पौराणिकाः mNp

Today we will look at the form पौराणिकाः mNp from श्रीमद्भागवतम् 12.7.5.

त्रय्यारुणिः कश्यपश्च सावर्णिरकृतव्रणः । वैशम्पायनहारीतौ षड्वै पौराणिका इमे ॥ १२-७-५ ॥

श्रीधर-स्वामि-टीका
No commentary on this verse.

Gita Press translation – Trayyāruṇi, Kaśyapa, Sāvarṇi, Akṛtavraṇa, Vaiśampāyana and Hārīta – these, as a matter of fact, are the six teachers of the Purāṇas.(5)

The प्रातिपदिकम् ‘पौराणिक’ used in the verse is derived as follows –
पुराणान्यधीते वेद वा = पौराणिकः – a person who studies or knows the Purāṇas

In the verse the विवक्षा is प्रथमा-बहुवचनम्। Hence the form is पौराणिकाः।

(1) पुराण शस् + ठक् । By वार्तिकम् (under the सूत्रम् 4-2-60 क्रतूक्थादिसूत्रान्ताट्ठक्) आख्यानाख्यायिकेतिहासपुराणेभ्यश्च – To denote a person who studies or knows that (subject matter), the तद्धित: affix ‘ठक्’ may be optionally applied following a syntactically related पदम् in which the सन्धिः operations have been performed, provided the पदम् ends in the second case affix and has as its base either –
i) the name of a narrative (आख्यानम्) or a story (आख्यायिका), or
ii) the word ‘इतिहास’ or ‘पुराण’।
Note: The affix ‘ठक्’ prescribed by the सूत्रम् 4-2-60 as well as the above वार्तिकम् is a अपवादः to the affix ‘अण्’ prescribed by 4-2-59 तदधीते तद्वेद।

(2) पुराण शस् + ठ् । अनुबन्ध-लोपः by 1-3-3 हलन्त्यम्, 1-3-9 तस्य लोपः । The letter ‘अ’ in the affix ‘ठक्’ is only for the sake of pronunciation (उच्चारणार्थ:)।

(3) पुराण शस् + इक । By 7-3-50 ठस्येकः – ‘इक’ is substituted in place of the letter ‘ठ्’, when it follows a अङ्गम्।

‘पुराण शस् + इक’ gets the designation प्रातिपदिकम्‌ by 1-2-46 कृत्तद्धितसमासाश्च। This allows 2-4-71 सुपो धातुप्रातिपदिकयोः to apply in the next step.

(4) पुराण + इक । By 2-4-71 सुपो धातुप्रातिपदिकयोः – A सुँप् affix takes a लुक् elision when it is a part of a धातुः or a प्रातिपदिकम्।

(5) पौराण + इक । By 7-2-118 किति च – The first vowel among the vowels of a अङ्गम् which is followed by a तद्धित: affix (ref. 4-1-76 तद्धिताः) which is a कित् (has the letter ‘क्’ as a इत्) takes the वृद्धि: (ref. 1-1-1 वृद्धिरादैच्) substitute.

Note: The अङ्गम् ‘पौराण’ gets the भ-सञ्ज्ञा by 1-4-18 यचि भम् which allows 6-4-148 यस्येति च to apply in the next step.

(6) पौराण् + इक । By 6-4-148 यस्येति च – When the letter ‘ई’ or a ‘तद्धित’ affix follows, the (ending) इ-वर्ण: (letter ‘इ’ or ‘ई’) or the (ending) अवर्ण: (letter ‘अ’ or ‘आ’) of a अङ्गम् with the भ-सञ्ज्ञा takes elision (लोपः)।

= पौराणिक । Note: The प्रातिपदिकम् ‘पौराणिक’ declines like राम-शब्दः।

वैयाकरणकिराताद् m-Ab-s

Today we will look at the form वैयाकरणकिराताद् m-Ab-s from सुभाषितरत्नभाण्डागारम्।

वैयाकरणकिरातादपशब्दमृगाः क्व यान्ति संत्रस्ताः ।
ज्योतिर्नटविटगायकभिषगाननगह्वराणि यदि न स्युः ॥

Translation – Terrified by the hunter in the form of a grammarian, where would the deer in the form of corrupted words go if there were no caves in the form of the mouths of astrologers, actors, paramours, singers and physicians.

Note: The gist of the verse is that astrologers, actors, etc., keep using corrupted words, in spite of the grammarians pointing them out.

The प्रातिपदिकम् ‘वैयाकरण’ used in the compound form वैयाकरणकिराताद् is derived as follows –
व्याकरणमधीते वेद वा = वैयाकरणः – a person who studies or knows grammar

(1) व्याकरण अम् + अण् । By 4-2-59 तदधीते तद्वेद – To denote a person who studies or knows that (subject matter), the तद्धित: affix ‘अण्’ may be optionally applied following a syntactically related पदम् in which the सन्धिः operations have been performed, provided the पदम् ends in the second case affix and has a base which denotes that (subject matter).

(2) व्याकरण अम् + अ । अनुबन्ध-लोपः by 1-3-3 हलन्त्यम्, 1-3-9 तस्य लोपः ।

‘व्याकरण अम् + अ’ gets the designation प्रातिपदिकम्‌ by 1-2-46 कृत्तद्धितसमासाश्च। This allows 2-4-71 सुपो धातुप्रातिपदिकयोः to apply in the next step.

(3) व्याकरण + अ । By 2-4-71 सुपो धातुप्रातिपदिकयोः – A सुँप् affix takes a लुक् elision when it is a part of a धातुः or a प्रातिपदिकम्।
Note: The affix ‘अण्’ is a णित् (has the letter ‘ण्’ as इत्). This allows 7-2-117 तद्धितेष्वचामादेः to come for application to perform the वृद्धिः substitution in place of the letter ’आ’, which is the first vowel of the अङ्गम् ‘व्याकरण’। Even though the vowel ‘आ’ is already a वृद्धिः letter, the सूत्रम् 7-2-117 तद्धितेष्वचामादेः still comes for application as per the न्यायः ‘पर्जन्यवल्लक्षणप्रवृत्तिः’ – Just as rain falls equally on land as well as sea, similarly a rule is applied whether or not there is a net effect.
Since the letter ‘य्’ (which has come in place of the letter ‘इ’ as per the सूत्रम् 6-1-77 इको यणचि) in the अङ्गम् ‘व्याकरण’ (= ‘वि + आ + करण’) is at the end of a पदम्, the सूत्रम् 7-3-3 stops 7-2-117 here. And simultaneously, the augment ‘ऐ’ attaches prior to the letter ‘य्’।

(4) वै याकरण + अ । By 7-3-3 न य्वाभ्यां पदान्ताभ्यां पूर्वौ तु ताभ्यामैच् – A vowel that follows the letter ‘य्’ / ‘व्’ situated at the end of a पदम् does not take the वृद्धिः substitution (which would have been prescribed by 7-2-117 तद्धितेष्वचामादेः, 7-2-118 किति च), instead the augment ऐच् (letter ‘ऐ’ or ‘औ’) attaches prior to such a letter (‘य्’ or ‘व्’)।
Note: As per the परिभाषा-सूत्रम् 1-3-10 यथासंख्यमनुदेशः समानाम् the augment ‘ऐ’ attaches prior to the letter ‘य्’ and the augment ‘औ’ attaches prior to the letter ‘व्’, as the case may be.

Note: The अङ्गम् ‘वैयाकरण’ gets the भ-सञ्ज्ञा by 1-4-18 यचि भम् which allows 6-4-148 यस्येति च to apply in the next step.

(5) वैयाकरण् + अ । By 6-4-148 यस्येति च – When the letter ‘ई’ or a ‘तद्धित’ affix follows, the (ending) इ-वर्ण: (letter ‘इ’ or ‘ई’) or the (ending) अवर्ण: (letter ‘अ’ or ‘आ’) of a अङ्गम् with the भ-सञ्ज्ञा takes elision (लोपः)।

= वैयाकरण ।

The compound ‘वैयाकरणकिरात’ is a कर्मधारयः compound which may be explained as a शाकपार्थिवादिसमासः as follows –
वैयाकरणरूपः किरातः = वैयाकरणकिरातः – a hunter in the form of a grammarian

वात्यारूपधरः mNs

Today we will look at the form वात्यारूपधरः mNs from श्रीमद्भागवतम् 10.7.26.

तृणावर्तः शान्तरयो वात्यारूपधरो हरन् । कृष्णं नभोगतो गन्तुं नाशक्नोद्भूरिभारभृत् ।। १०-७-२६ ।।
तमश्मानं मन्यमान आत्मनो गुरुमत्तया । गले गृहीत उत्स्रष्टुं नाशक्नोदद्भुतार्भकम् ।। १०-७-२७ ।।

श्रीधर-स्वामि-टीका
वात्या चक्रवातस्तद्रूपधरः कृष्णं हरन् शान्तरयः कथंचिन्नभोगतस्ततः परं गन्तुं नाशक्नोदित्यर्थः ।। २६ ।। गुरुमत्तयाऽतिगौरवेण तं तथा अश्मानमश्मवन्तं पर्वतप्रायं मन्यमानस्तेनैवात्मनो गले गृहीतत्वात्तं त्यक्तुमिच्छन्नपि नाशक्नोदित्यर्थः ।। २७ ।।

Gita Press translation – Carrying away Lord Śrī Kṛṣṇa, Tṛṇāvarta, who had assumed the form of a whirlwind, went up to the skies (to a certain height) but could not proceed (further), his impetuosity having ceased now that he (felt he) was carrying a huge burden (since the Lord had grown heavy again) (26). Taking that wonderful Boy to be a rock (of sapphire) because of His being heavier than himself (and having given up the form of a whirlwind), he could not cast Him away, caught as he was by the throat (27).

The above verses have previously appeared in the following post – मन्यमानः-mns

The प्रातिपदिकम् ‘वात्या’ used in the form वात्यारूपधरः is derived as follows –
वातानां समूहः = वात्या – whirlwind (a group of winds)

(1) वात आम् + य । By 4-2-49 पाशादिभ्यो यः – To denote a collection/group, the तद्धित: affix ‘य’ may be optionally applied following a syntactically related पदम् in which the सन्धिः operations have been performed, provided the पदम् ends in the sixth case affix and has ‘पाश’ etc (listed in the पाशादि-गण:) as its base.
Note: The word ‘वात’ is listed in the पाशादि-गणः। This allows 4-2-49 to apply here.
Note: The affix ‘य’ prescribed by the सूत्रम् 4-2-49 is a अपवादः to the default affix ‘अण्’ prescribed by the सूत्रम् 4-2-37 तस्य समूहः।

‘वात आम् + य’ gets the designation प्रातिपदिकम्‌ by 1-2-46 कृत्तद्धितसमासाश्च। This allows 2-4-71 सुपो धातुप्रातिपदिकयोः to apply in the next step.

(2) वात + य । By 2-4-71 सुपो धातुप्रातिपदिकयोः – A सुँप् affix takes a लुक् elision when it is a part of a धातुः or a प्रातिपदिकम्।
Note: The अङ्गम् ‘वात’ gets the भ-सञ्ज्ञा by 1-4-18 यचि भम् which allows 6-4-148 यस्येति च to apply in the next step.

(3) वात् + य = वात्य । By 6-4-148 यस्येति च – When the letter ‘ई’ or a ‘तद्धित’ affix follows, the (ending) इ-वर्ण: (letter ‘इ’ or ‘ई’) or the (ending) अवर्ण: (letter ‘अ’ or ‘आ’) of a अङ्गम् with the भ-सञ्ज्ञा takes elision (लोपः)।

Note: Words derived by using this सूत्रम् are used in the feminine gender in the language. Hence we form the feminine word ‘वात्या’ by adding the feminine affix टाप् as follows –

(4) वात्य + टाप् । By 4-1-4 अजाद्यतष्टाप्‌ – The प्रातिपदिकानि ‘अज’ etc. and प्रातिपदिकानि ending in the letter ‘अ’ get the टाप् affix in the feminine gender.

(5) वात्य + आ । अनुबन्ध-लोपः by 1-3-3 हलन्त्यम्, 1-3-7 चुटू, 1-3-9 तस्य लोपः

(6) वात्या । By 6-1-101 अकः सवर्णे दीर्घः

Similarly, we can derive the following forms –
१) पाशानां समूहः = पाश्या – a group of snares
२) तृणानां समूहः = तृण्या – a heap of straws

To derive the compound प्रातिपदिकम् ‘वात्यारूपधर’ we first form the षष्ठी-तत्पुरुष-समासः ‘वात्यारूप’ as follows –

वात्याया रूपं = वात्यारूपम् – the form of a whirlwind

अलौकिक-विग्रह: –
(7) वात्या ङस् + रूप सुँ । By 2-2-8 षष्ठी – A पदम् ending in a sixth case affix optionally compounds with a (syntactically related) पदम् ending in a सुँप् affix and the resulting compound gets the designation तत्पुरुष:।

(8) By 1-2-43 प्रथमानिर्दिष्टं समास उपसर्जनम् – the term ‘वात्या ङस्’ gets the designation उपसर्जनम् because in the सूत्रम् 2-2-8 (which prescribes the compounding) the term षष्ठी ends in the nominative case. Hence ‘वात्या ङस्’ is placed in the prior position in the compound as per the सूत्रम् 2-2-30 उपसर्जनं पूर्वम्‌ – In a compound a term which has the designation ‘उपसर्जन’ should be placed in the prior position.

Note: ‘वात्या ङस् + रूप सुँ’ gets the designation प्रातिपदिकम्‌ by 1-2-46 कृत्तद्धितसमासाश्च। This allows 2-4-71 to apply in the next step.

(9) वात्या + रूप । By 2-4-71 सुपो धातुप्रातिपदिकयोः – A सुँप् affix takes a लुक् elision when it is a part of a धातुः or a प्रातिपदिकम्।

= वात्यारूप ।

The विग्रहः of the षष्ठी-तत्पुरुषः compound ‘वात्यारूपधर’ is वात्यारूपस्य धरः = वात्यारूपधरः – one who possesses the form of a whirlwind

The प्रातिपदिकम् ’धर’ is derived from the verbal root √धृ (धृञ् धारणे १. १०४७) as follows –

(10) धृ + अच् । By वार्तिकम् (under 3-1-134 नन्दिग्रहिपचादिभ्यो ल्युणिन्यचः) – अज्विधिः सर्वधातुभ्यः – The affix ‘अच्’ may be used after any verbal root (to denote the agent/doer of the action.)

(11) धृ + अ । अनुबन्ध-लोप: by 1-3-3 हलन्त्यम् and 1-3-9 तस्य लोपः। Note: The affix ‘अ’ gets आर्धधातुक-सञ्ज्ञा by 3-4-114 आर्धधातुकं शेषः। This allows 7-3-84 to apply below.
Note: Since the affix ‘अ’ does not begin with a letter belonging to the प्रत्याहार: ‘वल्’, it cannot take the augment ‘इट्’ which would have been prescribed by the सूत्रम् 7-2-35 आर्धधातुकस्येड् वलादेः।

(12) धर् + अ = धर । By 7-3-84 सार्वधातुकार्धधातुकयोः, 1-1-51 उरण् रपरः

Now we form the षष्ठी-तत्पुरुषः compound ‘वात्यारूपधर’ as follows –

(13) वात्यारूप ङस् + धर सुँ । By 2-2-8 षष्ठी – A पदम् ending in a sixth case affix optionally compounds with a (syntactically related) पदम् ending in a सुँप् affix and the resulting compound gets the designation तत्पुरुष:।

By 1-2-43 प्रथमानिर्दिष्टं समास उपसर्जनम् – the term ‘वात्यारूप ङस्’ gets the designation उपसर्जनम् because in the सूत्रम् 2-2-8 (which prescribes the compounding) the term षष्ठी ends in the nominative case. Hence ’वात्यारूप ङस्’ is placed in the prior position in the compound as per the सूत्रम् 2-2-30 उपसर्जनं पूर्वम् – In a compound a term which has the designation ‘उपसर्जन’ should be placed in the prior position.
Note: ‘वात्यारूप ङस् + धर सुँ’ gets the designation प्रातिपदिकम्‌ by 1-2-46 कृत्तद्धितसमासाश्च। This allows 2-4-71 to apply in the next step.

(14) वात्यारूप + धर । By 2-4-71 सुपो धातुप्रातिपदिकयोः – A सुँप् affix takes a लुक् elision when it is a part of a धातुः or a प्रातिपदिकम्।

= वात्यारूपधर ।

Note: As per the सूत्रम् 2-4-26 परवल्लिङ्गं द्वन्द्वतत्पुरुषयोः, the compound प्रातिपदिकम् ‘वात्यारूपधर’ is an adjective since the latter member ‘धर’ of the compound is an adjective. Here it is used in the masculine since वात्यारूपधरः is qualifying तृणावर्तः। The compound declines like राम-शब्द:। प्रथमा-एकवचनम् is वात्यारूपधरः।

जनताः fNp

Today we will look at the form जनताः fNp from शिशुपालवधम् 5.14.

छायामपास्य महतीमपि वर्तमानामागामिनीं जगृहिरे जनतास्तरूणाम् ।
सर्वो हि नोपगतमप्यपचीयमानं वर्धिष्णुमाश्रयमनागतमभ्युपैति ∥ ५.१४ ∥

मल्लिनाथ-टीका
छायामिति । जनानां समूहा जनताः । ‘4-2-43 ग्रामजनबन्धु-‘ । तरूणां वर्तमानां विद्यमानां महतीमपि छायामपास्य त्यक्त्वा आगामिनीं छायां जगृहिरे। वर्धिष्णुत्वादिति भावः । न च प्राप्तत्यागो दोषाय । त्यागस्वीकारयोः क्षयवृद्धिप्रयुक्तत्वादिति भावः । सर्व इति । तथाहि — सर्वो जन उपगतं प्राप्तमप्यपचीयमानं क्षीयमाणम् । कर्मकर्तरि प्रयोगः । आश्रयं नोपैति न गृह्णाति, किन्त्वनागतमप्राप्तमपि वर्धिष्णुं वर्धनशीलमाश्रयमुपैति । सामान्येन विशेषसमर्थनरूपोऽर्थान्तरन्यासः ।

Translation – Groups of people having left the existing shade of trees, even though it was abundant, took to the upcoming (shade). Indeed, every one rejects a diminishing shelter even though it is near, and instead seeks a growing one, even if it is not at hand.

जनानां समूहः = जनता – a group of people
In the verses the विवक्षा is प्रथमा-बहुवचनम्। Hence the form is जनताः।

(1) जन आम् + तल् । By 4-2-43 ग्रामजनबन्धुभ्यस्तल् – To denote a collection/group, the तद्धित: affix ‘तल्’ may be optionally applied following a syntactically related पदम् in which the सन्धिः operations have been performed, provided the पदम् ends in a sixth case affix and has the word ‘ग्राम’ or ‘जन’ or ‘बन्धु’ as its base.

Note: The affix ‘तल्’ prescribed by the सूत्रम् 4-2-43 is a अपवादः to the default affix ‘अण्’ prescribed by the सूत्रम् 4-2-37 तस्य समूहः।

(2) जन आम् + त । अनुबन्ध-लोपः by 1-3-3 हलन्त्यम्, 1-3-9 तस्य लोपः

Note: ‘जन आम् + त’ gets the designation प्रातिपदिकम्‌ by 1-2-46 कृत्तद्धितसमासाश्च। This allows 2-4-71 सुपो धातुप्रातिपदिकयोः to apply in the next step.

(3) जनत । By 2-4-71 सुपो धातुप्रातिपदिकयोः – A सुँप् affix takes a लुक् elision when it is a part of a धातुः or a प्रातिपदिकम्।

Words ending in the तद्धित-affix ‘तल्’ are used in the language in the feminine gender. Hence we form the feminine प्रातिपदिकम् ‘जनता’ by adding the feminine affix टाप् as follows –

(4) जनत + टाप् । By 4-1-4 अजाद्यतष्टाप्‌ – The प्रातिपदिकानि ‘अज’ etc. and प्रातिपदिकानि ending in the letter ‘अ’ get the affix टाप् in the feminine gender.

(5) जनत + आ । अनुबन्ध-लोपः by 1-3-3 हलन्त्यम्, 1-3-7 चुटू, 1-3-9 तस्य लोपः

(6) जनता । By 6-1-101 अकः सवर्णे दीर्घः
Note: The प्रातिपदिकम् ‘जनता’ declines like रमा-शब्दः।

Similarly, we can derive the following forms –
१) ग्रामाणां समूहः = ग्रामता – a group of villages
२) बन्धूनां समूहः = बन्धुता – a group of relatives

राजकम् nAs

Today we will look at the form राजकम् nAs from शिशुपालवधम् 2.102.

मखविघ्नाय सकलमित्थमुत्थाप्य राजकम्‌ ।
हन्त जातमजातारेः प्रथमेन त्वयारिणा ॥ २-१०२ ॥

मल्लिनाथ-टीका
मखेति । इत्थमनेन प्रकारेण । ‘5-3-24 इदमस्थमुः’ इति थमुप्रत्ययः । मखविघ्नाय मखविघाताय सकलं राजकं राजसमूहम् । ‘4-2-39 गोत्रोक्ष–’ इत्यादिना वुञ् । उत्थाप्य क्षोभयित्वा । हन्त इति खेदे । अजातारेरजातशत्रोर्युधिष्ठिरस्य त्वया प्रथमेनारिणा जातमजनि । नपुंसके भावे क्तः ।

TranslationHaving thus agitated the entire group of kings for the destruction of the sacrifice, alas! you have become the first enemy of the one (Yudhiṣṭhira) who has no enemy.

राजकम् = राज्ञां समूहः – a group of kings

In the verse the विवक्षा is द्वितीया-एकवचनम्। Hence the form is राजकम्।

(1) राजन् आम् + वुञ् । By 4-2-39 गोत्रोक्षोष्ट्रोरभ्रराजराजन्यराजपुत्रवत्समनुष्याजाद्वुञ् – To denote a collection/group, the तद्धित: affix ‘वुञ्’ may be optionally applied following a syntactically related पदम् in which the सन्धिः operations have been performed, provided the पदम् ends in a sixth case affix and has a base that either denotes a गोत्रम् (family/lineage) or is the word ‘उक्षन्’, ‘उष्ट्र’, ‘उरभ्र’, ‘राजन्’, ‘राजन्य’, ‘राजपुत्र’, ‘वत्स’, ‘मनुष्य’ or ‘अज’।

Note: The affix ‘वुञ्’ prescribed by the सूत्रम् 4-2-39 is a अपवादः to the default affix ‘अण्’ prescribed by the सूत्रम् 4-2-37 तस्य समूहः।

(2) राजन् आम् + वु । अनुबन्ध-लोपः by 1-3-3 हलन्त्यम्, 1-3-9 तस्य लोपः ।

Note: The letter ‘ञ्’ as a इत् in the affix ‘वुञ्’ facilitates the application of the सूत्रम् 7-2-117 तद्धितेष्वचामादेः। But in the present example, since the first vowel (‘आ’) of the term ‘राजन्’ already has the designation वृद्धिः (ref: 1-1-1 वृद्धिरादैच्), 7-2-117 has no effect here.

(3) राजन् आम् + अक । By 7-1-1 युवोरनाकौ – The affixes ‘यु’ and ‘वु’ are substituted respectively by ‘अन’ and ‘अक’। As per 1-1-55 अनेकाल्शित्सर्वस्य the entire affix ‘वु’ is replaced by ‘अक’।

Note: ‘राजन् आम् + अक’ gets the designation प्रातिपदिकम्‌ by 1-2-46 कृत्तद्धितसमासाश्च। This allows 2-4-71 सुपो धातुप्रातिपदिकयोः to apply in the next step.

(4) राजन् + अक । By 2-4-71 सुपो धातुप्रातिपदिकयोः – A सुँप् affix takes a लुक् elision when it is a part of a धातुः or a प्रातिपदिकम्।

Note: The अङ्गम् ‘राजन्’ has the designation ‘भ’ here by 1-4-18 यचि भम्। This allows 6-4-144 to apply in the next step.

(5) राज् + अक = राजक । By 6-4-144 नस्तद्धिते – The ‘टि’ portion (ref. 1-1-64 अचोऽन्त्यादि टि) of a अङ्गम् (base) is elided provided the अङ्गम् –
i) has the designation ‘भ’ (ref. 1-4-18 यचि भम्)
ii) ends in the letter ‘न्’ and
iii) is followed by a तद्धित: affix
Note: The ‘अन्’ part of the अङ्गम् ‘राजन्’ has the designation ‘टि’ by the सूत्रम् 1-1-64 अचोऽन्त्यादि टि – That part of a group of sounds which begins with the last vowel of the group (and goes to the end of the group) gets the designation ‘टि’।

(6) राजक । Note: Words ending in तद्धिताः affixes denoting a collection are used in the language in the neuter gender. Hence the प्रातिपदिकम् ‘राजक’ declines like वन-शब्दः।

भैक्षम् nAs

Today we will look at the form भैक्षम् nAs from श्रीमद्वाल्मीकि-रामायणम् 2.43.4

अथास्मिन् नगरे रामश्चरन् भैक्षं गृहे वसेत् । कामकारो वरं दातुमपि दासं ममात्मजम् ∥ २-४३-४ ∥

Gita Press translation – Even if Rāma were allowed to remain at his home in Ayodhyā living on alms, it would be preferable (to me in comparison to his exile). (Nay), it would be better even to consign my son to her as a slave (4).

भिक्षाणां समूहः = भैक्षम् – alms (a collection of items got from begging)
In the verses the विवक्षा is द्वितीया-एकवचनम्। Hence the form is भैक्षम्।

(1) भिक्षा आम् + अण् । By 4-2-38 भिक्षादिभ्योऽण् – To denote a collection/group, the तद्धित: affix ‘अण्’ may be optionally applied following a syntactically related पदम् in which the सन्धिः operations have been performed, provided the पदम् ends in a genitive case affix and has ‘भिक्षा’ etc (listed in the भिक्षादि-गण:) as its base.

Note: First the सूत्रम् 4-2-37 तस्य समूहः prescribes the default affix ‘अण्’। But since ‘भिक्षा’ denotes an inanimate object, the default affix ‘अण्’ is over-ruled by the affix ‘ठक्’ prescribed by the सूत्रम् 4-2-47 अचित्तहस्तिधेनोष्ठक्। Finally the सूत्रम् 4-2-38 भिक्षादिभ्योऽण् re-prescribes the affix ‘अण्’।

Note: The form ‘भैक्ष’ may also be derived स्वार्थे (without a change in meaning) from the प्रातिपदिकम् ‘भिक्षा’ by applying the affix ‘अण्’ as per the सूत्रम् 5-4-38 प्रज्ञादिभ्यश्च। Even though ‘भिक्षा’ is not listed in the प्रज्ञादि-गणः, the सूत्रम् 5-4-38 may still be applied here, since the प्रज्ञादि-गणः is considered to be a आकृति-गणः।

(2) भिक्षा आम् + अ । अनुबन्ध-लोपः by 1-3-3 हलन्त्यम्, 1-3-9 तस्य लोपः ।

Note: ‘भिक्षा आम् + अ’ gets the designation प्रातिपदिकम्‌ by 1-2-46 कृत्तद्धितसमासाश्च। This allows 2-4-71 सुपो धातुप्रातिपदिकयोः to apply in the next step.

(3) भिक्षा + अ । By 2-4-71 सुपो धातुप्रातिपदिकयोः – A सुँप् affix takes a लुक् elision when it is a part of a धातुः or a प्रातिपदिकम्।

Note: The affix ‘अण्’ is a णित् (has the letter ‘ण्’ as इत्). This allows 7-2-117 तद्धितेष्वचामादेः to apply in the next step to perform the वृद्धिः substitution in place of the letter ’इ’, which is the first vowel of the अङ्गम् ‘भिक्षा’।

(4) भैक्षा + अ । By 7-2-117 तद्धितेष्वचामादेः – The first vowel among the vowels of a अङ्गम् which is followed by a तद्धित: affix (ref. 4-1-76 तद्धिताः) which is either a ञित् (has the letter ‘ञ्’ as a इत्) or a णित् (has the letter ‘ण्’ as a इत्) takes the वृद्धि: (ref. 1-1-1 वृद्धिरादैच्) substitute.

Note: The अङ्गम् ‘भैक्षा’ gets the भ-सञ्ज्ञा by 1-4-18 यचि भम् which allows 6-4-148 यस्येति च to apply in the next step.

(5) भैक्ष् + अ । By 6-4-148 यस्येति च – When the letter ‘ई’ or a ‘तद्धित’ affix follows, the (ending) इ-वर्ण: (letter ‘इ’ or ‘ई’) or the (ending) अवर्ण: (letter ‘अ’ or ‘आ’) of the अङ्गम् with the भ-सञ्ज्ञा takes elision (लोपः)।

= भैक्ष । Note: Words ending in तद्धिताः affixes denoting a collection are used in the language in the neuter gender. Hence the प्रातिपदिकम् ‘भैक्ष’ declines like वन-शब्दः।

धैनुकपालने nLs

Today we will look at the form धैनुकपालने nLs from नारायणीयम् 53.5.

समुद्यतो धैनुकपालनेऽहं वधं कथं धैनुकमद्य कुर्वे ।
इतीव मत्वा ध्रुवमग्रजेन सुरौघयोद्धारमजीघतस्त्वम् ∥ ५३-५ ∥

टीका
त्वम् अग्रजेन तं सुरौघयोद्धारम् अजीघतःत्वं श्रीकृष्णः प्रयोजकः । अग्रजेन ज्येष्ठेन बलभद्रेण प्रयोजनेन । तम् आपतन्तम् । सुरौघयोद्धारं धेनुकाख्यमसुरम् । अत्र सुरौघयोद्धारमित्युक्त्या देवानामपि दुर्जयत्वं तस्य ध्वन्यते । अजीघतः घातितवानसि । बलभद्रेण धेनुकासुरघातने हेतुमुत्प्रेक्षते – इति मत्वा इति । इति एवम् । मत्वा निश्चित्य । इवेति संभावनायाम् । मननप्रकारमाह – अहम् अद्य धैनुकं वधं कथं कुर्वे ध्रुवमिति । अद्य अधुना । धैनुकं धेनुकासुरसम्बन्धिनम् । वधं निग्रहम् । कथं कुर्वे न करोमीत्यर्थः । ध्रुवं निश्चितम् । ननु का क्षतिः धेनुकवधे इत्याशङ्कायामाह – धैनुकपालने समुद्यत इति । धैनुकपालने धैनुकस्य धेनुसमूहस्य पालने रक्षणे । समुद्यतः सम्यगुद्यतः उद्युक्तः । धैनुकपालनोद्युक्तस्य सतो धैनुकवधस्यायुक्तत्वादिति भावः । अत्र धेनुसमूहधेनुकासुरसम्बधिनोः श्लेषभित्तिकाभेदाध्यवसायः ।

Translation – “How can I can perform the killing of Dhenuka now, engaged as I am in the protection of the herd of cows.” As though having thought thus, you certainly had that demon Dhenuka, who battled with hordes of Gods, killed by your elder brother.

Note: There is a pun on the word ‘धैनुक’, which means ‘a herd of cows’, as well as ‘of Dhenuka (the demon)’.

The प्रातिपदिकम् ‘धैनुक’ used in the form धैनुकपालने is derived as follows –
धेनूनां समूहः = धैनुकम् – a herd of cows

(1) धेनु आम् + ठक् । By 4-2-47 अचित्तहस्तिधेनोष्ठक् – To denote a collection/group, the तद्धित: affix ‘ठक्’ may be optionally applied following a syntactically related पदम् in which the सन्धिः operations have been performed, provided the पदम् ends in a genitive case affix and has as its base a term denoting an inanimate object, or the term ‘हस्तिन्’ or धेनु

(2) धेनु आम् + ठ् । अनुबन्ध-लोपः by 1-3-3 हलन्त्यम्, 1-3-9 तस्य लोपः। The letter ‘अ’ in the affix ‘ठक्’ is is only for the sake of pronunciation (उच्चारणार्थ:)।
Note: The fact that 7-3-50 ठस्येकः and 7-3-51 इसुसुक्तान्तात्कः (used in step 4) specifically prescribe the substitutions ‘इक’ and ‘क’ respectively in place of the letter ‘ठ्’ occurring in the beginning of an affix, obviously implies that this letter ‘ठ्’ does not get the इत्-सञ्ज्ञा by 1-3-7 चुटू‌। Because, otherwise the letter ‘ठ्’ would be elided by 1-3-9 तस्य लोपः।

Note: ‘धेनु आम् + ठ्’ gets the designation प्रातिपदिकम्‌ by 1-2-46 कृत्तद्धितसमासाश्च। This allows 2-4-71 सुपो धातुप्रातिपदिकयोः to apply in the next step.

(3) धेनु + ठ् । By 2-4-71 सुपो धातुप्रातिपदिकयोः – A सुँप् affix takes a लुक् elision when it is a part of a धातुः or a प्रातिपदिकम्।

(4) धेनु + क । By 7-3-51 इसुसुक्तान्तात्कः – ‘क’ is substituted in place of the letter ‘ठ्’, when it follows a अङ्गम् ending in ‘इस्’ or ‘उस्’ or a letter of the उक्-प्रत्याहारः or the letter ‘त्’।

Note: The affix ‘ठक्’ is a कित् (has the letter ‘क्’ as इत्)। This allows 7-2-118 किति च to apply in the next step.

(5) धैनु + क । By 7-2-118 किति च – The first vowel among the vowels of a अङ्गम् which is followed by a तद्धित: affix (ref. 4-1-76 तद्धिताः) which is a कित् (has the letter ‘क्’ as a इत्) takes the वृद्धि: (ref. 1-1-1 वृद्धिरादैच्) substitute.

= धैनुक । Note: Words ending in तद्धिताः affixes denoting a collection are used in the language in the neuter gender. Hence the प्रातिपदिकम् ‘धैनुक’ declines like वन-शब्दः।

Note: ‘धैनुकपालन’ is a षष्ठी-तत्पुरुष-समासः explained as –
धैनुकस्य पालनम् = धैनुकपालनम् – protection of a herd of cows.

अलौकिक-विग्रह: –
(6) धैनुक ङस् + पालन सुँ । By 2-2-8 षष्ठी – A पदम् ending in a sixth case affix optionally compounds with a (syntactically related) पदम् ending in a सुँप् affix and the resulting compound gets the designation तत्पुरुष:।

By 1-2-43 प्रथमानिर्दिष्टं समास उपसर्जनम् – the term ‘धैनुक ङस्’ gets the designation उपसर्जनम् because in the सूत्रम् 2-2-8 (which prescribes the compounding) the term षष्ठी ends in the nominative case. Hence ‘धैनुक ङस्’ is placed in the prior position in the compound as per the सूत्रम् 2-2-30 उपसर्जनं पूर्वम्‌ – In a compound a term which has the designation ‘उपसर्जन’ should be placed in the prior position.

Note: ‘धैनुक ङस् + पालन सुँ’ gets the designation प्रातिपदिकम्‌ by 1-2-46 कृत्तद्धितसमासाश्च। This allows 2-4-71 सुपो धातुप्रातिपदिकयोः to apply in the next step.

(7) धैनुक + पालन । By 2-4-71 सुपो धातुप्रातिपदिकयोः – A सुँप् affix takes a लुक् elision when it is a part of a धातुः or a प्रातिपदिकम्।

= धैनुकपालन ।

As per the सूत्रम् 2-4-26 परवल्लिङ्गं द्वन्द्वतत्पुरुषयोः, the compound प्रातिपदिकम् ‘धैनुकपालन’ is neuter since the latter member ‘पालन’ of the compound is neuter. The compound declines like वन-शब्द:। सप्तमी-एकवचनम् is धैनुकपालने।

हास्तिकानि

Today we will look at the form हास्तिकानि nNp from शिशुपालवधम् 5.30.

आलोलपुष्करमुखोल्लसितैरभीक्ष्णमुक्षाम्बभूवुरभितो वपुरम्बुवर्षैः ।
खेदायतश्वसितवेगनिरस्तमुग्धमूर्धन्यरत्ननिकरैरिव हास्तिकानि ∥ ५-३० ∥

मल्लिनाथ-टीका
आलोलेति । हस्तिनां समूहा हास्तिकानि । ‘अचित्तहस्तिधेनोष्ठक्’ । आलोलानि यानि पुष्कराणि हस्ताग्राणि । ‘पुष्करं करिहस्ताग्रे’ इत्यमरः । तेषां मुखै रन्ध्रैरुल्लसितान्युत्क्षिप्तानि तैरम्बुवर्षैः खेदेनाध्वश्रमेणायतेन द्राघीयसा श्वसितस्योच्छ्वासमारुतस्य वेगेन निरस्ता बहिरुत्क्षिप्ता ये मुग्धाः सुन्दरा मूर्धन्या मूर्धनि भवाः । ‘शरीरावयवयाच्च’ इति यत्प्रत्ययः । ‘ये चाभावकर्मणोः’ इति प्रकृतिभावात् ‘नस्तद्धिते’ इति टिलोपाभावः । रत्ननिकरा मुक्ताफलप्रकरास्तैरिवेत्युत्प्रेक्षा । वपुरभीक्ष्णमुक्षांबभूवुः सिषिचुः। ‘उक्ष सेचने’ ‘इजादेश्च गुरुमतोऽनृच्छः’ इत्याम्प्रत्ययः । ‘गजेन्द्रजीमूतवराहशङ्खमत्स्याहिशुक्त्युद्भववेणुजानि । मुक्ताफलानि प्रथितानि लोके तेषां तु शुक्त्युद्भवमेव भूरि ∥’ इति गजानां मुक्ताकरत्वे प्रमाणम् ∥ ३० ∥

Translation – The herds of elephants repeatedly sprinkled (their) body with showers of water that were tossed up by the snouts at the tips of (their) swinging trunks, as though with heaps of beautiful pearls on their foreheads that were thrown out by the force of long drawn exhalation resulting from exhaustion.

हस्तिनां समूहः = हास्तिकम् – a herd of elephants
In the verses the विवक्षा is प्रथमा-बहुवचनम्। Hence the form is हास्तिकानि।

(1) हस्तिन् आम् + ठक् । By 4-2-47 अचित्तहस्तिधेनोष्ठक् – To denote a collection/group, the तद्धित: affix ‘ठक्’ may be optionally applied following a syntactically related पदम् in which the सन्धिः operations have been performed, provided the पदम् ends in a genitive case affix and has as its base a term denoting an inanimate object, or the term हस्तिन् or ‘धेनु’।

(2) हस्तिन् आम् + ठ् । अनुबन्ध-लोपः by 1-3-3 हलन्त्यम्, 1-3-9 तस्य लोपः । The letter ‘अ’ in the affix ‘ठक्’ is is only for the sake of pronunciation (उच्चारणार्थ:)।
Note: The fact that the सूत्रम् 7-3-50 ठस्येकः (used in step 4) specifically prescribes the substitution ‘इक’ in place of the letter ‘ठ्’ occurring in the beginning of an affix, obviously implies that this letter ‘ठ्’ does not get the इत्-सञ्ज्ञा by 1-3-7 चुटू‌। Because, otherwise the letter ‘ठ्’ would be elided by 1-3-9 तस्य लोपः।
Note: ‘हस्तिन् आम् + ठ्’ gets the designation प्रातिपदिकम्‌ by 1-2-46 कृत्तद्धितसमासाश्च। This allows 2-4-71 सुपो धातुप्रातिपदिकयोः to apply in the next step.

(3) हस्तिन् + ठ् । By 2-4-71 सुपो धातुप्रातिपदिकयोः – A सुँप् affix takes a लुक् elision when it is a part of a धातुः or a प्रातिपदिकम्।

(4) हस्तिन् + इक । By 7-3-50 ठस्येकः – ‘इक’ is substituted in place of the letter ‘ठ्’, when it follows a अङ्गम्।

Note: The affix ‘ठक्’ is a कित् (has the letter ‘क्’ as इत्)। This allows 7-2-118 किति च to apply in the next step.

(5) हास्तिन् + इक । By 7-2-118 किति च – The first vowel among the vowels of a अङ्गम् which is followed by a तद्धित: affix (ref. 4-1-76 तद्धिताः) which is either a कित् (has the letter ‘क्’ as a इत्) or a णित् (has the letter ‘ण्’ as a इत्) takes the वृद्धि: (ref. 1-1-1 वृद्धिरादैच्) substitute.

Note: The अङ्गम् ‘हास्तिन्’ gets the भ-सञ्ज्ञा by 1-4-18 यचि भम् which allows 6-4-144 नस्तद्धिते to apply in the next step.

(6) हास्त् + इक । By 6-4-144 नस्तद्धिते – The ‘टि’ portion (ref. 1-1-64 अचोऽन्त्यादि टि) of a अङ्गम् (base) is elided provided the अङ्गम् –
i) has the designation ‘भ’ (ref. 1-4-18 यचि भम्)
ii) ends in the letter ‘न्’ and
iii) is followed by a तद्धित: affix
Note: The ‘इन्’ part of the अङ्गम् ‘हास्तिन्’ has the designation ‘टि’ by the सूत्रम् 1-1-64 अचोऽन्त्यादि टि – That part of a group of sounds which begins with the last vowel of the group (and goes to the end of the group) gets the designation ‘टि’।

= हास्तिक । Note: Words ending in तद्धिताः affixes denoting a collection are used in the language in the neuter gender. Hence the प्रातिपदिकम् ‘हास्तिक’ declines like वन-शब्दः।

आपगाः fNp

Today we will look at the form आपगाः fNp from श्रीमद्भागवतम् Sb10.47.33.

एतदन्तः समाम्नायो योगः साङ्ख्यं मनीषिणाम् ।
त्यागस्तपो दमः सत्यं समुद्रान्ता इवापगाः ∥ १०-४७-३३ ∥

श्रीधर-स्वामि-टीका
तावता च कृतार्थो भवतीत्याह – एतदन्त इति । एष मनोनिरोधः अन्तः समाप्तिः फलं यस्य सः । समाम्नायो वेदः। स तत्र पर्यवस्यतीत्यर्थः । योगोऽष्टाङ्गः । सांख्यमात्मानात्मविवेकः। त्यागः संन्यासः। तपः स्वधर्मः। दम इन्द्रियदमनम्। मार्गभेदेऽप्येकत्र पर्यवसाने दृष्टान्तः – समुद्रान्ता आपगा नद्य इवेति ∥ ३३ ∥

Gita Press translation – “In the eyes of the wise, (the teachings of) the Vedas, the (eightfold) path of Yoga, the Sāṅkhya system of philosophy (which differentiates Matter from the Spirit), renunciation, suffering hardships for the sake of one’s faith, subjugation of one’s senses and truthfulness have their goal in mind-control even as rivers terminate in the ocean (33).

The प्रातिपदिकम् ‘आप’ used in the compound आपगाः is derived as follows –
अपां समूहः = आपम् – a collection of waters

(1) अप् आम् + अण् । By 4-2-37 तस्य समूहः – To denote a collection/group, the तद्धित: affix ‘अण्’ (prescribed by 4-1-83 प्राग्दीव्यतोऽण्) may be optionally applied following a syntactically related पदम् in which the सन्धिः operations have been performed, provided the पदम् ends in a genitive case affix and has a base denoting that of which the collection is intended.
Note: As per the सूत्रम् 4-2-47 अचित्तहस्तिधेनोष्ठक् – To denote a collection, the तद्धित: affix ‘ठक्’ may be optionally applied following a syntactically related पदम् in which the सन्धिः operations have been performed, provided the पदम् ends in a genitive case affix and has as its base a term denoting an inanimate object, or the term ‘हस्तिन्’ or ‘धेनु’।
Hence if waters were considered inanimate, as per the सूत्रम् 4-2-47, the affix ‘ठक्’ would have applied in the present example. By the fact that the affix ‘अण्’ (and not the affix ‘ठक्’) has been used to form the प्रातिपदिकम् ‘आप’, we can infer that waters are not considered inanimate.

(2) अप् आम् + अ । अनुबन्ध-लोपः by 1-3-3 हलन्त्यम्, 1-3-9 तस्य लोपः

Note: ‘अप् आम् + अ’ gets the designation प्रातिपदिकम्‌ by 1-2-46 कृत्तद्धितसमासाश्च। This allows 2-4-71 सुपो धातुप्रातिपदिकयोः to apply in the next step.

(3) अप् + अ । By 2-4-71 सुपो धातुप्रातिपदिकयोः – A सुँप् affix takes a लुक् elision when it is a part of a धातुः or a प्रातिपदिकम्।

Note: The affix ‘अण्’ is a णित् (has the letter ‘ण्’ as इत्)। This allows 7-2-117 तद्धितेष्वचामादेः to apply in the next step.

(4) आप् + अ । By 7-2-117 तद्धितेष्वचामादेः – The first vowel among the vowels of a अङ्गम् which is followed by a तद्धित: affix (ref. 4-1-76 तद्धिताः) which is either a ञित् (has the letter ‘ञ्’ as a इत्) or a णित् (has the letter ‘ण्’ as a इत्) takes the वृद्धि: (ref. 1-1-1 वृद्धिरादैच्) substitute.

= आप ।

We can similarly derive the following –
१) काकानां समूहः = काकम् – a flock of crows
२) वकानां समूहः = वाकम् – a fight of cranes
३) वृकाणां समूहः = वार्कम् – a pack of wolves

The प्रातिपदिकम् ‘आपगा’ is a उपपद-समासः, derived as follows –
आपेन गच्छतीति = आपगा (नदी) – (a river) which goes (flows) with a collection of waters

(5) आप + टा + गम् + ड । By the वार्तिकम् (under 3-2-48 अन्तात्यन्ताध्वदूरपारसर्वानन्तेषु डः) अन्यत्रापि दृश्यत इति वक्तव्यम् – The affix ‘ड’ may be used after the verbal root √गम् (गमॢँ गतौ १. ११३७) when in composition with a उपपदम् which could be other than those specifically listed in 3-2-48 अन्तात्यन्ताध्वदूरपारसर्वानन्तेषु डः।
Note: In the above वार्तिकम्, the term अन्यत्र is in the seventh (locative) case. Hence ‘आप + टा’ gets the उपपद-सञ्ज्ञा here by 3-1-92 तत्रोपपदं सप्तमीस्थम्‌।

(6) आप + टा + गम् + अ । अनुबन्ध-लोप: by 1-3-7 चुटू and 1-3-9 तस्य लोपः

(7) आप + टा + ग् + अ । By 6-4-143 टेः – When the अङ्गम् has the भ-सञ्ज्ञा, then its टि portion takes लोप: when followed by an affix that has the letter ‘ड्’ as an indicatory letter. Note: The अङ्गम् does not have the भ-सञ्ज्ञा here. But still टि-लोप: is done because otherwise no purpose would be served by having the letter ‘ड्’ as a इत् in the affix ‘ड’। डित्वसामर्थ्यादभस्यापि टेर्लोपः।

= आप + टा + ग ।

We form a compound between ‘आप + टा’ (which is the उपपदम्) and ‘ग’ by using the सूत्रम् 2-2-19 उपपदमतिङ् – A सुबन्तम् (term ending in a सुँप् affix) having the designation ‘उपपद’ (in this case ‘आप टा’) invariably compounds with a syntactically related term (in this case ‘ग’) as long as the compound does not end in a तिङ् affix.

In the compound, ‘आप + टा’ is placed in the prior position as per 2-2-30 उपसर्जनं पूर्वम्‌ – In a compound a term which has the designation ‘उपसर्जन’ should be placed in the prior position. Note: Here ‘आप + टा’ is the उपपदम् and hence it gets the उपसर्जन-सञ्ज्ञा by 1-2-43 प्रथमानिर्दिष्टं समास उपसर्जनम् – A term denoted by a word (in this case ‘उपपदम्’) ending in a nominative case in a सूत्रम् (in this case 2-2-19 उपपदमतिङ्) which prescribes a compound gets the designation ‘उपसर्जन’।

‘आप + टा + ग’ gets प्रातिपदिक-सञ्ज्ञा by 1-2-46 कृत्तद्धितसमासाश्च। This allows 2-4-71 सुपो धातुप्रातिपदिकयोः to apply in the next step.

(8) आप + ग । By 2-4-71 सुपो धातुप्रातिपदिकयोः – A सुँप् affix takes a लुक् elision when it is a part of a धातुः or a प्रातिपदिकम्।

= आपग ।

The प्रातिपदिकम् ‘आपग’ is an adjective. In the present example, it refers to the feminine noun ‘नदी’। Hence we form the feminine प्रातिपदिकम् ‘आपगा’ by adding the feminine affix टाप् as follows –

(9) आपग + टाप् । By 4-1-4 अजाद्यतष्टाप्‌ – The प्रातिपदिकानि ‘अज’ etc. and प्रातिपदिकानि ending in the letter ‘अ’ get the टाप् affix in the feminine gender.

(10) आपग + आ । अनुबन्ध-लोपः by 1-3-3 हलन्त्यम्, 1-3-7 चुटू, 1-3-9 तस्य लोपः

(11) आपगा । By 6-1-101 अकः सवर्णे दीर्घः

The विवक्षा is प्रथमा-बहुवचनम्। Hence the form is आपगाः।

पितामही fNs

Today we will look at the form पितामही fNs from श्रीमद्भागवतम् Sb9.24.55.

अष्टमस्तु तयोरासीत्स्वयमेव हरिः किल ।
सुभद्रा च महाभागा तव राजन्पितामही ∥ ९-२४-५५ ∥

श्रीधर-स्वामि-टीका
अष्टमस्तु स्वयमेवासीन्नतु कर्मादिना हेतुना ताभ्यां जनितो वा, यतोऽसौ हरिः ∥ ५५ ∥

Gita Press translation- While the eighth son of (the blessed) Vasudeva and Devakī indeed was Lord Śrī Hari Himself. And the highly blessed Subhadrā, your grandmother was their daughter, O king! (55)”

पितुर्माता = पितामही – grandmother (father’s mother)

First, we derive the masculine form ‘पितामह’ as follows –

(1) पितृ ङस् + डामहच् । By 4-2-36 पितृव्यमातुलमातामहपितामहाः – The forms ‘पितृव्य’, ‘मातुल’, ‘मातामह’ and ‘पितामह’ are given as ready-made forms. They are used in the meaning of ‘father’s brother’, ‘mother’s brother’, ‘mother’s father’ and ‘father’s father’ respectively.
Note: As per the वार्तिकम् ‘मातृपितृभ्यां पितरि डामहच्’ – The affix ‘डामहच्’ is to be applied to get the final forms ‘पितामह’ and ‘मातामह’ (listed in the सूत्रम् 4-2-36) – which denote father’s father and mother’s father respectively.

(2) पितृ ङस् + आमह । अनुबन्ध-लोपः by 1-3-3 हलन्त्यम्, 1-3-7 चुटू, 1-3-9 तस्य लोपः

Note: ‘पितृ ङस् + आमह’ gets the designation प्रातिपदिकम्‌ by 1-2-46 कृत्तद्धितसमासाश्च। This allows 2-4-71 सुपो धातुप्रातिपदिकयोः to apply in the next step.

(3) पितृ + आमह । By 2-4-71 सुपो धातुप्रातिपदिकयोः – A सुँप् affix takes a लुक् elision when it is a part of a धातुः or a प्रातिपदिकम्।

Note: The affix ‘डामहच्’ is a डित् (has the letter ‘ड्’ as a इत्) and the अङ्गम् ‘पितृ’ gets the भ-सञ्ज्ञा by 1-4-18 यचि भम्। This allows 6-4-143 टेः to apply in the next step.

(4) पित् + आमह । By 6-4-143 टेः – When the अङ्गम् has the भ-सञ्ज्ञा, then its टि-portion (ref: 1-1-64 अचोऽन्त्यादि टि) takes लोप: when followed by an affix that has the letter ‘ड्’ as an indicatory letter.

= पितामह ।

Now we apply the appropriate feminine affix.

(5) पितामह + ङीष् । By 4-1-41 षिद्गौरादिभ्यश्च – In the feminine gender the affix ‘ङीष्’ is prescribed following a प्रातिपदिकम् which either (i) contains the letter ‘ष्’ as a ‘इत्’ or (ii) belongs to the class of words beginning with ‘गौर’।
Note: The affix ‘डामहच्’ is considered to be a षित् (having the letter ‘ष्’ as a इत्) as per the वार्तिकम् (under 4-2-36 पितृव्यमातुलमातामहपितामहाः) ‘मातरि षिच्च’ – When used in the sense of a mother, the affix ‘डामहच्’ (implied by the ready-made forms ‘मातामह’ and ‘पितामह’ listed in the सूत्रम् 4-2-36) is considered to be a षित् (having the letter ‘ष्’ as a इत्)। This enables 4-1-41 षिद्गौरादिभ्यश्च to apply.
Note: Some grammarians consider the forms ‘मातामह’ and ‘पितामह’ as belonging to the गौरादि-गणः, which enables the application of the सूत्रम् 4-1-41 षिद्गौरादिभ्यश्च। Hence according to them the वार्तिकम् ‘मातरि षिच्च’ is not necessary.

(6) पितामह + ई । अनुबन्ध-लोपः by 1-3-3 हलन्त्यम्, 1-3-8 लशक्वतद्धिते , 1-3-9 तस्य लोपः

Note: The अङ्गम् ‘पितामह’ has the भ-सञ्ज्ञा here as per the सूत्रम् 1-4-18 यचि भम्। This allows the सूत्रम् 6-4-148 यस्येति च to apply in the next step.

(7) पितामह् + ई । By 6-4-148 यस्येति च – When the letter ‘ई’ or a ‘तद्धित’ affix follows, the (ending) इ-वर्ण: (letter ‘इ’ or ‘ई’) or the (ending) अवर्ण: (letter ‘अ’ or ‘आ’) of the अङ्गम् with the भ-सञ्ज्ञा takes elision (लोपः)।

= पितामही । The प्रातिपदिकम् ‘पितामही’ declines like नदी-शब्द:।

Similarly, we can derive the form –
१) मातुर्माता = मातामही – grandmother (mother’s mother)

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