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परिचङ्क्रमन्ति 3Ap-लँट्

Today we will look at the form परिचङ्क्रमन्ति 3Ap-लँट् from श्रीमद्भागवतम् 5.23.3.

श्रीधर-स्वामि-टीका
यथा मेढीस्तम्भ आक्रमणपशवः संयोजितास्त्रिभिस्त्रिभिः सवनैर्यथास्थानं मण्डलानि चरन्त्येवं भगणा ग्रहादय एतस्मिन्नन्तर्बहिर्योगेन कालचक्र आयोजिता ध्रुवमेवावलम्ब्य वायुनोदीर्यमाणा आकल्पान्तं परिचङ्क्रमन्ति नभसि यथा मेघाः श्येनादयो वायुवशाः कर्मसारथयः परिवर्तन्ते एवं ज्योतिर्गणाः प्रकृतिपुरुषसंयोगानुगृहीताः कर्मनिर्मितगतयो भुवि न पतन्ति ॥ ५-२३-३ ॥

मेढीस्तम्भे बद्धा धान्याक्रमणपशवो बलीवर्दाः । कर्म सारथिः सहायो येषाम् ॥ ३ ॥

Gita Press translation – Just as (pairs of) oxen, trampling corn (in order to thresh it) while (remaining) tied to a post in the middle of a threshing-floor, walk round in their respective spheres, in three circles (gradually receding from that post,) so the host of luminaries including the planets – fastened as they are to the aforesaid wheel (revolving movement) of Time either in the inner circle (remote from the earth) or in the outer one (nearer the earth) and propelled by the wind (called Pravaha and referred to passage 8 of the Discourse XXI) – revolve round the pole-star as the pivot till the end of a Kalpa (the life-time of the three worlds) in three courses (northward, southward and along the equator.) (And just) as clouds and birds such as the hawk move about in the sky, suspended in the air and helped by their destiny (which keeps them floating in the air and prevents them from falling down,) so the hosts of luminaries (which are no other than particular Jīvas appearing in those form) – brought into existence by the union of matter and Spirit (occasioned by the destiny responsible for their assuming such forms) and reaping the fruit yielded by their (past) actions – (move about in the air and) do not fall to the ground (3).

परिचङ्क्रमन्ति is a frequentative/intensive form derived from √क्रम् (क्रमुँ पादविक्षेपे १. ५४५).

पुनः पुनर्भृशं वा क्रामन्ति = चङ्क्रमन्ति। Note: चङ्क्रमन्ति is a आर्ष-प्रयोगः। See note after step 13.

(1) क्रम् + यङ् । By 3-1-22 धातोरेकाचो हलादेः क्रियासमभिहारे यङ् – The affix “यङ्” is prescribed after a consonant-beginning mono-syllabic verbal root to denote an action done repeatedly or intensely.
Note: As per 3-1-23 नित्यं कौटिल्ये गतौ – Following a verbal root used to denote motion, the affix “यङ्” is prescribed only in the sense of crookedness (and not in the sense of repetition or intensity.) But according to some grammarians (particularly नागेशः) the affix यङ् may also be used क्रियासमभिहारे (in the sense of repetition or intensity) after a verbal root (like √क्रम्) used to denote motion.

(2) क्रम् । By 2-4-74 यङोऽचि च – The affix यङ् takes the लुक् elision when followed by the affix “अच्”। The use of च in the सूत्रम् indicates that the affix “यङ्” takes the लुक् elision variously (irregularly) even when not followed by the affix “अच्”।
Note: There is no change in meaning caused by this लुक् elision of the affix “यङ्”। Both “यङ्” and “यङ्-लुक्” convey the same meaning.
Note: The term “अच्” used in this सूत्रम् 2-4-74 refers to the affix “अच्” and not the प्रत्याहारः “अच्” (vowel.)
Note: As per the परिभाषा-सूत्रम् 1-1-61 प्रत्ययस्य लुक्श्लुलुपः the entire affix “यङ्” is elided.

(3) क्रम् क्रम् । By 6-1-9 सन्यङोः – There is reduplication of the first portion – containing a single vowel – of a verbal root ending in the affix सन्/यङ् which is not already reduplicated. But if the verbal root (that has more than one vowel) begins with a vowel, then the reduplication is of the second portion – containing a single vowel.
Note: Even though the यङ्-प्रत्ययः is elided, it is considered as following the अङ्गम् by 1-1-62 प्रत्ययलोपे प्रत्ययलक्षणम्।

(4) च्रम् क्रम् । By 7-4-62 कुहोश्चुः, in a reduplicate (अभ्यासः – ref. 6-1-4 पूर्वोऽभ्यासः), a letter of the कवर्गः or हकारः is replaced by a letter of the चवर्गः । The substitutions take place as per 1-1-50 स्थानेऽन्तरतमः

(5) च क्रम् । By 7-4-60 हलादिः शेषः – Of the consonants of a reduplicate (अभ्यासः – ref. 6-1-4 पूर्वोऽभ्यासः), only the one (if any) at the beginning is retained, the rest are elided.

(6) चं क्रम् । By 7-4-85 नुगतोऽनुनासिकान्तस्य – When followed by either the affix “यङ्” or a लुक् elided affix “यङ्”, the reduplicate (अभ्यासः) takes the augment “नुक्” provided the following conditions are satisfied : i) the अभ्यासः belongs to a अङ्गम् ending in a nasal consonant and ii) the अभ्यासः ends in a अकारः।

Note: नुकानुस्वारो लक्ष्यते – The augment “नुक्” prescribed in the section from 7-4-85 to 7-4-87 stands for a अनुस्वारः।

(7) चङ्क्रम्/चंक्रम् । By 8-4-59 वा पदान्तस्य – When an अनुस्वारः occurs at the end of a पदम् and is followed by a यय् letter, then it is optionally substituted by a letter which is सवर्ण: with that following यय् letter.
Note: As per the वार्तिकम् (under 7-4-85), पदान्तवच्चेति वक्तव्यम् – The augment अनुस्वारः prescribed in the section from 7-4-85 to 7-4-87 should be treated as if it is at the end of a पदम्। Note: This allows 8-4-59 वा पदान्तस्य to apply.

“चङ्क्रम्” gets the धातु-सञ्ज्ञा by 3-1-32 सनाद्यन्ता धातवः with the help of the परिभाषा “एकदेशविकृतमनन्यवत्” – A thing is called or taken as that very thing although it is lacking in a part.
Alternately, terms ending in यङ्-लुक् get the धातु-सञ्ज्ञा on the basis of the fact that the गणसूत्रम् – चर्करीतं च (चर्करीतम् is an ancient name for a धातुः ending in यङ्-लुक्) is placed in the धातु-पाठः (in the अदादि-गणः)। Hence “चङ्क्रम्” gets the धातु-सञ्ज्ञा।

Note: As per the गणसूत्रम् “चर्करीतं च” – A धातुः ending in यङ्-लुक् is also considered to belong to the अदादि-गणः and takes परस्मैपदम् affixes only (in कर्तरि प्रयोगः।) Therefore in कर्तरि प्रयोगः, “चङ्क्रम्” takes परस्मैपद-प्रत्ययाः।

The विवक्षा is लँट्, कर्तरि, प्रथम-पुरुषः, बहुवचनम्।

(8) चङ्क्रम् + लँट् । By 3-2-123 वर्तमाने लट्, the affix लँट् comes after a धातुः when denoting an action in the present tense.

(9) चङ्क्रम् + ल् । अनुबन्ध-लोपः by 1-3-2 उपदेशेऽजनुनासिक इत्, 1-3-3 हलन्त्यम्, 1-3-9 तस्य लोपः

(10) चङ्क्रम् + झि । 3-4-78 तिप्तस्झिसिप्थस्थमिब्वस्मस्तातांझथासाथांध्वमिड्वहिमहिङ् mandates “झि” as the substitute for the लकारः।

(11) चङ्क्रम् + शप् + झि । By 3-1-68 कर्तरि शप्‌, the शप्-प्रत्यय: is placed after a verbal root, when followed by a सार्वधातुक-प्रत्यय: that is used signifying the agent. Note: As per the गणसूत्रम् “चर्करीतं च” the धातुः “चङ्क्रम्” is considered to belong to the अदादि-गणः। This allows 2-4-72 to apply in the next step.

(12) चङ्क्रम् + झि । By 2-4-72 अदिप्रभृतिभ्यः शपः – The शप्-प्रत्ययः takes the लुक् elision when following a verbal root belonging to अदादि-गणः।

(13) चङ्क्रमन्ति । By 7-1-3 झोऽन्तः, “अन्त्” comes in as a replacement for the झकारः of a प्रत्यय:।
Note: चङ्क्रमन्ति is a आर्ष-प्रयोगः। Instead of 7-1-3 झोऽन्तः, the सूत्रम् 7-1-4 अदभ्यस्तात्‌ should have applied here giving the grammatically correct form चङ्क्रमति।

“परि” is the उपसर्गः (ref. 1-4-59 उपसर्गाः क्रियायोगे, 1-4-80 ते प्राग्धातोः।)
परि + चङ्क्रमन्ति = परिचङ्क्रमन्ति ।

Questions:

1. Where has the verbal root √क्रम् (क्रमुँ पादविक्षेपे १. ५४५) been used in a तिङन्तं पदम् in the गीता?

2. Commenting on the सूत्रम् 2-4-74 यङोऽचि च the काशिका says चकारेण बहुलग्रहणमनुकृष्यते, न तु छन्दसीति। तेन छन्दसि भाषायां च यङो लुग् भवति। Please explain.

3. Commenting on the सूत्रम् 7-4-85 नुगतोऽनुनासिकान्तस्य the काशिका says अत इति किम्? तेतिम्यते। Please explain.

4. Commenting on the सूत्रम् 7-4-85 the काशिका says अनुनासिकान्तस्येति किम्? पापच्यते। Please explain.

5. Commenting on the सूत्रम् 7-4-85 the सिद्धान्त-कौमुदी says तपरत्वसामर्थ्याद्भूतपूर्वदीर्घस्यापि न। ‘भामँ’ क्रोधे। बाभाम्यते। Please explain.

6. How would you say this in Sanskrit?
“The moon revolves around the earth.” Use the अव्ययम् ‘परितस्’ for “around” and use द्वितीया-विभक्तिः with “the earth”.

Easy Questions:

1. Where has the सूत्रम् 7-3-120 आङो नाऽस्त्रियाम् been used in the verses?

2. In the verses can you spot a प्रातिपदिकम् which is always used in the plural?

रोरवीषि 2As-लँट्

Today we will look at the form रोरवीषि 2As-लँट् from श्रीमद्भागवतम् 10.90.16.

महिष्य ऊचुः
कुररि विलपसि त्वं वीतनिद्रा न शेषे स्वपिति जगति रात्र्यामीश्वरो गुप्तबोधः । वयमिव सखि कच्चिद्गाढनिर्भिन्नचेता नलिननयनहासोदारलीलेक्षितेन ॥ १०-९०-१५ ॥
नेत्रे निमीलयसि नक्तमदृष्टबन्धुस्त्वं रोरवीषि करुणं बत चक्रवाकि । दास्यं गत वयमिवाच्युतपादजुष्टां किं वा स्रजं स्पृहयसे कबरेण वोढुम् ॥ १०-९०-१६ ॥

ईश्वरः श्रीकृष्णः स्वपितित्वं तु निद्राभङ्गं कुर्वती विलपसि न शेषे स्वपिषि तदनुचितमित्यर्थः । अथवा नापराधस्तवापीत्याशयेनाहुः – नलिननयनस्य भगवतो हासेन सहितमुदारं यल्लीलेक्षितं तेन कच्चिद्गाढं निर्विद्धचेतास्त्वमिति ॥ १५ ॥ नक्तं रात्रावदृष्टबन्धुः सती रोरवीषिकिं वा नैतावदपि तु वयमिव स्पृहयसे ॥ १६ ॥

Gita Press translation – The queens said : O she-osprey, we are in the depth of the night now, and the whole world appears to be one big void. The Lord Himself has buried His ever wakeful consciousness (for the time being), and has gone to sleep. But your eyes know no sleep. Why do you wail and lament thus, keeping awake for the whole night? O friend, it seems your heart has been pierced, equally with that of ours, by the (sweet) smiles and gracious and sportive glances  of the Lotus-eyed Lord. Surely that is the reason why you do not get sleep (15). O red goose, why have you closed your eyes during the night? Is it because your partner has gone out of sight that you wail so piteously? If so, we are really sorry for you. Or is it that you are possessed like us with the desire of waiting upon the Lord, and long to adorn your braid with the garland offered at the feet of the Lord? (16)

रोरवीषि is a frequentative/intensive form derived from √रु (रु शब्दे, अदादि-गणः, धातु-पाठः #२. २८).

पुनः पुनर्भृशं वा रौषि = रोरवीषि।

(1) रु + यङ् । By 3-1-22 धातोरेकाचो हलादेः क्रियासमभिहारे यङ् – The affix “यङ्” is prescribed after a consonant-beginning mono-syllabic verbal root to denote an action done repeatedly or intensely.

(2) रु । By 2-4-74 यङोऽचि च – The affix यङ् takes the लुक् elision when followed by the affix “अच्”। The use of च in the सूत्रम् indicates that the affix “यङ्” takes the लुक् elision variously (irregularly) even when not followed by the affix “अच्”।
Note: There is no change in meaning caused by this लुक् elision of the affix “यङ्”। Both “यङ्” and “यङ्-लुक्” convey the same meaning.
Note: The term “अच्” used in this सूत्रम् 2-4-74 refers to the affix “अच्” and not the प्रत्याहारः “अच्” (vowel.)
Note: As per the परिभाषा-सूत्रम् 1-1-61 प्रत्ययस्य लुक्श्लुलुपः the entire affix “यङ्” is elided.

(3) रु रु । By 6-1-9 सन्यङोः – There is reduplication of the first portion – containing a single vowel – of a verbal root ending in the affix सन्/यङ् which is not already reduplicated. But if the verbal root (that has more than one vowel) begins with a vowel, then the reduplication is of the second portion – containing a single vowel.
Note: Even though the यङ्-प्रत्ययः is elided, it is considered as following the अङ्गम् by 1-1-62 प्रत्ययलोपे प्रत्ययलक्षणम्।

(4) रोरु । By 7-4-82 गुणो यङ्लुकोः – The (ending इक्) letter of a reduplicate (अभ्यासः) takes a गुणः substitute when followed by either the affix “यङ्” or a लुक् elided affix “यङ्”। Note: As per the परिभाषा-सूत्रम् 1-1-3 इको गुणवृद्धी, the गुणः substitute prescribed by 7-4-82 applies only to a इक् letter. As per परिभाषा-सूत्रम् 1-1-52 अलोऽन्त्यस्य, only the ending (इक्) letter takes the गुणः substitute.

“रोरु” gets the धातु-सञ्ज्ञा by 3-1-32 सनाद्यन्ता धातवः with the help of the परिभाषा “एकदेशविकृतमनन्यवत्” – A thing is called or taken as that very thing although it is lacking in a part.
Alternately, terms ending in यङ्-लुक् get the धातु-सञ्ज्ञा on the basis of the fact that the गणसूत्रम् – चर्करीतं च (चर्करीतम् is an ancient name for a धातुः ending in यङ्-लुक्) is placed in the धातु-पाठः (in the अदादि-गणः)। Hence “रोरु” gets the धातु-सञ्ज्ञा।

Note: As per the गणसूत्रम् “चर्करीतं च” – A धातुः ending in यङ्-लुक् is also considered to belong to the अदादि-गणः and takes परस्मैपदम् affixes only (in कर्तरि प्रयोगः।) Therefore in कर्तरि प्रयोगः, “रोरु” takes परस्मैपद-प्रत्ययाः।

The विवक्षा is लँट्, कर्तरि प्रयोगः, मध्यम-पुरुषः, एकवचनम्।

(5) रोरु + लँट् । By 3-2-123 वर्तमाने लट्, the affix लँट् comes after a धातुः when denoting an action in the present tense.

(6) रोरु + ल् । अनुबन्ध-लोपः by 1-3-2 उपदेशेऽजनुनासिक इत्, 1-3-3 हलन्त्यम्, 1-3-9 तस्य लोपः

(7) रोरु + सिप् । 3-4-78 तिप्तस्झिसिप्थस्थमिब्वस्मस्तातांझथासाथांध्वमिड्वहिमहिङ् mandates “सिप्” as the substitute for the लकारः।

(8) रोरु + सि । अनुबन्ध-लोपः by 1-3-3 हलन्त्यम् and 1-3-9 तस्य लोपः

(9) रोरु + शप् + सि ।  By 3-1-68 कर्तरि शप्‌, the शप्-प्रत्यय: is placed after a verbal root, when followed by a सार्वधातुक-प्रत्यय: that is used signifying the agent. Note: As per the गणसूत्रम् “चर्करीतं च” the धातुः “रोरु” is considered to belong to the अदादि-गणः। This allows 2-4-72 to apply in the next step.

(10) रोरु + सि । By 2-4-72 अदिप्रभृतिभ्यः शपः – The शप्-प्रत्ययः takes the लुक् elision when following a verbal root belonging to अदादि-गणः।

(11) रोरु + ईट् सि । By 7-3-94 यङो वा – When preceded by the verbal root ending in the affix “यङ्” which has taken the लुक् elision, a सार्वधातुक-प्रत्ययः which is हलादि: (beginning with a consonant) and is a पित्, optionally gets the augment ईट्। 1-1-46 आद्यन्तौ टकितौ places the “ईट्”-आगमः at the beginning of the प्रत्यय:। See question 1.

(12) रोरु + ईसि । अनुबन्ध-लोपः by 1-3-3 हलन्त्यम् and 1-3-9 तस्य लोपः

(13) रोरो + ईसि । By 7-3-84 सार्वधातुकार्धधातुकयोः – An अङ्गम् whose final letter is an इक् gets गुण-आदेशः, when a सार्वधातुक-प्रत्यय: or an आर्धधातुक-प्रत्यय: follows.

(14) रोरवीसि । By 6-1-78 एचोऽयवायावः।

(15) रोरवीषि । By 8-3-59 आदेशप्रत्यययो:, the letter “स्” is replaced by the cerebral “ष्” when preceded either by a letter of the इण्-प्रत्याहार: or a letter of the क-वर्ग: (“क्”, “ख्”, “ग्”, “घ्”, “ङ्”)। This substitution only takes place if the “स्” is an आदेश: (substitute) or part of a प्रत्यय: (affix.)

Questions:

1. In this example what would be the final form in the case when the optional augment ईट् by 7-3-94 यङो वा is not used?

2. Commenting on the लुक् elision prescribed by the सूत्रम् 2-4-74 यङोऽचि च the सिद्धान्त-कौमुदी says अनैमित्तिकोऽयम् अन्तरङ्गत्वाद् आदौ भवति। Please explain.

3. Which सूत्रम् is used for the गुणादेशः in the form शेषे?

4. In the verses can you spot a अदन्त-धातुः (verbal root ending in a अकारः) used in a तिङन्तं पदम्?

5. How would you say this in Sanskrit?
“When all the children scream repeatedly our house trembles!”

Advanced Question:

1. Derive the form स्वपिति from the verbal root √स्वप् (ञिष्वपँ शये २. ६३). The विवक्षा is लँट्, कर्तरि, प्रथम-पुरुषः, एकवचनम्।
Note: You will need to use the following सूत्रम् 7-2-76 रुदादिभ्यः सार्वधातुके – वृत्तिः रुद् स्वप् श्वस् अन् जक्ष एभ्यो वलादेः सार्वधातुकस्येट् स्यात् – A सार्वधातुक-प्रत्यय: beginning with a letter of the वल्-प्रत्याहारः gets the augment इट् when following the verbal root √रुद् (रुदिँर् अश्रुविमोचने २. ६२), √स्वप् (ञिष्वपँ शये २. ६३), श्वस् (श्वसँ प्राणने २. ६४), अन् (अनँ च [प्राणने]२. ६५) or जक्ष् (जक्षँ भक्ष्यहसनयोः २. ६६). We have not discussed this सूत्रम् in the class but we have used it in a prior post.

Easy Questions:

1. Can you spot a “शी”-आदेशः in the verses?

2. In the commentary where has the सूत्रम् 8-4-60 तोर्लि been used?

बुभुत्सया fIs

Today we will look at the form बुभुत्सया fIs from श्रीमद्भागवतम् 10.84.30.

श्रीवसुदेव उवाच
नमो वः सर्वदेवेभ्य ऋषयः श्रोतुमर्हथ । कर्मणा कर्मनिर्हारो यथा स्यान्नस्तदुच्यताम् ॥ १०-८४-२९ ॥
श्रीनारद उवाच
नातिचित्रमिदं विप्रा वसुदेवो बुभुत्सया । कृष्णं मत्वार्भकं यन्नः पृच्छति श्रेय आत्मनः ॥ १०-८४-३० ॥

श्रीधर-स्वामि-टीका
सर्वे देवा येषु तेभ्यः – ‘यावतीर्वै देवतास्ताः सर्वा वेदविदि ब्राह्मणे वसन्ति’ इति श्रुतेः । येन कर्मणा यथाकृतेन वा कर्मणां निर्हारो निरासो भवति तदुच्यताम् ॥ २९ ॥ श्रीकृष्णं हित्वास्मान् पृच्छतीति विस्मितान्प्रत्याह – नातीति । बुभुत्सया बोद्धुमिच्छया ॥ ३० ॥

Gita Press translation – Vasudeva submitted : Sages, in you reside all the gods, I offer my salutations to you. Kindly listen to me. (Pray) tell us by what sort of activity one may be able to rid oneself of all Karma and (the desire of Karma) (29). Devarṣi Nārada replied : O sages, it is no great wonder that regarding Śrī Kṛṣṇa as his child, Vasudeva should inquire of us with a view to his enlightenment, the road to his spiritual welfare (30).

“बुभुत्स” is a सन्नन्त-धातुः derived from the verbal root √बुध् (दिवादि-गणः, बुधँ अवगमने, धातु-पाठः # ४. ६८).

(1) बुध् + सन् । As per 3-1-7 धातोः कर्मणः समानकर्तृकादिच्छायां वा – In order to express wish/desire, the affix सन् is optionally prescribed after a verbal root which underlies the object of and shares the same agent with the verbal root √इष् (इषुँ इच्छायाम् ६. ७८).

(2) बुध् + स । अनुबन्ध-लोपः by 1-3-3 हलन्त्यम्, 1-3-9 तस्य लोपः

Note: 7-2-10 एकाच उपदेशेऽनुदात्तात्‌ stops 7-2-35 आर्धधातुकस्येड् वलादेः।
Note: By 1-2-10 हलन्ताच्च – The affix सन् is considered to be a कित् (having ककारः as a इत्) when it begins with a झल् letter and follows a consonant adjoining a इक् letter. This allows 1-1-5 क्क्ङिति च to stop 7-3-86 पुगन्तलघूपधस्य च ।

(3) बुध्स् बुध्स । By 6-1-9 सन्यङोः – There is reduplication of the first portion – containing a single vowel – of a verbal root ending in the affix सन्/यङ् which is not already reduplicated. But if the verbal root (that has more than one vowel) begins with a vowel, then the reduplication is of the second portion – containing a single vowel.

(4) बु बुध्स । By 7-4-60 हलादिः शेषः – Of the consonants of a reduplicate (अभ्यासः – ref. 6-1-4 पूर्वोऽभ्यासः), only the one (if any) at the beginning is retained, the rest are elided.

(5) बुभुध्स । By 8-2-37 एकाचो बशो भष् झषन्तस्य स्ध्वोः – The part (in this case “बुध्”) of a धातुः (in this case “बुबुध्स”,) which ends in a झष् letter (in this case धकारः) and has only one vowel (in this case उकारः,) gets its बश् letter (in this case बकारः) replaced by the corresponding भष् letter (in this case भकारः) when followed by a सकारः, the term “ध्व्” or at the end of a पदम्।

(6) बुभुत्स । By 8-4-55 खरि च

“बुभुत्स” has धातु-सञ्ज्ञा by 3-1-32 सनाद्यन्ता धातवः

Now we form the feminine प्रातिपदिकम् “बुभुत्सा” from the सन्नन्त-धातुः “बुभुत्स”।

(7) बुभुत्स + अ । By 3-3-102 अ प्रत्ययात्‌ – In order to form a feminine noun, the affix “अ” is used following a verbal root ending in an affix. Note: A verbal root ending in an affix refers to a verbal root which gets the धातु-सञ्ज्ञा by the सूत्रम् 3-1-32 सनाद्यन्ता धातवः।
Note: The affix “अ” gets आर्धधातक-सञ्ज्ञा by 3-4-114 आर्धधातुकं शेषः

(8) बुभुत्स् + अ । By 6-4-48 अतो लोपः – When an आर्धधातुकम् affix follows, the अकारः at the end of a अङ्गम् is elided if the अङ्गम् ends in a अकार: at the time when the आर्धधातुकम् affix is prescribed.

= बुभुत्स । Note: Since the affix “अ” has the कृत्-सञ्ज्ञा by 3-1-93 कृदतिङ्, “बुभुत्स” gets प्रातिपदिक-सञ्ज्ञा by 1-2-46 कृत्तद्धितसमासाश्च

(9) बुभुत्स + टाप् । By 4-1-4 अजाद्यतष्टाप्‌ – The प्रातिपदिकानि “अज” etc. and प्रातिपदिकानि ending in अकारः get the टाप् affix in the feminine gender.

(10) बुभुत्स + आ । अनुबन्ध-लोपः by 1-3-3 हलन्त्यम्, 1-3-7 चुटू, 1-3-9 तस्य लोपः

(11) बुभुत्सा । By 6-1-101 अकः सवर्णे दीर्घः

The विवक्षा is तृतीया-एकवचनम्।

(12) बुभुत्सा + टा । By 4-1-2 स्वौजसमौट्छष्टाभ्याम्भिस्ङेभ्याम्भ्यस्ङसिँभ्याम्भ्यस्ङसोसाम्ङ्योस्सुप्

(13) बुभुत्सा + आ । अनुबन्ध-लोपः by 1-3-7 चुटू, 1-3-9 तस्य लोपः

(14) बुभुत्से + आ । By 7-3-105 आङि चापः – ”आप्” ending bases get एकारः as the substitute when followed by the affix “आङ्” (“टा”) or “ओस्”।

(15) बुभुत्सया । By 6-1-78 एचोऽयवायावः

Questions:

1. Consider the form निबोध used in the following verse in the गीता। From which verbal root is निबोध derived?
पञ्चैतानि महाबाहो कारणानि निबोध मे ।
साङ्ख्ये कृतान्ते प्रोक्तानि सिद्धये सर्वकर्मणाम्‌ ॥ 18-13 ॥

2. What would be the final form(s) in this example if the verbal root √बुध् (बुधँ अवगमने १. ९९४) were to be used (instead of बुधँ अवगमने ४. ६८)?

3. Which सूत्रम् is used for the सम्प्रसारणम् in the form पृच्छति? Which one is used in the form उच्यताम्?

4. How would you say this in Sanskrit?
“I want to wake up before sunrise.” Use the verbal root √बुध् (बुधँ अवगमने ४. ६८) with the उपसर्गः “प्र” for “to wake up.”

5. Consider the following verse of the गीता –
एतान्न हन्तुमिच्छामि घ्नतोऽपि मधुसूदन ।
अपि त्रैलोक्यराज्यस्य हेतोः किं नु महीकृते ॥ 1-35 ॥
What would be the equivalent सन्नन्त-प्रयोगः in place of हन्तुमिच्छामि?

6. Consider the following verse of the गीता –
स्वभावजेन कौन्तेय निबद्धः स्वेन कर्मणा ।
कर्तुं नेच्छसि यन्मोहात्करिष्यस्यवशोऽपि तत्‌ ॥ 18-60 ॥
What would be the equivalent सन्नन्त-प्रयोगः in place of कर्तुमिच्छसि?

Easy Questions:

1. Where has the सूत्रम् 7-1-3 झोऽन्तः been used in the commentary?

2. What is the विवक्षा in the form अर्हथ?
i) लँट्, कर्तरि-प्रयोग:, प्रथम-पुरुषः, द्विवचनम्
ii) लँट्, कर्तरि-प्रयोग:, मध्यम-पुरुषः, द्विवचनम्
iii) लँट्, कर्तरि-प्रयोग:, मध्यम-पुरुषः, बहुवचनम्
iv) लँट्, कर्तरि-प्रयोग:, प्रथम-पुरुषः, बहुवचनम्

रिरक्षिषुः mNs

Today we will look at the form रिरक्षिषुः mNs from श्रीमद्भागवतम् 4.17.35.

स वै भवानात्मविनिर्मितं जगद्भूतेन्द्रियान्तःकरणात्मकं विभो । संस्थापयिष्यन्नज मां रसातलादभ्युज्जहाराम्भस आदिसूकरः ॥ ४-१७-३४ ॥
अपामुपस्थे मयि नाव्यवस्थिताः प्रजा भवानद्य रिरक्षिषुः किल । स वीरमूर्तिः समभूद्धराधरो यो मां पयस्युग्रशरो जिघांससि ॥ ४-१७-३५ ॥

श्रीधर-स्वामि-टीका
प्राणिनां धारणार्थं मां रसातलादुद्धृत्येदानीं प्रजारक्षणे प्रवृत्तस्य मद्वधो न युक्त इति सकरुणमाह द्वाभ्याम् । हे अज, यः सृष्टवान्स एव भवान्स्वनिर्मितं चराचरं जगत्सम्यक् स्थापयितुमादिसूकरः सन् मामभ्युज्जहार ॥ ३४ ॥ एव धराधरो वराहोऽद्य अपामुपस्थे उपरि मयि नावि आधारभूतायामवस्थिताः प्रजा रक्षितुमिच्छुर्वीरमूर्तिः पृथुरूपः समभूत्। एवंभृतो यः स त्वं पयसि निमित्ते मां जिघांससीति चित्रमित्यर्थः ॥ ३५ ॥

Gita Press translation – It is You, O birthless Lord, who, in order to place on a sound footing the creation brought forth by You and consisting of the five gross elements, the Indriyas and the inner sense, lifted me up from the depths of the ocean and took me out of water assuming the form of the primaeval Boar (34). Appearing in the form of a hero, You, who once played the role of lifting up the earth, now seek to kill me with Your fierce arrows for the sake of milk, keen as You are to protect (all) created beings who have taken up their abode in me as in a boat on the surface of water! (35)

The सन्नन्त-धातुः “रिरक्षिष” is derived from √रक्ष् (भ्वादि-गणः, रक्षँ पालने, धातु-पाठः #१. ७४६)

(1) रक्ष् + सन् । As per 3-1-7 धातोः कर्मणः समानकर्तृकादिच्छायां वा – In order to express wish/desire, the affix सन् is optionally prescribed after a verbal root which underlies the object of and shares the same agent with the verbal root √इष् (इषुँ इच्छायाम् ६. ७८).

(2) रक्ष् + स । अनुबन्ध-लोपः by 1-3-3 हलन्त्यम्, 1-3-9 तस्य लोपः

(3) रक्ष् + इट् स । By 7-2-35 आर्धधातुकस्येड् वलादेः, an आर्धधातुक-प्रत्यय: beginning with a letter of the वल्-प्रत्याहारः gets the augment “इट्”। 1-1-46 आद्यन्तौ टकितौ places the “इट्”-आगमः at the beginning of the प्रत्यय:।

(4) रक्ष् + इस । अनुबन्ध-लोपः by 1-3-3 हलन्त्यम्, 1-3-9 तस्य लोपः

(5) रक्ष् रक्षिस । By 6-1-9 सन्यङोः – There is reduplication of the first portion – containing a single vowel – of a verbal root ending in the affix सन्/यङ् which is not already reduplicated. But if the verbal root (that has more than one vowel) begins with a vowel, then the reduplication is of the second portion – containing a single vowel.

(6) र रक्षिस । By 7-4-60 हलादिः शेषः – Of the consonants of a reduplicate (अभ्यासः – ref. 6-1-4 पूर्वोऽभ्यासः), only the one (if any) at the beginning is retained, the rest are elided.

(7) रि रक्षिस । By 7-4-79 सन्यतः – When the affix “सन्” follows, a अकारः belonging to a reduplicate (अभ्यासः) is replaced by a इकारः।

(8) रिरक्षिष । By 8-3-59 आदेशप्रत्यययो:, the letter “स्” is replaced by the cerebral “ष्” when preceded either by a letter of the इण्-प्रत्याहार: or a letter of the क-वर्ग: (“क्”, “ख्”, “ग्”, “घ्”, “ङ्”)। This substitution only takes place if the “स्” is an आदेश: (substitute) or part of a प्रत्यय: (affix.)

“रिरक्षिष” has धातु-सञ्ज्ञा by 3-1-32 सनाद्यन्ता धातवः

Now we derive the प्रातिपदिकम् “रिरक्षिषु” from the सन्नन्त-धातुः “रिरक्षिष”।

(9) रिरक्षिष + उ । By 3-2-168 सनाशंसभिक्ष उः – The affix “उ” is prescribed after the following verbal roots to denote an agent who performs an action because of his nature/habit or sense of duty or skill:
i) any verbal root ending in the affix सन्
ii) √शंस् (आङः शसिँ इच्छायाम् १. ७१६) preceded by the उपसर्गः “आङ्”
iii) √भिक्ष् (भिक्षँ भिक्षायामलाभे लाभे च १. ६९०)
Note: “उ” gets आर्धधातक-सञ्ज्ञा by 3-4-114 आर्धधातुकं शेषः

(10) रिरक्षिष् + उ । By 6-4-48 अतो लोपः – When an आर्धधातुकम् affix follows, the अकारः at the end of a अङ्गम् is elided if the अङ्गम् ends in a अकार: at the time when the आर्धधातुकम् affix is prescribed.

= रिरक्षिषु ।

Since the affix “उ” has the कृत्-सञ्ज्ञा by 3-1-93 कृदतिङ्, “रिरक्षिषु” gets प्रातिपदिक-सञ्ज्ञा by 1-2-46 कृत्तद्धितसमासाश्च। “रिरक्षिषु” is an adjective which declines like “गुरु” in the masculine, “धेनु” in the feminine and “मधु” in the neuter.

The विवक्षा is पुंलिङ्गे प्रथमा-एकवचनम्।

(11) रिरक्षिषु + सुँ । By 4-1-2 स्वौजसमौट्छष्टाभ्याम्भिस्ङेभ्याम्भ्यस्ङसिँभ्याम्भ्यस्ङसोसाम्ङ्योस्सुप्

(12) रिरक्षिषु + स् । अनुबन्ध-लोपः by 1-3-2 उपदेशेऽजनुनासिक इत्, 1-3-9 तस्य लोपः

(13) रिरक्षिषुः । रुँत्व-विसर्गौ by 8-2-66 ससजुषो रुः and 8-3-15 खरवसानयोर्विसर्जनीयः

Questions:

1. Where the verbal root √रक्ष् (रक्षँ पालने १. ७४६) used in a तिङन्तं पदम् in the गीता?

2. Can you spot an affix णल् in the verses?

3. In the verses can you spot a word in which the affix सिँच् has taken the लुक् elision?

4. Where has the सूत्रम् 7-3-55 अभ्यासाच्च been used in the verses?

5. How would you say this in Sanskrit?
“I want to protect these cows.”

6. How would you say this in Sanskrit?
“Everyone wants to conquer death.”

Easy Questions:

1. In the verses can you spot a प्रातिपदिकम् which is always used in the plural?

2. In the verses can you spot a प्रातिपदिकम् which ends in a औकारः (letter “औ”)?

जिज्ञासया fIs

Today we will look at the form जिज्ञासया fIs from श्रीमद्भागवतम् 10.89.2.

तस्य जिज्ञासया ते वै भृगुं ब्रह्मसुतं नृप । तज्ज्ञप्त्यै प्रेषयामासुः सोऽभ्यगाद्ब्रह्मणः सभाम् ॥ १०-८९-२ ॥
न तस्मै प्रह्वणं स्तोत्रं चक्रे सत्त्वपरीक्षया । तस्मै चुक्रोध भगवान्प्रज्वलन्स्वेन तेजसा ॥ १०-८९-३ ॥

श्रीधर-स्वामि-टीका
No commentary on these verses.

Gita Press translation – O king, the Ṛṣis actually deputed Bhṛgu, one of Brahmā’s sons, to ascertain the out of curiosity fact with intent to know this truth, Maharṣi Bhṛgu (first) visited the court of Brahmā, and with a view to testing Brahmā’s forbearance and other qualities, did neither bow to him nor offer any praises. Brahmā got angry with him and looked as if burning with his majestic glow (2-3).

“जिज्ञास” is a सन्नन्त-धातुः derived from the verbal root √ज्ञा (क्र्यादि-गणः, ज्ञा अवबोधने, धातु-पाठः # ९. ४३).

(1) ज्ञा + सन् । As per 3-1-7 धातोः कर्मणः समानकर्तृकादिच्छायां वा – In order to express wish/desire, the affix सन् is optionally prescribed after a verbal root which underlies the object of and shares the same agent with the verbal root √इष् (इषुँ इच्छायाम् ६. ७८).

(2) ज्ञा + स । अनुबन्ध-लोपः by 1-3-3 हलन्त्यम्, 1-3-9 तस्य लोपः

Note: 7-2-10 एकाच उपदेशेऽनुदात्तात्‌ stops 7-2-35 आर्धधातुकस्येड् वलादेः।

(3) ज्ञास् ज्ञास । By 6-1-9 सन्यङोः – There is reduplication of the first portion – containing a single vowel – of a verbal root ending in the affix सन्/यङ् which is not already reduplicated. But if the verbal root (that has more than one vowel) begins with a vowel, then the reduplication is of the second portion – containing a single vowel.

(4) जा ज्ञास । By 7-4-60 हलादिः शेषः – Of the consonants of a reduplicate (अभ्यासः – ref. 6-1-4 पूर्वोऽभ्यासः), only the one (if any) at the beginning is retained, the rest are elided.

(5) ज ज्ञास । By 7-4-59 ह्रस्वः, the अच् (vowel) of a reduplicate (अभ्यासः – ref. 6-1-4 पूर्वोऽभ्यासः) is substituted by a short vowel.

(6) जिज्ञास । By 7-4-79 सन्यतः – When the affix “सन्” follows, a अकारः belonging to a reduplicate (अभ्यासः) is replaced by a इकारः।

“जिज्ञास” has धातु-सञ्ज्ञा by 3-1-32 सनाद्यन्ता धातवः

Now we form the feminine प्रातिपदिकम् “जिज्ञासा” from the सन्नन्त-धातुः “जिज्ञास”।

(7) जिज्ञास + अ । By 3-3-102 अ प्रत्ययात्‌ – In order to form a feminine noun, the affix “अ” is used following a verbal root ending in an affix. Note: A verbal root ending in an affix refers to a verbal root which gets the धातु-सञ्ज्ञा by the सूत्रम् 3-1-32 सनाद्यन्ता धातवः।
Note: The affix “अ” gets आर्धधातक-सञ्ज्ञा by 3-4-114 आर्धधातुकं शेषः

(8) जिज्ञास् + अ । By 6-4-48 अतो लोपः – When an आर्धधातुकम् affix follows, the अकारः at the end of a अङ्गम् is elided if the अङ्गम् ends in a अकार: at the time when the आर्धधातुकम् affix is prescribed.

= जिज्ञास । Note: Since the affix “अ” has the कृत्-सञ्ज्ञा by 3-1-93 कृदतिङ्, “जिज्ञास” gets प्रातिपदिक-सञ्ज्ञा by 1-2-46 कृत्तद्धितसमासाश्च

(9) जिज्ञास + टाप् । By 4-1-4 अजाद्यतष्टाप्‌ – The प्रातिपदिकानि “अज” etc. and प्रातिपदिकानि ending in अकारः get the टाप् affix in the feminine gender.

(10) जिज्ञास + आ । अनुबन्ध-लोपः by 1-3-3 हलन्त्यम्, 1-3-7 चुटू, 1-3-9 तस्य लोपः

(11) जिज्ञासा । By 6-1-101 अकः सवर्णे दीर्घः

The विवक्षा is तृतीया-एकवचनम्।

(12) जिज्ञासा + टा । By 4-1-2 स्वौजसमौट्छष्टाभ्याम्भिस्ङेभ्याम्भ्यस्ङसिँभ्याम्भ्यस्ङसोसाम्ङ्योस्सुप्

(13) जिज्ञासा + आ । अनुबन्ध-लोपः by 1-3-7 चुटू, 1-3-9 तस्य लोपः

(14) जिज्ञासे + आ । By 7-3-105 आङि चापः – ”आप्” ending bases get एकारः as the substitute when followed by the affix “आङ्” (“टा”) or “ओस्”।

(15) जिज्ञासया । By 6-1-78 एचोऽयवायावः

Questions:

1. Where has the सूत्रम् 3-1-7 धातोः कर्मणः समानकर्तृकादिच्छायां वा been used in Chapter Seven of the गीता?

2. Where has the verbal root √इ (इण् गतौ २. ४०) been used in a तिङन्तं पदम् in the verses?

3. Which सूत्रम् has been used for the एकारादेशः in the form चक्रे?

4. How would you say this in Sanskrit?
“I want to know your opinion.” Use the neuter प्रातिपदिकम् “मत” for “opinion.”

5. How would you say this in Sanskrit?
“Who would not want to go to heaven?”

6. How would you say this in Sanskrit?
“My younger brother wants to be an actor.” Use the प्रातिपदिकम् “अनुज” in the masculine for “younger brother.”

Easy Questions:

1. Where has the सूत्रम् 7-1-17 जसः शी been used in the verses?

2. Besides “तद्” which other सर्वनाम-प्रातिपदिकम् (pronoun) has been used in the verses?

जुगुप्सया – fIs

Today we will look at the form जुगुप्सया fIs from the श्रीधर-स्वामि-टीका on श्रीमद्भागवतम् 8.9.22.

ते पालयन्तः समयमसुराः स्वकृतं नृप । तूष्णीमासन्कृतस्नेहाः स्त्रीविवादजुगुप्सया ॥ ८-९-२२ ॥
तस्यां कृतातिप्रणयाः प्रणयापायकातराः । बहुमानेन चाबद्धा नोचुः किञ्चन विप्रियम् ॥ ८-९-२३ ॥

श्रीधर-स्वामि-टीका
तया कृतः स्नेहो येषु । स्त्रिया सह विवादस्य जुगुप्सया ॥ २२ ॥ कृतोऽतिप्रणयः स्नेहो यैः । प्रणयापायेन कातरा भीताः । एते तावत्कृपणाः पूर्वं किंचित्पिबन्तु, यूयं तु धीराः क्षणं प्रतीक्षध्वमित्यादिबहुमानेनाबद्धा नियन्त्रिताः समयपालनादिभिः षड्भिरेतैः कारणैरप्रियं किंचिदपि नोचुः, किंतु तूष्णीमासन् ॥ २३ ॥

Gita Press translation – Respecting the promise made by them (that they would accept whatever might be done by the girl,) O king, the Asuras, who had bestowed their love on Her, kept quiet (also) because they abhorred (the very idea of) wrangling with a woman (22). Cherishing the utmost affection for Her and afraid of losing it, and restrained by excessive regard (shown to them by Her,) they uttered nothing unpalatable (23).

“जुगुप्स” is a सन्नन्त-धातुः derived from the verbal root √गुप् (गुपूँ रक्षणे, भ्वादि-गणः, धातु-पाठः #१. ४६१).

(1) गुप् + सन् । As per 3-1-5 गुप्तिज्किद्भ्यः सन् – The affix सन् is employed after the verbal roots – √गुप् (गुपँ गोपने १. ११२५), √तिज् (तिजँ निशाने १. ११२६) and √कित् (कितँ निवासे रोगापनयने च १. ११४८).

As per the वार्तिकम् – गुपेर्निन्दायाम् – The affix सन् is employed after the verbal root √गुप् (गुपँ गोपने १. ११२५) in the sense of “to censure/despise.”

(2) गुप् + स । अनुबन्ध-लोपः by 1-3-3 हलन्त्यम्, 1-3-9 तस्य लोपः

Note: The सन् affix does not get the आर्धधातुक-सञ्ज्ञा here, since it is not prescribed using the term “धातोः”। Therefore neither 7-2-35 आर्धधातुकस्येड् वलादेः nor 7-3-86 पुगन्तलघूपधस्य च applies here.

(3) गुप्स् गुप्स । By 6-1-9 सन्यङोः – There is reduplication of the first portion – containing a single vowel – of a verbal root ending in the affix सन्/यङ् which is not already reduplicated. But if the verbal root (that has more than one vowel) begins with a vowel, then the reduplication is of the second portion – containing a single vowel.

(4) जुप्स् गुप्स । By 7-4-62 कुहोश्चुः, in a reduplicate (अभ्यासः – ref. 6-1-4 पूर्वोऽभ्यासः), a letter of the कवर्गः or हकारः is replaced by a letter of the चवर्गः । The substitutions take place as per 1-1-50 स्थानेऽन्तरतमः

(5) जुगुप्स । By 7-4-60 हलादिः शेषः – Of the consonants of a reduplicate (अभ्यासः – ref. 6-1-4 पूर्वोऽभ्यासः), only the one (if any) at the beginning is retained, the rest are elided.

“जुगुप्स” has धातु-सञ्ज्ञा by 3-1-32 सनाद्यन्ता धातवः

Now we form the feminine प्रातिपदिकम् “जुगुप्सा” from the सन्नन्त-धातुः “जुगुप्स”।

(6) जुगुप्स + अ । By 3-3-102 अ प्रत्ययात्‌ – In order to form a feminine noun, the affix “अ” is used following a verbal root ending in an affix. Note: A verbal root ending in an affix refers to a verbal root which gets the धातु-सञ्ज्ञा by the सूत्रम् 3-1-32 सनाद्यन्ता धातवः।
Note: The affix “अ” gets आर्धधातक-सञ्ज्ञा by 3-4-114 आर्धधातुकं शेषः

(7) जुगुप्स् + अ । By 6-4-48 अतो लोपः – When an आर्धधातुकम् affix follows, the अकारः at the end of a अङ्गम् is elided if the अङ्गम् ends in a अकार: at the time when the आर्धधातुकम् affix is prescribed.

= जुगुप्स । Note: Since the affix “अ” has the कृत्-सञ्ज्ञा by 3-1-93 कृदतिङ्, “जुगुप्स” gets प्रातिपदिक-सञ्ज्ञा by 1-2-46 कृत्तद्धितसमासाश्च

(8) जुगुप्स + टाप् । By 4-1-4 अजाद्यतष्टाप्‌ – The प्रातिपदिकानि “अज” etc. and प्रातिपदिकानि ending in अकारः get the टाप् affix in the feminine gender. See advanced questions.

(9) जुगुप्स + आ । अनुबन्ध-लोपः by 1-3-3 हलन्त्यम्, 1-3-7 चुटू, 1-3-9 तस्य लोपः

(10) जुगुप्सा । By 6-1-101 अकः सवर्णे दीर्घः

The विवक्षा is तृतीया-एकवचनम्।

(11) जुगुप्सा + टा । By 4-1-2 स्वौजसमौट्छष्टाभ्याम्भिस्ङेभ्याम्भ्यस्ङसिँभ्याम्भ्यस्ङसोसाम्ङ्योस्सुप्

(12) जुगुप्सा + आ । अनुबन्ध-लोपः by 1-3-7 चुटू, 1-3-9 तस्य लोपः

(13) जुगुप्से + आ । By 7-3-105 आङि चापः – ”आप्” ending bases get एकारः as the substitute when followed by the affix “आङ्” (“टा”) or “ओस्”।

(14) जुगुप्सया । By 6-1-78 एचोऽयवायावः

Questions:

1. Where has the सूत्रम् 3-1-5 गुप्तिज्किद्भ्यः सन् been used in the गीता?

2. In which word in the verses does the सूत्रम् 6-4-22 असिद्धवदत्राभात्‌ find application?

3. In which word in the verses has सम्प्रसारणम् been used?

4. How would you say this in Sanskrit?
“I detest (despise) laziness.” Use the नपुंसकलिङ्ग-प्रातिपदिकम् “आलस्य” for “laziness.” Use पञ्चमी-विभक्तिः with “आलस्य”।

Advanced Questions:

1. What is the purpose of having पकारः as a इत् in the affix टाप् (prescribed by 4-1-4)? The काशिका gives the answer as पकारः सामान्यग्रहणार्थः। Please explain.

2. What is the purpose of having टकारः as a इत् in the affix टाप् (prescribed by 4-1-4)? The काशिका gives the answer as टकारः सामान्यग्रहणाविघातार्थः। Please explain.

Easy Questions:

1. In the commentary can you spot a प्रातिपदिकम् which ends in a षकारः?

2. Which सूत्रम् is used for the “इयँङ्”-आदेशः in the form स्त्रिया?

विवक्षोः mGs

Today we will look at the form विवक्षोः mGs from श्रीमद्भागवतम् 2.10.19.

मुखतस्तालु निर्भिन्नं जिह्वा तत्रोपजायते । ततो नानारसो जज्ञे जिह्वया योऽधिगम्यते ॥ २-१०-१८ ॥
विवक्षोर्मुखतो भूम्नो वह्निर्वाग् व्याहृतं तयोः । जले वै तस्य सुचिरं निरोधः समजायत ॥ २-१०-१९ ॥

श्रीधर-स्वामि-टीका
ताल्वधिष्ठानम्, जिह्वेन्द्रियम्, नानारसो विषयः, वरुणश्च देवता ज्ञातव्या । एवं सर्वत्राधिष्ठानमिन्द्रियं देवता विषय इत्येतच्चतुष्टयमनुक्तमप्यूह्यम् ॥ १८ ॥ विवक्षोर्वक्तुमिच्छोः मुखत एव । वह्निर्देवता, वागिन्द्रियम्, व्याहृतं भाषणम् । तयोरितीन्द्रियदेवताधीनत्वं कर्मणो दर्शयति ॥ १९ ॥

Translation – From the mouth came out the palate, in which the sense of taste was produced; and thence were evolved the different kinds of tastes, which are experienced by the sense of taste (as well as the deity presiding over the same) (18). From the mouth of the Cosmic Being who felt inclined to speak, there emanated the god of fire (the deity presiding over the organ of speech), the organ of speech itself and the act of speaking, which depends both on the organ of speech and the deity presiding over the same. Till then the Cosmic Being remained under water controlling His breath for a pretty long time (19).

“विवक्ष” is a सन्नन्त-धातुः derived from the verbal root √वच् (अदादि-गणः, वचँ परिभाषणे, धातु-पाठः # २. ५८). See question 2.

The अकारः at the end of “वचँ” gets इत्-सञ्ज्ञा by 1-3-2 उपदेशेऽजनुनासिक इत् and takes लोप: by 1-3-9 तस्य लोपः

(1) वच् + सन् । As per 3-1-7 धातोः कर्मणः समानकर्तृकादिच्छायां वा – In order to express wish/desire, the affix सन् is optionally prescribed after a verbal root which underlies the object of and shares the same agent with the verbal root √इष् (इषुँ इच्छायाम् ६. ७८).

(2) वच् + स । अनुबन्ध-लोपः by 1-3-3 हलन्त्यम्, 1-3-9 तस्य लोपः

Note: 7-2-10 एकाच उपदेशेऽनुदात्तात्‌ stops 7-2-35 आर्धधातुकस्येड् वलादेः।

(3) वच्स् वच्स । By 6-1-9 सन्यङोः – There is reduplication of the first portion – containing a single vowel – of a verbal root ending in the affix सन्/यङ् which is not already reduplicated. But if the verbal root (that has more than one vowel) begins with a vowel, then the reduplication is of the second portion – containing a single vowel.

(4) व वच्स । By 7-4-60 हलादिः शेषः – Of the consonants of a reduplicate (अभ्यासः – ref. 6-1-4 पूर्वोऽभ्यासः), only the one (if any) at the beginning is retained, the rest are elided.

(5) वि वच्स । By 7-4-79 सन्यतः – When the affix “सन्” follows, a अकारः belonging to a reduplicate (अभ्यासः) is replaced by a इकारः।

(6) वि वक्स । By 8-2-30 चोः कुः, the consonants of the च-वर्ग: (“च्”, “छ्”, “ज्”, “झ्”, “ञ्”) get the consonants of the क-वर्ग: (“क्”, “ख्”, “ग्”, “घ्”, “ङ्”) as a replacement when they occur at the end of a पदम् or when they are followed by a झल् letter.

(7) विवक्ष । By 8-3-59 आदेशप्रत्यययो:, the letter “स्” is replaced by the cerebral “ष्” when preceded either by a letter of the इण्-प्रत्याहार: or a letter of the क-वर्ग: (“क्”, “ख्”, “ग्”, “घ्”, “ङ्”)। This substitution only takes place if the “स्” is an आदेश: (substitute) or part of a प्रत्यय: (affix.)

“विवक्ष” has धातु-सञ्ज्ञा by 3-1-32 सनाद्यन्ता धातवः

Now we derive the प्रातिपदिकम् “विवक्षु” from the सन्नन्त-धातुः “विवक्ष”।

(8) विवक्ष + उ । By 3-2-168 सनाशंसभिक्ष उः – The affix “उ” is prescribed after the following verbal roots to denote an agent who performs an action because of his nature/habit or sense of duty or skill:
i) any verbal root ending in the affix सन्
ii) √शंस् (आङः शसिँ इच्छायाम् १. ७१६) preceded by the उपसर्गः “आङ्”
iii) √भिक्ष् (भिक्षँ भिक्षायामलाभे लाभे च १. ६९०)
Note: “उ” gets आर्धधातक-सञ्ज्ञा by 3-4-114 आर्धधातुकं शेषः

(9) विवक्ष् + उ । By 6-4-48 अतो लोपः – When an आर्धधातुकम् affix follows, the अकारः at the end of a अङ्गम् is elided if the अङ्गम् ends in a अकार: at the time when the आर्धधातुकम् affix is prescribed.

= विवक्षु ।

Since the affix “उ” has the कृत्-सञ्ज्ञा by 3-1-93 कृदतिङ्, “विवक्षु” gets प्रातिपदिक-सञ्ज्ञा by 1-2-46 कृत्तद्धितसमासाश्च। “विवक्षु” is an adjective which declines like “गुरु” in the masculine, “धेनु” in the feminine and “मधु” in the neuter.

The विवक्षा is पुंलिङ्गे षष्ठी-एकवचनम्।

(10) विवक्षु + ङस् । By 4-1-2 स्वौजसमौट्छष्टाभ्याम्भिस्ङेभ्याम्भ्यस्ङसिँभ्याम्भ्यस्ङसोसाम्ङ्योस्सुप्। “विवक्षु” has the घि-सञ्ज्ञा by 1-4-7 शेषो घ्यसखि।

(11) विवक्षु + अस् । अनुबन्ध-लोपः by 1-3-8 लशक्वतद्धिते, 1-3-9 तस्य लोपः1-3-4 न विभक्तौ तुस्माः prevents the ending सकार: of “ङस्” from getting the इत्-सञ्ज्ञा।

(12) विवक्षो + अस् । By 7-3-111 घेर्ङिति, when a ङित् सुँप् affix follows, then an अङ्गम् having the घि-सञ्ज्ञा takes the गुण: substitution. Note: As per 1-1-52 अलोऽन्त्यस्य, the गुण: substitution takes place for the ending letter (in this case उकारः) of the अङ्गम्।

(13) विवक्षोस् । By 6-1-110 ङसिङसोश्च – In place of a preceding एङ् (“ए”, “ओ”) letter and the following short “अ” of the affix “ङसिँ” or “ङस्”, there is a single substitute of the former (एङ् letter.)

(14) विवक्षोः । रुँत्व-विसर्गौ by 8-2-66 ससजुषो रुः and 8-3-15 खरवसानयोर्विसर्जनीयः।

Questions:

1. From which two other verbal roots (besides √वच् (वचँ परिभाषणे २. ५८)) can the सन्नन्त-धातुः “विवक्ष” be derived?

2. From which two verbal roots can the form जज्ञे be derived?

3. From which सूत्रम् does the अनुवृत्ति: of सन् come in to the सूत्रम् 3-1-7 धातोः कर्मणः समानकर्तृकादिच्छायां वा?

4. Can you spot an augment अट् in the verses?

5. How would you say this in Sanskrit?
“I want to say that which may please you.” Use (a विधिलिँङ् form of) √रुच् (रुचँ दीप्तावभिप्रीतौ च १. ८४७) for “to please.” Use चतुर्थी विभक्ति: with “you.” Use the pronouns “यद्” and “तद्”।

6. How would you say this in Sanskrit?
“Tormented by the ogresses Sītā cried bitterly (intensely.)” Use the adjective प्रातिपदिकम् “पीडित” (feminine “पीडिता”) for “tormented.”

Easy Questions:

1. Where has the सूत्रम् 6-4-134 अल्लोपोऽनः been used in the verses?

2. In the verses can you spot a term from the चादि-गणः?

दन्दह्यते 3As-लँट्

Today we will look at the form दन्दह्यते 3As-लँट् from शिशुपालवधम् 2.11

न दूये सात्वतीसूनुर्यन्मह्यमपराध्यति ।
यत्तु दन्दह्यते लोकमदो दुःखाकरोति माम् ॥ 2-11 ॥

मल्लिनाथ-टीका
सत्वतोऽपत्यं स्त्री सात्वती नाम हरेः पितृष्वसा । “उत्सादिभ्योऽण्” । तस्याः सूनुश्वैद्यः । बन्धुरपि खलो न मृष्यत इति भावः । यन्मह्यमपराध्यति द्रुह्यतीति यावत् । ‘क्रुधद्रुह–‘ इत्यादिना चतुर्थी । तत इति शेषः । यत्तदोर्नित्यसम्बन्धात् । न दूये न परितप्ये । दूङो दैवादिकात् । कर्तरि लट् । उत्तमपुरुषैकवचनम् । किन्तु लोकं दन्दह्यते । गर्हितं यथा स्यादेवं दहतीति यावत् । ‘लुपसदचरजप–‘ इत्यादिना गर्हायां यङ् ‘जपजभदहदशभञ्जपशां च’ इत्यभ्यासस्य नुगागमः । अदो लोकदहनं मां दुःखाकरोति । दुःखमनुभावयतीत्यर्थः । ‘दुःखात्प्रातिलोम्य’ इति डाच्प्रत्ययः । अतश्चैद्य एवाभिघातव्यः, पार्थस्तु प्रार्थनयापि पश्चात्समाधेय इत्यर्थः ।

Translation – I am not pained by the fact that the son of Sātvatī bears malice towards me. But what makes me sad is that he despicably torments people.

दन्दह्यते is a form derived from the verbal root √दह् (भ्वादि-गणः, दहँ भस्मीकरणे धातु-पाठः #१. ११४६) in the sense of acting in a contemptible manner.

गर्हितं दहति = दन्दह्यते।

In the धातु-पाठः, the ending अकारः of “दहँ” gets इत्-सञ्ज्ञा by 1-3-2 उपदेशेऽजनुनासिक इत् and takes लोपः by 1-3-9 तस्य लोपः

The यङन्त-धातुः “दन्दह्य” is derived as follows:

(1) दह् + यङ् । By 3-1-24 लुपसदचरजपजभदहदशगॄभ्यो भावगर्हायाम् – Following the verbal root √लुप् (लुपॢँ छेदने ६. १६७), √सद् (षदॢँ विशरणगत्यवसादनेषु १. ९९०, षदॢँ विशरणगत्यवसादनेषु ६. १६३), √चर् (चरँ गत्यर्थ: १. ६४०), √जप् (जपँ व्यक्तायां वाचि | जपँ मानसे च १. ४६३), √जभ् (जभीँ गात्रविनामे १. ४५३), √दह् (दहँ भस्मीकरणे १. ११४६), √दश् (दन्शँ दशने १. ११४४) or √गॄ (गॄ निगरणे ६. १४६), the affix “यङ्” is prescribed only in the sense of “contempt for action” (and not in the sense of repetition or intensity.)

(2) दह् + य । अनुबन्ध-लोपः by 1-3-3 हलन्त्यम्, 1-3-9 तस्य लोपः

(3) दह्य् दह्य । By 6-1-9 सन्यङोः – There is reduplication of the first portion – containing a single vowel – of a verbal root ending in the affix सन्/यङ् which is not already reduplicated. But if the verbal root (that has more than one vowel) begins with a vowel, then the reduplication is of the second portion – containing a single vowel.

(4) द दह्य । By 7-4-60 हलादिः शेषः – Of the consonants of a reduplicate (अभ्यासः – ref. 6-1-4 पूर्वोऽभ्यासः), only the one (if any) at the beginning is retained, the rest are elided.

(5) दं दह्य । By 7-4-86 जपजभदहदशभञ्जपशां च – When followed by either the affix “यङ्” or a लुक् elided affix “यङ्”, the reduplicate (अभ्यासः) of the following verbal roots √जप् (जपँ व्यक्तायां वाचि । जपँ मानसे च १. ४६३), √जभ् (जभीँ गात्रविनामे १. ४५३), √दह् (दहँ भस्मीकरणे १. ११४६), √दश् (दन्शँ दशने १. ११४४), √भञ्ज् (भञ्जोँ आमर्दने ७. १६) and √पश् (सौत्रो धातु:) takes the augment “नुक्”। As per 1-1-46 आद्यन्तौ टकितौ, the “नुक्”-आगम: attaches to the end of the reduplicate “द” (the अकारः)।

Note: नुकानुस्वारो लक्ष्यते – The augment “नुक्” prescribed in the section (from 7-4-85 to 7-4-87) stands for a अनुस्वारः।
Note: 7-4-83 दीर्घोऽकितः does not apply here because the कित् augment “नुक्” has been added to the अभ्यासः।

(6) दन्दह्य/दंदह्य । By 8-4-59 वा पदान्तस्य. Note: As per the वार्तिकम् (under 7-4-85) पदान्तवच्चेति वक्तव्यम् – The augment अनुस्वारः prescribed in the section (from 7-4-85 to 7-4-87) should be treated as if it is at the end of a पदम्। This allows 8-4-59 वा पदान्तस्य to apply here.

Note: ङिदन्तत्वादात्मनेपदम् । Since a यङन्त-धातुः ends in the affix “यङ्” which is a ङित्, as per 1-3-12 अनुदात्तङित आत्मनेपदम् a यङन्त-धातुः takes आत्मनेपद-प्रत्ययाः।

The विवक्षा is लँट्, कर्तरि प्रयोगः, प्रथम-पुरुषः, एकवचनम्

(7) दन्दह्य + लँट् । By 3-2-123 वर्तमाने लट्, the affix लँट् comes after a धातुः when denoting an action in the present tense.

(8) दन्दह्य + ल् । अनुबन्ध-लोपः by 1-3-2 उपदेशेऽजनुनासिक इत्, 1-3-3 हलन्त्यम्, 1-3-9 तस्य लोपः

(9) दन्दह्य + त । 3-4-78 तिप्तस्झिसिप्थस्थमिब्वस्मस्तातांझथासाथांध्वमिड्वहिमहिङ् mandates “त” as the substitute for the लकारः।

(10) दन्दह्य + ते । By 3-4-79 टित आत्मनेपदानां टेरे, the टि-भागः of a आत्मनेपद-प्रत्ययः which substitutes a टित्-लकारः (a लकार: which has टकार: as a इत्), gets एकारः as the replacement.

(11) दन्दह्य + शप् + ते । By 3-1-68 कर्तरि शप्‌, the शप्-प्रत्यय: is placed after a verbal root, when followed by a सार्वधातुक-प्रत्यय: that is used signifying the agent.

(12) दन्दह्य + अ + ते । अनुबन्ध-लोपः by 1-3-3 हलन्त्यम्, 1-3-8 लशक्वतद्धिते , 1-3-9 तस्य लोपः

(13) दन्दह्यते । By 6-1-97 अतो गुणे

Questions:

1. Where has the affix यङ् been used in a तिङन्तं पदम् in the गीता?

2. Commenting on the term भावगर्हायाम् used in the सूत्रम् 3-1-24 लुपसदचरजपजभदहदशगॄभ्यो भावगर्हायाम् the काशिका says भावगर्हायामिति किम्? साधु जपति। Please explain.

3. Commenting further on the सूत्रम् 3-1-24 the काशिका says नित्यग्रहणं विषयनियमार्थमनुवर्तते। एतेभ्यो नित्यं भावगर्हायामेव भवति, न तु क्रियासमभिहारे। भृशं लुम्पति। Please explain.

4. As explained in the commentary, in the verse the विवक्षा for the form दूये is लँट्, कर्तरि प्रयोगः, उत्तम-पुरुषः, एकवचनम्। What would be the form if the विवक्षा were to be लँट्, कर्मणि प्रयोगः, उत्तम-पुरुषः, एकवचनम्?

5. How would you say this in Sanskrit?
“The ogresses appointed by Rāvaṇa despicably tormented Sītā.” Use the adjective प्रातिपदिकम् “नियुक्त” (feminine “नियुक्ता”) for “appointed.”

6. How would you say this in Sanskrit?
“Seeing (having seen) the Lord’s universal form, Arjuna was intensely terrified.” Use the अव्ययम् “दृष्ट्वा” for “having seen”, use the neuter प्रातिपदिकम् “विश्वरूप” for “universal form” and use the verbal root √भी (ञिभी भये ३. २) for “to be terrified.”

Easy questions:

1. Can you spot a सकारान्त-प्रातिपदिकम् in the verse?

2. Where has the सूत्रम् 7-3-113 याडापः been used in the commentary?

लेलिह्यसे 2As-लँट्

Today we will look at the form लेलिह्यसे 2As-लँट् from श्रीमद्भगवद्गीता 11.30

लेलिह्यसे ग्रसमानः समन्ताल्लोकान्समग्रान्वदनैर्ज्वलद्भिः ।
तेजोभिरापूर्य जगत्समग्रं भासस्तवोग्राः प्रतपन्ति विष्णो ॥ 11-30 ॥
आख्याहि मे को भवानुग्ररूपो नमोऽस्तु ते देववर प्रसीद ।
विज्ञातुमिच्छामि भवन्तमाद्यं न हि प्रजानामि तव प्रवृत्तिम्‌ ॥ 11-31 ॥

Gita Press translation – Devouring through Your blazing mouths, You are licking all those people on all sides. Lord, Your fiery rays fill the whole universe with their fierce radiance and scorch it (30). Tell me who You are with a form so terrible? My obeisance to You, O best of gods; be kind to me. I wish to know You, the Primal Being, in particular; for I know not Your purpose (31).

लेलिह्यसे is a frequentative/intensive form derived from the verbal root √लिह् (लिहँ आस्वादने, अदादि-गणः, धातु-पाठः #२. ६).

पुनः पुनर्भृशं वा लेक्षि = लेलिह्यसे।

In the धातु-पाठः, the ending अकारः of “लिहँ” gets इत्-सञ्ज्ञा by 1-3-2 उपदेशेऽजनुनासिक इत् and takes लोपः by 1-3-9 तस्य लोपः

The यङन्त-धातुः “लेलिह्य” is derived as follows:

(1) लिह् + यङ् । By 3-1-22 धातोरेकाचो हलादेः क्रियासमभिहारे यङ् – The affix “यङ्” is prescribed after a consonant-beginning mono-syllabic verbal root to denote an action done repeatedly or intensely.

(2) लिह् + य । अनुबन्ध-लोपः by 1-3-3 हलन्त्यम्, 1-3-9 तस्य लोपः
Note: The affix “यङ्” is a ङित्। Hence 1-1-5 क्क्ङिति च stops 7-3-86 पुगन्तलघूपधस्य च from applying. Since the affix “यङ्” does not begin with a वल् letter, 7-2-35 आर्धधातुकस्येड् वलादेः does not apply here.

(3) लिह्य् लिह्य । By 6-1-9 सन्यङोः – There is reduplication of the first portion – containing a single vowel – of a verbal root ending in the affix सन्/यङ् which is not already reduplicated. But if the verbal root (that has more than one vowel) begins with a vowel, then the reduplication is of the second portion – containing a single vowel.

(4) लि लिह्य । By 7-4-60 हलादिः शेषः – Of the consonants of a reduplicate (अभ्यासः – ref. 6-1-4 पूर्वोऽभ्यासः), only the one (if any) at the beginning is retained, the rest are elided.

(5) ले लिह्य । By 7-4-82 गुणो यङ्लुकोः – The (ending इक्) letter of a reduplicate (अभ्यासः) takes a गुणः substitute when followed by either the affix “यङ्” or a लुक् elided affix “यङ्”। Note: As per the परिभाषा-सूत्रम् 1-1-3 इको गुणवृद्धी, the गुणः substitute prescribed by 7-4-82 applies only to a इक् letter. As per परिभाषा-सूत्रम् 1-1-52 अलोऽन्त्यस्य, only the ending (इक्) letter (in this case इकारः) takes the गुणः substitute.

“लेलिह्य” has धातु-सञ्ज्ञा by 3-1-32 सनाद्यन्ता धातवः

Note: ङिदन्तत्वादात्मनेपदम् । Since a यङन्त-धातुः ends in the affix “यङ्” which is a ङित्, as per 1-3-12 अनुदात्तङित आत्मनेपदम् a यङन्त-धातुः takes आत्मनेपद-प्रत्ययाः।

The विवक्षा is लँट्, कर्तरि प्रयोगः, मध्यम-पुरुषः, एकवचनम्

(1) लेलिह्य + लँट् । By 3-2-123 वर्तमाने लट्, the affix लँट् comes after a धातुः when denoting an action in the present tense.

(2) लेलिह्य + ल् । अनुबन्ध-लोपः by 1-3-2 उपदेशेऽजनुनासिक इत्, 1-3-3 हलन्त्यम्, 1-3-9 तस्य लोपः

(3) लेलिह्य + थास् । 3-4-78 तिप्तस्झिसिप्थस्थमिब्वस्मस्तातांझथासाथांध्वमिड्वहिमहिङ् mandates “थास्” as the substitute for the लकारः।

(4) लेलिह्य + से । By 3-4-80 थासस्से, the थास्-प्रत्ययः which substitutes a टित्-लकारः (a लकार: which has टकार: as a इत्), gets “से” as the replacement.

(5) लेलिह्य + शप् + से । By 3-1-68 कर्तरि शप्‌, the शप्-प्रत्यय: is placed after a verbal root, when followed by a सार्वधातुक-प्रत्यय: that is used signifying the agent.

(6) लेलिह्य + अ + से । अनुबन्ध-लोपः by 1-3-3 हलन्त्यम्, 1-3-8 लशक्वतद्धिते , 1-3-9 तस्य लोपः

(7) लेलिह्यसे । By 6-1-97 अतो गुणे

Questions:

1. What would be the equivalent सन्नन्त-प्रयोगः in place of विज्ञातुमिच्छामि?

2. Commenting on the term धातो: used in the सूत्रम् 3-1-22 धातोरेकाचो हलादेः क्रियासमभिहारे यङ् the सिद्धान्त-कौमुदी says धातोः किम्? आर्धधातुकत्वं यथा स्यात् । तेन ‘2-4-53 ब्रुवो वचिः’ इत्यादि। Please explain.

3. Commenting on the term एकाचः used in the सूत्रम् 3-1-22 धातोरेकाचो हलादेः क्रियासमभिहारे यङ् the सिद्धान्त-कौमुदी says एकाचः किम्। पुनः पुनर्जागर्ति। Please explain.

4. Commenting on the सूत्रम् 7-4-82 गुणो यङ्लुकोः the पदमञ्जरी (which is a scholarly commentary on the काशिका) says लुक्शब्देनात्र यङ्लुगेव गृह्यते – सन्निधानात्। किञ्च – अभ्यासस्यायं गुणो विधीयते, न च लुगन्तरेऽभ्यासः सम्भवति। Please explain.

5. How would you say this in Sanskrit?
“The thirsty deer (plural) repeatedly sipped the river’s water.” Use the adjective प्रातिपदिकम् “पिपासित” for “thirsty” and the verbal root √लिह् (लिहँ आस्वादने २. ६) for “to sip.”

6. How would you say this in Sanskrit?
“The Cakora (bird) repeatedly laps up the moon’s rays.” Use the verbal root √लिह् (लिहँ आस्वादने २. ६) for “to lap up.”

Easy Questions:

1. In the verses can you spot a सकारान्त-प्रातिपदिकम् (a प्रातिपदिकम् ending in the letter “स्”) other than the अव्ययम् “नमस्”?

2. In the verses can you spot a प्रातिपदिकम् ending in the affix “डवतुँ”?

चिकित्सेत 3As-विधिलिँङ्

Today we will look at the form चिकित्सेत 3As-विधिलिँङ् from श्रीमद्भागवतम् 6.1.8.

श्रीशुक उवाच
न चेदिहैवापचितिं यथांहसः कृतस्य कुर्यान्मनउक्तिपाणिभिः । ध्रुवं स वै प्रेत्य नरकानुपैति ये कीर्तिता मे भवतस्तिग्मयातनाः ॥ ६-१-७ ॥
तस्मात्पुरैवाश्विह पापनिष्कृतौ यतेत मृत्योरविपद्यताऽऽत्मना । दोषस्य दृष्ट्वा गुरुलाघवं यथा भिषक् चिकित्सेत रुजां निदानवित् ॥ ६-१-८ ॥

श्रीधर-स्वामि-टीका
तत्र तावन्मन्वाद्युक्तं प्रायश्चित्तं विना नरका दुर्निवारा इत्याह – न चेदिति द्वाभ्याम् । मनउक्तिपाणिभिर्मनोवाक्कायैः कृतस्यांहसस्तैरेवेहैवापचितिं प्रायश्चित्तं न कुर्याच्चेत्तर्हि पुरुषः प्रेत्य मृत्वा नरकान्ध्रुवमुपैतिमे मया ये भवतः कीर्तिताः । तिग्मा दारुणा यातना येषु तान् ॥ ७ ॥ यस्मादेवं तस्मात्पापस्य प्रायश्चित्ते यतेत । कदा । मृत्योः पुरैव । तत्रापि अविपद्यता अक्षीयमाणेनात्मना देहेन । यद्वा अविपत् विपत्तिरहितो यावत् । यतात्मना संयतेन मनसा । तत्राप्याशु । अन्यथा ‘अतीव चिरकाले तु द्विगुणं व्रतमर्हति’ इति द्वैगुण्यापत्तेः । तत्र च पापस्य महत्त्वमल्पत्वं चावेक्ष्य तदनुरूपे प्रायश्चित्ते यतेतरुजां रोगाणां निदानवित् यथा वैद्यस्तदनुरूपं चिकित्सेत तद्वत् ॥ ८ ॥

Gita Press translation – Śrī Śuka replied: If a man does not atone during his very lifetime and in the proper way (as laid down in the scriptures such as Manusmṛti) for sins committed (by him) with his mind, speech and hands (body), he inevitably and actually goes after death to the infernal regions, that have already been described by me to you, and which are provided with means of severe torments (7). Therefore, with a body not (yet) incapacitated (for penance), one should take prompt measures here, even before death, for the atonement of one’s sins, after weighing the gravity and lightness of the crime, just as a physician who knows the cause of maladies would adopt prompt remedies before it is too late, duly considering the seriousness or mildness of a complaint (8).

“चिकित्स” is a सन्नन्त-धातुः derived from the verbal root √कित् (कितँ निवासे रोगापनयने च, भ्वादि-गणः, धातु-पाठः #१. ११४८)

The अकारः at the end of “कितँ” gets इत्-सञ्ज्ञा by 1-3-2 उपदेशेऽजनुनासिक इत् and takes लोप: by 1-3-9 तस्य लोपः

(1) कित् + सन् । As per 3-1-5 गुप्तिज्किद्भ्यः सन् – The affix सन् is employed after the verbal roots – √गुप् (गुपँ गोपने १. ११२५), √तिज् (तिजँ निशाने १. ११२६) and √कित् (कितँ निवासे रोगापनयने च १. ११४८).

As per the वार्तिकम् – कितेर्व्याधिप्रतीकारे निग्रहे अपनयने नाशने संशये च – The affix सन् is employed after the verbal root √कित् (कितँ निवासे रोगापनयने च १. ११४८) in the sense of “to cure (a disease)”, “to restrain”, “to remove”, “to destroy”, “to doubt/suspect.”

(2) कित् + स । अनुबन्ध-लोपः by 1-3-3 हलन्त्यम्, 1-3-9 तस्य लोपः

Note: The सन् affix does not get the आर्धधातुक-सञ्ज्ञा here, since it is not prescribed using the term “धातोः”। Therefore neither 7-2-35 आर्धधातुकस्येड् वलादेः nor 7-3-86 पुगन्तलघूपधस्य च applies here.

(3) कित्स् कित्स । By 6-1-9 सन्यङोः – There is reduplication of the first portion – containing a single vowel – of a verbal root ending in the affix सन्/यङ् which is not already reduplicated. But if the verbal root (that has more than one vowel) begins with a vowel, then the reduplication is of the second portion – containing a single vowel.

(4) चित्स् कित्स । By 7-4-62 कुहोश्चुः, in a reduplicate (अभ्यासः – ref. 6-1-4 पूर्वोऽभ्यासः), a letter of the कवर्गः or हकारः is replaced by a letter of the चवर्गः । The substitutions take place as per 1-1-50 स्थानेऽन्तरतमः

(5) चिकित्स । By 7-4-60 हलादिः शेषः – Of the consonants of a reduplicate (अभ्यासः – ref. 6-1-4 पूर्वोऽभ्यासः), only the one (if any) at the beginning is retained, the rest are elided.

“चिकित्स” has धातु-सञ्ज्ञा by 3-1-32 सनाद्यन्ता धातवः

In the धातु-पाठः, the ending अकारः (which has इत्-सञ्ज्ञा by 1-3-2 उपदेशेऽजनुनासिक इत्) of “कितँ” has a उदात्त-स्वरः। Therefore as per 1-3-78 शेषात् कर्तरि परस्मैपदम् the verbal root √कित् takes परस्मैपद-प्रत्ययाः।
Hence the सन्नन्त-धातुः “चिकित्स” is also परस्मैपदी as per 1-3-62 पूर्ववत् सनः – A सन्नन्त-धातुः (verbal root ending in the affix “सन्”) takes a आत्मनेपद-प्रत्यय: in the same manner as the verbal root to which the affix सन् is added.
Note: But in this verse a आत्मनेपदम् affix has been used irregularly (आर्ष-प्रयोगः।)

The विवक्षा is विधिलिँङ्, कर्तरि प्रयोगः, प्रथम-पुरुषः, एकवचनम्।

(6) चिकित्स + लिँङ् । By 3-3-161 विधिनिमन्त्रणामन्त्रणाधीष्टसंप्रश्नप्रार्थनेषु लिङ्, the affix लिङ् is prescribed after a धातुः when used in the sense of command, direction, invitation, request, inquiry and entreaty.

(7) चिकित्स + ल् । अनुबन्ध-लोपः by 1-3-2 उपदेशेऽजनुनासिक इत्, 1-3-3 हलन्त्यम्, 1-3-9 तस्य लोपः

(8) चिकित्स + त । 3-4-78 तिप्तस्झिसिप्थस्थमिब्वस्मस्तातांझथासाथांध्वमिड्वहिमहिङ् mandates “त” as the substitute for the लकारः।

(9) चिकित्स + सीयुट् त । By 3-4-102 लिङस्सीयुट् – The affixes of लिँङ् get सीयुट् as the augment. As per 1-1-46 आद्यन्तौ टकितौ, the “सीयुट्”-आगम: attaches to the beginning of the प्रत्ययः “त”।

(10) चिकित्स + सीय् त । अनुबन्ध-लोपः by 1-3-3 हलन्त्यम्, 1-3-9 तस्य लोपः। Note: In the सीयुट्-आगमः, the उकारः before the टकारः is उच्चारणार्थ:।

(11) चिकित्स + शप् + सीय् त । By 3-1-68 कर्तरि शप्‌, the शप्-प्रत्यय: is placed after a verbal root, when followed by a सार्वधातुक-प्रत्यय: that is used signifying the agent.

(12) चिकित्स + अ + सीय् त । अनुबन्ध-लोपः by 1-3-3 हलन्त्यम्, 1-3-8 लशक्वतद्धिते, 1-3-9 तस्य लोपः

(13) चिकित्स + अ + ई य् त । By 7-2-79 लिङः सलोपोऽनन्‍त्‍यस्‍य, the सकारः of a सार्वधातुक-लिङ् affix is elided, provided it is not the final letter of the affix.

(14) चिकित्स + अ + ईत । By 6-1-66 लोपो व्योर्वलि, a वकारः or a यकारः is elided when it is followed by a letter of the वल्-प्रत्याहारः।

(15) चिकित्स + ईत । By 6-1-97 अतो गुणे

(16) चिकित्सेत । By 6-1-87 आद्गुणः

Questions:

1. Consider the following verse from the गीता –
इदं ते नातपस्काय नाभक्ताय कदाचन ।
चाशुश्रूषवे वाच्यं न च मां योऽभ्यसूयति ॥ 18-67 ॥
The प्रातिपदिकम् “शुश्रूषु” has been used as a part of the compound “अशुश्रूषु”। Which सूत्रम् is used for the दीर्घादेशः (ऊकारः) in the प्रातिपदिकम् “शुश्रूषु”?

2. Can you spot a place in the verses where four indeclinables (अव्यय-पदानि) have been used together?

3. Consider the सन्धि-कार्यम् between उप + एति = उपैति। This looks like a simple application of 6-1-88 वृद्धिरेचि, but it is not so. Please explain. (Consider the two rules 6-1-94 एङि पररूपम् and 6-1-89 एत्येधत्यूठ्सु। We have not studied these two in the class but we have used them in a prior post.)

4. Where else (besides in चिकित्सेत) has the augment “सीयुट्” been used in the verses?

5. How would you say this in Sanskrit?
“I know a doctor who may remedy your ailment.”

6. How would you say this in Sanskrit?
“Remedy the errors in this sentence.”

Easy Questions:

1. Which two प्रातिपदिके used in the verses end in a जकारः?

2. Where has the सूत्रम् 7-3-119 अच्च घेः been used in the verses?

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