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शुश्रुम 1Ap-लिँट्

Today we will look at the form शुश्रुम 1Ap-लिँट् from श्रीमद्भागवतम् 6.1.40

यमदूता ऊचुः
वेदप्रणिहितो धर्मो ह्यधर्मस्तद्विपर्ययः ।
वेदो नारायणः साक्षात्स्वयम्भूरिति शुश्रुम ।। ६-१-४० ।।

श्रीधर-स्वामि-टीका
वेदेन प्रणिहितो विहितो धर्मः, वेदप्रमाणक इत्यर्थः । अनेन यो वेदप्रमाणकः स धर्मो यो धर्मः स वेदप्रमाणक इति स्वरूपं प्रमाणं चोक्तम् । यथाह जैमिनिः ‘चोदनालक्षणोऽर्थो धर्मः’ इति । व्याख्यातं च भट्टैः ‘द्वयमेकेन सूत्रेण श्रुत्यर्थाभ्यां निरूप्यते’ इति । अपृष्टस्याप्यधर्मस्य स्वरूपं लक्षणं च दण्डस्थानकथनायाहुः । तद्विपर्ययो यो वेदनिषिद्धः सोऽधर्मः । निषेधश्च तस्मिन्प्रमाणमित्यर्थः । वेदस्य प्रामाण्ये हेतुः – वेदो नारायणादुद्भूतः स एव साक्षादित्युपचारः । स्वयंभूरिति च निःश्वासमात्रेण स्वयमेव भवतीति । तथाच श्रुतिः – ‘अस्य महतो भूतस्य निःश्वसितमेतद्यदृग्वेदः’ इति ।

Gita Press translation – The messengers of Yama replied : “Dharma (righteousness) is (that which is) enjoined by the Veda and the reverse of it (that which is forbidden by the Veda) is Adharma (unrighteousness). And we have heard (from Yama and others) that the Veda is Bhagavān Nārāyaṇa Himself (from whom it has emanated) and self-born (in the sense that it flows from His nostrils by way of respiration without any conscious effort on His part).”

शुश्रुम is derived from the धातुः √श्रु (भ्वादि-गणः, श्रु श्रवणे, धातु-पाठः #१. १०९२)

In the धातु-पाठः, “श्रु” has no इत् letters. It is devoid of any indications for bringing in आत्मनेपद-प्रत्यया:। Therefore, as per 1-3-78 शेषात् कर्तरि परस्मैपदम्, in कर्तरि प्रयोग: √श्रु takes परस्मैपद-प्रत्यया: by default. As per 1-4-99 लः परस्मैपदम्, 1-4-100 तङानावात्मनेपदम्, the nine प्रत्यया: from “तिप्” to “मस्” get the परस्मैपद-सञ्ज्ञा। So √श्रु takes only one of these nine प्रत्यया: in कर्तरि प्रयोग:।

The विवक्षा is लिँट्, कर्तरि प्रयोग:, उत्तम-पुरुषः, बहुवचनम्, hence the प्रत्ययः is “मस्”।

(1) श्रु + लिँट् । By 3-2-115 परोक्षे लिँट्, the affix लिँट् (Perfect Tense) comes after a verbal root in the sense of the past not of today, provided that the action is unperceived by the narrator.

(2) श्रु + ल् । अनुबन्ध-लोपः by 1-3-2 उपदेशेऽजनुनासिक इत्, 1-3-3 हलन्त्यम्, 1-3-9 तस्य लोपः

(3) श्रु + मस् । 3-4-78 तिप्तस्झिसिप्थस्थमिब्वस्मस्तातांझथासाथांध्वमिड्वहिमहिङ् mandates the प्रत्ययः “मस्” as the substitute for the लकारः। By 3-4-115 लिट् च, a तिङ्-प्रत्यय: which comes in place of लिँट् gets the आर्धधातुक-सञ्ज्ञा। Therefore “मस्” gets the आर्धधातुक-सञ्ज्ञा।

See question 2.

(4) श्रु + म । By 3-4-82 परस्मैपदानां णलतुसुस्थलथुसणल्वमाः, when they come in place of लिँट्, the nine परस्मैपद-प्रत्यया: – “तिप्”, “तस्”, “झि”, “सिप्”, “थस्”, “थ”, “मिप्”, “वस्” and “मस्” – are substituted by “णल्”, “अतुस्”, “उस्”, “थल्”, “अथुस्”, “अ”, “णल्”, “व” and “म” respectively.

Note: “म” is a कित्-प्रत्यय: here as per 1-2-5 असंयोगाल्लिट् कित् – A लिँट् affix which is not a पित् – does not have पकार: as a इत् – shall be considered to be a कित् (as having ककार: as a इत्), as long as there is no संयोग: (conjunction consonant) prior to the affix. Hence 1-1-5 ग्क्ङिति च prevents 7-3-84 सार्वधातुकार्धधातुकयोः from applying.

See question 3.

(5) श्रु श्रु + म । By 6-1-8 लिटि धातोरनभ्यासस्य, when लिँट् follows a verbal root, there is reduplication of the first portion – containing a single vowel – of the verbal root which is not already reduplicated. But if the verbal root (that has more than one vowel) begins with a vowel, then the reduplication is of the second portion – containing a single vowel.

(6) शुश्रुम । By 7-4-60 हलादिः शेषः, of the consonants of a reduplicate (अभ्यासः – ref. 6-1-4 पूर्वोऽभ्यासः), only the one (if any) at the beginning is retained, the rest are elided.

Questions:

1. Where is शुश्रुम used in the गीता?

2. Why doesn’t 3-1-74 श्रुवः शृ च apply in this example? (Which condition is not satisfied?)

3. Why doesn’t the प्रत्यय: “म” take a “इट्”-आगम: (as per 7-2-35 आर्धधातुकस्येड् वलादेः) in this example?

4. Where has 6-4-51 णेरनिटि been used in the commentary?

5. Which सूत्रम् is used for the सम्प्रसारणम् in the form ऊचुः?

6. How would you say this in Sanskrit?
“Sri Rama heard many wonderful stories explained by the sage Vishwamitra.” Use the adjective प्रातिपदिकम् “बहु” (feminine “बह्वी”) for “many”, “अद्भुत” for “wonderful” and “वर्णित” for “explained.”

Easy questions:

1. Which सूत्रम् is used for the “इन”-आदेश: in the form वेदेन used in the commentary?

2. Which लकार: is used in the form भवति used in the commentary?

निष्पीडयामास 3As-लिँट्

Today we will look at the form निष्पीडयामास 3As-लिँट् from श्रीमद्भागवतम् 10.36.13

तमापतन्तं स निगृह्य शृङ्गयोः पदा समाक्रम्य निपात्य भूतले ।
निष्पीडयामास यथार्द्रमम्बरं कृत्वा विषाणेन जघान सोऽपतत् ।। १०-३६-१३ ।।

श्रीधर-स्वामि-टीका
कृत्वा विषाणमुत्पाट्य तेनैव जघान स चापतत् ।।

Gita Press translation “Seizing tightly the demon by the horns, even as he came rushing, and throwing him to the ground, the Lord set His foot on him and (pressing him at one end with His feet) wrung him even as a drenched cloth; and (then) pulling his horn struck him with it till he fell prostrate.”

पीडयामास is derived from the धातुः √पीड् (चुरादि-गणः, पीडँ अवगाहने, धातु-पाठः #१०. १७)

The विवक्षा is लिँट्, कर्तरि प्रयोग:, प्रथम-पुरुषः, एकवचनम्

पीड् + णिच् । 3-1-25 सत्यापपाशरूपवीणातूलश्लोकसेनालोमत्वचवर्मवर्णचूर्णचुरादिभ्यो णिच्, the affix “णिच्” is used after these words – “सत्य” ‘truth’ (which then takes the form of “सत्याप्” as exhibited in the सूत्रम्), “पाश” ‘fetter’, “रूप” ‘form’, “वीणा” ‘lute’, “तूल” ‘cotton’, “श्लोक” ‘celebration’, “सेना” ‘army’, “लोमन्” ‘hair of the body’, “त्वच” ‘skin’, “वर्मन्” ‘mail’, “वर्ण” ‘color’, “चूर्ण” ‘powder’ and the verbal roots belonging to the चुरादि-गणः
= पीड् + इ । अनुबन्ध-लोपः by 1-3-3 हलन्त्यम्, 1-3-7 चुटू, 1-3-9 तस्य लोपः
= पीडि । “पीडि” gets the धातु-सञ्ज्ञा by 3-1-32 सनाद्यन्ता धातवः

(1) पीडि + लिँट् । By 3-2-115 परोक्षे लिँट्, the affix लिँट् (Perfect Tense) comes after a verbal root in the sense of the past not of today, provided that the action is unperceived by the narrator.

(2) पीडि + आम् + लिँट् । By वार्त्तिकम् (under 3-1-35) कास्यनेकाच आम् वक्तव्यो लिँटि, when लिँट् follows, the affix आम् is prescribed after the धातु: √कास् (कासृँ शब्दकुत्सायाम् १. ७१०) as also after any धातु: that is अनेकाच् (has more than one vowel.)

(3) पीडय् + आम् + लिँट् । By 6-4-55 अयामन्ताल्वाय्येत्न्विष्णुषु, the affix “णि” is substituted by “अय्” when followed by any one of the following affixes – “आम्”, “अन्त”, “आलु”, “आय्य”, “इत्नु” or “इष्णु”।

(4) पीडयाम् । By 2-4-81 आमः, an affix which follows the affix “आम्” takes the लुक् elision. Now “पीडयाम्” gets the प्रातिपदिक-सञ्ज्ञा by 1-2-46 कृत्तद्धितसमासाश्च with the help of 1-1-62 प्रत्ययलोपे प्रत्ययलक्षणम्
Note: लिँट् has the कृत्-सञ्ज्ञा by 3-1-93 कृदतिङ्

(5) पीडयाम् + सुँ । By 4-1-2 स्वौजसमौट्छष्टा…..

(6) पीडयाम् । By 2-4-81 आमः, an affix which follows the affix “आम्” takes the लुक् elision.

(7) पीडयाम् + अस् + लिँट् । By 3-1-40 कृञ् चानुप्रयुज्यते लिटि, following a term ending in the affix “आम्”, one of the following is annexed:
i. √कृ (डुकृञ् करणे ८. १०) followed by लिँट्
ii. √भू (भू सत्तायाम् १. १) followed by लिँट् or
iii. √अस् (असँ भुवि २. ६०) followed by लिँट्

Note: In this सूत्रम्, “कृञ्” is a प्रत्याहार: formed starting from “कृ” in 5-4-50 and ending with “ञ्” in 5-4-58.

(8) पीडयाम् + अस् + ल् । अनुबन्ध-लोपः by 1-3-2 उपदेशेऽजनुनासिक इत्, 1-3-3 हलन्त्यम्, 1-3-9 तस्य लोपः

The ending अकार: (which is a इत् by 1-3-2 उपदेशेऽजनुनासिक इत्) of (असँ भुवि २. ६०) has a उदात्त-स्वर:। Hence as per 1-3-78 शेषात् कर्तरि परस्मैपदम्, √अस् takes परस्मैपद-प्रत्यया: in कर्तरि प्रयोग:। The विवक्षा is प्रथम-पुरुषः, एकवचनम्, hence the प्रत्ययः is तिप्।

(9) पीडयाम् + अस् + तिप् । 3-4-78 तिप्तस्झिसिप्थस्थमिब्वस्मस्तातांझथासाथांध्वमिड्वहिमहिङ् mandates the प्रत्ययः “तिप्” as the substitute for the लकारः। By 3-4-115 लिट् च, a तिङ्-प्रत्यय: which comes in place of लिँट् gets the आर्धधातुक-सञ्ज्ञा। Therefore “तिप्” gets the आर्धधातुक-सञ्ज्ञा। This prevents 3-1-68 कर्तरि शप्‌ (which requires a सार्वधातुक-प्रत्यय: to follow) from applying.

(10) पीडयाम् + अस् + णल् । By 3-4-82 परस्मैपदानां णलतुसुस्थलथुसणल्वमाः, when they come in place of लिँट्, the nine परस्मैपद-प्रत्यया: – “तिप्”, “तस्”, “झि”, “सिप्”, “थस्”, “थ”, “मिप्”, “वस्” and “मस्” – are substituted by “णल्”, “अतुस्”, “उस्”, “थल्”, “अथुस्”, “अ”, “णल्”, “व” and “म” respectively.

(11) पीडयाम् + अस् + अ । अनुबन्ध-लोपः by 1-3-3 हलन्त्यम्, 1-3-7 चुटू, 1-3-9 तस्य लोपः

(12) पीडयाम् + अस् अस् + अ । By 6-1-8 लिटि धातोरनभ्यासस्य, when लिँट् follows a verbal root, there is reduplication of the first portion – containing a single vowel – of the verbal root which is not already reduplicated. But if the verbal root (that has more than one vowel) begins with a vowel, then the reduplication is of the second portion – containing a single vowel.

Note: As per 1-1-59 द्विर्वचनेऽचि, we apply 6-1-8 लिटि धातोरनभ्यासस्य before applying 7-2-116 अत उपधायाः

(13) पीडयाम् + आस् अस् + अ । By 7-4-70 अत आदेः, a beginning अकारः of a अभ्यास: (reduplicate) takes the दीर्घादेश: (आकार:) when लिँट् follows.

(14) पीडयाम् + आ अस् + अ । By 7-4-60 हलादिः शेषः, of the consonants of a reduplicate (अभ्यासः – ref. 6-1-4 पूर्वोऽभ्यासः), only the one (if any) at the beginning is retained, the rest are elided.

(15) पीडयाम् + आ आस् + अ । By 7-2-116 अत उपधायाः , a penultimate (उपधा) अकार: of a अङ्गम् gets वृद्धिः as the substitute when followed by a प्रत्ययः which is a ञित् or a णित्।

(16) पीडयामास । By 6-1-101 अकः सवर्णे दीर्घः

“निस्” is the उपसर्गः (ref. 1-4-59 उपसर्गाः क्रियायोगे।)
निस् + पीडयामास
= निःपीडयामास । रुँत्व-विसर्गौ – 8-2-66 ससजुषो रुः and 8-3-15 खरवसानयोर्विसर्जनीयः
= निष्पीडयामास । By 8-3-41 इदुदुपधस्य चाप्रत्ययस्य, a विसर्गः, which is not part of a प्रत्यय:, is replaced by षकारः if it is preceded by an इकारः or उकारः and is followed by a consonant belonging to क-वर्गः or प-वर्गः (the अनुवृत्तिः of कुप्वोः comes in from 8-3-37 कुप्वोः ≍क≍पौ च)।

Questions:

1. Where has 3-1-40 कृञ् चानुप्रयुज्यते लिटि been used for the last time in the गीता?

2. At the end of step 4, does “पीडयाम्” get the अव्यय-सञ्ज्ञा by 1-1-39 कृन्मेजन्तः?

3. In this example we would have got the same final form even without the सूत्रम् 7-4-70 अत आदेः (step 13.) Then why has पाणिनि: composed 7-4-70 अत आदेः?

4. Where has 7-3-54 हो हन्तेर्ञ्णिन्नेषु been used in the verse?

5. Can you spot a इकार-लोप: (elision of the letter “इ”) in the verse?

6. How would you say this in Sanskrit?
“The mighty Kumbhakarna squeezed many monkeys with his (two) stout arms.” Use the adjective प्रातिपदिकम् “बलवत्” for “mighty” and the adjective प्रातिपदिकम् “आपीन” for “stout.”

Easy questions:

1. Where has 7-1-12 टाङसिङसामिनात्स्याः been used in the verse?

2. Which सूत्रम् is used for the “नुँम्”-आगम: in the form आपतन्तम् (प्रातिपदिकम् “आपतत्”, पुंलिङ्गे द्वितीया-एकवचनम्)? Note: The प्रातिपदिकम् “आपतत्” ends in the “शतृँ”-प्रत्यय:।

दर्शयामास 3As-लिँट्

Today we will look at the form दर्शयामास 3As-लिँट् from श्रीमद्भागवतम् 9.9.3

दर्शयामास तं देवी प्रसन्ना वरदास्मि ते ।
इत्युक्तः स्वमभिप्रायं शशंसावनतो नृपः ।। ९-९-३ ।।

श्रीधर-स्वामि-टीका
तं प्रत्यात्मानं दर्शयामासते वरदास्मीति गङ्गयोक्तःन्स्वमभिप्रायं पूर्वजोद्धरणं शशंस कथयामास ।।

Gita Press translation “The goddess (presiding over the holy river) got pleased (with his devotion) and revealed herself (in person) to him, saying; “I am prepared to confer a boon on you.” Thus spoken to (by the goddess), the king Bhagīratha), bent low (with humility) and submitted (to her) his object (in carrying on his austerities).”

दर्शयामास is derived from the धातुः √दृश् (भ्वादि-गणः, दृशिँर् प्रेक्षणे , धातु-पाठः #१. ११४३)

The विवक्षा is लिँट्, कर्तरि प्रयोग: (हेतुमति), प्रथम-पुरुषः, एकवचनम्

दृश् + णिच् । 3-1-26 हेतुमति च, the affix “णिच्” is used after a root, when the operation of a causer – such as the operation of directing – is to be expressed.
= दृश् + इ । अनुबन्ध-लोपः by 1-3-3 हलन्त्यम्, 1-3-7 चुटू, 1-3-9 तस्य लोपः
= दर्श् + इ । By 7-3-86 पुगन्‍तलघूपधस्‍य च, when a अङ्गम् is followed by a सार्वधातुक-प्रत्ययः or an आर्धधातुक-प्रत्ययः, then its इक्-letter takes गुण-आदेशः in the following two cases: i) The अङ्गम् ends in a पुक्-आगमः
or ii) The penultimate letter of the अङ्गम् has the लघु-सञ्ज्ञा। By 1-1-51 उरण् रपरः, in the place of ऋवर्ण: if an अण् letter (“अ”, “इ”, “उ”) comes as a substitute, it is always followed by a रँ (“र्”, “ल्”) letter.
= दर्शि । “दर्शि” gets the धातु-सञ्ज्ञा by 3-1-32 सनाद्यन्ता धातवः

(1) दर्शि + लिँट् । By 3-2-115 परोक्षे लिँट्, the affix लिँट् (Perfect Tense) comes after a verbal root in the sense of the past not of today, provided that the action is unperceived by the narrator.

(2) दर्शि + आम् + लिँट् । By वार्त्तिकम् (under 3-1-35) कास्यनेकाच आम् वक्तव्यो लिँटि, when लिँट् follows, the affix आम् is prescribed after the धातु: √कास् (कासृँ शब्दकुत्सायाम् १. ७१०) as also after any धातु: that is अनेकाच् (has more than one vowel.)
See question 2.

(3) दर्शय् + आम् + लिँट् । By 6-4-55 अयामन्ताल्वाय्येत्न्विष्णुषु, the affix “णि” is substituted by “अय्” when followed by any one of the following affixes – “आम्”, “अन्त”, “आलु”, “आय्य”, “इत्नु” or “इष्णु”।
See question 3.

(4) दर्शयाम् । By 2-4-81 आमः, an affix which follows the affix “आम्” takes the लुक् elision. Now “दर्शयाम्” gets the प्रातिपदिक-सञ्ज्ञा by 1-2-46 कृत्तद्धितसमासाश्च with the help of 1-1-62 प्रत्ययलोपे प्रत्ययलक्षणम्
Note: लिँट् has the कृत्-सञ्ज्ञा by 3-1-93 कृदतिङ्

(5) दर्शयाम् + सुँ । By 4-1-2 स्वौजसमौट्छष्टा…..

(6) दर्शयाम् । By 2-4-81 आमः, an affix which follows the affix “आम्” takes the लुक् elision.

(7) दर्शयाम् + अस् + लिँट् । By 3-1-40 कृञ् चानुप्रयुज्यते लिटि, following a term ending in the affix “आम्”, one of the following is annexed:
i. √कृ (डुकृञ् करणे ८. १०) followed by लिँट्
ii. √भू (भू सत्तायाम् १. १) followed by लिँट् or
iii. √अस् (असँ भुवि २. ६०) followed by लिँट्

Note: In this सूत्रम्, “कृञ्” is a प्रत्याहार:। See question 4.

(8) दर्शयाम् + अस् + ल् । अनुबन्ध-लोपः by 1-3-2 उपदेशेऽजनुनासिक इत्, 1-3-3 हलन्त्यम्, 1-3-9 तस्य लोपः

The ending अकार: (which is a इत् by 1-3-2 उपदेशेऽजनुनासिक इत्) of (असँ भुवि २. ६०) has a उदात्त-स्वर:। Hence as per 1-3-78 शेषात् कर्तरि परस्मैपदम्, √अस् takes परस्मैपद-प्रत्यया: in कर्तरि प्रयोग:। The विवक्षा is प्रथम-पुरुषः, एकवचनम्, hence the प्रत्ययः is तिप्।

(9) दर्शयाम् + अस् + तिप् । 3-4-78 तिप्तस्झिसिप्थस्थमिब्वस्मस्तातांझथासाथांध्वमिड्वहिमहिङ् mandates the प्रत्ययः “तिप्” as the substitute for the लकारः। By 3-4-115 लिट् च, a तिङ्-प्रत्यय: which comes in place of लिँट् gets the आर्धधातुक-सञ्ज्ञा। Therefore “तिप्” gets the आर्धधातुक-सञ्ज्ञा। This prevents 3-1-68 कर्तरि शप्‌ (which requires a सार्वधातुक-प्रत्यय: to follow) from applying.

(10) दर्शयाम् + अस् + णल् । By 3-4-82 परस्मैपदानां णलतुसुस्थलथुसणल्वमाः, when they come in place of लिँट्, the nine परस्मैपद-प्रत्यया: – “तिप्”, “तस्”, “झि”, “सिप्”, “थस्”, “थ”, “मिप्”, “वस्” and “मस्” – are substituted by “णल्”, “अतुस्”, “उस्”, “थल्”, “अथुस्”, “अ”, “णल्”, “व” and “म” respectively.

(11) दर्शयाम् + अस् + अ । अनुबन्ध-लोपः by 1-3-3 हलन्त्यम्, 1-3-7 चुटू, 1-3-9 तस्य लोपः

(12) दर्शयाम् + अस् अस् + अ । By 6-1-8 लिटि धातोरनभ्यासस्य, when लिँट् follows a verbal root, there is reduplication of the first portion – containing a single vowel – of the verbal root which is not already reduplicated. But if the verbal root (that has more than one vowel) begins with a vowel, then the reduplication is of the second portion – containing a single vowel.

Note: As per 1-1-59 द्विर्वचनेऽचि, we apply 6-1-8 लिटि धातोरनभ्यासस्य before applying 7-2-116 अत उपधायाः

(13) दर्शयाम् + आस् अस् + अ । By 7-4-70 अत आदेः, a beginning अकारः of a अभ्यास: (reduplicate) takes the दीर्घादेश: (आकार:) when लिँट् follows.

(14) दर्शयाम् + आ अस् + अ । By 7-4-60 हलादिः शेषः, of the consonants of a reduplicate (अभ्यासः – ref. 6-1-4 पूर्वोऽभ्यासः), only the one (if any) at the beginning is retained, the rest are elided.

(15) दर्शयाम् + आ आस् + अ । By 7-2-116 अत उपधायाः , a penultimate (उपधा) अकार: of a अङ्गम् gets वृद्धिः as the substitute when followed by a प्रत्ययः which is a ञित् or a णित्।

(16) दर्शयामास । By 6-1-101 अकः सवर्णे दीर्घः

Questions:

1. Where has दर्शयामास been used in the गीता?

2. Why doesn’t the ending मकार: of the प्रत्यय: “आम्” get the इत्-सञ्ज्ञा by 1-3-3 हलन्त्यम् (and take लोप: by 1-3-9 तस्य लोपः)? Is it because of 1-3-4 न विभक्तौ तुस्माः?

3. In the absence of 6-4-55 अयामन्ताल्वाय्येत्न्विष्णुषु, which सूत्रम् would have applied in step 3?

4. The प्रत्याहार: “कृञ्” (used in 3-1-40 कृञ् चानुप्रयुज्यते लिटि) is formed using which two सूत्रे in the अष्टाध्यायी?

5. Where has 6-4-48 अतो लोपः been used in the commentary?

6. How would you say this in Sanskrit?
“Sri Krishna showed his (own) universal form to Arjuna.” Use a सर्वनाम-प्रातिपदिकम् from the verse for “his (own)” and use the (compound) neuter प्रातिपदिकम् “विश्वरूप” for “universal form.” Use चतुर्थी विभक्ति: with “Arjuna.”

Easy questions:

1. Where else (besides in दर्शयामास) has √अस् (असँ भुवि २. ६०) been used in a तिङन्तं पदम् in the verse?

2. Which सूत्रम् is used to get गङ्गया + उक्तः = गङ्गयोक्तः?

प्रपेदे 3As-लिँट्

Today we will look at the form प्रपेदे 3As-लिँट् from श्रीमद्भागवतम् 2.7.3

जज्ञे च कर्दमगृहे द्विज देवहूत्यां स्त्रीभिः समं नवभिरात्मगतिं स्वमात्रे ।
ऊचे ययाऽऽत्मशमलं गुणसङ्गपङ्कमस्मिन्विधूय कपिलस्य गतिं प्रपेदे ।। २-७-३ ।।

श्रीधर-स्वामि-टीका
कपिलावतारमाह । कर्दमस्य प्रजापतेर्गृहे च तद्भार्यायां देवहूत्यां जज्ञेनवभिः स्त्रीभिर्भगिनीभिः सह । स च स्वमात्रे आत्मगतिं ब्रह्मविद्यामुक्तवान् । यया आत्मगत्या सा आत्मनः शमलं मलिनीकरणं गुणसङ्गरूपं पङ्कमस्मिन्नेव जन्मनि विधूय कपिलस्य गतिं मुक्तिं प्राप्तवती ।।

Gita Press translation “Again He was born, O Nārada, as the son of Kardama (another Prajāpati) and his wife Devahūti (under the name of Kapila) with nine sisters, and imparted to His mother the Knowledge of the spirit, by means of which she wiped off in the course of that very life the dirt of attachement to the world of matter, which had polluted her heart, and attained to the state of Kapila (i.e, final beatitude).”

प्रपेदे is derived from the धातुः √पद् (दिवादि-गणः, पदँ गतौ, धातु-पाठः # ४. ६५)

The ending vowel, अकार: of “पदँ” gets the इत्-सञ्ज्ञा by 1-3-2 उपदेशेऽजनुनासिक इत् and takes लोप: by 1-3-9 तस्य लोपः। This vowel has a अनुदात्त-स्वर:। Thus by 1-3-12 अनुदात्तङित आत्मनेपदम्, √पद् takes आत्मनेपद-प्रत्ययाः। As per 1-4-100 तङानावात्मनेपदम्, the nine प्रत्यया: from “त” to “महिङ्” get the आत्मनेपद-सञ्ज्ञा। So √पद् can take only one of these nine प्रत्यया: in कर्तरि प्रयोग:।

The विवक्षा is लिँट्, कर्तरि प्रयोग:, प्रथम-पुरुषः, एकवचनम्, hence the प्रत्ययः is “त”।

(1) पद् + लिँट् । By 3-2-115 परोक्षे लिँट्, the affix लिँट् (Perfect Tense) comes after a verbal root in the sense of the past not of today, provided that the action is unperceived by the narrator.

(2) पद् + ल् । अनुबन्ध-लोपः by 1-3-2 उपदेशेऽजनुनासिक इत्, 1-3-3 हलन्त्यम्, 1-3-9 तस्य लोपः

(3) पद् + त । 3-4-78 तिप्तस्झिसिप्थस्थमिब्वस्मस्तातांझथासाथांध्वमिड्वहिमहिङ् mandates the प्रत्ययः “त” as the substitute for the लकारः। By 3-4-115 लिट् च, a तिङ्-प्रत्यय: which comes in place of लिँट् gets the आर्धधातुक-सञ्ज्ञा। Therefore “त” gets the आर्धधातुक-सञ्ज्ञा। This prevents 3-1-68 कर्तरि शप्‌ (which requires a सार्वधातुक-प्रत्यय: to follow) from applying.

(4) पद् + एश् । By 3-4-81 लिटस्तझयोरेशिरेच्, when they come in place of लिँट्, the affixes “त” and “झ” take the substitutions “एश्” and “इरेच्” respectively.
As per 1-3-10 यथासंख्यमनुदेशः समानाम्, 1-1-55 अनेकाल् शित् सर्वस्य, “एश्” comes as a substitute for “त”।

(5) पद् + ए । अनुबन्ध-लोपः by 1-3-3 हलन्त्यम्, 1-3-9 तस्य लोपः

(6) पद् पद् + ए । By 6-1-8 लिटि धातोरनभ्यासस्य, when लिँट् follows a verbal root, there is reduplication of the first portion – containing a single vowel – of the verbal root which is not already reduplicated. But if the verbal root (that has more than one vowel) begins with a vowel, then the reduplication is of the second portion – containing a single vowel.

(7) प पद् + ए । By 7-4-60 हलादिः शेषः, of the consonants of a reduplicate (अभ्यासः – ref. 6-1-4 पूर्वोऽभ्यासः), only the one (if any) at the beginning is retained, the rest are elided.
See advanced question.

(8) पेदे । By 6-4-120 अत एकहल्मध्येऽनादेशादेर्लिटि, the अकार: of a अङ्गम् takes एकार: as the substitute and simultaneously there is लोप: (elision) of the अभ्यास:, when all the following conditions are satisfied:
(i) the अकार: is preceded and followed by a single (non-conjunct) consonant
(ii) the अङ्गम् is followed by a लिँट् affix which is कित्
(iii) in place of the first letter of the अङ्गम् there is no आदेश: (substitution) that is based on the लिँट् affix.

Note : By 1-2-5 असंयोगाल्लिट् कित्, a लिँट् affix which is not a पित् – does not have पकार: as a इत् – shall be considered to be a कित् (as having ककार: as a इत्), as long as there is no संयोग: (conjunction consonant) prior to the affix. Hence “एश्” is a कित्-प्रत्यय: here. This allows 6-4-120 to apply.

“प्र” is the उपसर्गः (ref. 1-4-59 उपसर्गाः क्रियायोगे।)
प्र + पेदे = प्रपेदे ।

Questions:

1. Where has √पद् (दिवादि-गणः, पदँ गतौ, धातु-पाठः # ४. ६५) been used in a तिङन्तं पदम् in the first five verses of Chapter Two of the गीता?

2. Commenting on the सूत्रम् 6-4-120 अत एकहल्मध्येऽनादेशादेर्लिटि (used in step 8), the सिद्धान्तकौमुदी says – अनादेशादे: किम्? चकणतु:। Please explain.

3. The form ऊचे used in the verse is derived from which verbal root?

4. Where has 6-4-98 गमहनजनखनघसां लोपः क्ङित्यनङि been used in the verse?

5. How would you say this in Sanskrit?
“Leaving (having left) his own brother, Vibhishana took shelter with Sri Rama.” Use the अव्ययम् “त्यक्त्वा” for “having left”, use the सर्वनाम-प्रातिपदिकम् “स्व” for “his own” and use √पद् (दिवादि-गणः, पदँ गतौ, धातु-पाठः # ४. ६५) with the उपसर्ग: “प्र” for “to take shelter with.”

Advanced question:

1. After step 7 in the example we could apply 8-4-54 अभ्यासे चर्च and replace the पकार: in the अभ्यास: by the same letter पकार:। Will that prevent 6-4-120 from applying? (Remember that one of the conditions mentioned in 6-4-120 is अनादेशादे:।) The सिद्धान्त-कौमुदी says that a same letter substitution (for the beginning letter of the अभ्यास:) does not prevent 6-4-120 from applying. आदेशश्चेह वैरूप्यसम्पादक एवाश्रीयते। The reason for this is given as शसिदद्यो: प्रतिषेधवचनाज्ज्ञापकात्। Please explain. (Hint: शसिदद्यो: is a reference to 6-4-126 न शसददवादिगुणानाम्।)

Easy questions:

1. Where has 7-2-113 हलि लोपः been used in the verse?

2. Which प्रातिपदिकम् used in the verse has the षट्-सञ्ज्ञा?

पेतु: 3Ap-लिँट्

Today we will look at the form पेतु: 3Ap-लिँट् from श्रीमद्भागवतम् 3.17.13

गावोऽत्रसन्नसृग्दोहास्तोयदाः पूयवर्षिणः ।
व्यरुदन्देवलिङ्गानि द्रुमाः पेतुर्विनानिलम् ।। ३-१७-१३ ।।

श्रीधर-स्वामि-टीका
गावोऽत्रसन् त्रस्ताः । असृग्दोहाश्च बभूवुः । देवलिङ्गानि व्यरुदन्, प्रतिमानामश्रुस्राव आसीदित्यर्थः ।।

Gita Press translation “Cows yielded blood in place of milk from terror, clouds rained pus, the images of gods shed tears and trees fell down without a blast.”

पेतुः is derived from the धातुः √पत् (भ्वादि-गणः, पतॢँ गतौ, धातु-पाठः #१.९७९)

In the धातु-पाठः, √पत् has one इत् letter – the ऌकार: following the तकार:। This इत् letter has a उदात्त-स्वर:। Thus √पत् is devoid of any indications for bringing in आत्मनेपद-प्रत्यया:। (Neither 1-3-12 अनुदात्तङित आत्मनेपदम् nor 1-3-72 स्वरितञितः कर्त्रभिप्राये क्रियाफले applies.) Therefore, as per 1-3-78 शेषात् कर्तरि परस्मैपदम्, in कर्तरि प्रयोग: √पत् takes परस्मैपद-प्रत्यया: by default. As per 1-4-99 लः परस्मैपदम्, 1-4-100 तङानावात्मनेपदम्, the nine प्रत्यया: from “तिप्” to “मस्” get the परस्मैपद-सञ्ज्ञा। So √पत् can take only one of these nine प्रत्यया: in कर्तरि प्रयोग:।

The विवक्षा is लिँट्, कर्तरि प्रयोग:, प्रथम-पुरुषः, बहुवचनम्, hence the प्रत्ययः is “झि”।

(1) पत् + लिँट् । By 3-2-115 परोक्षे लिँट् , the affix लिँट् (Perfect Tense) comes after a verbal root in the sense of the past not of today, provided that the action is unperceived by the narrator.

(2) पत् + ल् । अनुबन्ध-लोपः by 1-3-2 उपदेशेऽजनुनासिक इत्, 1-3-3 हलन्त्यम्, 1-3-9 तस्य लोपः

(3) पत् + झि । 3-4-78 तिप्तस्झिसिप्थस्थमिब्वस्मस्तातांझथासाथांध्वमिड्वहिमहिङ् mandates the प्रत्ययः “झि” as the substitute for the लकारः। By 3-4-115 लिट् च, a तिङ्-प्रत्यय: which comes in place of लिँट् gets the आर्धधातुक-सञ्ज्ञा। Therefore “झि” gets the आर्धधातुक-सञ्ज्ञा। This prevents 3-1-68 कर्तरि शप्‌ (which requires a सार्वधातुक-प्रत्यय: to follow) from applying.

(4) पत् + उस् । By 3-4-82 परस्मैपदानां णलतुसुस्थलथुसणल्वमाः, when they come in place of लिँट्, the nine परस्मैपद-प्रत्यया: – “तिप्”, “तस्”, “झि”, “सिप्”, “थस्”, “थ”, “मिप्”, “वस्” and “मस्” – are substituted by “णल्”, “अतुस्”, “उस्”, “थल्”, “अथुस्”, “अ”, “णल्”, “व” and “म” respectively.
1-3-4 न विभक्तौ तुस्माः prevents the ending सकार: of “उस्” from getting the इत्-सञ्ज्ञा।

(5) पत् पत् + उस् । By 6-1-8 लिटि धातोरनभ्यासस्य , when लिँट् follows a verbal root, there is reduplication of the first portion – containing a single vowel – of the verbal root which is not already reduplicated. But if the verbal root (that has more than one vowel) begins with a vowel, then the reduplication is of the second portion – containing a single vowel.

(6) प पत् + उस् । By 7-4-60 हलादिः शेषः, of the consonants of a reduplicate (अभ्यासः – ref. 6-1-4 पूर्वोऽभ्यासः), only the one (if any) at the beginning is retained, the rest are elided.

(7) पेत् + उस् । By 6-4-120 अत एकहल्मध्येऽनादेशादेर्लिटि, the अकार: of a अङ्गम् takes एकार: as the substitute and simultaneously there is लोप: (elision) of the अभ्यास:, when all the following conditions are satisfied:
(i) the अकार: is preceded and followed by a single (non-conjunct) consonant
(ii) the अङ्गम् is followed by a लिँट् affix which is कित्
(iii) in place of the first letter of the अङ्गम् there is no आदेश: (substitution) that is based on the लिँट् affix.

Note : By 1-2-5 असंयोगाल्लिट् कित्, a लिँट् affix which is not a पित् – does not have पकार: as a इत् – shall be considered to be a कित् (as having ककार: as a इत्), as long as there is no संयोग: (conjunction consonant) prior to the affix. Hence, “उस्” is a कित्-प्रत्यय: here. This allows 6-4-120 to apply.

(8) पेतुः । रुँत्व-विसर्गौ – 8-2-66 ससजुषो रुः and 8-3-15 खरवसानयोर्विसर्जनीयः

Questions:

1. Where has √पत् (भ्वादि-गणः, पतॢँ गतौ, धातु-पाठः #१.९७९) been used in a तिङन्तं पदम् in Chapter Sixteen of the गीता?

2. The पदच्छेद: of the सूत्रम् 6-4-120 अत एकहल्मध्येऽनादेशादेर्लिटि is अत:, एकहल्मध्ये, अनादेशादे:, लिटि। Which विभक्ति:/वचनम् has been used in अत:?
i. प्रथमा-बहुवचनम्
ii. द्वितीया-बहुवचनम्
iii. पञ्चमी-एकवचनम्
iv. षष्ठी-एकवचनम्

3. What would be an alternate form for the word अत्रसन् used in the verse?

4. In which word in the verse has the शप्-प्रत्यय: taken the लुक् elision?

5. Which सूत्रम् is used for the “ईट्”-आगम: in the form आसीत्?

6. How would you say this in Sanskrit?
“Hearing (having heard) that Sita is alive, tears of joy fell from Sri Rama’s (two) eyes.” Use the अव्ययम् “श्रुत्वा” for “having heard”, use √जीव् (जीवँ प्राणधारणे १. ६४३) for “to live (to be alive)” and use the neuter प्रातिपदिकम् “अश्रु” for “tear.”

Easy questions:

1. Can you spot a “णित्”-प्रत्यय: (an affix which has णकार: as a marker) in the verse?

2. Where has 7-1-72 नपुंसकस्य झलचः been used in the verse?

पप्रच्छ 3As-लिँट्

Today we will look at the form पप्रच्छ 3As-लिँट् from श्रीमद्भागवतम् 1.18.40

विसृज्य पुत्रं पप्रच्छ वत्स कस्माद्धि रोदिषि ।
केन वा तेऽपकृतमित्युक्तः स न्यवेदयत् ।। १-१८-४० ।।

श्रीधर-स्वामि-टीका
तं सर्पं विसृज्यकेनापकारः कृतः ।।

Gita Press translation – (Sage Śamīka) throwing off (the dead serpent), enquired: “Child, wherefore do you weep? Who has wronged you?” Thus asked, the boy told him (all that had happened).

पप्रच्छ is derived from the धातुः √प्रच्छ् (तुदादि-गणः, प्रच्छँ ज्ञीप्सायाम्, धातु-पाठः # ६. १४९)

In the धातु-पाठः, the ending अकार: (which is a इत् by 1-3-2 उपदेशेऽजनुनासिक इत्) of “प्रच्छँ” has a उदात्त-स्वर:। Thus √प्रच्छ् is devoid of any indications for bringing in आत्मनेपद-प्रत्यया:। (Neither 1-3-12 अनुदात्तङित आत्मनेपदम् nor 1-3-72 स्वरितञितः कर्त्रभिप्राये क्रियाफले applies.) Therefore, as per 1-3-78 शेषात् कर्तरि परस्मैपदम्, in कर्तरि प्रयोग: √प्रच्छ् takes the परस्मैपद-प्रत्यया: by default.

The विवक्षा is लिँट्, कर्तरि प्रयोग:, प्रथम-पुरुषः, एकवचनम्, hence the प्रत्ययः is तिप्।

(1) प्रच्छ् + लिँट् । By 3-2-115 परोक्षे लिँट्, the affix लिँट् (Perfect Tense) comes after a verbal root in the sense of the past not of today, provided that the action is unperceived by the narrator.

(2) प्रच्छ् + ल् । अनुबन्ध-लोपः by 1-3-2 उपदेशेऽजनुनासिक इत्, 1-3-3 हलन्त्यम्, 1-3-9 तस्य लोपः

(3) प्रच्छ् + तिप् । 3-4-78 तिप्तस्झिसिप्थस्थमिब्वस्मस्तातांझथासाथांध्वमिड्वहिमहिङ् mandates the प्रत्ययः “तिप्” as the substitute for the लकारः। By 3-4-115 लिट् च, a तिङ्-प्रत्यय: which comes in place of लिँट् gets the आर्धधातुक-सञ्ज्ञा। Therefore “तिप्” gets the आर्धधातुक-सञ्ज्ञा। This prevents 3-1-68 कर्तरि शप्‌ (which requires a सार्वधातुक-प्रत्यय: to follow) from applying.

(4) प्रच्छ् + णल् । By 3-4-82 परस्मैपदानां णलतुसुस्थलथुसणल्वमाः, when they come in place of लिँट्, the nine परस्मैपद-प्रत्यया: – “तिप्”, “तस्”, “झि”, “सिप्”, “थस्”, “थ”, “मिप्”, “वस्” and “मस्” – are substituted by “णल्”, “अतुस्”, “उस्”, “थल्”, “अथुस्”, “अ”, “णल्”, “व” and “म” respectively.

(5) प्रच्छ् + अ । अनुबन्ध-लोपः by 1-3-3 हलन्त्यम्, 1-3-7 चुटू, 1-3-9 तस्य लोपः
See question 2.

(6) प्रच्छ् प्रच्छ् + अ । By 6-1-8 लिटि धातोरनभ्यासस्य, when लिँट् follows a verbal root, there is reduplication of the first portion – containing a single vowel – of the verbal root which is not already reduplicated. But if the verbal root (that has more than one vowel) begins with a vowel, then the reduplication is of the second portion – containing a single vowel.

(7) प् र् अ च्छ् प्रच्छ् + अ = प् ऋ अ च्छ् प्रच्छ् + अ । By 6-1-17 लिट्यभ्यासस्योभयेषाम्, when a लिँट् affix follows, सम्प्रसारणम् (ref. 1-1-45 इग्यणः सम्प्रसारणम्) is done in the अभ्यास: (reduplicate) of the verbal roots (वचँ परिभाषणे २. ५८ etc.) referred to in 6-1-15 as well as in that of the verbal roots (ग्रहँ उपादाने ९. ७१ etc.) referred to in 6-1-16.

(8) पृच्छ् प्रच्छ् + अ । By 6-1-108 सम्प्रसारणाच्च, when a सम्प्रसारणम् is followed by a अच् (vowel), there is a single replacement (in place of both the सम्प्रसारणम् and the following अच्) of the prior letter (the सम्प्रसारणम्)।

(9) पर् च्छ् प्रच्छ् + अ । By 7-4-66 उरत्‌, a ऋवर्ण: of the अभ्यास: (reduplicate) takes the अकारादेश: when a प्रत्यय: follows. As per 1-1-51 उरण् रपरः, in the place of ऋवर्ण: if an अण् letter (“अ”, “इ”, “उ”) comes as a substitute, it is always followed by a रँ (“र्”, “ल्”) letter.

(10) पप्रच्छ । By 7-4-60 हलादिः शेषः, of the consonants of a reduplicate (अभ्यासः – ref. 6-1-4 पूर्वोऽभ्यासः), only the one (if any) at the beginning is retained, the rest are elided.

Questions:

1. Where has √प्रच्छ् (तुदादि-गणः, प्रच्छँ ज्ञीप्सायाम्, धातु-पाठः # ६. १४९) been used in a तिङन्तं पदम् for the first time in the गीता?

2. Why doesn’t the रेफ: in “प्रच्छ्” take सम्प्रसारणम् (by 6-1-16 ग्रहिज्यावयिव्यधिवष्टिविचतिवृश्चतिपृच्छतिभृज्जतीनां ङिति च) in this example? (Which condition is not satisfied?)

3. Can you spot a “णिच्”-प्रत्यय: in the verse?

4. Can you recall a अपवाद-सूत्रम् (exception rule) to 7-4-60 हलादिः शेषः (used in step 7)?

5. How would you say this in Sanskrit?
“Sri Krishna asked Arjuna – ‘Why do you grieve over those who should not be grieved for?'” Use √शुच् (शुचँ शोके १. २१०) with the उपसर्ग: “अनु” for “to grieve over” and use the adjective प्रातिपदिकम् “अशोच्य” for “one who should not be grieved for.” Use the अव्ययम् “कस्मात्” for “why” and the अव्ययम् “इति” as an end-quote.

Advanced question:

1. Rules prescribing (and prohibiting) a “इट्”-आगम: are presented by पाणिनि: in 7-2 (second quarter of the seventh chapter) of the अष्टाध्यायी। The topic goes from 7-2-8 to 7-2-78. The rules from 7-2-8 to 7-2-34 are all prohibition rules. Can you try to find a सूत्रम् in the remaining section (from 7-2-35 to 7-2-78) which is responsible for the “इट्”-आगम: in रोदिषि? (We have not studied this सूत्रम् in the class.) Hint: पाणिनि: specifically mentions the धातु: “रुद्” in this सूत्रम्।

Easy questions:

1. Where has 6-1-69 एङ्ह्रस्वात्‌ सम्बुद्धेः been used in the verse?

2. Which सूत्रम् is used for the धकारादेश: in कस्माद्धि?

मेनिरे 3Ap-लिँट्

Today we will look at the form मेनिरे 3Ap-लिँट् from श्रीमद्भागवतम् 7.8.16

तदैव तस्मिन्निनदोऽतिभीषणो बभूव येनाण्डकटाहमस्फुटत् ।
यं वै स्वधिष्ण्योपगतं त्वजादयः श्रुत्वा स्वधामाप्ययमङ्ग मेनिरे ।। ७-८-१६ ।।

श्रीधर-स्वामि-टीका
No commentary on this verse.

Gita Press translation “That very moment there rose in that pillar a most terrific crash, as a result of which the shell of the cosmic egg cracked (as it were) and on hearing which, as it reached the spheres of Brahmā (the creator) and others, they for their part actually suspected the dissolution of their very abodes, O dear Yudhiṣṭhira!”

मेनिरे is derived from the धातुः √मन् (दिवादि-गणः, मनँ ज्ञाने, धातु-पाठः # ४. ७३) or √मन् (तनादि-गणः, मनुँ अवबोधने, धातु-पाठः # ८. ९)

The ending vowel (अकार: of “मनँ” and उकार: of “मनुँ”) gets the इत्-सञ्ज्ञा by 1-3-2 उपदेशेऽजनुनासिक इत् and takes लोप: by 1-3-9 तस्य लोपः। This vowel has a अनुदात्त-स्वर:। Thus by 1-3-12 अनुदात्तङित आत्मनेपदम्, √मन् takes आत्मनेपद-प्रत्ययाः। As per 1-4-100 तङानावात्मनेपदम्, the nine प्रत्यया: from “त” to “महिङ्” get the आत्मनेपद-सञ्ज्ञा। So √मन् can take only one of these nine प्रत्यया: in कर्तरि प्रयोग:।

The विवक्षा is लिँट्, कर्तरि प्रयोग:, प्रथम-पुरुषः, बहुवचनम्, hence the प्रत्ययः is “झ”।

(1) मन् + लिँट् । By 3-2-115 परोक्षे लिँट् , the affix लिँट् (Perfect Tense) comes after a verbal root in the sense of the past not of today, provided that the action is unperceived by the narrator.

(2) मन् + ल् । अनुबन्ध-लोपः by 1-3-2 उपदेशेऽजनुनासिक इत्, 1-3-3 हलन्त्यम्, 1-3-9 तस्य लोपः

(3) मन् + झ । 3-4-78 तिप्तस्झिसिप्थस्थमिब्वस्मस्तातांझथासाथांध्वमिड्वहिमहिङ् mandates the प्रत्ययः “झ” as the substitute for the लकारः। By 3-4-115 लिट् च, a तिङ्-प्रत्यय: which comes in place of लिँट् gets the आर्धधातुक-सञ्ज्ञा। Therefore “झ” gets the आर्धधातुक-सञ्ज्ञा। This prevents 3-1-68 कर्तरि शप्‌ (which requires a सार्वधातुक-प्रत्यय: to follow) from applying.

(4) मन् + इरेच् । By 3-4-81 लिटस्तझयोरेशिरेच्, when they come in place of लिँट्, the affixes “त” and “झ” take the substitutions “एश्” and “इरेच्” respectively.
As per 1-3-10 यथासंख्यमनुदेशः समानाम्, 1-1-55 अनेकाल् शित् सर्वस्य, “इरेच्” comes as a substitute for “झ”।

(5) मन् + इरे । अनुबन्ध-लोपः by 1-3-3 हलन्त्यम्, 1-3-9 तस्य लोपः

(6) मन् मन् + इरे । By 6-1-8 लिटि धातोरनभ्यासस्य, when लिँट् follows a verbal root, there is reduplication of the first portion – containing a single vowel – of the verbal root which is not already reduplicated. But if the verbal root (that has more than one vowel) begins with a vowel, then the reduplication is of the second portion – containing a single vowel.

(7) म मन् + इरे । By 7-4-60 हलादिः शेषः, of the consonants of a reduplicate (अभ्यासः – ref. 6-1-4 पूर्वोऽभ्यासः), only the one (if any) at the beginning is retained, the rest are elided.

(8) मेनिरे । By 6-4-120 अत एकहल्मध्येऽनादेशादेर्लिटि, the अकार: of a अङ्गम् takes एकार: as the substitute and simultaneously there is लोप: (elision) of the अभ्यास:, when all the following conditions are satisfied:
(i) the अकार: is preceded and followed by a single (non-conjunct) consonant
(ii) the अङ्गम् is followed by a लिँट् affix which is कित्
(iii) in place of the first letter of the अङ्गम् there is no आदेश: (substitution) that is based on the लिँट् affix.

Note : By 1-2-5 असंयोगाल्लिट् कित्, a लिँट् affix which is not a पित् – does not have पकार: as a इत् – shall be considered to be a कित् (as having ककार: as a इत्), as long as there is no संयोग: (conjunction consonant) prior to the affix. Hence “इरेच्” is a कित्-प्रत्यय: here. This allows 6-4-120 to apply.

Questions:

1. Of the two verbal roots √मन् (दिवादि-गणः, मनँ ज्ञाने, धातु-पाठः # ४. ७३) and √मन् (तनादि-गणः, मनुँ अवबोधने, धातु-पाठः # ८. ९) which one has been used in the गीता in a तिङन्तं पदम्?

2. Commenting on the सूत्रम् 6-4-120 अत एकहल्मध्येऽनादेशादेर्लिटि (used in step 8 of the example), the तत्त्वबोधिनी says – असंयोगादिति किम्? ममन्थे। अत्र नलोपो न। Please explain.

3. Which सूत्रम् is used for the “वुँक्”-आगम: in the form बभूव?

4. Where has 3-4-100 इतश्च been used in the verse?

5. Which अव्ययम् in the verse has been translated to “O dear Yudhiṣṭhira!”?

6. How would you say this in Sanskrit?
“Embraced by Sri Rama, Sri Hanuman considered himself very blessed/fortunate.” Use the adjective प्रातिपदिकम् “आलिङ्गित” for “embraced”, use the masculine प्रातिपदिकम् “आत्मन्” for “himself” and the adjective प्रातिपदिकम् “सुभग” for “very blessed/fortunate.”

Easy questions:

1. Where has 6-1-109 एङः पदान्तादति been used in the verse?

2. Which सूत्रम् is used for the “स्मिन्”-आदेश: in the form तस्मिन् (सर्वनाम-प्रातिपदिकम् “तद्”, पुंलिङ्गे सप्तमी-एकवचनम्)?

चक्रिरे 3Ap-लिँट्

Today we will look at the form चक्रिरे 3Ap-लिँट् from श्रीमद्भागवतम् 9.16.5

व्यभिचारं मुनिर्ज्ञात्वा पत्न्याः प्रकुपितोऽब्रवीत् ।
घ्नतैनां पुत्रकाः पापामित्युक्तास्ते न चक्रिरे ।। ९-१६-५ ।।

श्रीधर-स्वामि-टीका
व्यभिचारं मानसं ज्ञात्वा ।।

Gita Press translation “Enraged to know (through Yoga) the (mental) lapse of his wife, the sage exclaimed, “My sons! do away with this sinful woman.” Though enjoined thus, they did not carry out his command.”

चक्रिरे is derived from the धातुः √कृ (तनादि-गणः, डुकृञ् करणे, धातु-पाठः # ८. १०)

The “डु” at the beginning of this धातुः gets इत्-सञ्ज्ञा by 1-3-5 आदिर्ञिटुडवः। The ञकारः at the end gets इत्-सञ्ज्ञा by 1-3-3 हलन्त्यम्। Both take लोप: by 1-3-9 तस्य लोपः

Since the √कृ-धातुः has ञकारः as इत् in the धातु-पाठः, by 1-3-72 स्वरितञितः कर्त्रभिप्राये क्रियाफले the √कृ-धातुः will take आत्मनेपद-प्रत्ययाः when the fruit of the action (क्रियाफलम्) accrues to the doer (कर्त्रभिप्रायम् = कर्तृ-अभिप्रायम्)। In the remaining case – when the fruit of the action does not accrue to the doer – by 1-3-78 शेषात् कर्तरि परस्मैपदम् – the √कृ-धातुः will take परस्मैपद-प्रत्ययाः।

In reality though, this distinction of the fruit of the action accruing to the doer or not, is rarely honored in the language. So as a practical matter, a verbal root such as √कृ will take either आत्मनेपद-प्रत्ययाः or परस्मैपद-प्रत्ययाः regardless of whether the fruit of the action accrues to the doer or not. In short, √कृ will be उभयपदी। In this verse, it has taken a आत्मनेपद-प्रत्यय:।

The विवक्षा is लिँट्, कर्तरि प्रयोग:, प्रथम-पुरुषः, बहुवचनम्, hence the प्रत्ययः is “झ”।

(1) कृ + लिँट् । By 3-2-115 परोक्षे लिँट् , the affix लिँट् (Perfect Tense) comes after a verbal root in the sense of the past not of today, provided that the action is unperceived by the narrator.

(2) कृ + ल् । अनुबन्ध-लोपः by 1-3-2 उपदेशेऽजनुनासिक इत्, 1-3-3 हलन्त्यम्, 1-3-9 तस्य लोपः

(3) कृ + झ । 3-4-78 तिप्तस्झिसिप्थस्थमिब्वस्मस्तातांझथासाथांध्वमिड्वहिमहिङ् mandates the प्रत्ययः “झ” as the substitute for the लकारः। By 3-4-115 लिट् च, a तिङ्-प्रत्यय: which comes in place of लिँट् gets the आर्धधातुक-सञ्ज्ञा। Therefore “झ” gets the आर्धधातुक-सञ्ज्ञा। This prevents 3-1-68 कर्तरि शप्‌ (which requires a सार्वधातुक-प्रत्यय: to follow) from applying.

(4) कृ + इरेच् । By 3-4-81 लिटस्तझयोरेशिरेच्, when they come in place of लिँट्, the affixes “त” and “झ” take the substitutions “एश्” and “इरेच्” respectively.
As per 1-3-10 यथासंख्यमनुदेशः समानाम्, 1-1-55 अनेकाल् शित् सर्वस्य, “इरेच्” comes as a substitute for “झ”।

(5) कृ + इरे । अनुबन्ध-लोपः by 1-3-3 हलन्त्यम्, 1-3-9 तस्य लोपः

(6) कृ कृ + इरे । By 6-1-8 लिटि धातोरनभ्यासस्य, when लिँट् follows a verbal root, there is reduplication of the first portion – containing a single vowel – of the verbal root which is not already reduplicated. But if the verbal root (that has more than one vowel) begins with a vowel, then the reduplication is of the second portion – containing a single vowel.

Note: As per 1-1-59 द्विर्वचनेऽचि, while reduplication is yet to be done, a substitution (in this case रेफादेश: by 6-1-77 इको यणचि) shall not be made in the place of a vowel on the basis of a vowel (in this case इकार: of “इरे”) that is the cause for reduplication.
Note: This rule only temporarily stops the substitution until reduplication is done. Once reduplication is done, the substitution does takes place (in step 10 below.)

Therefore we apply 6-1-8 लिटि धातोरनभ्यासस्य before applying 6-1-77 इको यणचि

(7) कर् कृ + इरे । By 7-4-66 उरत्‌, a ऋवर्ण: of the अभ्यास: (reduplicate) takes the अकारादेश: when a प्रत्यय: follows.
By 1-1-51 उरण् रपरः, in the place of ऋवर्ण: if an अण् letter (“अ”, “इ”, “उ”) comes as a substitute, it is always followed by a रँ (“र्”, “ल्”) letter.

(8) चर् कृ + इरे । By 7-4-62 कुहोश्चुः, in a reduplicate (अभ्यासः – ref. 6-1-4 पूर्वोऽभ्यासः), a letter of the कवर्गः or हकारः is replaced by a letter of the चवर्गः । The substitutions take place as per 1-1-50 स्थानेऽन्तरतमः

(9) च कृ + इरे । By 7-4-60 हलादिः शेषः, of the consonants of a reduplicate (अभ्यासः – ref. 6-1-4 पूर्वोऽभ्यासः), only the one (if any) at the beginning is retained, the rest are elided.

(10) चक्रिरे । By 6-1-77 इको यणचि

Questions:

1. In the गीता where has √कृ (तनादि-गणः, डुकृञ् करणे, धातु-पाठः # ८. १०) been used with a आत्मनेपद-प्रत्यय: in the विवक्षा of लँङ्, कर्तरि प्रयोग:, प्रथम-पुरुषः, बहुवचनम्?

2. What would have been the final form in this example if a परस्मैपद-प्रत्यय: had been used?

3. Which सर्वनाम-प्रातिपदिकम् has been used in the from एनाम् (स्त्रीलिङ्गे द्वितीया-एकवचनम्)?
i. “इदम्”
ii. “एतद्”
iii. Either “इदम्” or “एतद्”
iv. Neither “इदम्” nor “एतद्”

4. Which सूत्रम् is used for the “ईट्”-आगम: in अब्रवीत्?

5. Where has 3-4-85 लोटो लङ्वत्‌ been used in the verse?

6. How would you say this in Sanskrit?
“Sri Rama performed the final rites of the vulture Jatayu.” Use the (compound) feminine प्रातिपदिकम् “अन्त्यक्रिया” for “final rite”, use the masculine/neuter प्रातिपदिकम् “गृध्र” for “vulture” and “जटायुस्” for “Jatayu.”

Easy questions:

1. Can you spot a “आट्”-आगम: in the verse?

2. Where has 7-1-17 जसः शी been used in the verse?

रेमिरे 3Ap-लिँट्

Today we will look at the form रेमिरे 3Ap-लिँट् from श्रीमद्भागवतम् 10.35.26

श्रीशुक उवाच
एवं व्रजस्त्रियो राजन्कृष्णलीला नु गायतीः ।
रेमिरेऽहःसु तच्चित्तास्तन्मनस्का महोदयाः ।। १०-३५-२६ ।।

श्रीधर-स्वामि-टीका
एवं विरहदुःखेनापि नु अहो कृष्णलीला एव गायन्त्यस्तस्मिंश्चित्तं चेतना जीवितं यासां तास्तस्मिन्नेव मनः संकल्परूपं यासां ताः, अतो महानुदय उत्सवो यासां ता अहःस्वपि रेमिरे ।।

Gita Press translation – Śrī Śuka continued : “In this way, Oh Parīkṣit, the women of Vraja, whose intellect and mind were absorbed in Him and who were therefore full of great rejoicing, delightfully spent their time (even) during the day, celebrating in song the pastimes of Śrī Kṛṣṇa.”

रेमिरे is derived from the धातुः √रम् (भ्वादि-गणः, रमुँ क्रीडायाम् । रमँ इति माधवः, धातु-पाठः #१. ९८९)

The विवक्षा is लँट्, कर्तरि प्रयोग:, प्रथम-पुरुषः, बहुवचनम्।

The ending उकारः/अकार: of √रम्-धातुः gets the इत्-सञ्ज्ञा by 1-3-2 उपदेशेऽजनुनासिक इत् and takes लोप: by 1-3-9 तस्य लोपः। This इत् has a अनुदात्त-स्वर:। Thus by 1-3-12 अनुदात्तङित आत्मनेपदम् √रम् takes आत्मनेपद-प्रत्ययाः। As per 1-4-100 तङानावात्मनेपदम्, the nine प्रत्यया: from “त” to “महिङ्” get the आत्मनेपद-सञ्ज्ञा। So √रम् can take only one of these nine प्रत्यया: in कर्तरि प्रयोग:।

The विवक्षा is लिँट्, कर्तरि प्रयोग:, प्रथम-पुरुषः, बहुवचनम्, hence the प्रत्ययः is “झ”।

(1) रम् + लिँट् । By 3-2-115 परोक्षे लिँट् , the affix लिँट् (Perfect Tense) comes after a verbal root in the sense of the past not of today, provided that the action is unperceived by the narrator.

(2) रम् + ल् । अनुबन्ध-लोपः by 1-3-2 उपदेशेऽजनुनासिक इत्, 1-3-3 हलन्त्यम्, 1-3-9 तस्य लोपः

(3) रम् + झ । 3-4-78 तिप्तस्झिसिप्थस्थमिब्वस्मस्तातांझथासाथांध्वमिड्वहिमहिङ् mandates the प्रत्ययः “झ” as the substitute for the लकारः। By 3-4-115 लिट् च, a तिङ्-प्रत्यय: which comes in place of लिँट् gets the आर्धधातुक-सञ्ज्ञा। Therefore “झ” gets the आर्धधातुक-सञ्ज्ञा। This prevents 3-1-68 कर्तरि शप्‌ (which requires a सार्वधातुक-प्रत्यय: to follow) from applying.

(4) रम् + इरेच् । By 3-4-81 लिटस्तझयोरेशिरेच्, when they come in place of लिँट्, the affixes “त” and “झ” take the substitutions “एश्” and “इरेच्” respectively.
As per 1-3-10 यथासंख्यमनुदेशः समानाम्, 1-1-55 अनेकाल् शित् सर्वस्य, “इरेच्” comes as a substitute for “झ”।

(5) रम् + इरे । अनुबन्ध-लोपः by 1-3-3 हलन्त्यम्, 1-3-9 तस्य लोपः

(6) रम् रम् + इरे । By 6-1-8 लिटि धातोरनभ्यासस्य, when लिँट् follows a verbal root, there is reduplication of the first portion – containing a single vowel – of the verbal root which is not already reduplicated. But if the verbal root (that has more than one vowel) begins with a vowel, then the reduplication is of the second portion – containing a single vowel.

(7) र रम् + इरे । By 7-4-60 हलादिः शेषः, of the consonants of a reduplicate (अभ्यासः – ref. 6-1-4 पूर्वोऽभ्यासः), only the one (if any) at the beginning is retained, the rest are elided.

(8) रेमिरे । By 6-4-120 अत एकहल्मध्येऽनादेशादेर्लिटि, the अकार: of a अङ्गम् takes एकार: as the substitute and simultaneously there is लोप: (elision) of the अभ्यास:, when all the following conditions are satisfied:
(i) the अकार: is preceded and followed by a single (non-conjunct) consonant
(ii) the अङ्गम् is followed by a लिँट् affix which is कित्
(iii) in place of the first letter of the अङ्गम् there is no आदेश: (substitution) that is based on the लिँट् affix.

Note : By 1-2-5 असंयोगाल्लिट् कित्, a लिँट् affix which is not a पित् – does not have पकार: as a इत् – shall be considered to be a कित् (as having ककार: as a इत्), as long as there is no संयोग: (conjunction consonant) prior to the affix. Hence “इरेच्” is a कित्-प्रत्यय: here. This allows 6-4-120 to apply.

Questions:

1. Where has √रम् (भ्वादि-गणः, रमुँ क्रीडायाम् । रमँ इति माधवः, धातु-पाठः #१. ९८९) been used in a तिङन्तं पदम् in Chapter Eighteen of the गीता?

2. The word अह:सु used in the verse is सप्तमी-बहुवचनम् of the neuter प्रातिपदिकम् “अहन्”। Can you recall a सूत्रम् (which we have studied) in which पाणिनि: specifically mentions “अहन्”?

3. In the verse can you spot a आर्ष-प्रयोग: (a archaic form which is not according to the rules of grammar)?

4. Commenting on the सूत्रम् 6-4-120 अत एकहल्मध्येऽनादेशादेर्लिटि, the काशिका says – तपरकरणं किम्? ररासे। Please explain.

5. Commenting further on the same सूत्रम्, the काशिका says – एकहल्मध्ये इति किम्? शश्रमतुः। Please explain.

6. How would you say this in Sanskrit?
“Observing the beauty of nature, Sita delightfully spent her time with Sri Rama in the forest.” Use the adjective प्रातिपदिकम् “अवलोकयत्” (feminine “अवलोकयन्ती”) for “observing.”

Easy questions:

1. Why didn’t the सूत्रम् 6-1-102 प्रथमयोः पूर्वसवर्णः apply in the form गायन्त्य: (स्त्रीलिङ्ग-प्रातिपदिकम् “गायन्ती”, प्रथमा-बहुवचनम्) used in the commentary?

2. Can you spot a “सुँट्”-आगम: in the commentary?

मेने 3As-लिँट्

Today we will look at the form मेने 3As-लिँट् from श्रीमद्भागवतम् 3.1.9

यदा च पार्थप्रहितः सभायां जगद्गुरुर्यानि जगाद कृष्णः ।
न तानि पुंसाममृतायनानि राजोरु मेने क्षतपुण्यलेशः ।। ३-१-९ ।।

श्रीधर-स्वामि-टीका
यानि वचनानि पुंसां भीष्मादीनाममृतायनान्यमृतस्रावीणि राजा धृतराष्ट्रो दुर्योधनो वा उरु बहु न मेने । क्षतो नष्टः पुण्यलेशो यस्य सः । न सुखकीर्तिधर्मादिहेतुः किंतु राज्यप्राप्तिमात्रहेतुः पुण्यलेश एवासीत्तस्यापि नष्टत्वादनादृतवानित्यर्थः ।।

Gita Press translation “When Śrī Kṛṣṇa, the Preceptor of the universe, was sent by Yudhiṣṭhira to the Kaurava court, He spoke there words which were full of nectar to His devotees (Bhīṣma and others); but the king (Duryodhana) attached no importance to them, since all his stock of merits had been exhausted.”

Note: “attached importance” is the translation of “उरु मेने” = “बहु मेने” = “thought highly.”

मेने is derived from the धातुः √मन् (दिवादि-गणः, मनँ ज्ञाने, धातु-पाठः # ४. ७३) or √मन् (तनादि-गणः, मनुँ अवबोधने, धातु-पाठः # ८. ९)

The ending vowel (अकार: of “मनँ” and उकार: of “मनुँ”) gets the इत्-सञ्ज्ञा by 1-3-2 उपदेशेऽजनुनासिक इत् and takes लोप: by 1-3-9 तस्य लोपः। This vowel has a अनुदात्त-स्वर:। Thus by 1-3-12 अनुदात्तङित आत्मनेपदम्, √मन् takes आत्मनेपद-प्रत्ययाः। As per 1-4-100 तङानावात्मनेपदम्, the nine प्रत्यया: from “त” to “महिङ्” get the आत्मनेपद-सञ्ज्ञा। So √मन् can take only one of these nine प्रत्यया: in कर्तरि प्रयोग:।

The विवक्षा is लिँट्, कर्तरि प्रयोग:, प्रथम-पुरुषः, एकवचनम्, hence the प्रत्ययः is “त”।

(1) मन् + लिँट् । By 3-2-115 परोक्षे लिँट्, the affix लिँट् (Perfect Tense) comes after a verbal root in the sense of the past not of today, provided that the action is unperceived by the narrator.

(2) मन् + ल् । अनुबन्ध-लोपः by 1-3-2 उपदेशेऽजनुनासिक इत्, 1-3-3 हलन्त्यम्, 1-3-9 तस्य लोपः

(3) मन् + त । 3-4-78 तिप्तस्झिसिप्थस्थमिब्वस्मस्तातांझथासाथांध्वमिड्वहिमहिङ् mandates the प्रत्ययः “त” as the substitute for the लकारः। By 3-4-115 लिट् च, a तिङ्-प्रत्यय: which comes in place of लिँट् gets the आर्धधातुक-सञ्ज्ञा। Therefore “त” gets the आर्धधातुक-सञ्ज्ञा। This prevents 3-1-68 कर्तरि शप्‌ (which requires a सार्वधातुक-प्रत्यय: to follow) from applying.

(4) मन् + एश् । By 3-4-81 लिटस्तझयोरेशिरेच्, when they come in place of लिँट्, the affixes “त” and “झ” take the substitutions “एश्” and “इरेच्” respectively.
As per 1-3-10 यथासंख्यमनुदेशः समानाम्, 1-1-55 अनेकाल् शित् सर्वस्य, “एश्” comes as a substitute for “त”।

(5) मन् + ए । अनुबन्ध-लोपः by 1-3-3 हलन्त्यम्, 1-3-9 तस्य लोपः

(6) मन् मन् + ए । By 6-1-8 लिटि धातोरनभ्यासस्य, when लिँट् follows a verbal root, there is reduplication of the first portion – containing a single vowel – of the verbal root which is not already reduplicated. But if the verbal root (that has more than one vowel) begins with a vowel, then the reduplication is of the second portion – containing a single vowel.

(7) म मन् + ए । By 7-4-60 हलादिः शेषः, of the consonants of a reduplicate (अभ्यासः – ref. 6-1-4 पूर्वोऽभ्यासः), only the one (if any) at the beginning is retained, the rest are elided.

(8) मेने । By 6-4-120 अत एकहल्मध्येऽनादेशादेर्लिटि, the अकार: of a अङ्गम् takes एकार: as the substitute and simultaneously there is लोप: (elision) of the अभ्यास:, when all the following conditions are satisfied:
(i) the अकार: is preceded and followed by a single (non-conjunct) consonant
(ii) the अङ्गम् is followed by a लिँट् affix which is कित्
(iii) in place of the first letter of the अङ्गम् there is no आदेश: (substitution) that is based on the लिँट् affix.

Note : By 1-2-5 असंयोगाल्लिट् कित्, a लिँट् affix which is not a पित् – does not have पकार: as a इत् – shall be considered to be a कित् (as having ककार: as a इत्), as long as there is no संयोग: (conjunction consonant) prior to the affix. Hence “एश्” is a कित्-प्रत्यय: here. This allows 6-4-120 to apply.

Questions:

1. The word पुंसाम् used in the verse is षष्ठी-बहुवचनम् of the प्रातिपदिकम् “पुम्स्”। Where in the गीता has this प्रातिपदिकम् been used in षष्ठी-एकवचनम्?

2. Where has 8-2-2 नलोपः सुप्स्वरसंज्ञातुग्विधिषु कृति been used in the verse?

3. Does 6-4-120 अत एकहल्मध्येऽनादेशादेर्लिटि (used in step 8 in the example) belong to the अधिकार: “भस्य”? Does it belong to the अधिकार: “असिद्धवत्”? Does it belong to the अधिकार: “अङ्गस्य”?

4. Can you spot a “णल्”-प्रत्यय: in the verse?

5. Can you spot a “ईट्”-आगम: in the commentary?

6. How would you say this in Sanskrit?
“Sita said to Ravana, ‘I don’t consider you worth even a straw.'” Use the neuter प्रातिपदिकम् “तृण” for “straw” and √मन् (दिवादि-गणः, मनँ ज्ञाने, धातु-पाठः # ४. ७३) for “to consider worth.” Use a word from the verse for “said.”

Easy questions:

1. Which सूत्रम् is used for the “याट्”-आगम: in the form सभायाम् (स्त्रीलिङ्ग-प्रातिपदिकम् “सभा”, सप्तमी-एकवचनम्)?

2. Where has 6-4-3 नामि been used in the commentary?

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