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May 212015
 

Today we will look at the form सप्तर्षिभिः mIp from श्रीमद्भागवतम् 8.24.34.

त्वं तावदोषधीः सर्वा बीजान्युच्चावचानि च । सप्तर्षिभिः परिवृतः सर्वसत्त्वोपबृंहितः ।। ८-२४-३४ ।।
आरुह्य बृहतीं नावं विचरिष्यस्यविक्लवः । एकार्णवे निरालोके ऋषीणामेव वर्चसा ।। ८-२४-३५ ।।

श्रीधर-स्वामि-टीका
ओषधीः आदायेति शेषः ।। ३४ ।। ऋषीणामेवालोकेन विचरिष्यसि ।। ३५ ।।

Gita Press translation – Take (with you) in the meanwhile all the herbs and annual plants as well as seeds of all types (both great and small) and, surrounded by the seven seers, and accompanied by all (varieties of) animals, you shall board that commodious vessel and sail about undaunted in that undivided expanse of water devoid of light, guided by the effulgence of the Ṛṣis alone (34-35).

(1) सप्तर्षयः – The seven sages ‘मरीचि’, ‘अत्रि’, ‘अङ्गिरस्’, ‘पुलस्त्य’, ‘पुलह’, ‘क्रतु’, and ‘वसिष्ठ’ by name.
Note: We cannot form a लौकिक-विग्रह: for this compound because सप्तर्षयः is a proper name and a proper name cannot be expressed via a sentence.

अलौकिक-विग्रह: –
(2) सप्तन् जस् + ऋषि जस् । By 2-1-50 दिक्संख्ये संज्ञायाम्‌ – In a तत्पुरुष: compound, a सुबन्तं (ending in a सुँप् affix) पदम् denoting either a direction of the compass or a numeral combines with another सुबन्तं (ending in a सुँप् affix) पदम् referring to the same item only if the resulting compound denotes a proper name.
Note: सञ्ज्ञायामेवेति नियमार्थं सूत्रम्‌ – This is a नियम-सूत्रम् – a restriction rule. Compounding is already available by the सूत्रम् 2-1-57 विशेषणं विशेष्येण बहुलम्‌। All this सूत्रम् does is that (if the prior member of the compound denotes either a direction of the compass or a numeral) it allows 2-1-57 to apply only if the resulting compound denotes a proper name.

(3) By 1-2-43 प्रथमानिर्दिष्टं समास उपसर्जनम् – the term ‘सप्तन् जस्’ – which denotes a numeral –  gets the designation उपसर्जनम् because in the सूत्रम् 2-1-50 (which prescribes the compounding) the term दिक्संख्ये ends in the nominative case. Hence ‘सप्तन् जस्’ is placed in the prior position in the compound as per the सूत्रम् 2-2-30 उपसर्जनं पूर्वम्‌ – In a compound a term which has the designation ‘उपसर्जन’ should be placed in the prior position.

Note: ‘सप्तन् जस् + ऋषि जस्’ gets the designation प्रातिपदिकम्‌ by 1-2-46 कृत्तद्धितसमासाश्च। This allows 2-4-71 to apply in the next step.

(4) सप्तन् + ऋषि । By 2-4-71 सुपो धातुप्रातिपदिकयोः – A सुँप् affix takes a लुक् elision when it is a part of a धातुः or a प्रातिपदिकम्। Note: ‘सप्तन्’ has the designation पदम् here by the सूत्रम् 1-4-14 सुप्तिङन्तं पदम् with the help of the परिभाषा-सूत्रम् 1-1-62 प्रत्ययलोपे प्रत्ययलक्षणम्। This allows the सूत्रम् 8-2-7 to apply in the next step.

(5) सप्त + ऋषि । By 8-2-7 नलोपः प्रातिपदिकान्तस्य – The ending letter ‘न्’ of a पदम् is dropped when the पदम् also has the designation प्रातिपदिकम्।

(6) सप्तर्षि । By 6-1-87 आद्गुणः – In place of a preceding अवर्ण: letter (‘अ’ or ‘आ’) and a following अच् letter, there is a single substitute of a गुण: letter (‘अ’, ‘ए’, ‘ओ’)। As per 1-1-51 उरण् रपरः, in the place of ऋवर्ण: if an अण् letter (‘अ’, ‘इ’, ‘उ’) comes as a substitute, it is always followed by a ‘रँ’ (‘र्’, ‘ल्’) letter.

Note: 8-2-2 नलोपः सुप्स्वरसंज्ञातुग्विधिषु कृति limits the authority of 8-2-1 पूर्वत्रासिद्धम् and says that the elision of the letter ‘न्’ (done by 8-2-7) is not visible only to those rules that are in the four categories mentioned below – others do see the elision of the letter ‘न्’।
The four categories are:
1. सुँब्विधौ – rules relating to सुँप् affixes
2. स्वरविधौ – rules relating to accents (in the वेद:)
3. सञ्ज्ञाविधौ – rules that give names or designations
4. कृति तुँग्विधौ – rules that prescribe a तुँक् augment in connection with a कृत्-प्रत्यय:।
The operation (substitution of a गुण: letter) prescribed by the सूत्रम् 6-1-87 does not fall under any of the above categories. Hence the elision of the letter ‘न्’ (done by 8-2-7) is visible to 6-1-87 allowing it to apply.

See question 1.

Note: As per the सूत्रम् 2-4-26 परवल्लिङ्गं द्वन्द्वतत्पुरुषयोः, the compound प्रातिपदिकम् ‘सप्तर्षि’ is masculine since the latter member ‘ऋषि’ of the compound is masculine.

The विवक्षा is तृतीया-बहुवचनम्।

(7) सप्तर्षि + भिस् । By 4-1-2 स्वौजसमौट्छष्टाभ्याम्भिस्ङेभ्याम्भ्यस्ङसिँभ्याम्भ्यस्ङसोसाम्ङ्योस्सुप्
Note: 1-3-4 न विभक्तौ तुस्माः prevents the ending letter ‘स्’ of the affix ‘भिस्’ from getting the इत्-सञ्ज्ञा।

(8) सप्तर्षिभिः । रुँत्व-विसर्गौ by 8-2-66 ससजुषो रुः and 8-3-15 खरवसानयोर्विसर्जनीयः

Questions:

1. What would be the optional form of the compound प्रातिपदिकम् if we were to apply the सूत्रम् 6-1-128 ऋत्यकः in step 6?

2. Consider verse 46 of Chapter Eleven of the गीता –
किरीटिनं गदिनं चक्रहस्तमिच्छामि त्वां द्रष्टुमहं तथैव |
तेनैव रूपेण चतुर्भुजेन सहस्रबाहो भव विश्वमूर्ते || 11-46||
Why doesn’t the नियम-सूत्रम् (restriction rule) 2-1-50 दिक्संख्ये संज्ञायाम्‌ stop the formation of the compound ‘चतुर्भुज’ which does not denote a proper name? Hint: Is the compound ‘चतुर्भुज’ used in this verse a कर्मधारय: compound?

3. Where has the सूत्रम् 2-1-49 पूर्वकालैकसर्वजरत्पुराणनवकेवलाः समानाधिकरणेन been used in the verses?

4. Which सूत्रम् prescribes the substitution ‘ल्यप्’ (in place of the affix ‘क्त्वा’) in the form आरुह्य used in the verses?

5. How would you say this in Sanskrit?
“Tell me the names of the seven sages.”

6. How would you say this in Sanskrit?
“Among these five students who is the most intelligent?” Use the adjective प्रातिपदिकम् ‘धीमत्तम’ for ‘most intelligent.’

Easy questions:

1. Where has the सूत्रम् 3-1-33 स्यतासी लृलुटोः been used in the verses?

2. From which प्रातिपदिकम् is the form नावम् (द्वितीया-एकवचनम्) used in the verses derived?

May 182015
 

Today we will look at the form दक्षिणपञ्चालान् mAp from महाभारतम् 1.185.1.

वैशम्पायन उवाच
एवमुक्ताः प्रयातास्ते पाण्डवा जनमेजय । राज्ञा दक्षिणपञ्चालान्द्रुपदेनाभिरक्षितान् ।। १-१८५-१ ।।
ततस्ते सुमहात्मानं शुद्धात्मानमकल्मषम् । ददृशुः पाण्डवा वीरा मुनिं द्वैपायनं तदा ।। १-१८५-२ ।।
तस्मै यथावत्सत्कारं कृत्वा तेन च सत्कृताः । कथान्ते चाभ्यनुज्ञाताः प्रययुर्द्रुपदक्षयम् ।। १-१८५-३ ।।
पश्यन्तो रमणीयानि वनानि च सरांसि च । तत्र तत्र वसन्तश्च शनैर्जग्मुर्महारथाः ।। १-१८५-४ ।।

Translation – O Janamejaya, having been thus addressed, the Pāṇḍavas set out towards the Southern Pañcāla territories, which were ruled over by the king Drupada (1). Then those heroic Pāṇḍavas saw the very high-souled, pure-minded and sinless sage Dwaipāyana (2). Duly honoring the sage and in turn being honored by him, when their conversation came to a close, they proceeded with his approval to the residence of Drupada (3). Observing lovely forests and lakes, those great car warriors went slowly, staying at various places along the way (4).

(1) दक्षिणपञ्चाला: – The Southern Pañcāla territories
Note: We cannot form a लौकिक-विग्रह: for this compound because दक्षिणपञ्चाला: is a proper name and a proper name cannot be expressed via a sentence.

अलौकिक-विग्रह: –
(2) दक्षिण जस् + पञ्चाल जस् । By 2-1-50 दिक्संख्ये संज्ञायाम्‌ – In a तत्पुरुष: compound, a सुबन्तं (ending in a सुँप् affix) पदम् denoting either a direction of the compass or a numeral combines with another सुबन्तं (ending in a सुँप् affix) पदम् referring to the same item only if the resulting compound denotes a proper name.
Note: सञ्ज्ञायामेवेति नियमार्थं सूत्रम्‌ – This is a नियम-सूत्रम् – a restriction rule. Compounding is already available by the सूत्रम् 2-1-57 विशेषणं विशेष्येण बहुलम्‌। All this सूत्रम् does is that (if the prior member of the compound denotes either a direction of the compass or a numeral) it allows 2-1-57 to apply only if the resulting compound denotes a proper name.

See questions 1 and 2.

(3) By 1-2-43 प्रथमानिर्दिष्टं समास उपसर्जनम् – the term ‘दक्षिण जस्’ – which denotes a direction of the compass –  gets the designation उपसर्जनम् because in the सूत्रम् 2-1-50 (which prescribes the compounding) the term दिक्संख्ये ends in the nominative case. Hence ‘दक्षिण जस्’ is placed in the prior position in the compound as per the सूत्रम् 2-2-30 उपसर्जनं पूर्वम्‌ – In a compound a term which has the designation ‘उपसर्जन’ should be placed in the prior position.

Note: ‘दक्षिण जस् + पञ्चाल जस्’ gets the designation प्रातिपदिकम्‌ by 1-2-46 कृत्तद्धितसमासाश्च। This allows 2-4-71 to apply in the next step.

(4) दक्षिणपञ्चाल । By 2-4-71 सुपो धातुप्रातिपदिकयोः – A सुँप् affix takes a लुक् elision when it is a part of a धातुः or a प्रातिपदिकम्।

Note: As per the सूत्रम् 2-4-26 परवल्लिङ्गं द्वन्द्वतत्पुरुषयोः, the compound प्रातिपदिकम् ‘दक्षिणपञ्चाल’ is masculine since the latter member ‘पञ्चाल’ of the compound is masculine.

The विवक्षा is द्वितीया-बहुवचनम्।

(5) दक्षिणपञ्चाल + शस् । By 4-1-2 स्वौजसमौट्छष्टाभ्याम्भिस्ङेभ्याम्भ्यस्ङसिभ्याम्भ्यस्ङसोसाम्ङ्योस्सुप्‌

(6) दक्षिणपञ्चाल + अस् । अनुबन्ध-लोपः by 1-3-8 लशक्वतद्धिते and 1-3-9 तस्य लोपः1-3-4 न विभक्तौ तुस्माः prevents the ending letter ‘स्’ of ‘शस्’ from getting the इत्-सञ्ज्ञा ।

(7) दक्षिणपञ्चालास् । By 6-1-102 प्रथमयोः पूर्वसवर्णः – When a अक् letter is followed by a vowel (अच्) of the first (nominative) or second (accusative) case then for the two of them (अक् + अच्) there is a single substitute which is the elongated form of the first member (the अक् letter.)

(8) दक्षिणपञ्चालान् । By 6-1-103 तस्माच्छसो नः पुंसि – In the masculine gender, when the letter ‘स्’ of the affix ‘शस्’ follows a vowel which has been elongated by 6-1-102 then it is replaced by the letter ‘न्’।

Questions:

1. Commenting on the सूत्रम् 2-1-50 दिक्संख्ये संज्ञायाम्‌ (used in step 2) the काशिका says – सञ्ज्ञायामिति किम्? उत्तरा वृक्षा:। पञ्च ब्राह्मणा:। Please explain.

2. Why doesn’t the नियम-सूत्रम् (restriction rule) 2-1-50 दिक्संख्ये संज्ञायाम्‌ prevent the construction of compounds like पूर्वसूत्रम्, उत्तरमास: etc which do not denote any proper name?

3. Can you spot the कृत् affix ‘खश्’ in the verses?

4. Where has the सूत्रम् 3-4-72 गत्यर्थाकर्मकश्लिषशीङ्स्थासवसजनरुहजीर्यतिभ्यश्च been used in the verses?

5. Which सूत्रम् prescribes the affix ‘अनीयर्’ in the form रमणीयानि (प्रातिपदिकम् ‘रमणीय’, नपुंसकलिङ्गे द्वितीया-बहुवचनम्) used in the verses?

6. How would you say this in Sanskrit?
“The residents of the Northern Pañcāla territories were wealthier than the residents of the Southern Pañcāla territories.” Use the adjective प्रातिपदिकम् ‘आढ्यतर’ for ‘wealthier.’ Use the कृत् affix ‘णिनिँ’ (ref.3-2-78 सुप्यजातौ णिनिस्ताच्छील्ये) to compose a उपपद-समास: for ‘resident’ = निवसति तच्छील:।

Easy questions:

1. Which सूत्रम् prescribes the दीर्घादेश: (elongation) in the form सरांसि (नपुंसकलिङ्ग-प्रातिपदिकम् ‘सरस्’, द्वितीया-बहुवचनम्) used in the verses?

2. Where has the सूत्रम् 6-4-98 गमहनजनखनघसां लोपः क्ङित्यनङि been used in the verses?

May 142015
 

Today we will look at the form सर्वयोगिनाम् mGp from श्रीमद्भागवतम् 3.25.2.

न ह्यस्य वर्ष्मणः पुंसां वरिम्णः सर्वयोगिनाम् । विश्रुतौ श्रुतदेवस्य भूरि तृप्यन्ति मेऽसवः ।। ३-२५-२ ।।
यद्यद्विधत्ते भगवान्स्वच्छन्दात्मात्ममायया । तानि मे श्रद्दधानस्य कीर्तन्यान्यनुकीर्तय ।। ३-२५-३ ।।

श्रीधर-स्वामि-टीका
पुंसां मध्ये वर्ष्मणो वृद्धस्योत्तमस्येत्यर्थः । सर्वयोगिनां मध्ये वरिम्णः, वरस्य भावो वरिमा, भवितृप्रधानोऽयं निर्देशः । वरिष्ठस्येत्यर्थः । यद्वा वरीयस्त्वादित्यर्थः । विश्रुतौ कीर्तौ । असव इन्द्रियाणि भूर्यलं न तृप्यन्ति । श्रुतेन श्रवणेन दीव्यति द्योतत इति तथा तस्य । यद्वा भूरि बहुशः श्रुतो देवो येन तस्यापि मेऽसव इति संबन्धः ।। २ ।। स्वानां पुंसां छन्देनेच्छया आत्मा देहो यस्य सः । यद्यत्कर्म विधत्ते तानि कर्माणि कीर्तनार्हाण्यनुकीर्तय ।। ३ ।।

Translation – Although I have often heard the stories of the Lord, my senses are not sated with hearing the glory of Lord Kapila, the best of all men and the foremost of all Yogīs (2). Having assumed by His own Māyā a personality conforming to the will of His devotees, whatever the Lord does is all worth signing. Therefore, kindly narrate all those doings to me, full of reverence as I am (3).

(1) सर्वे च ते योगिनः = सर्वयोगिन: – all Yogīs.

अलौकिक-विग्रह: –
(2) सर्व जस् + योगिन् जस् । By 2-1-49 पूर्वकालैकसर्वजरत्पुराणनवकेवलाः समानाधिकरणेन – A सुबन्तं (ending in a सुँप् affix) पदम् which either i) denotes an action which naturally precedes in time or ii) is (composed by adding a सुँप् affix to) ‘एक’/‘सर्व’/’जरत्’/’पुराण’/’नव’/’केवल’ optionally compounds with another सुबन्तं (ending in a सुँप् affix) पदम् – provided both the सुबन्त-पदे refer to the same item – and the resulting compound is a तत्पुरुष:।

(3) By 1-2-43 प्रथमानिर्दिष्टं समास उपसर्जनम् – the term ‘सर्व जस्’ gets the designation उपसर्जनम् because in the सूत्रम् 2-1-49 (which prescribes the compounding) the term पूर्वकालैकसर्वजरत्पुराणनवकेवलाः ends in the nominative case. Hence ‘सर्व जस्’ is placed in the prior position in the compound as per the सूत्रम् 2-2-30 उपसर्जनं पूर्वम्‌ – In a compound a term which has the designation ‘उपसर्जन’ should be placed in the prior position.

Note: ‘सर्व जस् + योगिन् जस्’ gets the designation प्रातिपदिकम्‌ by 1-2-46 कृत्तद्धितसमासाश्च। This allows 2-4-71 to apply in the next step.

(4) सर्व + योगिन् । By 2-4-71 सुपो धातुप्रातिपदिकयोः – A सुँप् affix takes a लुक् elision when it is a part of a धातुः or a प्रातिपदिकम्।

= सर्वयोगिन् ।

Note: As per the सूत्रम् 2-4-26 परवल्लिङ्गं द्वन्द्वतत्पुरुषयोः, the compound प्रातिपदिकम् ‘सर्वयोगिन्’ is masculine since the latter member ‘योगिन्’ of the compound is used in the masculine here.

The विवक्षा is षष्ठी-बहुवचनम्।

(5) सर्वयोगिन् + आम् । By 4-1-2 स्वौजसमौट्छष्टाभ्याम्भिस्ङेभ्याम्भ्यस्ङसिँभ्याम्भ्यस्ङसोसाम्ङ्योस्सुप्
1-3-4 न विभक्तौ तुस्माः prevents the ending letter ‘म्’ of the affix ‘आम्’ from getting इत्-सञ्ज्ञा।

See question 2.

= सर्वयोगिनाम् ।

Questions:

1. Where has the सूत्रम् 2-1-49 पूर्वकालैकसर्वजरत्पुराणनवकेवलाः समानाधिकरणेन been used in verses 5-10 of Chapter Fourteen of the गीता?

2. Which सूत्रम् justifies the use of a sixth case affix in the form सर्वयोगिनाम् here?

3. Can you spot the कृत् affix क्तिन् in the verses?

4. What type of compound is आत्ममायया (feminine compound प्रातिपदिकम् ‘आत्ममाया’, तृतीया-एकवचनम्) used in the verses?
i) तृतीया-तत्पुरुष:
ii) कर्मधारय:
iii) षष्ठी-तत्पुरुष:
iv) अव्ययीभाव:

5. Where has the सूत्रम् 3-3-97 ऊतियूतिजूतिसातिहेतिकीर्तयश्च been used in the commentary?

6. How would you say this in Sanskrit?
“All the warriors in our army are brave.” Form a compound for ‘all the warriors’ = सर्वे च ते योधा:।

Easy questions:

1. Where has the सूत्रम् 8-2-38 दधस्तथोश्च been used in the verses?

2. Can you spot the affix श्यन् in the verses?

May 112015
 

Today we will look at the form एकराट् mNs from श्रीमद्भागवतम् 7.4.12.

तस्मिन्महेन्द्रभवने महाबलो महामना निर्जितलोक एकराट् । रेमेऽभिवन्द्याङ्घ्रियुगः सुरादिभिः प्रतापितैरूर्जितचण्डशासनः ।। ७-४-१२ ।।
तमङ्ग मत्तं मधुनोरुगन्धिना विवृत्तताम्राक्षमशेषधिष्ण्यपाः । उपासतोपायनपाणिभिर्विना त्रिभिस्तपोयोगबलौजसां पदम् ।। ७-४-१३ ।।

श्रीधर-स्वामि-टीका
ऊर्जितमधिकं चण्डं तीव्रं शासनं यस्य ।। १२ ।। अङ्ग हे राजन्, उरुगन्धिनोग्रगन्धेन मधुना सुरया मत्तम् । अत एव विवृत्ते विघूर्णिते ताम्रे अक्षिणी यस्य तम् । अशेषधिष्ण्यपाः सर्वलोकपाला उपायनयुक्तैः पाणिभिरुपासत सेवन्ते । त्रिभिर्ब्रह्मविष्णुरुद्रैर्विना । पदमाश्रयभूतम् ।। १३ ।।

Translation – In that palace of the great Indra reveled the mighty and proud Hiraṇyakaśipu, who had conquered (all) the worlds and was (now) their sole monarch, (nay,) whose feet were respectfully tended by gods and others severely oppressed by him and who ruled with a strong and iron hand (12). Upon him, O dear one – who remained inebriate with a strong-smelling wine and whose coppery eyes ever kept rolling (through intoxication), (nay,) who was a reservoir of austerity, Yoga (concentration of mind) and strength of body and acuteness of the senses – waited with presents (of various kinds) in their hands all the protectors of the worlds barring (of course) three (viz., Brahmā, Viṣṇu and Śiva) (13).

(1) एकश्चासौ राट् = एकराट् – sole monarch.
Note: Due to the restriction imposed by the सूत्रम् 2-1-50 दिक्संख्ये संज्ञायाम्‌ we would be able to construct the compound एकराट् only if it were to be a proper name. But the specific mention of ‘एक’ in the सूत्रम् 2-1-49 पूर्वकालैकसर्वजरत्पुराणनवकेवलाः समानाधिकरणेन now allows us to construct this compound even though it is not a proper name.

अलौकिक-विग्रह: –
(2) एक सुँ + राज् सुँ । By 2-1-49 पूर्वकालैकसर्वजरत्पुराणनवकेवलाः समानाधिकरणेन – A सुबन्तं (ending in a सुँप् affix) पदम् which either i) denotes an action which naturally precedes in time or ii) is (composed by adding a सुँप् affix to) ‘एक’/’सर्व’/’जरत्’/’पुराण’/’नव’/’केवल’ optionally compounds with another सुबन्तं (ending in a सुँप् affix) पदम् – provided both the सुबन्त-पदे refer to the same item – and the resulting compound is a तत्पुरुष:।

(3) By 1-2-43 प्रथमानिर्दिष्टं समास उपसर्जनम् – the term ‘एक सुँ’ gets the designation उपसर्जनम् because in the सूत्रम् 2-1-49 (which prescribes the compounding) the term पूर्वकालैकसर्वजरत्पुराणनवकेवलाः ends in the nominative case. Hence the adjective ‘एक सुँ’ is placed in the prior position in the compound as per the सूत्रम् 2-2-30 उपसर्जनं पूर्वम्‌ – In a compound a term which has the designation ‘उपसर्जन’ should be placed in the prior position.

Note: ‘एक सुँ + राज् सुँ’ gets the designation प्रातिपदिकम्‌ by 1-2-46 कृत्तद्धितसमासाश्च। This allows 2-4-71 to apply in the next step.

(4) एक + राज् । By 2-4-71 सुपो धातुप्रातिपदिकयोः – A सुँप् affix takes a लुक् elision when it is a part of a धातुः or a प्रातिपदिकम्।

= एकराज् ।

Note: As per the सूत्रम् 2-4-26 परवल्लिङ्गं द्वन्द्वतत्पुरुषयोः, the compound प्रातिपदिकम् ‘ एकराज्’ is masculine since the latter member ‘राज्’ of the compound is masculine.

The विवक्षा is प्रथमा-एकवचनम्।

(5) एकराज् + सुँ । By 4-1-2 स्वौजसमौट्छष्टाभ्याम्भिस्ङेभ्याम्भ्यस्ङसिँभ्याम्भ्यस्ङसोसाम्ङ्योस्सुप्

(6) एकराज् + स् । अनुबन्ध-लोपः by 1-3-2 उपदेशेऽजनुनासिक इत् and 1-3-9 तस्य लोपः।

(7) एकराज् । By 6-1-68 हल्ङ्याब्भ्यो दीर्घात्‌ सुतिस्यपृक्तं हल् – A single letter affix ‘सुँ’, ‘ति’ or ‘सि’ is dropped following a base ending in a consonant or in the long feminine affix ‘ङी’ or ‘आप्’। Now ‘एकराज्’ gets the designation पदम् by 1-4-14 सुप्तिङन्तं पदम् with the help of 1-1-62 प्रत्ययलोपे प्रत्ययलक्षणम्। This allows the सूत्रम् 8-2-36 to apply in the next step.

(8) एकराष् । By 8-2-36 व्रश्चभ्रस्जसृजमृजयजराजभ्राजच्छशां षः – The seven verbal roots listed – √व्रश्च् (ओँव्रश्चूँ छेदने ६. १२), √भ्रस्ज् (भ्रस्जँ पाके ६. ४), √सृज् (सृजँ विसर्गे ६. १५०), √मृज् (मृजूँ शुद्धौ २. ६१), √यज् (यजँ देवपूजासङ्गतिकरणदानेषु १. ११५७), √राज् (राजृँ दीप्तौ १. ९५६) and √भ्राज् (टुभ्राजृँ दीप्तौ १. ९५७) – and terms ending in the letter ‘छ्’ or the letter ‘श्’ get the letter ‘ष्’ as a replacement, when they are at the end of a पदम् or are followed by a झल् letter.
Note: As per 1-1-52 अलोऽन्त्यस्य only the ending letter is replaced by the letter ‘ष्’।

(9) एकराड् । By 8-2-39 झलां जशोऽन्ते, a झल् letter occurring at the end of a पदम् it is replaced by a जश् letter.

(10) एकराड् / एकराट् । By 8-4-56 वाऽवसाने, a झल् letter is optionally replaced by a चर् letter when nothing follows.

Questions:

1. Commenting on the सूत्रम् 2-1-49 पूर्वकालैकसर्वजरत्पुराणनवकेवलाः समानाधिकरणेन (used in step 2) the काशिका says – समानाधिकरणेनेति किम्? एकस्याः शाटी। Please explain.

2. Which सूत्रम् justifies the use of a third case affix in the word त्रिभि: used in the verses?

3. In which word in the verses has the सूत्रम् 6-4-52 निष्ठायां सेटि been used?

4. Why doesn’t the सूत्रम् 8-2-42 रदाभ्यां निष्ठातो नः पूर्वस्य च दः apply in the form मत्तम् (प्रातिपदिकम् ‘मत्त’, पुंलिङ्गे द्वितीया-एकवचनम्) used in the verses?

5. Can you spot a तृतीया-तत्पुरुष: compound in the commentary?

6. How would you say this in Sanskrit?
“In Laṅkā, Vibhīṣaṇa was the sole devotee of Śrī Rāma.” Construct a compound for ‘sole devotee’ (एकश्चासौ भक्त:।)

Easy questions:

1. Where has the सूत्रम् 6-4-120 अत एकहल्मध्येऽनादेशादेर्लिटि been used in the verses?

2. Which सूत्रम् prescribes the substitution ‘अत्’ in the form उपासत used in the verses?

May 072015
 

Today we will look at the form क्षणलक्षितव्यवहिता fNs from शिशुपालवधम् verse 6-28.

द्रुतसमीरचलैः क्षणलक्षितव्यवहिता विटपैरिव मञ्जरी । नवतमालनिभस्य नभस्तरोरचिररोचिररोचत वारिदैः ।। ६-२८ ।।

टीका
द्रुतेति ।। द्रुतसमीरेण शीघ्रमारुतेन चलैर्वारिदैः क्षणं लक्षिता च व्यवहिता च सा क्षणलक्षितव्यवहिता क्षणिकाविर्भावतिरोधानेत्यर्थः । स्नातानुलिप्तवत् ‘2-1-49 पूर्वकालैक-‘ इत्यादिना समासः । अचिरं रोचिर्यस्याः सा अचिररोचिर्विद्युत् द्रुतसमीरचलैर्विटपैः शाखाभिः क्षणलक्षितव्यवहिता नवतमालनिभस्य नवतमालेन सदृशस्य तद्वन्नीलस्येत्यर्थः । नित्यसमासः । नभस्तरुरिव तस्य नभस्तरोर्मञ्जरी गुच्छ इवारोचत । उपमालङ्कारः । अत्र नभस्तरोर्नभःश्रेष्ठस्येति व्याख्याने तरुशब्दस्य व्याघ्रादित्वाच्छ्रेष्ठार्थगोचरत्वात्तमालशब्देन विशेषवाचिना तन्नीलसामान्येन पौनरुक्त्यमिति वल्लभः । तमालशब्दस्येन्द्रनीलवन्नैल्यमात्रोपमानत्वात्तरुशब्दस्य स्वार्थवृत्तित्वेऽपि न पौनरुक्त्यमित्यन्ये ।

Translation – Lightning (whose splendor is short-lived) which was (earlier) seen for a moment and then concealed by the clouds moving due to the swift wind shone as if it were a cluster of blossoms – of the tree in the form of the sky which appeared (dark) like a young Tamāla tree – which was (earlier) seen for a moment and then concealed by the branches moving due to the swift wind.

लौकिक-विग्रह: –
(1) पूर्वं क्षणलक्षिता पश्चाद्व्यवहिता = क्षणलक्षितव्यवहिता – (earlier) seen for a moment and then concealed.
Note: क्षणलक्षिता itself is a compound. It is a द्वितीया-तत्पुरुष: compound analyzed as क्षणं लक्षिता = क्षणलक्षिता। The derivation is similar to that of the compound मुहूर्तसेवा shown in the following post – http://avg-sanskrit.org/2015/01/29/

अलौकिक-विग्रह: –
(2) क्षणलक्षिता सुँ + व्यवहिता सुँ । By 2-1-49 पूर्वकालैकसर्वजरत्पुराणनवकेवलाः समानाधिकरणेन – A सुबन्तं (ending in a सुँप् affix) पदम् which either i) denotes an action which naturally precedes in time or ii) is (composed by adding a सुँप् affix to) ‘एक’/’सर्व’/’जरत्’/’पुराण’/’नव’/’केवल’ optionally compounds with another सुबन्तं (ending in a सुँप् affix) पदम् – provided both the सुबन्त-पदे refer to the same item – and the resulting compound is a तत्पुरुष:।

(3) By 1-2-43 प्रथमानिर्दिष्टं समास उपसर्जनम् – the term ‘क्षणलक्षिता सुँ’ gets the designation उपसर्जनम् because in the सूत्रम् 2-1-49 (which prescribes the compounding) the term पूर्वकालैकसर्वजरत्पुराणनवकेवलाः ends in the nominative case. Hence ‘क्षणलक्षिता सुँ’ – which denotes the action occurring earlier in time – is placed in the prior position in the compound as per the सूत्रम् 2-2-30 उपसर्जनं पूर्वम्‌ – In a compound a term which has the designation ‘उपसर्जन’ should be placed in the prior position.

Note: ‘क्षणलक्षिता सुँ + व्यवहिता सुँ’ gets the designation प्रातिपदिकम्‌ by 1-2-46 कृत्तद्धितसमासाश्च। This allows 2-4-71 to apply in the next step.

(4) क्षणलक्षिता + व्यवहिता । By 2-4-71 सुपो धातुप्रातिपदिकयोः – A सुँप् affix takes a लुक् elision when it is a part of a धातुः or a प्रातिपदिकम्।

(5) क्षणलक्षितव्यवहिता । By 6-3-42 पुंवत्‌ कर्मधारयजातीयदेशीयेषु – A feminine adjective which does not end in the feminine affix ‘ऊङ्’ (ref. 4-1-66 ऊङुतः etc) and is formed from a masculine base denoting the same meaning becomes masculine-like when it is either the prior member of a कर्मधारय: compound or is followed by the affix ‘जातीय’ (ref. 5-3-69 प्रकारवचने जातीयर्) or ‘देशीय’ (ref. 5-3-67 ईषदसमाप्तौ कल्पब्देश्यदेशीयरः)।

As per the सूत्रम् 2-4-26 परवल्लिङ्गं द्वन्द्वतत्पुरुषयोः, the compound प्रातिपदिकम् ‘क्षणलक्षितव्यवहिता’ is feminine since the latter member ‘व्यवहिता’ of the compound is feminine. The compound declines like रमा-शब्द:।

The विवक्षा is प्रथमा-एकवचनम्।

(6) क्षणलक्षितव्यवहिता + सुँ । By 4-1-2 स्वौजसमौट्छष्टाभ्याम्भिस्ङेभ्याम्भ्यस्ङसिँभ्याम्भ्यस्ङसोसाम्ङ्योस्सुप्

(7) क्षणलक्षितव्यवहिता + स् । अनुबन्ध-लोपः by 1-3-2 उपदेशेऽजनुनासिक इत्, 1-3-9 तस्य लोपः

(8) क्षणलक्षितव्यवहिता । By 6-1-68 हल्ङ्याब्भ्यो दीर्घात्‌ सुतिस्यपृक्तं हल् – A single letter affix ‘सुँ’, ‘ति’ or ‘सि’ is dropped following a base ending in a consonant or in the long feminine affix ‘ङी’ or ‘आप्’।

Questions:

1. Commenting on the सूत्रम् 2-1-49 पूर्वकालैकसर्वजरत्पुराणनवकेवलाः समानाधिकरणेन (used in step 2) the सिद्धान्तकौमुदी says – ‘2-1-57 विशेषणं विशेष्येण बहुलम्‌’ इति सिद्धे पूर्वनिपातनियमार्थं सूत्रम्‌। एकशब्दस्य ‘2-1-50 दिक्संख्ये संज्ञायाम्‌’ इति नियमबाधनार्थं च। Please explain.

2. Commenting on the same सूत्रम् the काशिका says – पूर्वकाल इत्यर्थनिर्देशः, परिशिष्टानां स्वरूपग्रहणम्। Please explain.

3. The अनुवृत्ति: of ‘समानाधिकरणेन’ runs from the सूत्रम् 2-1-49 पूर्वकालैकसर्वजरत्पुराणनवकेवलाः समानाधिकरणेन down to which सूत्रम्?

4. Derive the compound ‘द्रुतसमीरचल’ (used in the form द्रुतसमीरचलैः (पुंलिङ्गे तृतीया-बहुवचनम्) in the verse.) Hint: First form the कर्मधारय: compound ‘द्रुतसमीर’ and use that to form the तृतीया-तत्पुरुष: compound ‘द्रुतसमीरचल’।

5. Can you spot the कृत् affix ‘क’ in the verse?

6. How would you say this in Sanskrit?
“Look at the beautiful idol which has been (earlier) cleaned and then decorated.” Use the feminine प्रातिपदिकम् ‘मूर्ति’ for ‘idol.’ Form a compound for ‘(earlier) cleaned and then decorated’ = पूर्वं मार्जिता पश्चाद्भूषिता।

Easy questions:

1. Can you spot the augment अट् in the verse?

2. Where has the सूत्रम् 7-1-17 जसः शी been used in the commentary?

May 042015
 

Today we will look at the form श्वेतच्छत्रम् nAs from श्रीमद्भागवतम् 9.10.43.

पादुके भरतोऽगृह्णाच्चामरव्यजनोत्तमे । विभीषणः ससुग्रीवः श्वेतच्छत्रं मरुत्सुतः ।। ९-१०-४३ ।।
धनुर्निषङ्गाञ्छत्रुघ्नः सीता तीर्थकमण्डलुम् । अबिभ्रदङ्गदः खड्गं हैमं चर्मर्क्षराण्नृप ।। ९-१०-४४ ।।

श्रीधर-स्वामि-टीका
अयोध्याप्रवेशप्रकारमाह – पादुके इति सार्धैस्त्रिभिः ।। ४३ ।। धनुश्च निषङ्गौ च तान् । ऋक्षराट् जाम्बवान् ।। ४४ ।।

Translation – Bharata took His pair of wooden sandals; Vibhīṣaṇa along with Sugrīva (who stood severally on His right and left), a cowrie and an excellent fan (respectively); and Hanumān (son of the wind-god, who stood behind the Lord) held the white umbrella (over Him) (43). Śatrughna (the youngest brother of Śrī Rāma) bore His bow and the pair of quivers; Sītā held the Kamaṇḍalu (water-pot of coconut-shell) containing the water of sacred lakes and rivers; Aṅgada carried His sword and Jāmbavān (the king of the bears), His shield of gold, O protector of men! (44)

(1) श्वेतं च तच् छत्रम् = श्वेतच्छत्रम् – white umbrella.
श्वेतच्छत्रम् is a कर्मधारयः compound. पाणिनि: defines the term कर्मधारयः by the सूत्रम् 1-2-42 तत्पुरुषः समानाधिकरणः कर्मधारयः – A तत्पुरुषः compound in which both the members refer to the same item – and hence have the same case ending – gets the designation कर्मधारयः।
Note: पाणिनि: has placed this सूत्रम् outside the अधिकार: ‘1-4-1 आ कडारादेका संज्ञा‘ in order to allow the designation कर्मधारयः to co-exist with the designation तत्पुरुषः prescribed by the सूत्रम् 2-1-22 तत्पुरुषः।
Note: It is hard to come up with a satisfactory explanation for the designation कर्मधारयः। One way would be to take कर्म = भेदकक्रिया – the action of differentiating/qualifying. Then the word कर्मधारयः could mean कर्म भेदकक्रिया, तां धारयत्यसौ कर्मधारयः – a compound which gives a specification of the thing at hand.

अलौकिक-विग्रह: –
(2) श्वेत सुँ + छत्र सुँ । By 2-1-57 विशेषणं विशेष्येण बहुलम्‌ – A सुबन्तं (ending in a सुँप् affix) पदम् denoting a qualifier (adjective) variously compounds with another सुबन्तं (ending in a सुँप् affix) पदम् which denotes that which is qualified – provided both the सुबन्त-पदे refer to the same item – and the resulting compound is a तत्पुरुष:।

(3) By 1-2-43 प्रथमानिर्दिष्टं समास उपसर्जनम् – the term ‘श्वेत सुँ’ gets the designation उपसर्जनम् because in the सूत्रम् 2-1-57 (which prescribes the compounding) the term विशेषणम्‌ ends in the nominative case. Hence the adjective ‘श्वेत सुँ’ is placed in the prior position in the compound as per the सूत्रम् 2-2-30 उपसर्जनं पूर्वम्‌ – In a compound a term which has the designation ‘उपसर्जन’ should be placed in the prior position.

Note: ‘श्वेत सुँ + छत्र सुँ’ gets the designation प्रातिपदिकम्‌ by 1-2-46 कृत्तद्धितसमासाश्च। This allows 2-4-71 to apply in the next step.

(4) श्वेत + छत्र । By 2-4-71 सुपो धातुप्रातिपदिकयोः – A सुँप् affix takes a लुक् elision when it is a part of a धातुः or a प्रातिपदिकम्।

(5) श्वेत तुँक् + छत्र । By 6-1-73 छे च – A short vowel (ह्रस्वः) gets the तुँक् augment when the letter ‘छ्’ follows in संहितायाम् (immediate sequence.) As per 1-1-46 आद्यन्तौ टकितौ the तुँक् augment follows the short vowel.

(6) श्वेत त् + छत्र । अनुबन्ध-लोपः by 1-3-2 उपदेशेऽजनुनासिक इत्, 1-3-3 हलन्त्यम् and 1-3-9 तस्य लोपः।

(7) श्वेत च् + छत्र । By 8-4-40 स्तोः श्चुना श्चुः – When the letter ‘स्’ or a letter of the त-वर्ग: (‘त्’, ‘थ्’, ‘द्’, ‘ध्’, ‘न्’) comes in contact with either the letter ‘श्’ or a letter of the च-वर्ग: (‘च्’, ‘छ्’, ‘ज्’, ‘झ्’, ‘ञ्’), then it is replaced respectively by ‘श्’, च-वर्ग: (‘च्’, ‘छ्’, ‘ज्’, ‘झ्’, ‘ञ्’)।
Note: As per the सूत्रम् 1-3-10 यथासंख्यमनुदेशः समानाम्, the substitutions take place respectively.

= श्वेतच्छत्र ।

Note: As per the सूत्रम् 2-4-26 परवल्लिङ्गं द्वन्द्वतत्पुरुषयोः, the compound प्रातिपदिकम् ‘श्वेतच्छत्र’ is neuter since the latter member ‘छत्र’ of the compound is neuter here.

The विवक्षा is द्वितीया-एकवचनम् ।

(8) श्वेतच्छत्र + अम् । By 4-1-2 स्वौजसमौट्छष्टाभ्याम्भिस्ङेभ्याम्भ्यस्ङसिभ्याम्भ्यस्ङसोसाम्ङ्योस्सुप्‌।

(9) श्वेतच्छत्र + अम् । By 7-1-24 अतोऽम् – The affixes ‘सुँ’ and ‘अम्’ that follow a neuter अङ्गम् ending in the short vowel ‘अ’ take ‘अम्’ as their replacement. Note: 7-1-24 is required here to prevent 7-1-23 स्वमोर्नपुंसकात्‌ from applying.
1-3-4 न विभक्तौ तुस्माः prevents the ending letter ‘म्’ of the affix ‘अम्’ from getting इत्-सञ्ज्ञा।

(10) श्वेतच्छत्रम् । By 6-1-107 अमि पूर्वः – In place of a preceding अक् letter and the following vowel (अच्) belonging to the affix ‘अम्’ there is a single substitute of that preceding अक् letter.

Questions:

1. Can you spot a कर्मधारयः compound in verses 13-18 of Chapter Fifteen of the गीता?

2. Commenting on the सूत्रम् 2-1-57 विशेषणं विशेष्येण बहुलम्‌ (used in step 2) the सिद्धान्तकौमुदी says – बहुलग्रहणात्‌ क्वचिन्नित्यम्‌। कृष्णसर्प:। क्वचिन्न। रामो जामदग्न्य:। Please explain.

3. Commenting on the same सूत्रम् the तत्त्वबोधिनी says – जातिशब्दस्य गुणक्रियाशब्दसमभिव्याहारे विशेष्यसमर्पकतैव। तेन नीलोत्पलं पाचकब्राह्मण इति व्यवस्थित एव प्रयोग:। गुणशब्दयोः क्रियाशब्दयोर्गुणक्रियाशब्दयोश्चानियम एव। खञ्जकुब्जः, कुब्जखञ्जः। पाचकपाठकः, पाठकपाचकः। खञ्जपाचकः, पाचकखञ्ज इति। Please explain.

4. Which कृत् affix is used to form the compound प्रातिपदिकम् ‘शत्रुघ्न’ (used in the form शत्रुघ्नः (पुंलिङ्गे प्रथमा-एकचवनम्) in the verses)?

5. How would you say this in Sanskrit?
“One should worship Gaṇeśa with red flowers.” Form a compound for ‘red flowers.’

6. How would you say this in Sanskrit?
“Arjuna’s chariot was yoked with white horses.” Form a compound for ‘white horses.’

Easy questions:

1. Which सूत्रम् prescribes the सम्प्रसारणम् in the form अगृह्णात्?

2. The form अबिभ्रत् used in the verses is a आर्ष-प्रयोग: (grammatically irregular form.) What is the grammatically correct form?

Apr 302015
 

Today we will look at the form आपातरमणीयानाम् mGp from हितोपदेशः 11.79.

संयोगो हि वियोगस्य संसूचयति संभवम् । अनतिक्रमणीयस्य जन्म मृत्योरिवागमम् ।। ११-७९ ।।
आपातरमणीयानां संयोगानां प्रियैः सह । अपथ्यानामिवान्नानां परिणामोऽतिदारुणः ।। ११-८० ।।

Translation – Connection certainly indicates the possibility of separation, as birth indicates the coming of death which is unavoidable. The result of associations with beloved persons, which are pleasant only in the beginning (or, at first sight), is exceedingly dreadful, like that of unwholesome foods (80).

लौकिक-विग्रहः
(1) आपाते रमणीय: = आपातरमणीय: – delightful/pleasant at first glance.

अलौकिक-विग्रह: –
(2) आपात ङि + रमणीय सुँ 2-1-40 (a) सप्तमी । Note: ‘सप्तमी’ इति योगविभागात्समास:। Since ‘रमणीय’ is not listed in the शौण्डादि-गण: we cannot use 2-1-40 सप्तमी शौण्डैः to form this compound. (The rules from 2-1-41 to 2-1-48 do not apply either.) So we split the rule 2-1-40 सप्तमी शौण्डैः in to two parts – 2-1-40 (a) सप्तमी and 2-1-40 (b) शौण्डैः। The meaning of part (a) becomes – A पदम् ending in a seventh case affix optionally compounds with a (syntactically related) पदम् ending in a सुँप् affix and the resulting compound gets the designation तत्पुरुष:। We can use this part (a) to justify the formation of the compound ‘आपातरमणीय’।

(3) By 1-2-43 प्रथमानिर्दिष्टं समास उपसर्जनम् – the term ‘आपात ङि’ gets the designation उपसर्जनम् because in the सूत्रम् 2-1-40 (a) (which prescribes the compounding) the term सप्तमी ends in the nominative case. Hence ‘आपात ङि’ is placed in the prior position in the compound as per the सूत्रम् 2-2-30 उपसर्जनं पूर्वम्‌ – In a compound a term which has the designation ‘उपसर्जन’ should be placed in the prior position.

Note: ‘आपात ङि + रमणीय सुँ’ gets the designation प्रातिपदिकम्‌ by 1-2-46 कृत्तद्धितसमासाश्च। This allows 2-4-71 to apply in the next step.

(4) आपात + रमणीय । By 2-4-71 सुपो धातुप्रातिपदिकयोः – A सुँप् affix takes a लुक् elision when it is a part of a धातुः or a प्रातिपदिकम्।

= आपातरमणीय ।

Note: In the present example the compound ‘आपातरमणीय’ (which is an adjective) is qualifying the masculine noun ‘संयोग’ and hence takes the masculine gender.

The विवक्षा is षष्ठी-बहुवचनम्।

(5) आपातरमणीय + आम् । By 4-1-2 स्वौजसमौट्छष्टाभ्याम्भिस्ङेभ्याम्भ्यस्ङसिँभ्याम्भ्यस्ङसोसाम्ङ्योस्सुप्
Note: 1-3-4 न विभक्तौ तुस्माः prevents the ending letter ‘म्’ of the affix ‘आम्’ from getting इत्-सञ्ज्ञा।

(6) आपातरमणीय + नुँट् आम् । By 7-1-54 ह्रस्वनद्यापो नुट् – The affix ‘आम्’ takes the augment ‘नुँट्’ when it follows a प्रातिपदिकम् which either ends in a short vowel or has the नदी-सञ्ज्ञा or ends in the feminine affix ‘आप्’।
As per 1-1-46 आद्यन्तौ टकितौ the augment ‘नुँट्’ joins at the beginning of the affix ‘आम्’।

(7) आपातरमणीय + नाम् । अनुबन्ध-लोपः by 1-3-2 उपदेशेऽजनुनासिक इत्, 1-3-3 हलन्त्यम् and 1-3-9 तस्य लोपः

(8) आपातरमणीयानाम् । By 6-4-3 नामि – The ending vowel of an अङ्गम् gets elongated if followed by the term ‘नाम्’।

Questions:

1. In verses 6-10 of Chapter One of the गीता can you spot a compound which may be justified by the statement – ‘सप्तमी’ इति योगविभागात्समास:?

2. Can you spot the affix ‘क’ in the verse?

3. Which कृत् affix is used to form the masculine प्रातिपदिकम् ‘आगम’ (used in the form आगमम् (द्वितीया-एकवचनम्) in the verse)?

4. Which सूत्रम् prescribes the कृत् affix ‘अनीयर्’ used to form the प्रातिपदिकम् ‘रमणीय’ (which is part of the compound ‘आपातरमणीय’)?

5. Where has the सूत्रम् 2-3-19 सहयुक्तेऽप्रधाने been used in the verse?

6. How would you say this in Sanskrit?
“The result of the seemingly delightful association of the sense objects with the senses, is exceedingly dreadful.” Form a compound for ‘seemingly delightful’ (= ‘delightful at first glance.’) Use words from the verse for ‘result’ and ‘exceedingly dreadful.’ Use the masculine प्रातिपदिकम् ‘संयोग’ for ‘association’ and the masculine प्रातिपदिकम् ‘विषय’ for ‘sense object.’

Easy questions:

1. Which सूत्रम् prescribes the affix ‘णिच्’ in the form संसूचयति?

2. Where has the सूत्रम् 6-1-110 ङसिङसोश्च been used in the verse?

Apr 272015
 

Today we will look at the form पराधीनम् mAs/nAs from श्रीमद्भागवतम् 11.11.19.

गां दुग्धदोहामसतीं च भार्यां देहं पराधीनमसत्प्रजां च । वित्तं त्वतीर्थीकृतमङ्ग वाचं हीनां मया रक्षति दुःखदुःखी ।। ११-११-१९ ।।
यस्यां न मे पावनमङ्ग कर्म स्थित्युद्भवप्राणनिरोधमस्य । लीलावतारेप्सितजन्म वा स्याद्वन्ध्यां गिरं तां बिभृयान्न धीरः ।। ११-११-२० ।।

श्रीधर-स्वामि-टीका
एतदेवान्यार्थनिदर्शनैः प्रपञ्चयति – गामिति । दुह्यत इति दोहः पयः । दुग्धो दोहो नोत्तरत्र दोह्योऽस्ति यस्यास्तामर्थशून्याम् । असतीं भार्यां कामशून्याम् । देहं पराधीनं प्रतिक्षणं दुःखहेतुम् । असत्प्रजां दृष्टादृष्टसाधनशून्यं पुत्रम् । अतीर्थीकृतमागते पात्रेऽदत्तं वित्तं दुष्कीर्तिदुरितापादकम् । अङ्ग हे उद्धव, दुःखानन्तरं दुःखमेव यस्य स रक्षति ।। १९ ।। मया हीनां वाचमित्युक्तं विवृणोति । यस्यां वाचि मे जगतः शोधकं चरित्रं न स्यात् । किं तत् । अस्य विश्वस्य स्थित्यादिरूपम्, तद्धेतुरित्यर्थः । लीलावतारेष्वीप्सितं जगतः प्रेमास्पदं श्रीरामकृष्णादिजन्म वा न स्यात्तां निष्फलां गिरं धीरो धीमान्न धारयेत् ।। २० ।।

Translation – The man who maintains a cow that has been milked for good (offers no more prospect of yielding milk), a false wife, a body depending (for its support) on another and an unworthy son, nay, who guards wealth which is not bestowed on worthy recipients and cultivates, O dear Uddhava, speech which does not glorify Me reaps misery after misery (19). A wise man ought not to cultivate such barren speech as does not glorify, O dear Uddhava, My purifying activity responsible for the appearance, continuance and extinction of this universe and does not describe My advent (in the form of Śrī Rāma, Śrī Kṛṣṇa and so on), which is so dear to the world, among My (numerous) descents taken for the sake of sport (20).

(1) परस्मिन्नधि = पराधीन: – depending on other.
Note: The सूत्रम् 1-4-97 अधिरीश्वरे assigns the designation कर्मप्रवचनीय: to ‘अधि’ here. In connection with ‘अधि’ (which has the designation कर्मप्रवचनीय: here as per the सूत्रम् 1-4-97 अधिरीश्वरे), ‘पर’ takes a seventh case affix as per the सूत्रम् 2-3-9 यस्मादधिकं यस्य चेश्वरवचनं तत्र सप्तमी

अलौकिक-विग्रह: –
(2) पर ङि + अधि । By 2-1-40 सप्तमी शौण्डैः – A पदम् ending in a seventh case affix optionally compounds with a (syntactically related) पदम् composed by adding a सुँप् affix to ‘शौण्ड’ etc and the resulting compound gets the designation तत्पुरुष:।
Note: Since ‘अधि’ is a अव्ययम् the default सुँप् affix ‘सुँ’ following ‘अधि’ takes the लुक् elision as per the सूत्रम् 2-4-82 अव्ययादाप्सुपः
Note: The शौण्डादि-गण: is listed in the गणपाठ: as follows – शौण्ड। धूर्त। कितव। व्याड। प्रवीण। संवीत। अन्तर्। अधि। पटु। पण्डित। कुशल। चपल। निपुण।

(3) By 1-2-43 प्रथमानिर्दिष्टं समास उपसर्जनम् – the term ‘पर ङि’ gets the designation उपसर्जनम् because in the सूत्रम् 2-1-40 (which prescribes the compounding) the term सप्तमी ends in the nominative case. Hence ‘पर ङि’ is placed in the prior position in the compound as per the सूत्रम् 2-2-30 उपसर्जनं पूर्वम्‌ – In a compound a term which has the designation ‘उपसर्जन’ should be placed in the prior position.

Note: ‘पर ङि + अधि’ gets the designation प्रातिपदिकम्‌ by 1-2-46 कृत्तद्धितसमासाश्च। This allows 2-4-71 to apply in the next step.

(4) पर + अधि । By 2-4-71 सुपो धातुप्रातिपदिकयोः – A सुँप् affix takes a लुक् elision when it is a part of a धातुः or a प्रातिपदिकम्।

(5) पराधि । By 6-1-101 अकः सवर्णे दीर्घः

(6) पराधि + ख । By 5-4-7 अषडक्षाशितंग्वलंकर्मालंपुरुषाध्युत्तरपदात्ख: – The following प्रातिपदिकानि invariably take the तद्धित: affix ‘ख’ with no change in meaning – i) ‘अषडक्ष’ ii) ‘आशितङ्गु’ iii) ‘अलंकर्मन्’ vi) ‘अलंपुरुष’ and v) a compound having ‘अधि’ as its latter member.

(7) पराधि + ईन 7-1-2 । By 7-1-2 आयनेयीनीयियः फढखछघां प्रत्ययादीना – the letters ‘फ्’, ‘ढ्’, ‘ख्’, ‘छ्’ and ‘घ्’ – when they occur at the beginning of a प्रत्यय: (affix) – are replaced respectively by ‘आय्’, ‘एय्’, ‘ईन्’, ‘ईय्’ and ‘इय्’।
Note: As per the सूत्रम् 1-3-10 यथासंख्यमनुदेशः समानाम्, the substitutions take place respectively.

See question 1.

Note: The अङ्गम् ‘पराधि’ has the designation ‘भ’ here by 1-4-18 यचि भम्। This allows 6-4-148 to apply in the next step.

(8) पराध् + ईन । By 6-4-148 यस्येति च – When the letter ‘ई’ or a ‘तद्धित’ affix follows, the (ending) इ-वर्ण: (letter ‘इ’ or ‘ई’) or the (ending) अवर्ण: (letter ‘अ’ or ‘आ’) of a अङ्गम् with the भ-सञ्ज्ञा takes elision (लोपः)।

= पराधीन ।

Note: In the present example the compound ‘पराधीन’ (which is an adjective) is qualifying the masculine/neuter noun ‘देह’ and hence takes the masculine/neuter gender.

The विवक्षा is द्वितीया-एकवचनम् ।

(9) पराधीन + अम् । By 4-1-2 स्वौजसमौट्छष्टाभ्याम्भिस्ङेभ्याम्भ्यस्ङसिभ्याम्भ्यस्ङसोसाम्ङ्योस्सुप्‌।

(10) पराधीन + अम् । By 7-1-24 अतोऽम् – The affixes ‘सुँ’ and ‘अम्’ that follow a neuter अङ्गम् ending in the short vowel ‘अ’ take ‘अम्’ as their replacement. Note: In the neuter gender, 7-1-24 is required here to prevent 7-1-23 स्वमोर्नपुंसकात्‌ from applying.
1-3-4 न विभक्तौ तुस्माः prevents the ending letter ‘म्’ of the affix ‘अम्’ from getting इत्-सञ्ज्ञा।

(11) पराधीनम् । By 6-1-107 अमि पूर्वः – In place of a preceding अक् letter and the following vowel (अच्) belonging to the affix ‘अम्’ there is a single substitute of that preceding अक् letter.

Questions:

1. Why doesn’t the ending letter ‘न्’ of the substitute ‘ईन्’ (used in step 7) get the designation इत् (as per the सूत्रम् 1-3-3 हलन्त्यम्)? In answer to this the तत्त्वबोधिनी says आयनीनोर्नकारस्य नेत्त्वम्, फिनो नित्करणसामर्थ्यात्। Please explain. Note: ‘फिन्’ is a तद्धित: affix prescribed by the सूत्रम् 4-1-160 प्राचामवृद्धात्‌ फिन् बहुलम्‌।

2. Where has the सूत्रम् 8-2-45 ओदितश्च been used in the verses?

3. From which verbal root is the participle ‘ईप्सित’ (used in the compound ‘लीलावतारेप्सितजन्म’ in the verses) derived?

4. What is the विग्रह-वाक्यम् (explanatory sentence) of the अव्ययीभाव: compound प्रतिक्षणम् used in the commentary?

5. Which सूत्रम् prescribes the affix ‘ण्वुल्’ used in the form शोधकम् (प्रातिपदिकम् ‘शोधक’, नपुंसकलिङ्गे प्रथमा-एकवचनम्) in the commentary?

6. How would you say this in Sanskrit?
“In childhood I was not independent but now I am.” Paraphrase to “In childhood I was dependent on another but now I am self-dependent.” Use the neuter noun ‘शैशव’ for ‘childhood.’ Form a compound for ‘dependent on another’ and ‘self-dependent (dependent on oneself.)’

Easy questions:

1. Which सूत्रम् prescribes the substitution ‘इ’ in the form बिभृयात्?

2. Can you spot the affix ‘श्नु’ in the commentary?

Apr 232015
 

Today we will look at the form दैवाधीनः mNs from श्रीमद्भागवतम् 3.3.23.

तस्यैवं रममाणस्य संवत्सरगणान्बहून् । गृहमेधेषु योगेषु विरागः समजायत ।। ३-३-२२ ।।
दैवाधीनेषु कामेषु दैवाधीनः स्वयं पुमान् । को विस्रम्भेत योगेन योगेश्वरमनुव्रतः ।। ३-३-२३ ।।

श्रीधर-स्वामि-टीका
गृहमेधेषु गृहधर्मेषु । योगेषु कामभोगोपायेषु । विराग औदासीन्यं जातमित्यर्थः ।। २२ ।। यदा स्वाधीनेष्वपि भगवतो विरागस्तदा दैवाधीनेषु को विस्रम्भेत विश्वासं प्रीतिं वा कुर्यात् । योगेन चेद्योगेश्वरं श्रीकृष्णमनुव्रतः ।। २३ ।।

Translation – As He thus enjoyed life for many years He felt an aversion for the performance of religious duties binding on a householder and conducive to the pleasures of sense (22). What man, then, who is himself in the power of Providence and who seeks to please Śrī Kṛṣṇa (the Master of Yogas) through the practice of Devotion, would set his heart on the pleasures of sense, which are in the power of Providence? (23)

(1) दैवेऽधि = दैवाधीन: – reliant on (in the power of) Providence.
Note: The सूत्रम् 1-4-97 अधिरीश्वरे assigns the designation कर्मप्रवचनीय: to ‘अधि’ here. In connection with ‘अधि’ (which has the designation कर्मप्रवचनीय: here as per the सूत्रम् 1-4-97 अधिरीश्वरे), ‘दैव’ takes a seventh case affix as per the सूत्रम् 2-3-9 यस्मादधिकं यस्य चेश्वरवचनं तत्र सप्तमी

अलौकिक-विग्रह: –
(2) दैव ङि + अधि । By 2-1-40 सप्तमी शौण्डैः – A पदम् ending in a seventh case affix optionally compounds with a (syntactically related) पदम् composed by adding a सुँप् affix to ‘शौण्ड’ etc and the resulting compound gets the designation तत्पुरुष:।
Note: Since ‘अधि’ is a अव्ययम् the default सुँप् affix ‘सुँ’ following ‘अधि’ takes the लुक् elision as per the सूत्रम् 2-4-82 अव्ययादाप्सुपः
Note: The शौण्डादि-गण: is listed in the गणपाठ: as follows – शौण्ड। धूर्त। कितव। व्याड। प्रवीण। संवीत। अन्तर्। अधि। पटु। पण्डित। कुशल। चपल। निपुण।

(3) By 1-2-43 प्रथमानिर्दिष्टं समास उपसर्जनम् – the term ‘दैव ङि’ gets the designation उपसर्जनम् because in the सूत्रम् 2-1-40 (which prescribes the compounding) the term सप्तमी ends in the nominative case. Hence ‘दैव ङि’ is placed in the prior position in the compound as per the सूत्रम् 2-2-30 उपसर्जनं पूर्वम्‌ – In a compound a term which has the designation ‘उपसर्जन’ should be placed in the prior position.

Note: ‘दैव ङि + अधि’ gets the designation प्रातिपदिकम्‌ by 1-2-46 कृत्तद्धितसमासाश्च। This allows 2-4-71 to apply in the next step.

(4) दैव + अधि । By 2-4-71 सुपो धातुप्रातिपदिकयोः – A सुँप् affix takes a लुक् elision when it is a part of a धातुः or a प्रातिपदिकम्।

(5) दैवाधि । By 6-1-101 अकः सवर्णे दीर्घः

(6) दैवाधि + ख । By 5-4-7 अषडक्षाशितंग्वलंकर्मालंपुरुषाध्युत्तरपदात्ख: – The following प्रातिपदिकानि invariably take the तद्धित: affix ‘ख’ with no change in meaning – i) ‘अषडक्ष’ ii) ‘आशितङ्गु’ iii) ‘अलंकर्मन्’ vi) ‘अलंपुरुष’ and v) a compound having ‘अधि’ as its latter member.

(7) दैवाधि + ईन 7-1-2 । By 7-1-2 आयनेयीनीयियः फढखछघां प्रत्ययादीना – the letters ‘फ्’, ‘ढ्’, ‘ख्’, ‘छ्’ and ‘घ्’ – when they occur at the beginning of a प्रत्यय: (affix) – are replaced respectively by ‘आय्’, ‘एय्’, ‘ईन्’, ‘ईय्’ and ‘इय्’।
Note: As per the सूत्रम् 1-3-10 यथासंख्यमनुदेशः समानाम्, the substitutions take place respectively.

Note: The अङ्गम् ‘ दैवाधि’ has the designation ‘भ’ here by 1-4-18 यचि भम्। This allows 6-4-148 to apply in the next step.

(8) दैवाध् + ईन । By 6-4-148 यस्येति च – When the letter ‘ई’ or a ‘तद्धित’ affix follows, the (ending) इ-वर्ण: (letter ‘इ’ or ‘ई’) or the (ending) अवर्ण: (letter ‘अ’ or ‘आ’) of a अङ्गम् with the भ-सञ्ज्ञा takes elision (लोपः)।

= दैवाधीन ।

Note: In the present example the compound ‘दैवधीन’ (which is an adjective) is qualifying the masculine noun पुमान् and hence takes the masculine gender.

The विवक्षा is प्रथमा-एकवचनम् ।

(9) दैवाधीन + सुँ । By 4-1-2 स्वौजसमौट्छष्टाभ्याम्भिस्ङेभ्याम्भ्यस्ङसिँभ्याम्भ्यस्ङसोसाम्ङ्योस्सुप्

(10) दैवाधीन + स् । अनुबन्ध-लोपः by 1-3-2 उपदेशेऽजनुनासिक इत् and 1-3-9 तस्य लोपः।

(11) दैवाधीन: । रुँत्व-विसर्गौ by 8-2-66 ससजुषो रुः and 8-3-15 खरवसानयोर्विसर्जनीयः

Questions:

1. Commenting on the सूत्रम् 5-4-7 अषडक्षाशितंग्वलंकर्मालंपुरुषाध्युत्तरपदात्ख: (used in step 6) the सिद्धान्तकौमुदी says – नित्योऽयं ख:। उत्तरसूत्रे विभाषाग्रहणात्। Please explain.

2. Commenting on the सूत्रम् 7-1-2 आयनेयीनीयियः फढखछघां प्रत्ययादीना (used in step 7) the तत्त्वबोधिनी says – प्रत्ययेति किम्? धातोरादीनां मा भूत्। फक्कति। ढौकते। खनति। छादयति। घूर्णते। Please explain.

3. Can you spot the augment मुँक् in the verses?

4. Where has the सूत्रम् 2-3-5 कालाध्वनोरत्यन्तसंयोगे been used in the verses?

5. Which सूत्रम् prescribes the substitution ‘आ’ in the form जातम् (प्रातिपदिकम् ‘जात’, नपुंसकलिङ्गे प्रथमा-एकवचनम्) used in the commentary? Hint: We have seen this सूत्रम् in a prior comment.

6. How would you say this in Sanskrit?
“Even the gods are in the power of Providence.”

Easy questions:

1. Which सूत्रम् prescribes the substitution ‘जा’ in the form समजायत?

2. Where has the सूत्रम् 6-4-109 ये च been used in the commentary?

Apr 202015
 

Today we will look at the form विवेकनिपुणाः mNp from श्रीमद्भागवतम् 11.24.2.

आसीज्ज्ञानमथो अर्थ एकमेवाविकल्पितम् । यदा विवेकनिपुणा आदौ कृतयुगेऽयुगे ।। ११-२४-२ ।।
तन्मायाफलरूपेण केवलं निर्विकल्पितम् । वाङ्मनोऽगोचरं सत्यं द्विधा समभवद्बृहत् ।। ११-२४-३ ।।

श्रीधर-स्वामि-टीका
अथोशब्दः कार्त्स्न्ये । ज्ञानं द्रष्टा तेन दृश्यः कृत्स्नोऽप्यर्थश्चाविकल्पितम् । विकल्पशून्यमेकमेव । ब्रह्मण्येव लीनमासीदित्यर्थः । कदेत्यपेक्षायामाह – अयुगे युगेभ्यः पूर्वम्, प्रलय इत्यर्थः । तथा आदौ यत्कृतयुगं तस्मिंश्चान्यदापि यदा विवेकनिपुणा जना भवन्ति तदापि तेषां भेदास्फूर्तेः ।। २ ।। तद्बृहद्ब्रह्म वाङ्मनोऽगोचरं यथा भवति तथा माया दृश्यं फलं तत्प्रकाशस्तद्रूपेण मायाविलासरूपेण वा द्विधाभूत् ।। ३ ।।

Translation – During the period of final dissolution (before the Yugas began to run their course), in the very first Satya Yuga (at the beginning of creation) and whenever there are men shrewd of judgement, (in their eyes too) the subjective consciousness (in the shape of the seer) as well as the entire objective existence was one absolutely undifferentiated substance (Brahma) indeed (2). That absolute undifferentiated reality, Brahma (the Infinite), which is beyond the ken of speech and the mind, became dual (as it were) in the shape of Māyā (objective existence) and that which is reflected in it (viz., the Jīva or the seer) (3).

(1) विवेके निपुणः = विवेकनिपुणः – shrewd of (in) judgment.

अलौकिक-विग्रह: –
(2) विवेक ङि + निपुण सुँ । By 2-1-40 सप्तमी शौण्डैः – A पदम् ending in a seventh case affix optionally compounds with a (syntactically related) पदम् composed by adding a सुँप् affix to ‘शौण्ड’ etc and the resulting compound gets the designation तत्पुरुष:।
Note: The शौण्डादि-गण: is listed in the गणपाठ: as follows – शौण्ड। धूर्त। कितव। व्याड। प्रवीण। संवीत। अन्तर्। अधि। पटु। पण्डित। कुशल। चपल। निपुण।

See question 1.

(3) By 1-2-43 प्रथमानिर्दिष्टं समास उपसर्जनम् – the term ‘विवेक ङि’ gets the designation उपसर्जनम् because in the सूत्रम् 2-1-40 (which prescribes the compounding) the term सप्तमी ends in the nominative case. Hence ‘विवेक ङि’ is placed in the prior position in the compound as per the सूत्रम् 2-2-30 उपसर्जनं पूर्वम्‌ – In a compound a term which has the designation ‘उपसर्जन’ should be placed in the prior position.

Note: ‘विवेक ङि + निपुण सुँ’ gets the designation प्रातिपदिकम्‌ by 1-2-46 कृत्तद्धितसमासाश्च। This allows 2-4-71 to apply in the next step.

(4) विवेक + निपुण । By 2-4-71 सुपो धातुप्रातिपदिकयोः – A सुँप् affix takes a लुक् elision when it is a part of a धातुः or a प्रातिपदिकम्।

= विवेकनिपुण ।

Note: As per the सूत्रम् 2-4-26 परवल्लिङ्गं द्वन्द्वतत्पुरुषयोः, the compound प्रातिपदिकम् ‘विवेकनिपुण’ is masculine since the latter member ‘निपुण’ of the compound is used in the masculine here. (As shown in the commentary, the compound ‘विवेकनिपुण’ is qualifying the masculine noun ‘जन’।) The compound declines like राम-शब्द:।

The विवक्षा is प्रथमा-बहुवचनम्।

(5) विवेकनिपुण + जस् । By 4-1-2 स्वौजसमौट्छष्टाभ्याम्भिस्ङेभ्याम्भ्यस्ङसिँभ्याम्भ्यस्ङसोसाम्ङ्योस्सुप्

(6) विवेकनिपुण + अस् । अनुबन्ध-लोपः by 1-3-7 चुटू and 1-3-9 तस्य लोपः। 1-3-4 न विभक्तौ तुस्माः prevents the ending letter ‘स्’ of ‘जस्’ from getting इत्-सञ्ज्ञा।

(7) विवेकनिपुणास् । 6-1-102 प्रथमयो: पूर्वसवर्ण: – When an अक् letter is followed by a vowel (अच्) of the first (nominative) or second (accusative) case then for the two of them (अक् + अच्) there is a single substitute which is the elongated form of the first member (the अक् letter.)

(8) विवेकनिपुणाः । रुँत्व-विसर्गौ by 8-2-66 ससजुषो रुः and 8-3-15 खरवसानयोर्विसर्जनीयः

Questions:

1. The वृत्ति: of the सूत्रम् 2-1-40 सप्तमी शौण्डैः (used in step 2) says – सप्तम्यन्तं शौण्डादिभि: सुबन्तै: सह वा समस्यते स तत्पुरुष:। Commenting on this the तत्त्वबोधिनी says – बहुवचननिर्देशाद्गणपाठसामर्थ्याच्च आद्यर्थावगति:। Please explain.

2. Which सूत्रम् prescribes the substitution ‘क्’ in the formation of the masculine प्रातिपदिकम् ‘विवेक’ (used as part of the compound ‘विवेकनिपुण’)?

3. Can you spot the affix ‘ल्युट्’ in the verses?

4. Where has the सूत्रम् 8-2-44 ल्वादिभ्यः been used in the commentary?

5. How would you say this in Sanskrit?
“In India even today there are many people who are proficient in grammar.” Use the adjective प्रातिपदिकम् ‘पण्डित’ for ‘proficient.’ Form a compound for ‘proficient in grammar.’

6. How would you say this in Sanskrit?
“My brother is a skilled musician.” Paraphrase to “My brother is skilled in music.” Use the adjective प्रातिपदिकम् ‘प्रवीण’ for ‘skilled’ and the neuter noun ‘संगीत’ for ‘music.’ Form a compound for ‘skilled in music.’

Easy questions:

1. Why doesn’t the सूत्रम् 6-1-109 एङः पदान्तादति apply between अथो + अर्थ:?

2. In the commentary can you spot a word in which the affix ‘सिँच्’ has taken the लुक् elision?