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स्तौमि 1As-लँट्

Today we will look at the form स्तौमि 1As-लँट् from श्रीमद्भागवतम् 11-20-40.

नाहं निन्दे न च स्तौमि स्वभावविषमं जनम् ।
एतेषां श्रेय आशासे उतैकात्म्यं महात्मनि ।। ७-१३-४२ ।।

Gita Press translation “I neither revile nor eulogize men who are diverse of disposition (due to the predominance of any one of the three modes of Prakrti, viz., Sattva, Rajas and Tamas). On the other hand, I (only) wish them welfare in the shape of (their) unity of being with Lord Viṣṇu (the supreme Spirit).”

स्तौमि is derived from the धातुः √स्तु (ष्टुञ् स्तुतौ, अदादि-गणः, धातु-पाठः #२. ३८)

The विवक्षा is लँट्, कर्तरि प्रयोग:, उत्तम-पुरुषः, एकवचनम्।

The धातुः “ष्टुञ्” has an initial षकारः in the धातु-पाठः। By 6-1-64 धात्वादेः षः सः, there is the substitution of सकारः in the place of the initial षकारः of a धातुः। And as per the न्यायः “निमित्तापाये नैमित्तिकस्याप्यपाय:” (when a cause is gone, its effect is also gone) the टकार-आदेशः for the तकारः, which has come in by 8-4-41 ष्टुना ष्टुः, because of the presence of the षकारः, will now be reverted to the तकारः since the cause for the टकारादेश: no longer exists. So we now have “स्तुञ्”।

The  ञकार: gets the इत्-सञ्ज्ञा by 1-3-3 हलन्त्यम् and hence takes लोप: by 1-3-9 तस्य लोप:। Since ञकार: is an इत्, as per the सूत्रम् 1-3-72 स्वरितञितः कर्त्रभिप्राये क्रियाफले, the √स्तु-धातुः will take आत्मनेपद-प्रत्ययाः when the fruit of the action (क्रियाफलम्) accrues to the doer (कर्त्रभिप्रायम् = कर्तृ-अभिप्रायम्)। In the remaining case – when the fruit of the action does not accrue to the doer – by 1-3-78 शेषात् कर्तरि परस्मैपदम् – the √स्तु-धातुः will take परस्मैपद-प्रत्ययाः।
In reality though, this distinction of the fruit of the action accruing to the doer or not, is rarely honored in the language. So as a practical matter, a verbal root such as “√स्तु” will take either आत्मनेपद-प्रत्ययाः or परस्मैपद-प्रत्ययाः regardless of whether the fruit of the action accrues to the doer or not. In short, √स्तु-धातुः will be उभयपदी। In this verse, it has taken a परस्मैपद-प्रत्यय:।

As per 1-4-99 लः परस्मैपदम्, 1-4-100 तङानावात्मनेपदम्, the nine प्रत्यया: from “तिप्” to “मस्” get the परस्मैपद-सञ्ज्ञा। So √स्तु-धातुः can take only one of these nine प्रत्यया: in कर्तरि प्रयोग:। Since the विवक्षा is उत्तम-पुरुष-एकवचनम्, the प्रत्यय: will be “मिप्”।

(1) स्तु + लँट् । By 3-2-123 वर्तमाने लट्, the affix लँट् comes after a धातुः when denoting an action in the present tense.

(2) स्तु + ल् । अनुबन्ध-लोपः by 1-3-2 उपदेशेऽजनुनासिक इत्, 1-3-3 हलन्त्यम्, 1-3-9 तस्य लोपः

(3) स्तु + मिप् । 3-4-78 तिप्तस्झिसिप्थस्थमिब्वस्मस् तातांझथासाथांध्वमिड्वहिमहिङ् mandates the प्रत्ययः “मिप्” as the substitute for the लकारः। “मिप्” gets the सार्वधातुक-सञ्ज्ञा by 3-4-113 तिङ्शित्सार्वधातुकम् – The affixes of the तिङ्-प्रत्याहारः and the affixes that have शकारः as an इत् get the designation of सार्वधातुकम् if they are prescribed in the “धातो:” अधिकार:।

(4) स्तु + मि । अनुबन्ध-लोपः by 1-3-3 हलन्त्यम् , 1-3-9 तस्य लोपः

(5) स्तु + शप् + मि । By 3-1-68 कर्तरि शप्‌, the शप्-प्रत्यय: is placed after a verbal root, when followed by a सार्वधातुक-प्रत्यय: that is used signifying the agent. The शप्-प्रत्यय: which is a शित्, gets सार्वधातुक-सञ्ज्ञा by 3-4-113 तिङ्शित्सार्वधातुकम्

(6) स्तु + मि । By 2-4-72 अदिप्रभृतिभ्यः शपः, the शप्-प्रत्ययः takes the लुक् elision when following a verbal root belonging to अदादि-गणः।

(7) स्तौमि । By 7-3-89 उतो वृद्धिर्लुकि हलि, a root ending in ह्रस्व-उकारः whose विकरणः has taken लुक् (elision) gets वृद्धिः as the आदेशः when followed by a हलादि-सार्वधातुक-प्रत्ययः (a सार्वधातुक-प्रत्ययः beginning with a consonant) which is a पित् (has पकार: as a इत्), provided there is no reduplication (अभ्यासः)।


1. Where is √स्तु used in a तिङन्तं पदम् in the गीता?

2. In commenting on the सूत्रम् 7-3-89 उतो वृद्धिर्लुकि हलि, the कौमुदी says:
“युयात्” – इह उतो वृद्धिर्न, भाष्ये – “पिच्च ङिन्न ङिच्च पिन्न” इति व्याख्यानात्। Please explain.

3. Where has 7-1-58 इदितो नुम् धातोः been used in the verse?

4. Can you spot another धातु: (besides √स्तु) from the अदादि-गण: that has been used in the verse in a तिङन्तं पदम्?

5. How would you say this in Sanskrit?
“Where would I find the answer to (of) this question?” Use √लभ् (डुलभँष् प्राप्तौ १. ११३०) for “to find” and the अव्ययम् “कुत्र” for “where.”

6. How would you say this in Sanskrit?
“Answers to (of) this and other similar questions are found in the Siddhanta Kaumudi.” Use the adjective “एतादृश” for “similar” (literally “of this kind.”)

Easy questions:

1. Which other सूत्रम् (besides 6-1-64 धात्वादेः षः सः) prescribes a substitution for the initial letter of a धातु: in the धातु-पाठ:?

2. Where has 6-1-101 अकः सवर्णे दीर्घः been used in the verse? Where has 6-1-88 वृद्धिरेचि been used?

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