सिंहः सिंहमिवौजसा ।। १०-५०-३१ ।।
बध्यमानं हतारातिं पाशैर्वारुणमानुषैः । वारयामास गोविन्दस्तेन कार्यचिकीर्षया ।। १०-५०-३२ ।।

श्रीधर-स्वामि-टीका
किंच जग्राहेति । हतान्यनीकानि यस्य, अवशिष्टा असव एव यस्य तं च तं च ।। ३१ ।। हता बहुशोऽरातयो येन तथाभूतमपि जरासन्धं बध्यमानं वारयामासेति ।। ३२ ।।

Gita Press translation – (Even) a lion would seize another with force, Balarāma caught hold of Jarāsandha, who though very powerful, had lost his chariot and was left (alone) with his life, his (entire) force having been wiped out (31). With intent to accomplish His (own) work (of concentrating all undesirable elements) through him Śrī Kṛṣṇa (the Protector of cows) prevented his being bound (by Balarāma) with the cords of Varuṇa as well as with human ropes, although he had (himself) killed (numberless redoubtable) foes (in the past) (32).

सिंह: (a lion) may be derived as हिनस्ति (one who hurts/injures) from the verbal root √हिन्स् (हिसिँ हिंसायाम् ७. १९) as follows –

(1) हिन्स् + अच् । By 3-1-134 नन्दिग्रहिपचादिभ्यो ल्युणिन्यचः – The affix ‘ल्यु’ may be used after a verbal root belonging to the group headed by ‘नन्दि’; the affix ‘णिनिँ’ may be used after a verbal root belonging to the group headed by ‘ग्रहि’; and the affix ‘अच्’ may be used after a verbal root belonging to the group headed by ‘पच्’।
Note: The पचादि-गणः is a आकृतिगणः – which is a class or group of words in which some words are actually mentioned and room is left to include others which are found undergoing the same operations. Hence even though सिंह: may not be specifically listed in the पचादि-गणः we may consider it to be a part of the पचादि-गणः based on the usage seen in the language.

(2) हिन्स् + अ । अनुबन्ध-लोपः by 1-3-3 हलन्त्यम्, 1-3-9 तस्य लोपः

(3) सिन्ह । As per 6-3-109 पृषोदरादीनि यथोपदिष्टम् – The forms such as ‘पृषोदर’ etc (which contain irregular operations – like an elision or an augment or a transformation of a letter – not prescribed by any rule) are to be taken as valid forms as they are used by the scholars.
Note: The पृषोदरादि-गणः is a आकृतिगणः – which is a class or group of words in which some words are actually mentioned and room is left to include others which are found undergoing the same operations. Hence even though सिंह: may not be specifically listed in the पृषोदरादि-गणः we may consider it to be a part of the पृषोदरादि-गणः based on the usage seen in the language.
6-3-109 is used to justify the ad hoc interchange of the letters ‘ह्’ and ‘स्’ in order to arrive at the final form ‘सिंह’ which is accepted by the scholars.

(4) सिंह । By 8-3-24 नश्चापदान्तस्य झलि – The letter ‘न्’ and the letter ‘म्’ which do not occur at the end of a पदम् get अनुस्वारः as replacement when a झल् letter follows.

The विवक्षा is पुंलिङ्गे प्रथमा-एकवचनम् ।

(5) सिंह + सुँ । By 4-1-2 स्वौजसमौट्छष्टाभ्याम्भिस्ङेभ्याम्भ्यस्ङसिँभ्याम्भ्यस्ङसोसाम्ङ्योस्सुप्

(6) सिंह + स् । अनुबन्ध-लोपः by 1-3-2 उपदेशेऽजनुनासिक इत् and 1-3-9 तस्य लोपः।

(7) सिंह: । रुँत्व-विसर्गौ by 8-2-66 ससजुषो रुः and 8-3-15 खरवसानयोर्विसर्जनीयः

Questions:

1. Where has the प्रातिपदिकम् ‘सिंह’ been used in the गीता (Chapter One)?

2. What is the विग्रह: of the compound हतानीकावशिष्टासुम् (प्रातिपदिकम् ‘हतानीकावशिष्टासु’, पुंलिङ्गे द्वितीया-एकवचनम्) used in the verses?

3. In which compound in the verses does the वार्तिकम् (under 2-2-24 अनेकमन्यपदार्थे) प्रादिभ्यो धातुजस्य वाच्यो वा चोत्तरपदलोपः find application?

4. Can you spot the कृत् affix ‘अ’ in the verses?

5. Which सूत्रम् prescribes the substitution ‘आ’ in the compound महाबलम् (प्रातिपदिकम् ‘महाबल’, पुंलिङ्गे द्वितीया-एकवचनम्) used in the verses?

6. How would you say this in Sanskrit?
“All the animals in the forest are afraid of (from) the lion.” Use the masculine noun ‘मृग’ for ‘animal.’

Easy questions:

1. Which सूत्रम् prescribes the substitution ‘ज्’ in the form जग्राह?

2. In which word(s) in the commentary has the सूत्रम् 7-3-109 जसि च been used?

बलाहकः mNs

Today we will look at the form बलाहकः  mNs from श्रीमद्भागवतम् 10.55.26.

अन्तःपुरवरं राजन्ललनाशतसङ्‌कुलम् । विवेश पत्न्या गगनाद्विद्‌युतेव बलाहकः ।। १०-५५-२६ ।।
तं दृष्ट्वा जलदश्यामं पीतकौशेयवाससम् । प्रलम्बबाहुं ताम्राक्षं सुस्मितं रुचिराननम् ।। १०-५५-२७ ।।
स्वलङ्‌कृतमुखाम्भोजं नीलवक्रालकालिभिः । कृष्णं मत्वा स्त्रियो ह्रीता निलिल्युस्तत्र तत्र ह ।। १०-५५-२८ ।।

श्रीधर-स्वामि-टीका
विद्‌युता सह बलाहको मेघ इव ।। २६ ।। २७ ।। नीलाश्च वक्राश्च येऽलकास्त एवालयस्तैः । ह्रीता लज्जिताः ।। २८ ।।

Gita Press translation – Like a cloud attended with lightning, Pradyumna descended with his spouse from the sky into the magnificent gynaeceum crowded with hundred of ladies (26). Seeing him, sombre as a cloud and clad in yellow silk, with exceptionally long arms and reddish eyes, wearing a winsome smile and a charming countenance, his lotus-like face graced with locks of dark-blue curly hair, and thinking him to be Śrī Kṛṣṇa, the ladies, so the story goes, hid themselves wherever they could (out of bashfulness) (27-28).

(1) वारिणो वाहक: = बलाहक: – a cloud (carrier of water.)

अलौकिक-विग्रह: –
(2) वारि ङस् + वाहक सुँ । By 2-2-8 षष्ठी – A पदम् ending in a sixth case affix optionally compounds with a (syntactically related) पदम् ending in a सुँप् affix and the resulting compound gets the designation तत्पुरुष:।
By the सूत्रम् 1-2-43 प्रथमानिर्दिष्टं समास उपसर्जनम् – ‘वारि ङस्’ (which ends in a sixth case affix) gets the designation उपसर्जनम् because in the सूत्रम् 2-2-8 षष्ठी (which prescribes the compounding) the term षष्ठी ends in the nominative case.
And hence as per 2-2-30 उपसर्जनं पूर्वम्‌ the term ‘वारि ङस्’ is placed in the prior position in the compound. Note: ‘वारि ङस् + वाहक सुँ’ gets the designation प्रातिपदिकम्‌ by 1-2-46 कृत्तद्धितसमासाश्च । This allows the सूत्रम् 2-4-71 to apply in the next step.

(3) वारि + वाहक । By 2-4-71 सुपो धातुप्रातिपदिकयोः – A सुँप् affix takes a लुक् elision when it is a part of a धातुः or a प्रातिपदिकम्।

(4) बलाहक । As per 6-3-109 पृषोदरादीनि यथोपदिष्टम् – The forms such as ‘पृषोदर’ etc (which contain irregular operations – like an elision or an augment or a transformation of a letter – not prescribed by any rule) are to be taken as valid forms as they are used by the scholars.
The पृषोदरादि-गण: is listed in the गण-पाठ: as follows – ‘पृषोदर’, ‘पृषोत्थान’, ‘बलाहक‘, ‘जीमूत’, ‘श्मशान’, ‘उलूखल’, ‘पिशाच’, ‘बृसी’, ‘मयूर’।
6-3-109 is used to justify the ad hoc substitution of ‘ब’ in place of the entire पूर्वपदम् ‘वारि’ and of the letter ‘ल्’ in place of the initial letter ‘व्’ of the उत्तरपदम् ‘वाहक’ in order to arrive at the final compound form ‘बलाहक’ listed in the पृषोदरादि-गण:।

As per the सूत्रम् 2-4-26 परवल्लिङ्गं द्वन्द्वतत्पुरुषयोः, the compound प्रातिपदिकम् ‘बलाहक’ is masculine since the latter member ‘वाहक’ (which after the application of 6-3-109 becomes ‘लाहक’) of the compound is used here in the masculine. The compound declines like राम-शब्द:।

The विवक्षा is प्रथमा-एकवचनम् ।

(5) बलाहक + सुँ । By 4-1-2 स्वौजसमौट्छष्टाभ्याम्भिस्ङेभ्याम्भ्यस्ङसिँभ्याम्भ्यस्ङसोसाम्ङ्योस्सुप्

(6) बलाहक + स् । अनुबन्ध-लोपः by 1-3-2 उपदेशेऽजनुनासिक इत् and 1-3-9 तस्य लोपः।

(7) बलाहक: । रुँत्व-विसर्गौ by 8-2-66 ससजुषो रुः and 8-3-15 खरवसानयोर्विसर्जनीयः

Questions:

1. Which compound in the verses has been composed using the सूत्रम् 2-1-55 उपमानानि सामान्यवचनैः?

2. What type of compound is रुचिराननम् as used in the verses?
i. कर्मधारय:
ii. षष्ठी-तत्पुरुष:
iii. बहुव्रीहि:
iv. द्वन्द्व:

3. What is the विग्रह: of the compound सुस्मितम् (प्रातिपदिकम् ‘सुस्मित’, पुंलिङ्गे द्वितीया-एकवचनम्) used in the verses?

4. Which सूत्रम् justifies the use of a third case affix in the words पत्न्या and विद्‌युता used in the verses?

5. Can you spot the समासान्त: affix षच् in the verses?

6. How would you say this in Sanskrit?
“Without clouds lightning cannot occur.” Use the verbal root √भू (भू सत्तायाम् १. १) with the उपसर्ग: ‘सम्’ for ‘to occur.’

Easy questions:

1. In which word in the verses has the substitution णल् (in place of the affix तिप्) been used?

2. Where has the सूत्रम् 6-4-82 एरनेकाचोऽसंयोगपूर्वस्य been used in the verses?

जीमूतम् mAs

Today we will look at the form जीमूतम्  mAs from श्रीमद्-वाल्मीकि-रामायणम् 5.4.108.

जातरूपमयैः शृङ्गैर्भ्राजमानैर्महाप्रभैः । आदित्यशतसंकाशः सोऽभवद्गिरिसत्तमः ।। ५-४-१०६ ।।
समुत्थितमसङ्गेन हनूमानग्रतः स्थितम् । मध्ये लवणतोयस्य विघ्नोऽयमिति निश्चितः ।। ५-४-१०७ ।।
स तमुच्छ्रितमत्यर्थं महावेगो महाकपिः । उरसा पातयामास जीमूतमिव मारुतः ।। ५-४-१०८ ।।
स तदाऽऽसादितस्तेन कपिना पर्वतोत्तमः । बुद्ध्वा तस्य हरेर्वेगं जहर्ष च ननाद च ।। ५-४-१०९ ।।

Gita Press translation – With its shining peaks of gold, emitting a dazzling splendor, that jewel among mountains shone brightly like a hundred suns (106). Hanumān positively considered the mountain, which instantly stood very high before him in the midst of the salty sea, to be a stumbling block (in his journey) (107). Hanumān, the mighty monkey who was possessed of great impetuosity, felled with his breast the exceedingly lofty mountain (even) as the wind would strike down a cloud (108). Worsted on that occasion by the aforesaid monkey (Hanumān) and recognizing his impetuosity, Maināka (the foremost of mountains) felt rejoiced and roared too (109).

There are a few different ways of deriving the compound जीमूत:। One of them is as follows –

(1) जीवनस्य (जलस्य) मूत: = जीमूत: – a cloud (a collection of water.)

अलौकिक-विग्रह: –
(2) जीवन ङस् + मूत सुँ । By 2-2-8 षष्ठी – A पदम् ending in a sixth case affix optionally compounds with a (syntactically related) पदम् ending in a सुँप् affix and the resulting compound gets the designation तत्पुरुष:।

(3) By 1-2-43 प्रथमानिर्दिष्टं समास उपसर्जनम् – the term ‘जीवन ङस्’ gets the designation उपसर्जनम् because in the सूत्रम् 2-2-8 (which prescribes the compounding) the term षष्ठी ends in the nominative case. Hence ‘जीवन ङस्’ is placed in the prior position in the compound as per the सूत्रम् 2-2-30 उपसर्जनं पूर्वम्‌ – In a compound a term which has the designation ‘उपसर्जन’ should be placed in the prior position.

Note: ‘जीवन ङस् + मूत सुँ’ gets the designation प्रातिपदिकम्‌ by 1-2-46 कृत्तद्धितसमासाश्च। This allows 2-4-71 to apply in the next step.

(4) जीवन + मूत । By 2-4-71 सुपो धातुप्रातिपदिकयोः – A सुँप् affix takes a लुक् elision when it is a part of a धातुः or a प्रातिपदिकम्।

(5) जीमूत । As per 6-3-109 पृषोदरादीनि यथोपदिष्टम् – The forms such as ‘पृषोदर’ etc (which contain irregular operations – like an elision or an augment or a transformation of a letter – not prescribed by any rule) are to be taken as valid forms as they are used by the scholars.
The पृषोदरादि-गण: is listed in the गण-पाठ: as follows – ‘पृषोदर’, ‘पृषोत्थान’, ‘बलाहक’, ‘जीमूत‘, ‘श्मशान’, ‘उलूखल’, ‘पिशाच’, ‘बृसी’, ‘मयूर’।
6-3-109 is used to justify the ad hoc elision of the letters ‘वन’ of ‘जीवन’ in order to arrive at the final compound form ‘जीमूत’ listed in the पृषोदरादि-गण:।

As per the सूत्रम् 2-4-26 परवल्लिङ्गं द्वन्द्वतत्पुरुषयोः, the तत्पुरुष: compound प्रातिपदिकम् ‘जीमूत’ is masculine since the final member ‘मूत’ of the compound is used here in the masculine. It declines like राम-शब्द:।

The विवक्षा is द्वितीया-एकवचनम्।

(6) जीमूत + अम् । By 4-1-2 स्वौजसमौट्छष्टाभ्याम्भिस्ङेभ्याम्भ्यस्ङसिभ्याम्भ्यस्ङसोसाम्ङ्योस्सुप्‌।
Note: 1-3-4 न विभक्तौ तुस्माः prevents the ending letter ‘म्’ of the affix ‘अम्’ from getting इत्-सञ्ज्ञा।

(7) जीमूतम् । By 6-1-107 अमि पूर्वः – In place of a preceding अक् letter and the following vowel (अच्) belonging to the affix ‘अम्’ there is a single substitute of that preceding अक् letter.

Questions:

1. What type of compound is यथोपदिष्टम् which occurs in the सूत्रम् 6-3-109 पृषोदरादीनि यथोपदिष्टम् (used in step 5)?
i. अव्ययीभाव:
ii. तत्पुरुष:
iii. बहुव्रीहि:
iv. द्वन्द्व:

2. Among the two compounds महावेग: and महाकपिः used in the verses which one is a कर्मधारय: compound and which one is a बहुव्रीहि: compound?

3. Which कृत् affix is used to derive the word विघ्न:?

4. Why doesn’t the सूत्रम् 2-2-10 न निर्धारणे prevent the formation of the compound पर्वतोत्तमः?

5. Which सूत्रम् justifies the use of a third case affix in the form उरसा used in the verses?

6. How would you say this in Sanskrit?
“Yesterday there were many clouds in the sky. Today there is not even one.”

Easy questions:

1. Where has the सूत्रम् 3-1-35 कास्प्रत्ययादाममन्त्रे लिटि been used in the verses?

2. Which सूत्रम् prescribes the वृद्धि: substitution in the form ननाद?

पितरौ mNd

Today we will look at the form पितरौ  mNd from श्रीमद्भागवतम् 6.4.12.

तोकानां पितरौ बन्धू दृश: पक्ष्म स्त्रियाः पतिः । पतिः प्रजानां भिक्षूणां गृह्यज्ञानां बुधः सुहृत् ।। ६-४-१२ ।।
अन्तर्देहेषु भूतानामात्माऽऽस्ते हरिरीश्वरः । सर्वं तद्धिष्ण्यमीक्षध्वमेवं वस्तोषितो ह्यसौ ।। ६-४-१३ ।।

श्रीधर-स्वामि-टीका
प्रजानां प्रजापतिरेव बन्धुरतस्तज्जीविकानाशो न कर्तव्य इति दृष्टान्तपञ्चकेनाह । तोकानां बालानां मातापितरौ । अज्ञानां ज्ञानदो बुध एव सुहृत् ।। १२ ।। ईश्वराधिष्ठानत्वाच्च भूतद्रोहो न युक्त इत्याह – अन्तर्देहेष्विति । वो युष्माभिः ।। १३ ।।

Gita Press translation – The parents are the (true) friends of children; the eye-lashes, of an eye; the husband, of a (married) woman; the sovereign, of a people (and through them of all living beings including trees); the householder, of mendicants; and a wise man is the friend of the ignorant (12). The almighty Śrī Hari indwells the hearts of (all) living beings as their Inner Controller. (Therefore,) regard the entire creation (both animate and inanimate) as His abode; in this way He will be really propitiated by you (13).

(1) माता च पिता च = मातापितरौ or पितरौ – parents (mother and father).
Please refer to the following post for the derivation of the द्वन्द्व: compound ‘मातापितृ’ – http://avg-sanskrit.org/2016/04/21/मातापितरौ-mad/

(2) पितृ । By 1-2-70 पिता मात्रा – When the word पिता (father) is used with the word माता (mother) then (either both the words remain to form a द्वन्द्व: compound or) optionally only the word पिता remains.

Note: य: शिष्यते स लुप्यमानार्थाभिधायी – the one (‘पितृ’) that remains also denotes the meaning of the one (‘मातृ’) that gets elided. Hence a dual case ending is now used following ‘पितृ’।

The विवक्षा is प्रथमा।

(3) पितृ + औ । By 4-1-2 स्वौजसमौट्छष्टाभ्याम्भिस्ङेभ्याम्भ्यस्ङसिँभ्याम्भ्यस्ङसोसाम्ङ्योस्सुप्। Note: The affix ‘औ’ has the सर्वनामस्थान-सञ्ज्ञा here as per 1-1-43 सुडनपुंसकस्य। This allows 7-3-110 to apply in the next step.

(4) पितर् + औ । By 7-3-110 ऋतो ङिसर्वनामस्थानयोः – The ending letter ‘ऋ’ of a अङ्गम् gets a गुणः replacement, when followed by the affix ‘ङि’ (सप्तमी-एकवचनम्) or an affix with the designation सर्वनामस्थानम्। By 1-1-51 उरण् रपरः, in the place of ऋवर्ण: if an अण् letter (‘अ’, ‘इ’, ‘उ’) comes as a substitute, it is always followed by a ‘रँ’ (‘र्’, ‘ल्’) letter.

= पितरौ ।

Questions:

1. Commenting on the सूत्रम् 1-2-70 पिता मात्रा (used in step 2) the काशिका says – अन्यतरस्यामिति वर्तते नैकवदिति। Please explain.

2. Which compound used in the verses is a नञ्-तत्पुरुष: compound?

3. Which सूत्रम् gives the ready-made compound form ‘सुहृद्’?

4. Where has the affix ‘क’ been used in the verses? Where has it been used in the commentary?

5. In which word in the commentary has the सूत्रम् 2-3-25 विभाषा गुणेऽस्त्रियाम्‌ been used?

6. How would you say this in Sanskrit?
“I salute the Supreme Lord and (Goddess) Pārvatī – the parents of the world.” Form a कर्मधारय: compound for ‘Supreme Lord’ = परमश्चासावीश्वर:। Use this compound to form a द्वन्द्व: compound with ‘पार्वती’।

Easy questions:

1. In which word in the verses has the affix शप् taken the लुक् elision?

2. Where has the सूत्रम् 3-4-91 सवाभ्यां वामौ been used in the verses?

असह्यानि nNp

Today we will look at the form असह्यानि  nNp from रघुवंशम् verse 13-27.

एतद्गिरेर्माल्यवतः पुरस्तादाविर्भवत्यम्बरलेखि शृङ्गम् ।
नवं पयो यत्र घनैर्मया च त्वद्विप्रयोगाश्रु समं विसृष्टम् ॥ 13-26॥
गन्धश्च धाराहतपल्वलानां कादम्बमर्धोद्गतकेसरं च ।
स्निग्धाश्च केकाः शिखिनां बभूवुर्यस्मिन्नसह्यानि विना त्वया मे ॥ 13-27 ।।

मल्लिनाथ-टीका
माल्यवतो नाम गिरेरम्बरलेख्यभ्रङ्कषं शृङ्गमेतत्पुरस्तादग्र आविर्भवतियत्र शृङ्गे घनैर्मेघैर्नवं पयो मया त्वद्विप्रयोगेण यदश्रु तच्च समं युगपद्विसृष्टम् । मेघदर्शनाद्वर्षतुल्यमश्रु विमुक्तमिति भावः ।। २६ ।। यस्मिञ्छृङ्गे धाराभिर्वर्षधाराभिर्हतानां पल्वलानां गन्धश्चअर्धोद्गतकेसरं कादम्बं नीपकुसुमं स्निग्धा मधुराः शिखिनां बर्हिणाम् । ‘शिखिनौ वह्निबर्हिणौ’ इत्यमरः । केकाश्चत्वया विना मेऽसह्यानि बभूवुः । ‘नपुंसकमनपुंसकेन -‘ इति नपुंसकैकशेषः ।। २७ ।।

Translation – ‘Here comes to view in front, this sky-scraping peak of the Mālyavat mountain, where was let fall the first shower of water by the clouds and tears due to your separation, by me also, simultaneously; and where, the fragrant smell of the puddles struck by the showers (of rain), and the Kādamba flower with the filaments half opened, and the pleasant notes of the peacocks became unbearable to me, without you (26-27).

(1) The masculine form असह्य: (गन्धः) and the neuter form असह्यम् (कादम्बम्) and the feminine form असह्या: (केकाः) have been referred to collectively by the neuter form असह्यानि as per the सूत्रम् 1-2-69 नपुंसकमनपुंसकेनैकवच्चास्यान्यतरस्याम् – Only the neuter form remains and is optionally treated as singular when used with non-neuter forms provided that the difference between the forms is only due to gender.
Note: The अनुवृत्ति: of ‘तल्लक्षणश्चेदेव विशेषः’ comes down from the सूत्रम् 1-2-65 वृद्धो यूना तल्लक्षणश्चेदेव विशेषः in to this सूत्रम् 1-2-69.

See question 1.

The विवक्षा is नपुंसकलिङ्गे, प्रथमा-बहुवचनम् ।

(2) असह्य + जस् । By 4-1-2 स्वौजसमौट्छष्टाभ्याम्भिस्ङेभ्याम्भ्यस्ङसिभ्याम्भ्यस्ङसोसाम्ङ्योस्सुप्‌

(3) असह्य + शि ।By 7-1-20 जश्शसोः शिः – The affixes ‘जस्’ and ‘शस्’ get ‘शि’ as the replacement when they follow a neuter अङ्गम्। ‘शि’ gets the सर्वनामस्थानसंज्ञा by 1-1-42 शि सर्वनामस्थानम्। This allows 7-1-72 to apply below.

(4) असह्य + इ । अनुबन्ध-लोपः by 1-3-8 लशक्वतद्धिते and 1-3-9 तस्य लोपः

(5) असह्य नुँम् + इ । By 7-1-72 नपुंसकस्य झलचः – When a सर्वनामस्थानम् affix follows, the neuter bases that end in a झल् letter or an अच् (vowel) get the नुँम् augment. As per 1-1-47 मिदचोऽन्त्यात्परः, the ‘नुँम्’ augment is placed after the last अच् (the letter ‘अ’ after the letter ‘य्’) in ‘असह्य’।

(6) असह्यन् + इ । अनुबन्ध-लोपः by 1-3-2 उपदेशेऽजनुनासिक इत्, 1-3-3 हलन्त्यम् and 1-3-9 तस्य लोपः

(7) असह्यान् + इ । By 6-4-8 सर्वनामस्थाने चासम्बुद्धौ – The penultimate letter of the अङ्गम् (base) ending in the letter ‘न्’ gets elongated if it is followed by a non-vocative affix having the designation सर्वनामस्थानम्।

= असह्यानि ।

Questions:

1. What would be the alternate final form in this example?

2. Where does the सूत्रम् 1-2-69 नपुंसकमनपुंसकेनैकवच्चास्यान्यतरस्याम् (used in step 1) find application in the last five verses of Chapter Three of the गीता?

3. Commenting on the सूत्रम् 1-2-69 नपुंसकमनपुंसकेनैकवच्चास्यान्यतरस्याम् (used in step 1) the काशिका says – ‘अनपुंसकेन’ इति किम्? शुक्लं च शुक्लं च शुक्लं च शुक्लानि। एकवच्चेति न भवति। Please explain.

4. Can you spot the कृत् affix ‘णिनिँ’ in the verses?

5. How would you say this in Sanskrit?
“Heaven, earth and the intermediate region (between heaven and earth) – all these/this are/is pervaded by the Lord.” Use the neuter प्रातिपदिकम् ‘अन्तरिक्ष’ for ‘the intermediate region (between heaven and earth.)’

Advanced question:

1. Derive the उपपद-तत्पुरुष: compound ‘अभ्रङ्कष’ (used in the form अभ्रङ्कषम् (नपुंसकलिङ्गे प्रथमा-एकवचनम्) in the commentary.) You will need to use the following सूत्रम् (which we have not studied so far) – 3-2-42 सर्वकूलाभ्रकरीषेषु कषः – The affix ‘खच्’ may be used after the verbal root √कष् (कषँ हिंसार्थः १.७८१) when in composition with a कर्म-पदम् (a पदम् which denotes the object of the action) which is either ‘सर्व’ or ‘कूल’ or ‘अभ्र‘ or ‘करीष’।

Easy questions:

1. Where has the सूत्रम् 8-3-32 ङमो ह्रस्वादचि ङमुण्नित्यम् been used in the verses?

2. Which सूत्रम् prescribes the augment वुक् in the form बभूवु:?

रागिणः mAp


Today we will look at the form रागिणः mAp from शिशुपालवधम् verse 10-90.

इति मदमदनाभ्यां रागिणः स्पष्टरागाननवरतरतश्रीसङ्गिनस्तानवेक्ष्य ।
अभजत परिवृत्तिं साथ पर्यस्तहस्ता रजनिरवनतेन्दुर्लज्जयाधोमुखीव ।। १०-९० ।।

टीका
इतीति ।। इतीत्थं मदमदनाभ्यां स्पष्टरागान् सर्वदा रागित्वेऽपि तदा ताभ्यामपि व्यञ्जितरागानित्यर्थः । अनवरतरतश्रीसङ्गिनः अविच्छिन्नसुरतसंपल्लपटांस्तान् रागिणो रागिण्यश्च रागिणश्च तान् रागिणः । ‘पुमान्स्त्रिया’ (१।२।६७) इत्येकशेषः । अवेक्ष्य अथावेक्षणानन्तरं पर्यस्तः परिवृतो हस्तो नक्षत्रविशेषः करश्च यस्याः सा । ‘हस्तो नक्षत्रभेदे स्यात्करेभकरयोरपि’ इत्युभयत्रापि विश्वः । अवनतेन्दुः स्रस्तचन्द्रा अत एव सा रजनिर्लज्जया । ग्राम्यचेष्टादर्शनजनितयेति भावः । अधोमुखी नम्रमुखीवेत्युत्प्रेक्षा । परिवृत्तिं निवृत्त्युन्मुखतामभजत । प्रभातप्रायाऽभूदित्यर्थः । स्त्रियो हि परकीयग्राम्यचेष्टादर्शने त्रपावनतमुख्यो हस्तेन दृष्टिमन्तर्धाय द्रागपसरन्तीति भावः । अत एवानन्तरसर्गे प्रभातवर्णनाय प्रस्तावः । मालिनीवृत्तमेतत् । लक्षणं तूक्तं वक्ष्यते चोत्तरसर्गादौ ।।

Translation – Having thus seen those lovers whose passion was evident due to intoxication and lust and who were attached to the wealth in the form of ceaseless sexual pleasure, that night then waived her hand (in the form of the 13th lunar mansion named ‘Hasta’) and with the moon going down sought to retire with her face as if downcast with shame.
Note: ‘हस्त’ of course means ‘hand’ but it is also the name of the 13th lunar mansion. In the present verse ‘हस्त’ has been used in both meanings. The night is portrayed as a woman whose hand is the 13th lunar mansion and whose face is the moon. Just as a woman, on seeing lovers engaged in sexual pleasure would motion her hand (to cover her vision) and quickly turn away with her face down due to bashfulness, similarly the night, on seeing the impassioned lovers, motioned her hand (in the form of the 13th lunar mansion named ‘Hasta’) and sought to retire with her face (in the form of the moon) turned downward due to bashfulness. (Saying that the night sought to retire implies that the day was about to dawn.)

(1) रागिण्यश्च रागिणश्च – Passionate women and passionate men = रागिणः – Passionate persons.
As per the सूत्रम् 1-2-67 पुमान् स्त्रिया – Only the masculine form remains when used with the feminine form provided that the difference between the two forms is only due to gender.

Note: य: शिष्यते स लुप्यमानार्थाभिधायी – the one (‘रागिणः’) that remains also denotes the meaning of the one (‘रागिण्यः’) that gets elided.

Note: The अनुवृत्ति: of ‘तल्लक्षणश्चेदेव विशेषः’ comes down from the सूत्रम् 1-2-65 वृद्धो यूना तल्लक्षणश्चेदेव विशेषः in to this सूत्रम् 1-2-67.

The विवक्षा is द्वितीया-बहुवचनम् ।

(2) रागिन् + शस् । By 4-1-2 स्वौजसमौट्छष्टाभ्याम्भिस्ङेभ्याम्भ्यस्ङसिँभ्याम्भ्यस्ङसोसाम्ङ्योस्सुप्

(3) रागिन् + अस् । अनुबन्ध-लोपः by 1-3-8 लशक्वतद्धिते and 1-3-9 तस्य लोपः। 1-3-4 न विभक्तौ तुस्माः prevents the ending letter ‘स्’ of शस् from getting इत्-सञ्ज्ञा ।

(4) रागिणस् । By 8-4-2 अट्कुप्वाङ्नुम्व्यवायेऽपि – The letter ‘न्’ is replaced by ‘ण्’ when either ‘र्’ or ‘ष्’ precedes, even if intervened by a letter of the अट्-प्रत्याहार: or by a letter of the क-वर्ग: or प-वर्गः or the term ‘आङ्’ or ‘नुँम्’ (अनुस्वारः) either singly or in any combination.

(5) रागिणः । रुँत्व-विसर्गौ – 8-2-66 ससजुषो रुः and 8-3-15 खरवसानयोर्विसर्जनीयः

Questions:

1. From which सूत्रम् down to which सूत्रम् does the अधिकार: of ‘एकशेष:’ run in the अष्टाध्यायी?

2. The एकशेष-वृत्ति: is a अपवाद: for which समास:?

3. Commenting on the सूत्रम् 1-2-67 पुमान् स्त्रिया (used in step 1) the काशिका says – तल्लक्षणश्चेदेव विशेष इत्येव – कुक्कुटश्च मयूरी च कुक्कुटमयूर्यौ। Please explain.

4. In which word(s) in verses 12-17 of Chapter 18 of the Geeta may the सूत्रम् 1-2-67 पुमान् स्त्रिया be applied?

5. Can you spot a द्वन्द्व: compound in the verses?

6. How would you say this in Sanskrit?
“When Śrī Rāma went to the forest all the (male and female) residents of Ayodhyā become dispirited.” Use the सूत्रम् 1-2-67 पुमान् स्त्रिया to derive the form for ‘(male and female) residents’ = निवासिनश्च निवासिन्यश्च। Use the verbal root √सद् (षद्ऌँ विशरणगत्यवसादनेषु १. ९९०) preceded by the उपसर्ग: ‘वि’ for ‘to be dispirited.’

Easy questions:

1. Can you spot the affix ‘शप्’ in the verses?

2. Where has the सूत्रम् 2-4-77 गातिस्थाघुपाभूभ्यः सिचः परस्मैपदेषु been used in the commentary?

योगवैराग्ययुक्तया fIs

Today we will look at the form योगवैराग्ययुक्तया  fIs from श्रीमद्भागवतम् 3.31.48.

तस्मान्न कार्यः सन्त्रासो न कार्पण्यं न सम्भ्रमः । बुद्ध्वा जीवगतिं धीरो मुक्तसङ्गश्चरेदिह ।। ३-३१-४७ ।।
सम्यग्दर्शनया बुद्ध्या योगवैराग्ययुक्तया । मायाविरचिते लोके चरेन्न्यस्य कलेवरम् ।। ३-३१-४८ ।।

श्रीधर-स्वामि-टीका
यस्मान्न वस्तुतो जीवस्य जन्ममरणादि तस्मान्मरणात्संत्रासो न कार्यो जीवने च कार्पण्यं दैन्यं कार्यम् । संभ्रमश्च जीवनप्रयत्ने ।। ४७ ।। ननु सर्वथा मुक्तसङ्गत्वे कथं जीवितमत आह । सम्यक् पश्यति विचारयतीति सम्यग्दर्शना तया बुद्ध्या मायाविरचिते लोके कलेवरं न्यस्य निक्षिप्य । तस्मिन्नासक्तिं त्यक्त्वा विचरेदित्यर्थः ।। ४८ ।।

Gita Press translation – Therefore, a man should neither view death with horror nor have recourse to stinginess in life nor give way to infatuation. Realizing the true nature of the Jīva, he should move about in this world free from attachment and steadfast of purpose (47). Nay, he should relegate his body to this illusory world through his reason endowed with right vision and strengthened by Yoga (concentration of mind) and dispassion, and move about (unconcerned) (48).

(1) First we form the द्वन्द्व: compound ‘योगवैराग्य’ as follows –
योगश्च वैराग्यं च = योगवैराग्ये – Yoga (concentration of mind) and dispassion.

(2) योग सुँ + वैराग्य सुँ । By 2-2-29 चार्थे द्वन्द्वः – Two or more terms having the designation पदम् and standing in a relation expressible by ‘च’ (‘and’) may optionally compound to yield a compound called द्वन्द्वः।

(3) योग सुँ + वैराग्य सुँ । ‘योग’ has two syllables while ‘वैराग्य’ has three syllables. Therefore ‘योग’ is placed in the prior position in this द्वन्द्व: compound as per 2-2-34 अल्पाच्तरम्‌ – In a द्वन्द्व: compound the term having the least number of syllables (vowels) is placed in the prior position.

Note: ‘योग सुँ + वैराग्य सुँ’ gets the designation प्रातिपदिकम्‌ by 1-2-46 कृत्तद्धितसमासाश्च। This allows 2-4-71 to apply in the next step.

(4) योग + वैराग्य । By 2-4-71 सुपो धातुप्रातिपदिकयोः – A सुँप् affix takes a लुक् elision when it is a part of a धातुः or a प्रातिपदिकम्।

= योगवैराग्य ।

Now we form the द्वन्द्व-गर्भ-तृतीया-तत्पुरुष: compound ‘योगवैराग्ययुक्ता’ as follows –
(5) योगवैराग्याभ्यां युक्ता = योगवैराग्ययुक्ता (बुद्धि:) – (intellect/reason) – endowed with Yoga (concentration of mind) and dispassion.

Note: As per the सूत्रम् 2-3-18 कर्तृकरणयोस्तृतीया a third case affix is used following the प्रातिपदिकम् ‘योगवैराग्य’ which denotes the agent of the action.

अलौकिक-विग्रह: –
(6) योगवैराग्य भ्याम् + युक्त सुँ । By 2-1-32 कर्तृकरणे कृता बहुलम्‌ – A पदम् ending in a third case affix – denoting either the agent or the instrument of the action – variously compounds with (a syntactically related पदम् composed by adding a सुँप् affix to) a term ending in a कृत् affix (ref. 3-1-93 कृदतिङ्) and the resulting compound gets the designation तत्पुरुष:।

(7) योगवैराग्य भ्याम् + युक्त सुँ । By 1-2-43 प्रथमानिर्दिष्टं समास उपसर्जनम् – the term ‘योगवैराग्य भ्याम्’ gets the designation उपसर्जनम् because in the सूत्रम् 2-1-32 (which prescribes the compounding) the term तृतीया (which comes as अनुवृत्ति: from 2-1-30 तृतीया तत्कृतार्थेन गुणवचनेन) ends in the nominative case. Hence ‘योगवैराग्य भ्याम्’ is placed in the prior position in the compound as per the सूत्रम् 2-2-30 उपसर्जनं पूर्वम्‌ – In a compound a term which has the designation ‘उपसर्जन’ should be placed in the prior position.

Note: ‘योगवैराग्य भ्याम् + युक्त सुँ’ gets the designation प्रातिपदिकम्‌ by 1-2-46 कृत्तद्धितसमासाश्च। This allows 2-4-71 to apply in the next step.

(8) योगवैराग्य + युक्त । By 2-4-71 सुपो धातुप्रातिपदिकयोः – A सुँप् affix takes a लुक् elision when it is a part of a धातुः or a प्रातिपदिकम्।

= योगवैराग्ययुक्त ।

As per the न्याय: – द्वन्द्वान्ते श्रूयमाणं पदं प्रत्येकमभिसम्बध्यते, in the final compound ‘योगवैराग्ययुक्त’ the पदम् ‘युक्त’ which (immediately) follows the द्वन्द्व: compound ‘योगवैराग्य’ connects individually with the members (‘योग’ and ‘वैराग्य’) of the द्वन्द्व: compound. Hence we get the meaning ‘योगवैराग्ययुक्त’ = ‘योगयुक्त’ + ‘वैराग्ययुक्त’ = ‘endowed with Yoga’ and ‘endowed with dispassion.’

As per the सूत्रम् 2-4-26 परवल्लिङ्गं द्वन्द्वतत्पुरुषयोः, the compound प्रातिपदिकम् ‘योगवैराग्ययुक्त’ is an adjective since the latter member ‘युक्त’ of the compound is an adjective. It is used here in the feminine since it is qualifying the feminine noun ‘बुद्धि’। Now we form the feminine प्रातिपदिकम् ‘योगवैराग्ययुक्ता’ by adding the feminine affix टाप्।

(9) योगवैराग्ययुक्त + टाप् । By 4-1-4 अजाद्यतष्टाप्‌ – The प्रातिपदिकानि ‘अज’ etc. and प्रातिपदिकानि ending in the letter ‘अ’ get the टाप् affix in the feminine gender.

(10) योगवैराग्ययुक्त + आ । अनुबन्ध-लोपः by 1-3-3 हलन्त्यम्, 1-3-7 चुटू, 1-3-9 तस्य लोपः

(11) योगवैराग्ययुक्ता । By 6-1-101 अकः सवर्णे दीर्घः

The विवक्षा is तृतीया-एकवचनम् ।

(12) योगवैराग्ययुक्ता + टा । By 4-1-2 स्वौजसमौट्छष्टाभ्याम्भिस्ङेभ्याम्भ्यस्ङसिँभ्याम्भ्यस्ङसोसाम्ङ्योस्सुप् 

(13) योगवैराग्ययुक्ता + आ । अनुबन्ध-लोपः by 1-3-7 चुटू, 1-3-9 तस्य लोपः

(14) योगवैराग्ययुक्ते + आ । By 7-3-105 आङि चापः – ‘आप्’ ending bases get the letter ‘ए’ as the substitute when followed by the affix ‘आङ्’ (‘टा’) or ‘ओस्’। Note: As per the परिभाषा-सूत्रम् 1-1-52 अलोऽन्त्यस्य only the ending letter ‘आ’ of the base ‘योगवैराग्ययुक्ता’ is replaced by ‘ए’।

(15) योगवैराग्ययुक्तया । By 6-1-78 एचोऽयवायावः

Questions:

1. Which compound used in the last five verses of Chapter Three of the गीता is a द्वन्द्व-गर्भ-तत्पुरुष: compound?

2. Can you spot another (besides योगवैराग्ययुक्तया) तृतीया-तत्पुरुष: compound in the verses?

3. What type of compound is मुक्तसङ्ग: as used in the verses?
i. द्वन्द्व:
ii. कर्मधारय:
iii. बहुव्रीहि:
iv. षष्ठी-तत्पुरुष:

4. In which word in the verses has the कृत् affix ण्यत् been used?

5. Where has the सूत्रम् 2-3-37 यस्य च भावेन भावलक्षणम्‌ been used in the commentary?

6. How would you say this in Sanskrit?
“One should be free of attachment and aversion.” Form a द्वन्द्व-गर्भ-तृतीया-तत्पुरुष: compound for ‘free of attachment and aversion’ = रागद्वेषाभ्यां वियुक्त:।

Easy questions:

1. In which word in the verses has the augment यासुट् been used?

2. Where has the सूत्रम् 7-3-78 पाघ्राध्मास्थाम्नादाण्दृश्यर्तिसर्तिशदसदां पिबजिघ्रधमतिष्ठमनयच्छपश्यर्च्छधौशीयसीदाः been used in the commentary?

त्रयोदश nAp

Today we will look at the form त्रयोदश nAp from श्रीमद्भागवतम् 11.22.2.

केचित्षड्विंशतिं प्राहुरपरे पञ्चविंशतिं । सप्तैके नव षट्केचिच्चत्वार्येकादशापरे ।। ११-२२-२ ।।
केचित्सप्तदश प्राहुः षोडशैके त्रयोदश । एतावत्त्वं हि सङ्ख्यानामृषयो यद्विवक्षया । गायन्ति पृथगायुष्मन्निदं नो वक्तुमर्हसि ।। ११-२२-३ ।।

श्रीधर-स्वामि-टीका
एतावतीनां भाव एतावत्त्वं नानात्वमित्यर्थः । यद्विवक्षया यत्प्रयोजनमभिप्रेत्य च गायन्तिआयुष्मन्नित्यमूर्ते ।। ३ ।।

Gita Press translation – Some (however) speak of twenty-six categories; others, of twenty-five. Some (more) declare seven, nine, six and four respectively; while others mention eleven (2). Some (again) declare seventeen; others, sixteen and (still) others, thirteen. With what intention do the sages severally declare such a (large) variety of numbers? Be pleased O eternal Lord, to tell us this (3).

(1) त्रीणि च दश च = त्रयोदश – (Three + ten =) Thirteen.

(2) त्रि जस् + दशन् जस् । By 2-2-29 चार्थे द्वन्द्वः – Two or more terms having the designation पदम् and standing in a relation expressible by ‘च’ (‘and’) may optionally compound to yield a compound called द्वन्द्वः।

(3) त्रि जस् + दशन् जस् । Note: Since ‘त्रि जस्’ denotes a smaller number (compared to ‘दशन् जस्’) it is placed in the prior position as per the वार्तिकम् (under 2-2-34 अल्पाच्तरम्‌) सङ्ख्याया अल्पीयस्याः पूर्वनिपातो वक्तव्यः – In a compound the term which denotes a smaller number is placed in the prior position.

Note: ‘त्रि जस् + दशन् जस्’ gets the designation प्रातिपदिकम्‌ by 1-2-46 कृत्तद्धितसमासाश्च। This allows 2-4-71 to apply in the next step.

(4) त्रि + दशन् । By 2-4-71 सुपो धातुप्रातिपदिकयोः – A सुँप् affix takes a लुक् elision when it is a part of a धातुः or a प्रातिपदिकम्।

(5) त्रयस् + दशन् । By 6-3-48 त्रेस्त्रयः – When followed by the final member of a compound, the (entire) term ‘त्रि’ takes the substitution ‘त्रयस्’ provided the compound is not a बहुव्रीहि: compound and the final member of the compound denotes a number other than ‘अशीति’।
Note: As per the परिभाषा-सूत्रम् 1-1-55 अनेकाल्शित्सर्वस्य, the entire term ‘त्रि’ (and not just the ending letter ‘इ’) is replaced by ‘त्रयस्’।

See question 1.

(6) त्रयरुँ + दशन् । By 8-2-66 ससजुषो रुः

(7) त्रयउ + दशन् । By 6-1-114 हशि च – When preceded by the letter ‘अ’ and followed by a हश् letter, the letter ‘रुँ’ is substituted by the letter ‘उ’।

(8) त्रयोदशन् । By 6-1-87 आद्गुणः

As per the सूत्रम् 2-4-26 परवल्लिङ्गं द्वन्द्वतत्पुरुषयोः, the compound प्रातिपदिकम् ‘त्रयोदशन्’ is an adjective since the final member ‘दशन्’ of the compound is an adjective. It declines in all three genders, but has the same form in all the genders. This द्वन्द्वः compound (which expresses इतरेतरयोगः) is plural in number because it denotes the plural number thirteen. Here it is used in the neuter gender because it is qualifying तत्त्वानि (which is not explicitly mentioned in the verses.)

The विवक्षा is द्वितीया ।

(9) त्रयोदशन् + शस् । By 4-1-2 स्वौजसमौट्छष्टाभ्याम्भिस्ङेभ्याम्भ्यस्ङसिभ्याम्भ्यस्ङसोसाम्ङ्योस्सुप्‌
Note: ‘त्रयोदशन्’ gets the षट्-सञ्ज्ञा by the सूत्रम् 1-1-24 ष्णान्ता षट् – A numeral stem ending in the letter ‘ष्’ or the letter ‘न्’ gets the designation षट्। This allows the सूत्रम् 7-1-22 to apply in the next step.

(10) त्रयोदशन् । By 7-1-22 षड्भ्यो लुक् – The affixes ‘जस्’ and ‘शस्’ take the लुक् elision when they follow terms that are designated षट्।
Note: Now ‘त्रयोदशन्’ gets the designation पदम् by 1-4-14 सुप्तिङन्तं पदम् with the help of 1-1-62 प्रत्ययलोपे प्रत्ययलक्षणम्। This allows the सूत्रम् 8-2-7 to apply in the next step.

(11) त्रयोदश । By 8-2-7 नलोपः प्रातिपदिकान्तस्य – The ending letter ‘न्’ of a पदम् is dropped when the पदम् also has the designation प्रातिपदिकम्।

Questions:

1. Where else (besides 6-3-48) does the सूत्रम् ‘त्रेस्त्रयः’ appear in the अष्टाध्यायी?

2. Commenting on the सूत्रम् 6-3-48 त्रेस्त्रयः the सिद्धान्तकौमुदी says – अशीतौ तु त्र्यशीति:। Please explain.

3. How is the substitution ‘आ’ in the form एकादश justified?

4. Which सूत्रम् justifies the use of the affix ‘तुमुँन्’ in the form वक्तुम् used in the verses?

5. What type of compound is नित्यमूर्ते (प्रातिपदिकम् ‘नित्यमूर्ति’, पुंलिङ्गे सम्बुद्धि:) as used in the verses?
i. द्वन्द्व:
ii. कर्मधारय:
iii. बहुव्रीहि:
iv. षष्ठी-तत्पुरुष:

6. How would you say this in Sanskrit?
“There are only thirteen days left in this month.” Use the verbal root √शिष् (शिषॢँ विशेषणे ७.१४) in the passive with the उपसर्ग: ‘अव’ for ‘to be left.’

Easy questions:

1. Where has the verbal root √ब्रू (ब्रूञ् व्यक्तायां वाचि २. ३९) been used in the verses?

2. Which सूत्रम् prescribes the substitution ‘अन्त्’ in the form गायन्ति?

नामाष्टशतम् nNs

Today we will look at the form नामाष्टशतम् nNs from महाभारतम् 3.3.14.

जनमेजय उवाच
कथं कुरूणामृषभः स तु राजा युधिष्ठिरः । विप्रार्थमाराधितवान्सूर्यमद्‌भुतदर्शनम् ।। ३-३-१३ ।।
वैशम्पायन उवाच
शृणुष्वावहितो राजञ्शुचिर्भूत्वा समाहितः । क्षणं च कुरु राजेन्द्र सम्प्रवक्ष्याम्यशेषतः ।। ३-३-१४ ।।
धौम्येन तु यथा पूर्वं पार्थाय सुमहात्मने । नामाष्टशतमाख्यातं तच्छृणुष्व महामते ।। ३-३-१४ ।।

Translation – Janamejaya said: For the sake of the Brāhmaṇas, how did that foremost of the Kurus, king Yudhiṣṭhira, worship the Sun of wonderful appearance? (13) Vaiśampāyana said: O king, (first) purify yourself and being composed listen with attention. O king of kings, make some leisure. I shall (then) tell you everything in detail (14). O highly intelligent one, listen to the one hundred and eight names (of the Sun), as they were told earlier by Dhaumya to the very high-souled Yudhiṣṭhira (son of Pṛthā) (15).

(1) अष्टौ च शतं च = अष्टशतम् – (Eight + hundred =) hundred and eight.

(2) अष्ट जस् + शत सुँ । By 2-2-29 चार्थे द्वन्द्वः – Two or more terms having the designation पदम् and standing in a relation expressible by ‘च’ (‘and’) may optionally compound to yield a compound called द्वन्द्वः।

(3) अष्ट जस् + शत सुँ । Note: Since ‘अष्ट जस्’ denotes a smaller number (compared to ‘शत सुँ’) it is placed in the prior position as per the वार्तिकम् (under 2-2-34 अल्पाच्तरम्‌) सङ्ख्याया अल्पीयस्याः पूर्वनिपातो वक्तव्यः – In a compound the term which denotes a smaller number is placed in the prior position.

Note: ‘अष्ट जस् + शत सुँ’ gets the designation प्रातिपदिकम्‌ by 1-2-46 कृत्तद्धितसमासाश्च। This allows 2-4-71 to apply in the next step.

(4) अष्ट + शत । By 2-4-71 सुपो धातुप्रातिपदिकयोः – A सुँप् affix takes a लुक् elision when it is a part of a धातुः or a प्रातिपदिकम्।

Now the ending letter (‘अ’) of ‘अष्ट’ would be replaced by the letter (‘आ’) as per the सूत्रम् 6-3-47 द्व्यष्टनः संख्यायामबहुव्रीह्यशीत्योः – When followed by the final member of a compound, (the final letter of) the term ‘द्वि’ as well as ‘अष्टन्’ takes the substitution ‘आ’ provided the compound is not a बहुव्रीहि: compound and the final member of the compound denotes a number other than ‘अशीति’।
But this operation is blocked by the following वार्तिकम् –

(5) अष्टशत । वार्तिकम् – प्राक् शतादिति वक्तव्यम् – The substitution ‘आ’ (in place of ‘द्वि’/’अष्टन्’) prescribed by the सूत्रम् 6-3-47 as well as the substitution ‘त्रयस्’ (in place of ‘त्रि’) prescribed by the सूत्रम् 6-3-48 is restricted to those compounds whose final members denote numbers less than a hundred. Hence the substitution does not apply in the present example.

(6) Now we form the षष्ठी-तत्पुरुषः compound नाम्नामष्टशतम् = नामाष्टशतम्  – hundred and eight of names.

अलौकिक-विग्रह: –
(7) नामन् आम् + अष्टशत सुँ । By 2-2-8 षष्ठी – A पदम् ending in a sixth case affix optionally compounds with a (syntactically related) पदम् ending in a सुँप् affix and the resulting compound gets the designation तत्पुरुष:।

(8) By 1-2-43 प्रथमानिर्दिष्टं समास उपसर्जनम् – the term ‘नामन् आम्’ gets the designation उपसर्जनम् because in the सूत्रम् 2-2-8 (which prescribes the compounding) the term षष्ठी ends in the nominative case. Hence ‘नामन् आम्’ is placed in the prior position in the compound as per the सूत्रम् 2-2-30 उपसर्जनं पूर्वम्‌ – In a compound a term which has the designation ‘उपसर्जन’ should be placed in the prior position.

Note: ‘नामन् आम् + अष्टशत सुँ’ gets the designation प्रातिपदिकम्‌ by 1-2-46 कृत्तद्धितसमासाश्च। This allows 2-4-71 to apply in the next step.

(9) नामन् + अष्टशत । By 2-4-71 सुपो धातुप्रातिपदिकयोः – A सुँप् affix takes a लुक् elision when it is a part of a धातुः or a प्रातिपदिकम्।
Note: Now ‘नामन्’ gets the designation पदम् by 1-4-14 सुप्तिङन्तं पदम् with the help of 1-1-62 प्रत्ययलोपे प्रत्ययलक्षणम्। This allows the सूत्रम् 8-2-7 to apply in the next step.

(10) नाम + अष्टशत । By 8-2-7 नलोपः प्रातिपदिकान्तस्य – The ending letter ‘न्’ of a पदम् is dropped when the पदम् also has the designation प्रातिपदिकम्।

Now as per 8-2-1 पूर्वत्रासिद्धम्, this elision of the letter ‘न्’ (done by 8-2-7 नलोपः प्रातिपदिकान्तस्य) to arrive at the form ‘नाम’ should not be visible to any prior rule (in the अष्टाध्यायी)। But 8-2-2 नलोपः सुप्स्वरसंज्ञातुग्विधिषु कृति limits the authority of 8-2-1 and says that the elision of the letter ‘न्’ (done by 8-2-7) is not visible only to those rules that are in the four categories mentioned below – others do see the elision of the letter ‘न्’।
The four categories are:
1. सुँब्विधौ – rules relating to सुँप् affixes
2. स्वरविधौ – rules relating to accents (in the वेद:)
3. सञ्ज्ञाविधौ – rules that give names or designations
4. कृति तुँग्विधौ – rules that prescribe a तुँक् augment in connection with a कृत् affix.

(11) Since 6-1-101 अकः सवर्णे दीर्घः does not fall in any of the above four categories, it does see the elision of the letter ‘न्’ and hence applies to give नाम + अष्टशत = नामाष्टशत। (This would not have been possible if we did not have 8-2-2 नलोपः सुप्स्वरसंज्ञातुग्विधिषु कृति limiting the application of 8-2-1 पूर्वत्रासिद्धम्)।

Note: As a convention in the language, the number शतम् (hundred) – as well as compound numbers (like अष्टशतम्) ending in शतम् – are always used in the neuter (even when they’re adjectives to non-neuter terms.) They are used in the singular except (as in the present example) when used as just numbers (not adjectives) they may be used in the dual/plural also.
For example – शतं नरा: = hundred men, शतं नार्य: = hundred women, शतं कुटुम्बानि = hundred families. (नराणां/नारीणां/कुटुम्बानां) शतम् = hundred (of men/women/families), (नराणां/नारीणां/कुटुम्बानां) द्वे शते = two hundred (of men/women/families), (नराणां/नारीणां/कुटुम्बानां) त्रीणि शतानि = three hundred (of men/women/families) etc.

As per the सूत्रम् 2-4-26 परवल्लिङ्गं द्वन्द्वतत्पुरुषयोः, the द्वन्द्वः compound प्रातिपदिकम् ‘अष्टशत’ is neuter since the final member ‘शत’ of the compound is neuter. Similarly, the तत्पुरुषः compound (नामाष्टशत) is neuter since the final member ‘अष्टशत’ of the compound is neuter.

The विवक्षा is प्रथमा-एकवचनम् ।

(12) नामाष्टशत + सुँ । By 4-1-2 स्वौजसमौट्छष्टाभ्याम्भिस्ङेभ्याम्भ्यस्ङसिभ्याम्भ्यस्ङसोसाम्ङ्योस्सुप्‌

(13) नामाष्टशत + अम् । By 7-1-24 अतोऽम् – The affixes ‘सुँ’ and ‘अम्’ that follow a neuter अङ्गम् ending in the short vowel ‘अ’ take ‘अम्’ as their replacement.
1-3-4 न विभक्तौ तुस्माः prevents the ending letter ‘म्’ of the affix ‘अम्’ from getting इत्-सञ्ज्ञा।

(14) नामाष्टशतम् । By 6-1-107 अमि पूर्वः – In place of a preceding अक् letter and the following vowel (अच्) belonging to the affix ‘अम्’ there is a single substitute of that preceding अक् letter.

Questions:

1. In which other compound (besides नामाष्टशतम्) used in the verses does the सूत्रम् 8-2-2 नलोपः सुप्स्वरसंज्ञातुग्विधिषु कृति find application?

2. In which word in the verses has the कृत् affix खश् been used?

3. What type of compound is अद्‌भुतदर्शनम् as used in the verses?
i. द्वन्द्व:
ii. कर्मधारय:
iii. बहुव्रीहि:
iv. षष्ठी-तत्पुरुष:

4. From which verbal root are the forms अवहितः and समाहितः derived?

5. Which सूत्रम् blocks the augment इट् in the form भूत्वा?

6. How would you say this in Snaskrit?
“One should recite with devotion the hundred and eight names of Lord Viṣṇu everyday.”

Easy questions:

1. Which सूत्रम् prescribes the substitution ‘व’ in the form शृणुष्व?

2. Where has the सूत्रम् 6-4-106 उतश्च प्रत्ययादसंयोगपूर्वात्‌ been used in the verses?