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आत्थ 2As-लँट्

Today we will look at the form आत्थ 2As-लँट् from श्रीमद्भागवतम् Sb4-20-30.

मन्ये गिरं ते जगतां विमोहिनीं वरं वृणीष्वेति भजन्तमात्थ यत् ।
वाचा नु तन्त्या यदि ते जनोऽसितः कथं पुनः कर्म करोति मोहितः ।। ४-२०-३०।।

Gita Press translation – The words “Ask (of Me) a boon (of your choice)” that You (just) addressed to me, engaged in worshipping You (in a disinterested spirit), I reckon as intended to delude the creatures (of the world). If the people were not bound by the cords of Your speech (the Veda), wherefore should they take to action (with interested motives) under a spell of delusion?

आत्थ is derived from the धातुः √ब्रू (अदादि-गणः, ब्रूञ् व्यक्तायां वाचि, धातु-पाठः #२. ३९).

The विवक्षा is वर्तमान-काले, कर्तरि प्रयोग:, मध्यम-पुरुषः, एकवचनम् ।

In the धातु-पाठः, the √ब्रू-धातुः has one इत् letter which is the ञकार:। It gets the इत्-सञ्ज्ञा by 1-3-3 हलन्त्यम् and hence takes लोप: by 1-3-9 तस्य लोप:। Since ञकार: is an इत्, as per the सूत्रम् 1-3-72 स्वरितञितः कर्त्रभिप्राये क्रियाफले, the √ब्रू-धातुः will take आत्मनेपद-प्रत्ययाः when the fruit of the action (क्रियाफलम्) accrues to the doer (कर्त्रभिप्रायम् = कर्तृ-अभिप्रायम्)। In the remaining case – when the fruit of the action does not accrue to the doer – by 1-3-78 शेषात् कर्तरि परस्मैपदम् – the √ब्रू-धातुः will take परस्मैपद-प्रत्ययाः।
In reality though, this distinction of the fruit of the action accruing to the doer or not, is rarely honored in the language. So as a practical matter, a verbal root such as “√ब्रू” will take either आत्मनेपद-प्रत्ययाः or परस्मैपद-प्रत्ययाः regardless of whether the fruit of the action accrues to the doer or not. In short, √ब्रू-धातुः will be उभयपदी। In this verse, it has taken a परस्मैपद-प्रत्यय:।

Since the विवक्षा is मध्यम-पुरुष-एकवचनम्, the प्रत्यय: will be “सिप्”।

(1) ब्रू + लँट् । By 3-2-123 वर्तमाने लट्, the affix लँट् comes after a धातुः when denoting an action in the present tense.

(2) ब्रू + ल् । अनुबन्ध-लोपः by 1-3-2 उपदेशेऽजनुनासिक इत्, 1-3-3 हलन्त्यम्, 1-3-9 तस्य लोपः

(3) ब्रू + सिप् । 3-4-78 तिप्तस्झिसिप्थस्थमिब्वस्मस् तातांझथासाथांध्वमिड्वहिमहिङ् mandates the प्रत्ययः “सिप्” as the substitute for the लकारः। “सिप्” gets the सार्वधातुक-सञ्ज्ञा by 3-4-113 तिङ्शित्सार्वधातुकम्

(4) आह् + थल् । by 3-4-84 ब्रुवः पञ्चानामादित आहो ब्रुवः , the first five affixes (तिप्, तस्, झि, सिप्, थस्) of लँट् following the verbal root √ब्रू (ब्रूञ् व्यक्तायां वाचि २. ३९) optionally get the first five णलादि-प्रत्ययाः (णल्, अतुस्, उस्, थल्, अथुस्) as replacements. As per 1-3-10 यथासंख्यमनुदेशः समानाम् , the substitutions are done respectively. Simultaneously, “ब्रू” takes the substitution “आह्”।

(5) आह् + थ । अनुबन्ध-लोपः by 1-3-3 हलन्त्यम्, 1-3-9 तस्य लोपः

(6) आह् + शप् + थ । By 3-1-68 कर्तरि शप्, the शप्-प्रत्यय: is placed after a verbal root, when followed by a सार्वधातुक-प्रत्यय: that is used signifying the agent. The शप्-प्रत्यय: which is a शित्, gets सार्वधातुक-सञ्ज्ञा by 3-4-113 तिङ्शित्सार्वधातुकम्

(7) आह् + थ । By 2-4-72 अदिप्रभृतिभ्यः शपः, the शप्-प्रत्ययः takes the लुक् elision when following a verbal root belonging to अदादि-गणः।

(8) आथ् + थ । By 8-2-35 आहस्थः, the हकारः of the verbal form “आह्” gets थकारः as the replacement when followed by a letter of the झल्-प्रत्याहारः।

(9) आत्थ । By 8-4-55 खरि च, a झल् letter is replaced by a चर् letter when a खर् letter follows.


1. Where has आत्थ been used in the गीता?

2. The अव्ययम् “इति” normally ends a quotation. Based on the context we have to find out where the quotation begins. From where does the quotation begin in this verse?

3. What would be the other (optional) final form in this example?

4. Commenting on the सूत्रम् 8-2-35 आहस्थः, the काशिका clarifies – आदेशान्तरकरणं “८-२-४० झषस्तथोर्धोऽधः” इत्यस्य निवृत्त्यर्थम्। Please explain. (Why didn’t पाणिनि: just use the अनुवृत्ति: of “ध:” which was easily available from the prior सूत्रम् 8-2-34 नहो धः? Couldn’t we use 8-4-55 खरि च to replace the धकार: with a तकार: and get the same final form आत्थ? Then what was the need to prescribe a different थकारादेश:?)

5. Further commenting on the सूत्रम् 8-2-35 आहस्थः, the काशिका says झलि इत्येव, आह। Please explain.

6. How would you say this in Sanskrit?
“Speak with confidence.” Use अविशङ्कम् as an adverb for “with confidence” (literally, “without doubt/hesitation.”)

Easy questions:

1. Can you spot the तिप्-प्रत्यय: in the verse?

2. Which अव्ययम् has been translated to “if”?

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