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मागधम् mAs

Today we will look at the form मागधम् mAs from श्रीमद्भागवतम् 10.73.33.

गत्वा ते खाण्डवप्रस्थं शङ्खान्दध्मुर्जितारयः । हर्षयन्तः स्वसुहृदो दुर्हृदां चासुखावहाः ∥ १०-७३-३२ ∥
तच्छ्रुत्वा प्रीतमनस इन्द्रप्रस्थनिवासिनः । मेनिरे मागधं शान्तं राजा चाप्तमनोरथः ∥ १०-७३-३३ ∥

श्रीधर-स्वामि-टीका
खाण्डवप्रस्थमिन्द्रप्रस्थम् ∥ ३२ ∥ शान्तं मृतम् । आप्तमनोरथो बभूव ∥ ३३ ∥

Gita Press translation – On reaching the outskirts of the city, the three victorious heroes blew their respective conchs, bringing joy to their friends and sorrow to their enemies (32). The people of Indraprastha were extremely delighted at heart to hear the sound and concluded at once that Jarāsandha had been killed and that King Yudhiṣṭhira had well-nigh achieved his object (33).

The above verses have previously appeared in the following post – दुर्हृदाम्-mgp

मगधा जनपदः, मगधो नाम क्षत्रियः। मगधानां जनपदानां राजा = मागधः – a king of the territory Magadha, which is also the name of a kṣatriya. In the verses it refers to Jarāsandha.
Note: As a convention in the language, words (such as ‘मगध’) while denoting a territory are always used in the plural.

In the verses the विवक्षा is द्वितीया-एकवचनम्। Hence the form is मागधम्।

(1) मगध आम् + अण् । By 4-1-170 द्व्यञ्मगधकलिङ्गसूरमसादण् – To denote the sense of अपत्यम् (descendant) the तद्धित: affix ‘अण्’ may be applied optionally following a syntactically related पदम् which ends in a sixth case affix and has as its base either ‘मगध’ or ‘कलिङ्ग’ or ‘सूरमस’ or a word that has two vowels (अच् letters), provided the base denotes the name of a kṣatriya king, as well as the name of his country/territory.
Note: The affix ‘अण्’ prescribed by this सूत्रम् is अपवादः to the affix ‘अञ्’ prescribed by 4-1-168 जनपदशब्दात्‌ क्षत्रियादञ्।
As per the वार्तिकम् (under the सूत्रम् 4-1-168 जनपदशब्दात्‌ क्षत्रियादञ्) ’क्षत्रियसमानशब्दाज्जनपदात् तस्य राजन्यपत्यवत्’ – The same तद्धित: affix as is used to denote a descendant, may also be used to denote a king, when applied following a syntactically related पदम् which ends in a sixth case affix and has as its base a word that denotes the name of a country/territory, as well as the name of a kṣatriya.

Note: The सिद्धान्तकौमुदी says, तद्राजमाचक्षाणस्तद्राज इत्यन्वर्थसंज्ञासामर्थ्यात् – The above वार्तिकम् is inferred from the fact that the affixes ‘अञ्’ etc (prescribed by 4-1-168 etc) get the designation तद्राजाः (explained as तेषां राजानस्तद्राजाः) by the सूत्रम् 4-1-174 ते तद्राजाः, which implies that these affixes are also used to denote kings (of those countries/territories).
Note: The तत्वबोधिनी says, इह ‘4-2-125 अवृद्धादपि बहुवचनविषयात्’ इति प्राप्तो वुञ् बाध्यते – Here, the affix ‘अण्’ stops the affix ‘वुञ्’ which would have been prescribed by the सूत्रम् 4-2-125 अवृद्धादपि बहुवचनविषयात्।

(2) मगध आम् + अ । अनुबन्ध-लोपः by 1-3-3 हलन्त्यम्, 1-3-9 तस्य लोपः
Note: ‘मगध आम् + अ’ gets the designation प्रातिपदिकम्‌ by 1-2-46 कृत्तद्धितसमासाश्च। This allows 2-4-71 सुपो धातुप्रातिपदिकयोः to apply in the next step.

(3) मगध + अ । By 2-4-71 सुपो धातुप्रातिपदिकयोः – A सुँप् affix takes a लुक् elision when it is a part of a धातुः or a प्रातिपदिकम्।

Note: The affix ‘अण्’ is a णित् (has the letter ‘ण्’ as इत्)। This allows 7-2-117 तद्धितेष्वचामादेः to apply in the next step.

(4) मागध + अ । By 7-2-117 तद्धितेष्वचामादेः – The first vowel among the vowels of a अङ्गम् which is followed by a तद्धित: affix (ref. 4-1-76 तद्धिताः) which is either a ञित् (has the letter ‘ञ्’ as a इत्) or a णित् (has the letter ‘ण्’ as a इत्) takes the वृद्धि: (ref. 1-1-1 वृद्धिरादैच्) substitute.
Note: The अङ्गम् ‘मागध’ gets the भ-सञ्ज्ञा by 1-4-18 यचि भम् which allows 6-4-148 यस्येति च to apply in the next step.

(5) मागध् + अ । By 6-4-148 यस्येति च – When the letter ‘ई’ or a ‘तद्धित’ affix follows, the (ending) इ-वर्ण: (letter ‘इ’ or ‘ई’) or the (ending) अवर्ण: (letter ‘अ’ or ‘आ’) of the अङ्गम् with the भ-सञ्ज्ञा takes elision (लोपः)।

= मागध । Note: The प्रातिपदिकम् ‘मागध’ declines like राम-शब्दः।

Similarly we can derive the following –
१) अङ्गानां जनपदानां राजा = आङ्गः।
२) कलिङ्गानां जनपदानां राजा = कालिङ्गः।
३) सूरमसानां जनपदानां राजा = सौरमसः।

पाञ्चाल mVs

Today we will look at the form पाञ्चाल mVs from महाभारतम् verse 1-195-19.

व्यास उवाच
अनृतान्मोक्ष्यसे भद्रे धर्मश्चैष सनातनः ।
न तु वक्ष्यामि सर्वेषां पाञ्चाल शृणु मे स्वयम् ॥ १-१९५-१९ ॥

Translation – O blessed one (Kuntī), you shall be saved from untruth. This is eternal virtue. But, O Pāñcāla (Drupada – a king of the territory Pañcāla), I will not speak (about this matter) to all. You alone listen to me (19).

पञ्चाला जनपदः, पञ्चालो नाम क्षत्रियः। पञ्चालानां राजा = पाञ्चालः – king (Drupada) of the territory Pañcāla, which is also the name of a kṣatriya.
Note: As a convention in the language, words (such as ‘पञ्चाल’) while denoting a territory are always used in the plural.

In the verses the विवक्षा is सम्बुद्धिः। Hence the form is (हे) पाञ्चाल।

(1) पञ्चाल आम् + अञ् । By 4-1-168 जनपदशब्दात्‌ क्षत्रियादञ् – To denote the sense of अपत्यम् (descendant) the तद्धित: affix ‘अञ्’ may be applied optionally following a syntactically related पदम् which ends in a sixth case affix and has as its base a word that denotes the name of a kṣatriya king, as well as the name of his country/territory.
As per the वार्तिकम् (under the सूत्रम् 4-1-168 जनपदशब्दात्‌ क्षत्रियादञ्) ’क्षत्रियसमानशब्दाज्जनपदात् तस्य राजन्यपत्यवत्’ – The same तद्धित: affix as is used to denote a descendant, may also be used to denote a king, when applied following a syntactically related पदम् which ends in a sixth case affix and has as its base a word that denotes the name of a country/territory, as well as the name of a kṣatriya.
Note: The सिद्धान्तकौमुदी says, तद्राजमाचक्षाणस्तद्राज इत्यन्वर्थसंज्ञासामर्थ्यात् – The above वार्तिकम् is inferred from the fact that the affixes ‘अञ्’ etc (prescribed by 4-1-168 etc) get the designation तद्राजाः (explained as तेषां राजानस्तद्राजाः) by the सूत्रम् 4-1-174 ते तद्राजाः, which implies that these affixes are also used to denote kings (of those countries/territories).
Note: The तत्वबोधिनी says, इह ‘4-2-125 अवृद्धादपि बहुवचनविषयात्’ इति प्राप्तो वुञ् बाध्यते – Here, the affix ‘अञ्’ stops the affix ‘वुञ्’ which would have been prescribed by the सूत्रम् 4-2-125 अवृद्धादपि बहुवचनविषयात्।

(2) पञ्चाल आम् + अ । अनुबन्ध-लोपः by 1-3-3 हलन्त्यम्, 1-3-9 तस्य लोपः
Note: ‘पञ्चाल आम् + अ’ gets the designation प्रातिपदिकम्‌ by 1-2-46 कृत्तद्धितसमासाश्च। This allows 2-4-71 सुपो धातुप्रातिपदिकयोः to apply in the next step.

(3) पञ्चाल + अ । By 2-4-71 सुपो धातुप्रातिपदिकयोः – A सुँप् affix takes a लुक् elision when it is a part of a धातुः or a प्रातिपदिकम्।

Note: The affix ‘अञ्’ is a ञित् (has the letter ‘ञ्’ as इत्)। This allows 7-2-117 तद्धितेष्वचामादेः to apply in the next step.

(4) पाञ्चाल + अ । By 7-2-117 तद्धितेष्वचामादेः – The first vowel among the vowels of a अङ्गम् which is followed by a तद्धित: affix (ref. 4-1-76 तद्धिताः) which is either a ञित् (has the letter ‘ञ्’ as a इत्) or a णित् (has the letter ‘ण्’ as a इत्) takes the वृद्धि: (ref. 1-1-1 वृद्धिरादैच्) substitute.
Note: The अङ्गम् ‘पाञ्चाल’ gets the भ-सञ्ज्ञा by 1-4-18 यचि भम् which allows 6-4-148 यस्येति च to apply in the next step.

(5) पाञ्चाल् + अ । By 6-4-148 यस्येति च – When the letter ‘ई’ or a ‘तद्धित’ affix follows, the (ending) इ-वर्ण: (letter ‘इ’ or ‘ई’) or the (ending) अवर्ण: (letter ‘अ’ or ‘आ’) of the अङ्गम् with the भ-सञ्ज्ञा takes elision (लोपः)।

= पाञ्चाल । Note: The प्रातिपदिकम् ‘पाञ्चाल’ declines like राम-शब्दः।

वैदेह्या fIs

Today we will look at the form वैदेह्या fIs from रघुवंशम् verse 12-20.

रामोऽपि सह वैदेह्या वने वन्येन वर्तयन् ।
चचार सानुजः शान्तो वृद्धेक्ष्वाकुव्रतं युवा ॥ 12-20 ॥

टीका
सानुजः शान्तः रामोऽपि वैदेह्या सह वने वन्येन वनभवेन कन्दमूलादिना वर्तयन् वृत्तिं कुर्वञ्जीवन् वृद्धेक्ष्वाकूणां व्रतं वनवासात्मकं [वृद्धेक्ष्वाकुव्रतं ] युवा यौवनस्थ एव चचार ।।

Translation – Rāma, too with Sītā, sustaining there in the forest on forest-food, took up with his younger brother, with a mind becalmed even while in youth, the vows that bind the Ikṣvākus in their old age (20).

The above verse has been discussed in detail in the Thursday class on September 8, 2011 –  Video

The above verses have previously appeared in the following post – वैदेह्या-fis

विदेहा जनपदः, विदेहो नाम क्षत्रियः। विदेहस्यापत्यम् (स्त्री) = वैदेही – a (female) descendant of a kṣatriya king named Videha, which is also the name of his territory. It refers to Sītā, daughter of Videha (king Janaka).
In the verses the विवक्षा is तृतीया-एकवचनम्। Hence the form is वैदेह्या।

(1) विदेह ङस् + अञ् । By 4-1-168 जनपदशब्दात्‌ क्षत्रियादञ् – To denote the sense of अपत्यम् (descendant) the तद्धित: affix ‘अञ्’ may be applied optionally following a syntactically related पदम् which ends in a sixth case affix and has as its base a word that denotes the name of a kṣatriya king, as well as the name of his country/territory.
As per the सूत्रम् 4-1-92 तस्यापत्यम् – Following a syntactically related पदम् in which the सन्धिः operations have been performed and which ends in a sixth case affix the तद्धिता: affixes already prescribed (by the prior rules 4-1-83 प्राग्दीव्यतोऽण् etc), as well as those that are going to be prescribed (by the following rules 4-1-95 अत इञ् etc), may be optionally applied to denote the sense of अपत्यम् (descendant.)
Note: The affix ‘अञ्’ over-rules the default affix ‘अण्’ (prescribed by 4-1-83 प्राग्दीव्यतोऽण्) as well as the affix ‘इञ्’ (prescribed by 4-1-95 अत इञ्)।

(2) विदेह ङस् + अ । अनुबन्ध-लोपः by 1-3-3 हलन्त्यम्, 1-3-9 तस्य लोपः
Note: ‘विदेह ङस् + अ’ gets the designation प्रातिपदिकम्‌ by 1-2-46 कृत्तद्धितसमासाश्च। This allows 2-4-71 सुपो धातुप्रातिपदिकयोः to apply in the next step.

(3) विदेह + अ । By 2-4-71 सुपो धातुप्रातिपदिकयोः – A सुँप् affix takes a लुक् elision when it is a part of a धातुः or a प्रातिपदिकम्।

Note: The affix ‘अञ्’ is a ञित् (has the letter ‘ञ्’ as इत्)। This allows 7-2-117 तद्धितेष्वचामादेः to apply in the next step.

(4) वैदेह + अ । By 7-2-117 तद्धितेष्वचामादेः – The first vowel among the vowels of a अङ्गम् which is followed by a तद्धित: affix (ref. 4-1-76 तद्धिताः) which is either a ञित् (has the letter ‘ञ्’ as a इत्) or a णित् (has the letter ‘ण्’ as a इत्) takes the वृद्धि: (ref. 1-1-1 वृद्धिरादैच्) substitute.
Note: The अङ्गम् ‘वैदेह’ gets the भ-सञ्ज्ञा by 1-4-18 यचि भम् which allows 6-4-148 यस्येति च to apply in the next step.

(5) वैदेह् + अ । By 6-4-148 यस्येति च – When the letter ‘ई’ or a ‘तद्धित’ affix follows, the (ending) इ-वर्ण: (letter ‘इ’ or ‘ई’) or the (ending) अवर्ण: (letter ‘अ’ or ‘आ’) of the अङ्गम् with the भ-सञ्ज्ञा takes elision (लोपः)।

= वैदेह ।

Now we form the feminine प्रातिपदिकम् ‘वैदेही’ as follows –

(6) वैदेह + ङीप् । By 4-1-15 टिड्ढाणञ्द्वयसज्दघ्नञ्मात्रच्तयप्ठक्ठञ्कञ्क्वरपः – To denote the feminine gender, the affix ङीप् is used following a प्रातिपदिकम् which satisfies the following conditions:
(i) the प्रातिपदिकम् ends in the letter ‘अ’ and
(ii) the प्रातिपदिकम् ends in a non-secondary affix which is either टित् (has the letter ‘ट्’ as a इत्) or is one of the following – ‘ढ’, ‘अण्’, ‘अञ्’, ‘द्वयसच्’, ‘दघ्नच्’, ‘मात्रच्’, ‘तयप्’, ‘ठक्’, ‘ठञ्’, ‘कञ्’ or ‘क्वरप्’।

(7) वैदेह + ई । अनुबन्ध-लोपः by 1-3-3 हलन्त्यम्, 1-3-8 लशक्वतद्धिते and 1-3-9 तस्य लोपः।
Note: The अङ्गम् ‘वैदेह’ has the भ-सञ्ज्ञा here as per the सूत्रम् 1-4-18 यचि भम्। This allows the सूत्रम् 6-4-148 to apply in the next step.

(8) वैदेह् + ई । By 6-4-148 यस्येति च – When the letter ‘ई’ or a ‘तद्धित’ affix follows, the (ending) इ-वर्ण: (letter ‘इ’ or ‘ई’) or the (ending) अवर्ण: (letter ‘अ’ or ‘आ’) of a अङ्गम् with the भ-सञ्ज्ञा takes elision (लोपः)।

= वैदेही । The प्रातिपदिकम् ‘वैदेही’ declines like नदी-शब्दः।

Similarly, we can derive the following –
१) पञ्चाला जनपदः, पञ्चालो नाम क्षत्रियः। पञ्चालस्यापत्यम् (स्त्री) = पाञ्चाली – a (female) descendant of a kṣatriya king named Pañcāla, which is also the name of his territory. It generally refers to Draupadī.

क्षत्रियाणाम् mGp

Today we will look at the form क्षत्रियाणाम् mGp from श्रीमद्भागवतम् verse 9.15.16.

श्रीराजोवाच
किं तदंहो भगवतो राजन्यैरजितात्मभिः
कृतं येन कुलं नष्टं क्षत्रियाणामभीक्ष्णशः ॥ ९-१५-१६ ॥

श्रीधर-स्वामि-टीका
No commentary on this verse.

Gita Press Translation – The king (Parīkṣit) submitted: What was the offense which was committed against the glorious sage (Paraśurāma) by Kṣatriyas of uncontrolled mind, for which the (entire) race of the Kṣatriyas was wiped out (by him) time and again? (16)

क्षत्त्रस्यापत्यम् (पुमान्) जातिः = क्षत्त्रियः – the son of one belonging to kṣatriya class (from his kṣatriya wife)
In the verses the विवक्षा is षष्ठी-बहुवचनम्। Hence the form is क्षत्रियाणाम्।

(1) क्षत्त्र ङस् + घ । By 4-1-138 क्षत्त्राद् घः – To denote the sense of अपत्यम् (descendent) the तद्धित: affix ‘घ’ may be applied optionally following a syntactically related पदम् which ends in a sixth case affix and has ‘क्षत्त्र’ as its base.
Note: The affix ‘घ’ applies only if the derived form conveys the sense of kṣatriya class.
As per the सूत्रम् 4-1-92 तस्यापत्यम् – Following a syntactically related पदम् in which the सन्धिः operations have been performed and which ends in a sixth case affix the तद्धिता: affixes already prescribed (by the prior rules 4-1-83 प्राग्दीव्यतोऽण् etc), as well as those that are going to be prescribed (by the following rules 4-1-95 अत इञ् etc), may be optionally applied to denote the sense of अपत्यम् (descendant.)

Note: ‘क्षत्त्र ङस् + घ’ gets the designation प्रातिपदिकम्‌ by 1-2-46 कृत्तद्धितसमासाश्च। This allows 2-4-71 सुपो धातुप्रातिपदिकयोः to apply in the next step.

(2) क्षत्त्र + घ । By 2-4-71 सुपो धातुप्रातिपदिकयोः – A सुँप् affix takes a लुक् elision when it is a part of a धातुः or a प्रातिपदिकम्।

(3) क्षत्त्र + इय् अ । By 7-1-2 आयनेयीनीयियः फढखछघां प्रत्ययादीनाम्‌ – The letters ‘फ्’, ‘ढ्’, ‘ख्’, ‘छ्’ and ‘घ्’ – when they occur at the beginning of a प्रत्यय: (affix) – are replaced respectively by ‘आयन्’, ‘एय्’, ‘ईन्’, ‘ईय्’ and ‘इय्’।
Note: As per the सूत्रम् 1-3-10 यथासंख्यमनुदेशः समानाम्, the substitutions take place respectively.

Note: The अङ्गम् ‘क्षत्त्र’ gets the भ-सञ्ज्ञा by 1-4-18 यचि भम् which allows 6-4-148 यस्येति च to apply in the next step.

(4) क्षत्त्र् + इय । By 6-4-148 यस्येति च – When the letter ‘ई’ or a ‘तद्धित’ affix follows, the (ending) इ-वर्ण: (letter ‘इ’ or ‘ई’) or the (ending) अवर्ण: (letter ‘अ’ or ‘आ’) of the अङ्गम् with the भ-सञ्ज्ञा takes elision (लोपः)।

= क्षत्त्रिय । Note: The प्रातिपदिकम् ‘क्षत्त्रिय’ declines like राम-शब्दः।

Note: As per the महाभाष्यम् (under the सूत्रम् 7-1-72) – न व्यञ्जनपरस्यैकस्य वानेकस्य वा श्रवणं प्रति विशेषोऽस्ति – In the pronunciation of a conjunct consonant whether the prior member is single or repeated is indistinguishable to the ear. Hence we often see the form ‘क्षत्रिय’ instead of ‘क्षत्त्रिय’।

(5) क्षत्रिय + आम् । By 4-1-2 स्वौजसमौट्छष्टाभ्याम्भिस्ङेभ्याम्भ्यस्ङसिँभ्याम्भ्यस्ङसोसाम्ङ्योस्सुप्। Note: 1-3-4 न विभक्तौ तुस्माः prevents the ending letter ‘म्’ of ‘आम्’ from getting इत्-सञ्ज्ञा।

(6) क्षत्रिय + नुँट् आम् । By 7-1-54 ह्रस्वनद्यापो नुट्, the affix ‘आम्’ takes the augment नुँट् when it follows a प्रातिपदिकम् which either ends in a short vowel or has the नदी-संज्ञा or ends in the feminine affix ‘आप्’। As per the परिभाषा-सूत्रम् 1-1-46 आद्यन्तौ टकितौ, the augment नुँट् joins at the beginning of ‘आम्’।

(7) क्षत्रिय + नाम् । अनुबन्ध-लोपः by 1-3-2 उपदेशेऽजनुनासिक इत्, 1-3-3 हलन्त्यम् and 1-3-9 तस्य लोपः

(8) क्षत्रियानाम् । By 6-4-3 नामि – The ending vowel of an अङ्गम् gets elongated if followed by the term ‘नाम्’।

(9) क्षत्रियाणाम् । By 8-4-2 अट्कुप्वाङ्नुम्व्यवायेऽपि, the letter ‘न्’ is replaced by the letter ‘ण्’ when either the letter ‘र्’ or ‘ष्’ precedes, even if intervened by a letter of the अट्-प्रत्याहार: or by a letter of the क-वर्ग: or प-वर्गः or the term ‘आङ्’ or ‘नुँम्’ (अनुस्वारः) either singly or in any combination.

राजन्याः mNp

Today we will look at the form राजन्याः mNp from श्रीमद्भागवतम् verse 10.83.34.

तेऽन्वसज्जन्त राजन्या निषेद्धुं पथि केचन ।
संयत्ता उद्धृतेष्वासा ग्रामसिंहा यथा हरिम् ॥ १०-८३-३४ ॥

श्रीधर-स्वामि-टीका
अन्वसज्जन्त पृष्ठतः सक्ता बभूवुः । निषेद्धुं प्रतिबन्धं कर्तुं केचन पुरतो गत्वा पथि संयत्ता बभूवुरित्यर्थः । उद्धृतेष्वासा ऊर्ध्वकृतचापाः । ग्रामसिंहाः श्वानो हरिं सिंहं यथेति ॥ ३४ ॥

Gita Press Translation – Lifting up their bows and prepared for a battle, some of those kings pursued my Lord with a view to obstructing Him on the way; but their attempt was no more successful than that of dogs to check the lion (34).

राज्ञोऽपत्यम् (पुमान्) जातिः = राजन्यः – the son of a kṣatriya king (from his kṣatriya wife)
In the verses the विवक्षा is प्रथमा-बहुवचनम्। Hence the form is राजन्याः।

(1) राजन् ङस् + यत् । By 4-1-137 राजश्वशुराद्यत्‌ – To denote the sense of अपत्यम् (descendent), the तद्धित: affix ‘यत्’ may be applied optionally following a syntactically related पदम् which ends in a sixth case affix and has either ‘राजन्’ or ‘श्वशुर’ as its base.
Note: The affix ‘यत्’ prescribed by this सूत्रम् is a अपवाद: (exception) to the default affix ‘अण्’ (prescribed by the सूत्रम् 4-1-83 प्राग्दीव्यतोऽण्) in the case of ‘राजन्’ as well as the affix ‘इञ्’ (prescribed by the सूत्रम् 4-1-95 अत इञ्) in the case of ‘श्वशुर’।
As per the सूत्रम् 4-1-92 तस्यापत्यम् – Following a syntactically related पदम् in which the सन्धिः operations have been performed and which ends in a sixth case affix the तद्धिता: affixes already prescribed (by the prior rules 4-1-83 प्राग्दीव्यतोऽण् etc), as well as those that are going to be prescribed (by the following rules 4-1-95 अत इञ् etc), may be optionally applied to denote the sense of अपत्यम् (descendant.)

(2) राजन् ङस् + य । अनुबन्ध-लोपः by 1-3-3 हलन्त्यम्, 1-3-9 तस्य लोपः
Note: The letter ‘त्’ in the affix ’यत्’ is for the purpose of indicating the intonation (ref: 6-1-185 तित्स्वरितम्)।

Note: ‘राजन् ङस् + य’ gets the designation प्रातिपदिकम्‌ by 1-2-46 कृत्तद्धितसमासाश्च। This allows 2-4-71 सुपो धातुप्रातिपदिकयोः to apply in the next step.

(3) राजन् + य । By 2-4-71 सुपो धातुप्रातिपदिकयोः – A सुँप् affix takes a लुक् elision when it is a part of a धातुः or a प्रातिपदिकम्। Note: The अङ्गम् ‘राजन्’ gets the भ-सञ्ज्ञा by 1-4-18 यचि भम्।

(4) राजन्य । By 6-4-168 ये चाभावकर्मणोः – When followed by a तद्धितः affix beginning with the letter ‘य्’, the term ‘अन्’ remains unchanged, provided the affix denotes neither the action (भावः) nor the object (कर्म)।
Note: In the absence of 6-4-168 the सूत्रम् 6-4-144 नस्तद्धिते would have applied to elide the ‘टि’-portion ‘अन्’ of the अङ्गम् ‘राजन्’।

The प्रातिपदिकम् ‘राजन्य’ declines like राम-शब्दः।

(5) राजन्य + जस् । By 4-1-2 स्वौजसमौट्छष्टाभ्याम्भिस्ङेभ्याम्भ्यस्ङसिभ्याम्भ्यस्ङसोसाम्ङ्योस्सुप्‌

(6) राजन्य + अस् । अनुबन्ध-लोपः by 1-3-7 चुटू and 1-3-9 तस्य लोपः1-3-4 न विभक्तौ तुस्माः prevents the ending letter ‘स्’ of ‘जस्’ from getting the इत्-सञ्ज्ञा ।

(7) राजन्यास् । By 6-1-102 प्रथमयोः पूर्वसवर्णः – When a अक् letter is followed by a vowel (अच्) of the first (nominative) or second (accusative) case then for the two of them (अक् + अच्) there is a single substitute which is the elongated form of the first member (the अक् letter.)

(8) राजन्याः । रुँत्व-विसर्गौ by 8-2-66 ससजुषो रुः and 8-3-15 खरवसानयोर्विसर्जनीयः

श्वशुर्यम् mAs

Today we will look at the form श्वशुर्यम् mAs from कथासरित्सागरः 16.1.60.

ततः श्वशुर्यं शोकार्तं स्नेहात्पार्श्वस्थितं तदा ।
गोपालकं स वत्सेशो बाष्पकण्ठोऽभ्यभाषत ॥ १६-१-६०॥

Translation – Then that king of Vatsa with throat half-choked with tears, addressed his afflicted brother-in-law Gopālaka, who remained at his side out of affection (60).

श्वशुरस्यापत्यम् (पुमान्) = श्वशुर्यः – father-in-law’s son = brother-in-law
In the verses the विवक्षा is द्वितीया-एकवचनम्। Hence the form is श्वशुर्यम्।

(1) श्वशुर ङस् + यत् । By 4-1-137 राजश्वशुराद्यत्‌ – To denote the sense of अपत्यम् (descendent), the तद्धित: affix ‘यत्’ may be applied optionally following a syntactically related पदम् which ends in a sixth case affix and has either ‘राजन्’ or ‘श्वशुर’ as its base.
Note: First the सूत्रम् 4-1-83 प्राग्दीव्यतोऽण् prescribes the default affix ‘अण्’ which is over-ruled by the affix ‘इञ्’ (prescribed by the सूत्रम् 4-1-95 अत इञ्) and finally the affix ‘यत्’ prevails because of the specific mention of ‘श्वशुर’ in 4-1-137.
As per the सूत्रम् 4-1-92 तस्यापत्यम् – Following a syntactically related पदम् in which the सन्धिः operations have been performed and which ends in a sixth case affix the तद्धिता: affixes already prescribed (by the prior rules 4-1-83 प्राग्दीव्यतोऽण् etc), as well as those that are going to be prescribed (by the following rules 4-1-95 अत इञ् etc), may be optionally applied to denote the sense of अपत्यम् (descendant.)

(2) श्वशुर ङस् + य । अनुबन्ध-लोपः by 1-3-3 हलन्त्यम्, 1-3-9 तस्य लोपः
Note: The letter ‘त्’ in the affix ’यत्’ is for the purpose of indicating the intonation (ref: 6-1-185 तित्स्वरितम्)।

Note: ‘श्वशुर ङस् + य’ gets the designation प्रातिपदिकम्‌ by 1-2-46 कृत्तद्धितसमासाश्च। This allows 2-4-71 सुपो धातुप्रातिपदिकयोः to apply in the next step.

(3) श्वशुर + य । By 2-4-71 सुपो धातुप्रातिपदिकयोः – A सुँप् affix takes a लुक् elision when it is a part of a धातुः or a प्रातिपदिकम्।

Note: The अङ्गम् ‘श्वशुर’ gets the भ-सञ्ज्ञा by 1-4-18 यचि भम् which allows 6-4-148 यस्येति च to apply in the next step.

(4) श्वशुर् + य । By 6-4-148 यस्येति च – When the letter ‘ई’ or a ‘तद्धित’ affix follows, the (ending) इ-वर्ण: (letter ‘इ’ or ‘ई’) or the (ending) अवर्ण: (letter ‘अ’ or ‘आ’) of the अङ्गम् with the भ-सञ्ज्ञा takes elision (लोपः)।

= श्वशुर्य । The प्रातिपदिकम् ‘श्वशुर्य’ declines like राम-शब्दः।

(5) श्वशुर्य + अम् । By 4-1-2 स्वौजसमौट्छष्टाभ्याम्भिस्ङेभ्याम्भ्यस्ङसिभ्याम्भ्यस्ङसोसाम्ङ्योस्सुप्‌।
Note: 1-3-4 न विभक्तौ तुस्माः prevents the ending letter ‘म्’ of the affix ‘अम्’ from getting इत्-सञ्ज्ञा।

(6) श्वशुर्यम् । By 6-1-107 अमि पूर्वः – In place of a preceding अक् letter and the following vowel (अच्) belonging to the affix ‘अम्’ there is a single substitute of that preceding अक् letter.

वैनतेयात् m-Ab-s

Today we will look at the form वैनतेयात् m-Ab-s from रघुवंशम् 16.88.

इत्थं नागस्त्रिभुवनगुरोरौरसं मैथिलेयं लब्ध्वा बन्धुं तमपि च कुशः पञ्चमं तक्षकस्य ।
एकः शङ्कां पितृवधरिपोरत्यजद्वैनतेयाच्छान्तव्यालामवनिमपरः पौरकान्तः शशास ॥ 16-88॥

टीका –
इत्थं नागः कुमुदः । त्रिभुवनगुरोः त्रयाणां भुवनानां समाहारस्त्रिभुवनम् । ‘2-1-51 तद्धितार्थ-‘ इत्यादिना तत्पुरुषः । अदन्तद्विगुत्वेऽपि पात्राद्यदन्ततत्वान्नपुंसकत्वम्। ‘पात्राद्यदन्तैरेकार्थो द्विगुर्लक्ष्यानुसारतः’ इत्यमरः । तस्य गुरू रामः । तस्य औरसं धर्मपत्नीजं पुत्रम् । ‘औरसो धर्मपत्नीजः’ इति याज्ञवल्क्यः । मैथिलेयं कुशं बन्धुं लब्ध्वाकुशोऽपि च तक्षकस्य पञ्चमं पुत्रं तं कुमुदं बन्धुं लब्ध्वा एकः तयोरन्यतरः कुमुदः [पितृवधरिपोः] पितृवधेन रिपोः वैनतेयात् गरुडात् । गुरुणा वैष्णवांशेन कुशेन त्याजितक्रौर्यादिति भावः । शङ्कां भयम् अत्यजत्अपरः कुशः शान्तव्यालां कुमुदाज्ञया वीतसर्पभयाम् अवनिम् अत एव पौरकान्तः पौरप्रियः सन् शशास ।। ८८ ।।

Translation – Thus the serpent (Kumuda), having obtained Kuśa – a legitimate son of Rāma (the master of (the collection of) the three worlds) and Sītā (the princess of Mithilā) – as a relative, abandoned fear from the enemy Garuḍa (son of Vinatā) who had slain his father. And in turn Kuśa, loved by his subjects, having obtained Kumuda – the fifth son of Takṣaka – as a relative , ruled the earth freed from the fear of serpents (88).

The above verses have previously appeared in the following post – त्रिभुवनगुरोः mGs

विनताया अपत्यम् (पुमान्) = वैनतेयः (गरुडः) – a (male) descendant of Vinatā. It refers to Garuḍa (son of Vinatā)
In the verses the विवक्षा is पञ्चमी-एकवचनम्। Hence the form is वैनतेयात्।

(1) विनता ङस् + ढक् । By 4-1-120 स्त्रीभ्यो ढक् – To denote the sense of अपत्यम् (descendent), the तद्धित: affix ‘ढक्’ may be applied optionally following a syntactically related पदम् in which the सन्धिः operations have been performed, provided the पदम् ends in a sixth case affix and has a base ending in a feminine affix (prescribed in the अधिकारः of 4-1-3 स्त्रियाम्)।
Note: As per the प्ररिभाषा ’प्रत्ययग्रहणे तदन्तग्रहणम्’ – The term ‘स्त्रीभ्यः’ should be understood as ’स्त्रीप्रत्ययान्तेभ्यः’, that is terms ending in the feminine affixes like टाप्, ङीप् etc.
Note: The सूत्रम् 4-1-120 स्त्रीभ्यो ढक् applies in the present example, since the प्रातिपदिकम् ’विनता’ ends in the feminine affix ‘टाप्’।
As per the सूत्रम् 4-1-92 तस्यापत्यम् – Following a syntactically related पदम् in which the सन्धिः operations have been performed and which ends in a sixth case affix the तद्धिता: affixes already prescribed (by the prior rules 4-1-83 प्राग्दीव्यतोऽण् etc), as well as those that are going to be prescribed (by the following rules 4-1-95 अत इञ् etc), may be optionally applied to denote the sense of अपत्यम् (descendant.)

(2) विनता ङस् + ढ । अनुबन्ध-लोपः by 1-3-3 हलन्त्यम्, 1-3-9 तस्य लोपः। Note: The fact that the सूत्रम् 7-1-2 आयनेयीनीयियः फढखछघां प्रत्ययादीनाम्‌ (used in step 4) specifically prescribes the substitution ‘एय्’ in place of the letter ‘ढ्’ occurring in the beginning of an affix, obviously implies that the letter ‘ढ्’ in the beginning of an affix (such as ढक्) does not get the इत्-सञ्ज्ञा by 1-3-7 चुटू‌। Because, otherwise the letter ‘ढ्’ would be elided by 1-3-9 तस्य लोपः।

Note: ‘विनता ङस् + ढ’ gets the designation प्रातिपदिकम्‌ by 1-2-46 कृत्तद्धितसमासाश्च। This allows 2-4-71 सुपो धातुप्रातिपदिकयोः to apply in the next step.

(3) विनता + ढ । By 2-4-71 सुपो धातुप्रातिपदिकयोः – A सुँप् affix takes a लुक् elision when it is a part of a धातुः or a प्रातिपदिकम्।

(4) विनता + एय् अ । By 7-1-2 आयनेयीनीयियः फढखछघां प्रत्ययादीनाम्‌ – The letters ‘फ्’, ‘ढ्’, ‘ख्’, ‘छ्’ and ‘घ्’ – when they occur at the beginning of a प्रत्यय: (affix) – are replaced respectively by ‘आयन्’, ‘एय्’, ‘ईन्’, ‘ईय्’ and ‘इय्’।
Note: As per the सूत्रम् 1-3-10 यथासंख्यमनुदेशः समानाम्, the substitutions take place respectively.

Note: The affix ढक् is a कित् (has the letter ‘क्’ as a इत्) and this allows 7-2-118 to apply in the next step.

(5) वैनता + एय । By 7-2-118 किति च – The first vowel among the vowels of a अङ्गम् which is followed by a तद्धित: affix (ref. 4-1-76 तद्धिताः) which is a कित् (has the letter ‘क्’ as a इत्) takes the वृद्धि: (ref. 1-1-1 वृद्धिरादैच्) substitute.

Note: The अङ्गम् ‘वैनता’ gets the भ-सञ्ज्ञा by 1-4-18 यचि भम् which allows 6-4-148 यस्येति च to apply in the next step.

(6) वैनत् + एय । By 6-4-148 यस्येति च – When the letter ‘ई’ or a ‘तद्धित’ affix follows, the (ending) इ-वर्ण: (letter ‘इ’ or ‘ई’) or the (ending) अवर्ण: (letter ‘अ’ or ‘आ’) of the अङ्गम् with the भ-सञ्ज्ञा takes elision (लोपः)।

= वैनतेय । The प्रातिपदिकम् ‘वैनतेय’ declines like राम-शब्दः।

(7) वैनतेय + ङसिँ । By 4-1-2 स्वौजसमौट्छष्टाभ्याम्भिस्ङेभ्याम्भ्यस्ङसिभ्याम्भ्यस्ङसोसाम्ङ्योस्सुप्‌

(8) वैनतेय + आत् । By 7-1-12 टाङसिङसामिनात्स्याः, 1-1-55 अनेकाल्शित्सर्वस्य। Note: 1-3-4 न विभक्तौ तुस्माः prevents the ending letter ‘त्’ of ‘आत्’ from getting the इत्-सञ्ज्ञा।

(9) वैनतेयात् । By 6-1-101 अकः सवर्णे दीर्घः

We can similarly derive the following –
१) कुन्त्या अपत्यम् (पुमान्) = कौन्तेयः (अर्जुनः) – a (male) descendant of Kuntī. It generally refers to Arjuna (son of Kuntī).
२) सरमाया अपत्यम् (पुमान्) = सारमेयः – a (male) descendant of Saramā. Saramā is the name of the female dog belonging to the gods. Hence Sārameya refers to a dog.
३) द्रौपद्या अपत्यम् (पुमान्) = द्रौपदेयः – a (male) descendant of Draupadī.

षाण्मातुरम् nNs

Today we will look at the form षाण्मातुरम् nNs from चम्पू-रामायणम् 1.62.

तत्राभूत्कृत्तिकाप्रीत्यै षोढारूढमुखाम्बुजम् ।
तारकध्वान्तविध्वंसि सद्यः षाण्मातुरं महः ∥ ६२ ∥

तत्रेति । तत्र शरवणे कृत्तिकाप्रीत्यै – स्तन्यं पाययितुं देवैः प्रेरितानां षट्संख्याकानां कृत्तिकामातॄणाम् प्रीत्यै प्रसन्नतार्थं षोढारूढमुखाम्बुजम् – षोढा षड्भिः प्रकारैः (‘प्रकारवचने थाल्’ इति थाल्) आरूढानि प्रादुर्भूतानि मुखाम्बुजानि मुखकमलानि तस्य तादृशम्, षाण्मातुरम् षण्णां मातॄणामपत्यं षाण्मातुरम् (‘षाण्मातुरः शक्तिधरः कुमारः’ इत्यमरः) सद्यस्तत्कालं तारकध्वान्तविध्वंसि – तारकस्तन्नामासुर एव ध्वान्तं तिमिरं विध्वंसयति नाशयतीति तारकध्वान्तविध्वंसि महः कार्त्तिकेयरूपं तेजः अभूत् जातम् । तत्र शरवणे षट्संख्याकाः कृत्तिका मातरः सेनान्यं स्तन्यं पाययितुं प्रेरिताः। एकेनैकेन मुखेन एकैकस्याः स्तन्यपानेन सर्वासां प्रीत्यर्थमिव षण्मुखोपेतं सद्यः तारकतिमिरविनाशकं षाण्मातुरं कार्त्तिकेयरूपं तेजः प्रादुर्भूतमित्यर्थः । अनुष्टुब्वृत्तम् ∥ ६२ ∥

Translation – In order to cause delight to the (six) Kṛttikās (who were prompted by the Gods to nurse the child), there (in that forest of reeds) instantaneously appeared a radiance in the form of Kārtikeya (the one who has six mothers), who manifested six-fold lotus-like faces and was the destroyer of the darkness in the form of (the demon named) Tāraka. 

षण्णां मातॄणामपत्यम् = षाण्मातुरम् (कार्तिकेयरूपम्) – an offspring of six mothers. Here it refers to the radiance of the form of Kārtikeya.
The compound ‘षाण्मातुर’ is an adjective. In the verse it qualifies the neuter noun महः। The विवक्षा is नपुंसकलिङ्गे प्रथमा-एकवचनम्।

First we construct the द्विगु-समासः ‘षण्मातृ’ as follows –

अलौकिक-विग्रह: –
(1) षष् आम् + मातृ आम् । By 2-1-51 तद्धितार्थोत्तरपदसमाहारे च – In the following three situations a सुबन्तं (ending in a सुँप् affix) पदम् denoting either a direction of the compass or a numeral combines with another सुबन्तं (ending in a सुँप् affix) पदम् referring to the same item and the resulting compound is a तत्पुरुष: –
i) in the context where the sense of a तद्धित: affix is to be expressed
ii) when a उत्तरपदम् (a final member) of a compound follows
iii) when the compound denotes a समाहार: (aggregate.)
Note: Compounding is allowed here on the condition that the sense (तस्यापत्यम्) of the तद्धित: affix अण् (prescribed by 4-1-115 मातुरुत्‌ संख्यासम्भद्रपूर्वायाः) is to be expressed.
Note: असञ्ज्ञार्थं वचनम् – This सूत्रम् is composed to cover those situations where the resulting compound does not denote a सञ्ज्ञा (a proper name) and hence would not be permitted as per the नियम-सूत्रम् (restriction rule) 2-1-50 दिक्संख्ये संज्ञायाम्‌।
As per 1-2-43 प्रथमानिर्दिष्टं समास उपसर्जनम् the term ‘षष् आम्’ (which denotes a numeral) gets the designation उपसर्जनम् because in the सूत्रम् 2-1-51 (which prescribes the compounding) the term दिक्संख्ये (which comes as अनुवृत्ति: from the सूत्रम् 2-1-50 दिक्संख्ये संज्ञायाम्‌) ends in the nominative case. And hence as per 2-2-30 उपसर्जनं पूर्वम्, the term ‘षष् आम्’ is placed in the prior position in the compound.
Note: ‘षष् आम् + मातृ आम्’ gets the designation प्रातिपदिकम्‌ by 1-2-46 कृत्तद्धितसमासाश्च। This allows 2-4-71 सुपो धातुप्रातिपदिकयोः to apply in the next step.

(2) षष् + मातृ । By 2-4-71 सुपो धातुप्रातिपदिकयोः – A सुँप् affix takes a लुक् elision when it is a part of a धातुः or a प्रातिपदिकम्। Note: Now ‘षष्’ has the designation पदम् here by the सूत्रम् 1-4-14 सुप्तिङन्तं पदम् with the help of the परिभाषा-सूत्रम् 1-1-62 प्रत्ययलोपे प्रत्ययलक्षणम्। This allows the सूत्रम् 8-2-39 झलां जशोऽन्ते to apply in the next step.

(3) षड् + मातृ । By 8-2-39 झलां जशोऽन्ते – When a letter of the झल्-प्रत्याहारः occurs at the end of a पदम् it is replaced by a letter of the जश्-प्रत्याहारः।

(4) षण्मातृ । By 8-4-45 यरोऽनुनासिकेऽनुनासिको वा – When a nasal sound follows, then a letter of the यर्-प्रत्याहारः at the end of a पदम् is optionally substituted by a nasal letter.

Now we derive the form ‘षाण्मातुर’ from the compound ‘षण्मातृ’ as follows –

(5) षण्मातुर् आम् + अण् । By 4-1-115 मातुरुत्‌ संख्यासम्भद्रपूर्वायाः – To denote the sense of अपत्यम् (descendent), the तद्धित: affix ‘अण्’ may be applied optionally following a syntactically related पदम् in which the सन्धिः operations have been performed, provided the पदम् ends in a sixth case affix and has the base ‘मातृ’, preceded either by a word denoting a number (संख्या) or the word ‘सम्’ or the word ‘भद्र’। Simultaneously, the ending short letter ‘ऋ’ of the word ‘मातृ’ takes the letter ‘उ’ as the substitute.
Note: The purpose of the सूत्रम् 4-1-115 is to prescribe the letter ‘उ’ (which after the application of 1-1-51 becomes ‘उर्’) as the substitute, because the affix अण् is already available by the सूत्रम् 4-1-83 प्राग्दीव्यतोऽण्।
As per the सूत्रम् 4-1-92 तस्यापत्यम् – Following a syntactically related पदम् in which the सन्धिः operations have been performed and which ends in a sixth case affix the तद्धिता: affixes already prescribed (by the prior rules 4-1-83 प्राग्दीव्यतोऽण् etc), as well as those that are going to be prescribed (by the following rules 4-1-95 अत इञ् etc), may be optionally applied to denote the sense of अपत्यम् (descendant.)

(6) षण्मातुर् आम् + अ । अनुबन्ध-लोपः by 1-3-3 हलन्त्यम्, 1-3-9 तस्य लोपः

Note: ‘षण्मातुर् आम् + अ’ gets the designation प्रातिपदिकम्‌ by 1-2-46 कृत्तद्धितसमासाश्च। This allows 2-4-71 सुपो धातुप्रातिपदिकयोः to apply in the next step.

(7) षण्मातुर् + अ । By 2-4-71 सुपो धातुप्रातिपदिकयोः – A सुँप् affix takes a लुक् elision when it is a part of a धातुः or a प्रातिपदिकम्।

Note: The affix ‘अण्’ is a णित् (has the letter ‘ण्’ as इत्). This allows 7-2-117 तद्धितेष्वचामादेः to apply in the next step to perform the वृद्धिः substitution in place of the letter ’अ’, which is the first vowel of the अङ्गम् ‘षण्मातुर्’।

(8) षाण्मातुर । By 7-2-117 तद्धितेष्वचामादेः – The first vowel among the vowels of a अङ्गम् which is followed by a तद्धित: affix (ref. 4-1-76 तद्धिताः) which is either a ञित् (has the letter ‘ञ्’ as a इत्) or a णित् (has the letter ‘ण्’ as a इत्) takes the वृद्धि: (ref. 1-1-1 वृद्धिरादैच्) substitute.

The प्रातिपदिकम् ‘षाण्मातुर’ declines like वन-शब्दः in the neuter.

(9) षाण्मातुर + सुँ । By 4-1-2 स्वौजसमौट्छष्टाभ्याम्भिस्ङेभ्याम्भ्यस्ङसिभ्याम्भ्यस्ङसोसाम्ङ्योस्सुप्‌

(10) षाण्मातुर + अम् । By 7-1-24 अतोऽम् – The affixes ‘सुँ’ and ‘अम्’ that follow a neuter अङ्गम् ending in the short vowel ‘अ’ take ‘अम्’ as their replacement.
Note: 1-3-4 न विभक्तौ तुस्माः prevents the ending letter ‘म्’ of the affix ‘अम्’ from getting इत्-सञ्ज्ञा।

(11) षाण्मातुरम् । By 6-1-107 अमि पूर्वः – In place of a preceding अक् letter and the following vowel (अच्) belonging to the affix ‘अम्’ there is a single substitute of that preceding अक् letter.

Similarly, we can derive the following –
१) द्वयोर्मात्रोरपत्यम् (पुमान्) = द्वैमातुरः (गणेशः) – a (male) offspring of two mothers

२) सम्मातुरपत्यम् (पुमान्) = साम्मातुरः – a (male) offspring of a good mother
Note: सम्माता is a प्रादि-समास: explained as सम् (समीचीना) माता = सम्माता – good mother

३) भद्रमातुरपत्यम् (पुमान्) = भाद्रमातुरः – a (male) offspring of an auspicious mother
Note: भद्रमाता is a कर्मधारय-समास: explained as भद्रा चासौ माता = भद्रमाता – auspicious mother

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