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तिरोभूय ind

Today we will look at the form तिरोभूय  ind from कथासरित्सागर: verse 17.6.111.

इत्युक्त्वोपेत्य साश्रुस्तामवोचद्देवि माधुना । क्वापि यासीरहं मुक्ताफलकेतु: स ते प्रिय: ॥ १७.६.१०९ ॥
दृढव्रतस्य शापेन मानुषीभूय संस्मृता । जातिर्मयाद्येत्युक्त्वा तामैच्छदाश्लेष्टुमुत्सुक: ॥ १७.६.११० ॥
सा तूद्भ्रान्ता तिरोभूय तत्रासीत्साश्रुलोचना । सोऽपि राजसुतोऽपश्यंस्तां मोहादपतद्भुवि ॥ १७.६.१११ ॥

Translation – When he had said this, he went up to her weeping and said, “Princess, do not go away anywhere now; for I am your former lover Muktāphalaketu. I became a man by the curse of the hermit Dṛḍhavrata, and I have now remembered by former birth.” Having said this, he tried, in his eagerness, to embrace her. But she was alarmed and having concealed herself stayed there with her eyes full of tears: and the prince, not seeing her, fell on the ground in a swoon.

(1) अन्तर्हितो भूत्वा = तिरोभूय – having disappeared

तिरोभूय is derived from the verbal root √भू (भू सत्तायाम् १. १) preceded by the term ‘तिरस्’। ‘तिरस्’ gets the designation गति: here as per 1-4-71 तिरोऽन्तर्धौ – The term ‘तिरस्’ when denoting ‘disappearance/concealment’ gets the designation ‘गति’ provided it is used in conjunction with a verb.

Note: Besides accent considerations, the purpose of assigning the designation ‘गति’ is to facilitate compound formation prescribed by the सूत्रम् 2-2-18 कुगतिप्रादयः which in turn allows for the substitution ‘ल्यप्‌’ (in place of ‘क्त्वा’) prescribed by the सूत्रम् 7-1-37 समासेऽनञ्पूर्वे क्त्वो ल्यप्‌ (in step 5.)

Note: Since the term ‘तिरस्’ has the designation ‘गति’ here it also gets the निपात-सञ्ज्ञा by 1-4-56 प्राग्रीश्वरान्निपाताः and hence the अव्यय-सञ्ज्ञा by 1-1-37 स्वरादिनिपातमव्ययम्।

(2) भू + क्त्वा । By 3-4-21 समानकर्तृकयोः पूर्वकाले – The affix ‘क्त्वा’ is used following a verbal root which denotes a prior action relative to that of another verbal root, provided the agent of both the actions is the same. In the present example the later action (having the same agent – ‘she’) is आसीत् (‘stayed.’)

(3) अलौकिक-विग्रह: –

तिरस् + भू + क्त्वा । By 2-2-18 कुगतिप्रादयः – The indeclinable ‘कु’, terms having the designation ‘गति’ (ref. 1-4-60 गतिश्च etc) as well as the terms ‘प्र’ etc. (ref. 1-4-58 प्रादयः) invariably compound with a syntactically related term and the resulting compound gets the designation तत्पुरुष:।

Note: The अनुवृत्ति: of नित्यम् (invariably) comes down from the prior सूत्रम् 2-2-17 नित्यं क्रीडाजीविकयोः।

(4) By 1-2-43 प्रथमानिर्दिष्टं समास उपसर्जनम् – the term ‘तिरस्’ gets the designation उपसर्जनम् because in the सूत्रम् 2-2-18 (which prescribes the compounding) the term कुगतिप्रादयः ends in the nominative case. Hence the term ‘तिरस्’ is placed in the prior position in the compound as per the सूत्रम् 2-2-30 उपसर्जनं पूर्वम्‌ – In a compound a term which has the designation ‘उपसर्जन’ should be placed in the prior position.

Note: ‘तिरस् + भू क्त्वा’ gets the designation प्रातिपदिकम्‌ by 1-2-46 कृत्तद्धितसमासाश्च।

(5) तिरस् + भू + ल्यप् । By 7-1-37 समासेऽनञ्पूर्वे क्त्वो ल्यप्‌ – When the affix ‘क्त्वा’ occurs at the end of a compound, it is replaced by ‘ल्यप्’ provided the prior member of the compound is a अव्‍ययम् other than ‘नञ्’ (ref. 2-2-6 नञ्)। The entire term ‘क्त्वा’ is replaced by ‘ल्यप्’ as per the परिभाषा-सूत्रम् 1-1-55 अनेकाल्शित्सर्वस्य
Note: As per 1-1-56 स्थानिवदादेशोऽनल्विधौ, the substitution ‘ल्यप्’ (in place of the affix ‘क्त्वा’) inherits the property of being a कित् affix with the designation of कृत् (by 3-1-93 कृदतिङ्) and आर्धधातुकम् (by 3-4-114 आर्धधातुकं शेषः।)

(6) तिरस् + भू + य । अनुबन्ध-लोपः by 1-3-3 हलन्त्यम्, 1-3-8 लशक्वतद्धिते and 1-3-9 तस्य लोपः

Note: 1-1-5 क्क्ङिति च prevents 7-3-84 सार्वधातुकार्धधातुकयोः from applying.

(7) तिररुँ + भू + य । By 8-2-66 ससजुषो रुः

(8) तिर उ + भूय । By 6-1-114 हशि च – When preceded by the letter ‘अ’ and followed by a हश् letter, the letter ‘रुँ’ is substituted by the letter ‘उ’।

(9) तिरोभूय । By 6-1-87 आद्गुणः

‘तिरोभूय’ gets the अव्यय-सञ्ज्ञा by 1-1-40 क्त्वातोसुन्कसुनः with the help of 1-1-56 स्थानिवदादेशोऽनल्विधौ। This allows 2-4-82 to apply below.

(10) तिरोभूय + सुँ (default) । By 4-1-2 स्वौजसमौट्छष्टाभ्याम्भिस्ङेभ्याम्भ्यस्ङसिँभ्याम्भ्यस्ङसोसाम्ङ्योस्सुप्

(11) तिरोभूय । By 2-4-82 अव्ययादाप्सुपः – The feminine affix आप् and सुँप् affixes that are prescribed after a अव्ययम् take the लुक् elision.

Questions:

1. Commenting on the सूत्रम् 1-4-71 तिरोऽन्तर्धौ (used in step 1) the तत्त्वबोधिनी says – अन्तर्धौ किम्? तिरो भूत्वा स्थित:। पार्श्वतो भूत्वेत्यर्थ:। Please explain.

2. Can you spot a नञ्-तत्पुरुष: compound in the verses?

3. Which कृत् affix is used to form the प्रातिपदिकम् ‘प्रिय’ (appearing in the form प्रिय: (पुंलिङ्गे, प्रथमा-एकवचनम्) in the verses)?

4. Where has the सूत्रम् 3-3-158 समानकर्तृकेषु तुमुन् been used in the verses?

5. Which सूत्रम् justifies the use of a third case affix in the form शापेन used in the verses?

6. How would you say this in Sanskrit?
“Having concealed himself, Śrī Hanumān observed Sītā sitting at the base of an Aśoka tree.” Use the verbal root √लक्ष् (लक्षँ दर्शनाङ्कनयोः १०. ६) preceded by the उपसर्ग: ‘सम्’ for ‘to observe.’ Use the neuter noun ‘मूल’ for ‘base.’ Form a कर्मधारय: compound for ‘Aśoka tree’ = अशोकश्चासौ वृक्ष:।

Easy questions:

1. Where has the सूत्रम् 7-2-73 यमरमनमातां सक् च been used in the verses?

2. Can you spot the augment ‘उम्’ in the verses?

पुरस्कृत्य ind

Today we will look at the form पुरस्कृत्य  ind from श्रीमद्भागवतम् 10.15.2.

तन्माधवो वेणुमुदीरयन्वृतो गोपैर्गृणद्भिः स्वयशो बलान्वितः । पशून्पुरस्कृत्य पशव्यमाविशद्विहर्तुकामः कुसुमाकरं वनम् ।। १०-१५-२ ।।
तन्मञ्जुघोषालिमृगद्विजाकुलं महन्मनःप्रख्यपयःसरस्वता । वातेन जुष्टं शतपत्रगन्धिना निरीक्ष्य रन्तुं भगवान्मनो दधे ।। १०-१५-३ ।।

श्रीधर-स्वामि-टीका
स्वयशो गृणद्भिर्गोपैर्वृतस्तद्वनं प्राविशत् ।। २ ।। तद्वनं निरीक्ष्य रन्तुं मनो दधे । कथंभूतम् । मञ्जुघोषा येऽलिमृगद्विजा भ्रमरमृगपक्षिणस्तैराकुलं व्याप्तं महन्मनःप्रख्यपयःसरस्वता महतां मनसा प्रख्यं तुल्यं स्वच्छं पयो यस्मिंस्तत्सर आश्रयत्वेनास्ति यस्य तेन वातेनेति शैत्यमुक्तम् । शतपत्रगन्धिनेति परिमलवत्त्वम् । जुष्टं वनमिति मान्द्यं सूचितम् ।। ३ ।।

Gita Press translation – Surrounded by cowherds – who were singing His praises – and accompanied by Balarāma, Śrī Kṛṣṇa (the spouse of Lakṣmī), who was eager to sport, entered the said woodland (of Vṛndāvana), the store-house of blossoms and good for the cattle, driving the cows before Him and playing on His flute (2). Observing it full of bees, beasts and birds making delightful sounds (nay,) fanned by a breeze blowing over a pond, whose water was clear as the mind of an exalted soul, and wafting the fragrance of lotuses, the Lord made up His mind to sport (there) (3).

(1) अग्रे कृत्वा = पुरस्कृत्य – placing before.

पुरस्कृत्य is derived from the verbal root √कृ (डुकृञ् करणे ८. १०) preceded by the term ‘पुरस्’। ‘पुरस’ gets the designation गति: here as per 1-4-67 पुरोऽव्ययम् – The term ‘पुरस्’ when used as a अव्ययम् (indeclinable) gets the designation ‘गति’ provided it is used in conjunction with a verb.

Note: Besides accent considerations, the purpose of assigning the designation ‘गति’ is to facilitate compound formation prescribed by the सूत्रम् 2-2-18 कुगतिप्रादयः which in turn allows for the substitution ‘ल्यप्‌’ (in place of ‘क्त्वा’) prescribed by the सूत्रम् 7-1-37 समासेऽनञ्पूर्वे क्त्वो ल्यप्‌ (in step 5.)

Note: Since the term ‘पुरस्’ has the designation ‘गति’ here it also gets the निपात-सञ्ज्ञा by 1-4-56 प्राग्रीश्वरान्निपाताः and hence the अव्यय-सञ्ज्ञा by 1-1-37 स्वरादिनिपातमव्ययम्।

(2) कृ + क्त्वा । By 3-4-21 समानकर्तृकयोः पूर्वकाले – The affix ‘क्त्वा’ is used following a verbal root which denotes a prior action relative to that of another verbal root, provided the agent of both the actions is the same. In the present example the later action (having the same agent – ‘Śrī Kṛṣṇa (the spouse of Lakṣmī)’) is आविशत् (‘entered.’)

(3) अलौकिक-विग्रह: –

पुरस् + कृ क्त्वा । By 2-2-18 कुगतिप्रादयः – The indeclinable ‘कु’, terms having the designation ‘गति’ (ref. 1-4-60 गतिश्च etc) as well as the terms ‘प्र’ etc. (ref. 1-4-58 प्रादयः) invariably compound with a syntactically related term and the resulting compound gets the designation तत्पुरुष:।

Note: The अनुवृत्ति: of नित्यम् (invariably) comes down from the prior सूत्रम् 2-2-17 नित्यं क्रीडाजीविकयोः।

(4) By 1-2-43 प्रथमानिर्दिष्टं समास उपसर्जनम् – the term ‘ पुरस्’ gets the designation उपसर्जनम् because in the सूत्रम् 2-2-18 (which prescribes the compounding) the term कुगतिप्रादयः ends in the nominative case. Hence the term ‘ पुरस्’ is placed in the prior position in the compound as per the सूत्रम् 2-2-30 उपसर्जनं पूर्वम्‌ – In a compound a term which has the designation ‘उपसर्जन’ should be placed in the prior position.

Note: ‘ पुरस् + कृ क्त्वा’ gets the designation प्रातिपदिकम्‌ by 1-2-46 कृत्तद्धितसमासाश्च।

(5) पुरस् + कृ ल्यप् । By 7-1-37 समासेऽनञ्पूर्वे क्त्वो ल्यप्‌ – When the affix ‘क्त्वा’ occurs at the end of a compound, it is replaced by ‘ल्यप्’ provided the prior member of the compound is a अव्ययम् other than ‘नञ्’ (ref. 2-2-6).

Note: As per 1-1-56 स्थानिवदादेशोऽनल्विधौ, the substitution ‘ल्यप्’ (in place of the affix ‘क्त्वा’) inherits the property of being a कित् (having the letter ‘क्’ as a इत्) affix with the designation of कृत् (by 3-1-93) and आर्धधातुकम् (by 3-4-114.)

(6) पुरस् + कृ य । अनुबन्ध-लोपः by 1-3-3 हलन्त्यम्, 1-3-8 लशक्वतद्धिते and 1-3-9 तस्य लोपः।

Note: 1-1-5 क्क्ङिति च prevents 7-3-84 सार्वधातुकार्धधातुकयोः from applying.

(7) पुरस् + कृ तुँक् य By 6-1-71 ह्रस्वस्य पिति कृति तुक् – When followed by a कृत् affix which is a पित् (has the letter ‘प्’ as a इत्), a short vowel takes the augment ‘तुँक्’। As per 1-1-46 आद्यन्तौ टकितौ, the augment ‘तुँक्’ joins after the short vowel ‘ऋ’।

(8) पुरस् + कृ त् य । अनुबन्ध-लोप: by 1-3-3 हलन्त्यम्, 1-3-2 उपदेशेऽजनुनासिक इत् and 1-3-9 तस्य लोपः

(9) पुरः + कृत्य । रुँत्व-विसर्गौ by 8-2-66 ससजुषो रुः and 8-3-15 खरवसानयोर्विसर्जनीयः

(10) पुरस्कृत्य । By 8-3-40 नमस्पुरसोर्गत्योः – A विसर्ग: belonging to the term ‘नमस्’/’पुरस्’ is substituted by the letter ‘स्’ provided ‘नमस्’/’पुरस्’ has the designation ‘गति’ and is followed by a letter of the कवर्ग: (‘क्’, ‘ख्’, ‘ग्’, ‘घ्’, ‘ङ्’) or पवर्ग: (‘प्’, ‘फ्’, ‘ब्’, ‘भ्’, ‘म्’)।

‘पुरस्कृत्य’ gets the अव्यय-सञ्ज्ञा by 1-1-40 क्त्वातोसुन्कसुनः with the help of 1-1-56 स्थानिवदादेशोऽनल्विधौ। This allows 2-4-82 to apply below.

(11) पुरस्कृत्य + सुँ (default) । By 4-1-2 स्वौजसमौट्छष्टाभ्याम्भिस्ङेभ्याम्भ्यस्ङसिँभ्याम्भ्यस्ङसोसाम्ङ्योस्सुप्

(12) पुरस्कृत्य । By 2-4-82 अव्ययादाप्सुपः – The feminine affix आप् and सुँप् affixes that are prescribed after a अव्ययम् take the लुक् elision.

Questions:

1. Commenting on the सूत्रम् 8-3-40 नमस्पुरसोर्गत्योः (used in step 10) the सिद्धान्तकौमुदी says – अगतित्वान्नेह। पू: पुरौ पुर: प्रवेष्टव्या:। Please explain.

2. In which other word (besides पुरस्कृत्य) has the substitution ‘ल्यप्’ (in place of ‘त्वा’) taken place in the verses?

3. Which कृत् affix is used to form the masculine प्रातिपदिकम् ‘आकर’ (appearing in the compound ‘कुसुमाकर’ in the verses)?

4. Where has the सूत्रम् 7-3-80 प्वादीनां ह्रस्वः been used in the verses?

5. Which सूत्रम् justifies the use of a third case affix in the form मनसा used in the commentary?

6. How would you say this in Sanskrit?
“On the universe (collection of three worlds) being tormented by Hiraṇyakaśipu, all the gods went to the abode of Lord Viṣṇu placing Brahmā in front.” Use a locative absolute construction (ref. 2-3-37 यस्य च भावेन भावलक्षणम्‌) to express the meaning ‘On the universe (collection of three worlds) being tormented.’ Construct a द्विगु: compound for ‘universe (collection of three worlds)’ = त्रयाणां लोकानां समाहार:। Use the neuter प्रातिपदिकम् ‘धामन्’ for ‘abode.’

Easy questions:

1. Can you spot the affix ‘श’ in the verses?

2. Which सूत्रम् prescribes the substitution ‘ए’ in the form दधे?

पुरोधाय ind

Today we will look at the form पुरोधाय  ind from श्रीमद्-वाल्मीकि-रामायणम् 2.90.2.

भरद्वाजाश्रमं गत्वा क्रोशादेव नरर्षभः । बलं सर्वमवस्थाप्य जगाम सह मन्त्रिभिः ।। २-९०-१ ।।
पद्भ्यामेव तु धर्मज्ञो न्यस्तशस्त्रपरिच्छदः । वसानो वाससी क्षौमे पुरोधाय पुरोहितम् ।। २-९०-२ ।।
ततः सन्दर्शने तस्य भरद्वाजस्य राघवः । मन्त्रिणस्तानवस्थाप्य जगामानुपुरोहितम् ।। २-९०-३ ।।
वसिष्ठमथ दृष्ट्वैव भरद्वाजो महातपाः । सञ्चचालासनात्तूर्णं शिष्यानर्घ्यमिति ब्रुवन् ।। २-९०-४ ।।

Gita Press translation – Having reached the precincts of the hermitage of Bharadwāja and leaving all his people only a couple of miles away (on this side of the hermitage so as not to cause disturbance to the hermits living peacefully there), Bharata (a jewel among men), for his part, who knew what is right, proceeded (further) with his counselors on foot, placing Sage Vasiṣṭha (his family-priest) ahead and putting on only a pair of silk garments (viz., a loin-cloth and an outer covering), laying aside his weapons and ornaments etc. (1-2) Bidding the aforesaid counselors stay behind, the moment the celebrated Bharadwāja was clearly in sight, Bharata (a scion of Raghu) then proceeded at the heels of Vasiṣṭha (his family-priest) (3). At the very sight of Vasiṣṭha, Bharadwāja, who practiced great austerities, at once hurriedly rose from his seat, asking his pupils to fetch water to wash the hands (of  the distinguished guests) with (4).

(1) अग्रे हित्वा = पुरोधाय – having placed ahead.

पुरोधाय is derived from the verbal root √धा (डुधाञ् धारणपोषणयोः | दान इत्यप्येके ३. ११) preceded by the term ‘पुरस्’। ‘पुरस्’ gets the designation गति: here as per 1-4-67 पुरोऽव्ययम् – The term ‘पुरस्’ when used as a अव्ययम् (indeclinable) gets the designation ‘गति’ provided it is used in conjunction with a verb.

Note: Besides accent considerations, the purpose of assigning the designation ‘गति’ is to facilitate compound formation prescribed by the सूत्रम् 2-2-18 कुगतिप्रादयः which in turn allows for the substitution ‘ल्यप्‌’ (in place of ‘क्त्वा’) prescribed by the सूत्रम् 7-1-37 समासेऽनञ्पूर्वे क्त्वो ल्यप्‌ (in step 5.)

Note: Since the term ‘पुरस्’ has the designation ‘गति’ here it also gets the निपात-सञ्ज्ञा by 1-4-56 प्राग्रीश्वरान्निपाताः and hence the अव्यय-सञ्ज्ञा by 1-1-37 स्वरादिनिपातमव्ययम्।

(2) धा + क्त्वा । By 3-4-21 समानकर्तृकयोः पूर्वकाले – The affix ‘क्त्वा’ is used following a verbal root which denotes a prior action relative to that of another verbal root, provided the agent of both the actions is the same. In the present example the later action (having the same agent – ‘Bharata (a jewel among men)’) is जगाम (‘proceeded.’)

(3) अलौकिक-विग्रह: –

पुरस् + धा + क्त्वा । By 2-2-18 कुगतिप्रादयः – The indeclinable ‘कु’, terms having the designation ‘गति’ (ref. 1-4-60 गतिश्च etc) as well as the terms ‘प्र’ etc. (ref. 1-4-58 प्रादयः) invariably compound with a syntactically related term and the resulting compound gets the designation तत्पुरुष:।

Note: The अनुवृत्ति: of नित्यम् (invariably) comes down from the prior सूत्रम् 2-2-17 नित्यं क्रीडाजीविकयोः।

(4) By 1-2-43 प्रथमानिर्दिष्टं समास उपसर्जनम् – the term ‘पुरस्‌’ gets the designation उपसर्जनम् because in the सूत्रम् 2-2-18 (which prescribes the compounding) the term कुगतिप्रादयः ends in the nominative case. Hence the term ‘पुरस्’ is placed in the prior position in the compound as per the सूत्रम् 2-2-30 उपसर्जनं पूर्वम्‌ – In a compound a term which has the designation ‘उपसर्जन’ should be placed in the prior position.

Note: ‘पुरस् + धा क्त्वा’ gets the designation प्रातिपदिकम्‌ by 1-2-46 कृत्तद्धितसमासाश्च।

(5) पुरस् + धा + ल्यप् । By 7-1-37 समासेऽनञ्पूर्वे क्त्वो ल्यप्‌ – When the affix ‘क्त्वा’ occurs at the end of a compound, it is replaced by ‘ल्यप्’ provided the prior member of the compound is a अव्‍ययम् other than ‘नञ्’ (ref. 2-2-6 नञ्)। The entire term ‘क्त्वा’ is replaced by ‘ल्यप्’ as per the परिभाषा-सूत्रम् 1-1-55 अनेकाल्शित्सर्वस्य
Note: As per 1-1-56 स्थानिवदादेशोऽनल्विधौ, the substitution ‘ल्यप्’ (in place of the affix ‘क्त्वा’) inherits the property of being a कित् affix with the designation of कृत् (by 3-1-93 कृदतिङ्) and आर्धधातुकम् (by 3-4-114 आर्धधातुकं शेषः।)

(6) पुरस् + धा + य । अनुबन्ध-लोपः by 1-3-3 हलन्त्यम्, 1-3-8 लशक्वतद्धिते and 1-3-9 तस्य लोपः

See question 1.

(7) पुररुँ + धा + य । By 8-2-66 ससजुषो रुः

(8) पुर उ + धाय । By 6-1-114 हशि च – When preceded by the letter ‘अ’ and followed by a हश् letter, the letter ‘रुँ’ is substituted by the letter ‘उ’।

(9) पुरोधाय । By 6-1-87 आद्गुणः

‘पुरोधाय’ gets the अव्यय-सञ्ज्ञा by 1-1-40 क्त्वातोसुन्कसुनः with the help of 1-1-56 स्थानिवदादेशोऽनल्विधौ। This allows 2-4-82 to apply below.

(10) पुरोधाय + सुँ (default) । By 4-1-2 स्वौजसमौट्छष्टाभ्याम्भिस्ङेभ्याम्भ्यस्ङसिँभ्याम्भ्यस्ङसोसाम्ङ्योस्सुप्

(11) पुरोधाय । By 2-4-82 अव्ययादाप्सुपः – The feminine affix आप् and सुँप् affixes that are prescribed after a अव्ययम् take the लुक् elision.

Questions:

1. What prevents the सूत्रम् 6-4-66 घुमास्थागापाजहातिसां हलि from applying after step 6 in the above derivation?

2. Commenting on the सूत्रम् 1-4-67 पुरोऽव्ययम् (used in step 1) the तत्त्वबोधिनी says – पुरं पुरौ पुर: कृत्वा गत:। Please explain.

3. What is the विग्रह: of the compound अनुपुरोहितम् used in the verses?

4. From which verbal root is the प्रातिपदिकम् ‘शिष्य’ (used in the form शिष्यान् (पुंलिङ्गे द्वितीया-बहुवचनम्) in the verses) derived?

5. Where has the सूत्रम् 7-3-36 अर्त्तिह्रीव्लीरीक्नूयीक्ष्माय्यातां पुङ्णौ been used in the verses?

6. How would you say this in Sanskrit?
“Placing Akrūra in front, Śrī Kṛṣṇa along with Balarāma went to Mathurā.”

Easy questions:

1. Where has the सूत्रम् 7-4-62 कुहोश्चुः been used in the verses?

2. Why doesn’t the सूत्रम् 6-4-120 अत एकहल्मध्येऽनादेशादेर्लिटि apply in the form सञ्चचाल? (Which condition is not satisfied?)

अलङ्कृत्य ind

Today we will look at the form अलङ्कृत्य  ind from श्रीमद्भागवतम् 10.84.52.

ईजेऽनुयज्ञं विधिना अग्निहोत्रादिलक्षणैः । प्राकृतैर्वैकृतैर्यज्ञैर्द्रव्यज्ञानक्रियेश्वरम् ।। १०-८४-५१ ।।
अथर्त्विग्भ्योऽददात्काले यथाम्नातं स दक्षिणाः । स्वलङ्कृतेभ्योऽलङ्कृत्य गोभूकन्या महाधनाः ।। १०-८४-५२ ।।

श्रीधर-स्वामि-टीका
अनुयज्ञं प्रतियज्ञम् । आम्नातसर्वाङ्गाः प्राकृता ज्योतिष्टोमदर्शपूर्णमासादयस्तेभ्यश्चोदनालिङ्गादिभिरतिदेशप्राप्ताङ्गा वैकृताः सौरसत्रादयस्तैः सर्वैः । द्रव्यं पुरोडाशादि, ज्ञानं मन्त्रः, क्रिया कर्म, तेषामीश्वरम् ।। ५१ ।। ५२ ।।

Gita Press traslation – At the end of each sacrifice, Vasudeva performed, in accordance with the scriptural ordinance, the Agnihotra and other sacrifices as well as those falling under the category of Prākṛta and Vaikṛta sacrifices, and thereby worshiped and propitiated Viṣṇu (the Lord of all substances, rituals and the Mantras with which they are performed) (51). Then in due time he adorned the priests well (with clothes and ornaments) and gave them sacrificial fees and also gifted them duly adorned cow and girls as well as lands and abundant wealth as laid down in the scriptures (52).

(1) भूषयित्वा = अलङ्कृत्य – having adorned.

अलङ्कृत्य is derived from the verbal root √कृ (डुकृञ् करणे ८. १०) preceded by the term ‘अलम्’। ‘अलम्’ gets the designation गति: here as per 1-4-64 भूषणेऽलम् – The term ‘अलम्’ when denoting ‘decoration’ gets the designation ‘गति’ provided it is used in conjunction with a verb.

Note: ‘1-4-62 अनुकरणम्-‘ इत्यादि त्रिसूत्री स्वभावात्कृञ्विषया – The three rules 1-4-62 अनुकरणं चानितिपरम्, 1-4-63 आदरानादरयोः सदसती and 1-4-64 भूषणेऽलम् are naturally applicable only in the context where the verbal root √कृ (डुकृञ् करणे ८. १०) is in conjunction.

Note: ‘अलम्’ has four meanings – (i) प्रतिषेध: – negation/prohibition (ii) सामर्थ्यम् – capability (iii) पर्याप्ति: – enough/sufficient (iv) भूषणम् – decoration. Only in the last meaning ‘अलम्’ gets the designation ‘गति’।

Note: Besides accent considerations, the purpose of assigning the designation ‘गति’ is to facilitate compound formation prescribed by the सूत्रम् 2-2-18 कुगतिप्रादयः which in turn allows for the substitution ‘ल्यप्‌’ (in place of ‘क्त्वा’) prescribed by the सूत्रम् 7-1-37 समासेऽनञ्पूर्वे क्त्वो ल्यप्‌ (in step 5.)

Note: Since the term ‘अलम्’ has the designation ‘गति’ here it also gets the निपात-सञ्ज्ञा by 1-4-56 प्राग्रीश्वरान्निपाताः and hence the अव्यय-सञ्ज्ञा by 1-1-37 स्वरादिनिपातमव्ययम्।

(2) कृ + क्त्वा । By 3-4-21 समानकर्तृकयोः पूर्वकाले – The affix ‘क्त्वा’ is used following a verbal root which denotes a prior action relative to that of another verbal root, provided the agent of both the actions is the same. In the present example the later action (having the same agent – ‘he – Vasudeva’) is अददात् (‘gifted.’)

(3) अलौकिक-विग्रह: –

अलम् + कृ क्त्वा । By 2-2-18 कुगतिप्रादयः – The indeclinable ‘कु’, terms having the designation ‘गति’ (ref. 1-4-60 गतिश्च etc) as well as the terms ‘प्र’ etc. (ref. 1-4-58 प्रादयः) invariably compound with a syntactically related term and the resulting compound gets the designation तत्पुरुष:।

Note: The अनुवृत्ति: of नित्यम् (invariably) comes down from the prior सूत्रम् 2-2-17 नित्यं क्रीडाजीविकयोः।

(4) By 1-2-43 प्रथमानिर्दिष्टं समास उपसर्जनम् – the term ‘अलम्’ gets the designation उपसर्जनम् because in the सूत्रम् 2-2-18 (which prescribes the compounding) the term कुगतिप्रादयः ends in the nominative case. Hence the term ‘अलम्’ is placed in the prior position in the compound as per the सूत्रम् 2-2-30 उपसर्जनं पूर्वम्‌ – In a compound a term which has the designation ‘उपसर्जन’ should be placed in the prior position.

Note: ‘अलम् + कृ क्त्वा’ gets the designation प्रातिपदिकम्‌ by 1-2-46 कृत्तद्धितसमासाश्च।

(5) अलम् + कृ ल्यप् । By 7-1-37 समासेऽनञ्पूर्वे क्त्वो ल्यप्‌ – When the affix ‘क्त्वा’ occurs at the end of a compound, it is replaced by ‘ल्यप्’ provided the prior member of the compound is a अव्ययम् other than ‘नञ्’ (ref. 2-2-6).

Note: As per 1-1-56 स्थानिवदादेशोऽनल्विधौ, the substitution ‘ल्यप्’ (in place of the affix ‘क्त्वा’) inherits the property of being a कित् (having the letter ‘क्’ as a इत्) affix with the designation of कृत् (by 3-1-93) and आर्धधातुकम् (by 3-4-114.)

(6) अलम् + कृ य । अनुबन्ध-लोपः by 1-3-3 हलन्त्यम्, 1-3-8 लशक्वतद्धिते and 1-3-9 तस्य लोपः।

Note: 1-1-5 क्क्ङिति च prevents 7-3-84 सार्वधातुकार्धधातुकयोः from applying.

(7) अलम् + कृ तुँक् य By 6-1-71 ह्रस्वस्य पिति कृति तुक् – When followed by a कृत् affix which is a पित् (has the letter ‘प्’ as a इत्), a short vowel takes the augment ‘तुँक्’। As per 1-1-46 आद्यन्तौ टकितौ, the augment ‘तुँक्’ joins after the short vowel ‘ऋ’।

(8) अलम् + कृ त् य । अनुबन्ध-लोप: by 1-3-3 हलन्त्यम्, 1-3-2 उपदेशेऽजनुनासिक इत् and 1-3-9 तस्य लोपः

(9) अलं + कृत्य । By 8-3-23 मोऽनुस्वारः

(10) अलंकृत्य/अलङ्कृत्य । By 8-4-59 वा पदान्तस्य

‘अलंकृत्य/अलङ्कृत्य’ gets the अव्यय-सञ्ज्ञा by 1-1-40 क्त्वातोसुन्कसुनः with the help of 1-1-56 स्थानिवदादेशोऽनल्विधौ। This allows 2-4-82 to apply below.

(11) अलंकृत्य/अलङ्कृत्य + सुँ (default) । By 4-1-2 स्वौजसमौट्छष्टाभ्याम्भिस्ङेभ्याम्भ्यस्ङसिँभ्याम्भ्यस्ङसोसाम्ङ्योस्सुप्

(12) अलंकृत्य/अलङ्कृत्य । By 2-4-82 अव्ययादाप्सुपः – The feminine affix आप् and सुँप् affixes that are prescribed after a अव्ययम् take the लुक् elision.

Questions:

1. Commenting on the सूत्रम् 1-4-64 भूषणेऽलम् (used in step 1) the काशिका says – भूषण इति किम्? अलं भुक्त्वौदनं गतः। Please explain.

2. Which सूत्रम् justifies the use of a fourth case affix in the form ऋत्विग्भ्य: (and स्वलङ्कृतेभ्य:) used in the verses?

3. Which कृत् affix is used to form the feminine प्रातिपदिकम् ‘क्रिया’ (used as part of the compound द्रव्यज्ञानक्रियेश्वरम् in the verses)?

4. What kind of compound is यथाम्नातम्?
i. अव्ययीभाव:
ii. कर्मधारय:
iii. षष्ठी-तत्पुरुष:
iv. नञ्-तत्पुरुष:

5. Where has the सूत्रम् 3-3-115 ल्युट् च been used in the commentary?

6. How would you say this in Sanskrit?
“Having adorned Sītā with excellent clothes and ornaments, King Janaka gave (her) to Śrī Rāma.”

Easy questions:

1. From which verbal root is the form ईजे derived?

2. Where has the सूत्रम् 6-1-10 श्लौ been used in the verses?

असत्कृत्य ind

Today we will look at the form असत्कृत्य  ind from महाभारतम् 13.53.12.

यदा तौ निर्विकारौ तु लक्षयामास भार्गवः । तत उत्थाय सहसा स्नानशालां विवेश ह ।। १३-५३-११ ।।
कॢप्तमेव तु तत्रासीत् स्नानीयं पार्थिवोचितम् । असत्कृत्य च तत् सर्वं तत्रैवान्तरधीयत ।। १३-५३-१२ ।।
स मुनिः पुनरेवाथ नृपतेः पश्यतस्तदा । नासूयां चक्रतुस्तौ च दम्पती भरतर्षभ ।। १३-५३-१३ ।।

Translation – However when Bhṛgu’s son noticed that the two of them were (still) undisturbed, he rose up all of a sudden and entered the bathing chamber (11). The various articles proper for bathing such as were fit for a king’s use, were ready there in advance. Having disrespected (i.e. having ignored) all those articles, the sage once more disappeared right there as the king watched. In spite of this, O chief of Bharatas, the royal pair did not show any intolerance (towards him.) (12-13).

(1) अनादरं कृत्वा = असत्कृत्य – having disrespected.

असत्कृत्य is derived from the verbal root √कृ (डुकृञ् करणे ८. १०) preceded by the term ‘असत्’ (‘असत्’ itself is a नञ्-तत्पुरुषः compound derived as न सत् = असत्)।
‘असत्’ gets the designation गति: here as per 1-4-63 आदरानादरयोः सदसती – The terms ‘सत्’ and ‘असत्’ when denoting ‘respect’ and ‘disrespect’ respectively get the designation ‘गति’ provided they are used in conjunction with a verb.

Note: Besides accent considerations, the purpose of assigning the designation ‘गति’ is to facilitate compound formation prescribed by the सूत्रम् 2-2-18 कुगतिप्रादयः which in turn allows for the substitution ‘ल्यप्‌’ (in place of ‘क्त्वा’) prescribed by the सूत्रम् 7-1-37 समासेऽनञ्पूर्वे क्त्वो ल्यप्‌ (in step 5.)

Note: Since the term ‘असत्’ has the designation ‘गति’ here it also gets the निपात-सञ्ज्ञा by 1-4-56 प्राग्रीश्वरान्निपाताः and hence the अव्यय-सञ्ज्ञा by 1-1-37 स्वरादिनिपातमव्ययम्।

(2) कृ + क्त्वा । By 3-4-21 समानकर्तृकयोः पूर्वकाले – The affix ‘क्त्वा’ is used following a verbal root which denotes a prior action relative to that of another verbal root, provided the agent of both the actions is the same. In the present example the later action (having the same agent – ‘Bhṛgu’s son’) is अन्तरधीयत (‘disappeared.’)

(3) अलौकिक-विग्रह: –

असत् + कृ क्त्वा । By 2-2-18 कुगतिप्रादयः – The indeclinable ‘कु’, terms having the designation ‘गति’ (ref. 1-4-60 गतिश्च etc) as well as the terms ‘प्र’ etc. (ref. 1-4-58 प्रादयः) invariably compound with a syntactically related term and the resulting compound gets the designation तत्पुरुष:।

Note: The अनुवृत्ति: of नित्यम् (invariably) comes down from the prior सूत्रम् 2-2-17 नित्यं क्रीडाजीविकयोः।

(4) By 1-2-43 प्रथमानिर्दिष्टं समास उपसर्जनम् – the term ‘असत्’ gets the designation उपसर्जनम् because in the सूत्रम् 2-2-18 (which prescribes the compounding) the term कुगतिप्रादयः ends in the nominative case. Hence the term ‘असत्’ is placed in the prior position in the compound as per the सूत्रम् 2-2-30 उपसर्जनं पूर्वम्‌ – In a compound a term which has the designation ‘उपसर्जन’ should be placed in the prior position.

Note: ‘असत् + कृ क्त्वा’ gets the designation प्रातिपदिकम्‌ by 1-2-46 कृत्तद्धितसमासाश्च।

(5) असत् + कृ ल्यप् । By 7-1-37 समासेऽनञ्पूर्वे क्त्वो ल्यप्‌ – When the affix ‘क्त्वा’ occurs at the end of a compound, it is replaced by ‘ल्यप्’ provided the prior member of the compound is a अव्‍ययम् other than ‘नञ्’ (ref. 2-2-6).

Note: As per 1-1-56 स्थानिवदादेशोऽनल्विधौ, the substitution ‘ल्यप्’ (in place of the affix ‘क्त्वा’) inherits the property of being a कित् (having the letter ‘क्’ as a इत्) affix with the designation of कृत् (by 3-1-93) and आर्धधातुकम् (by 3-4-114.)

(6) असत् + कृ य । अनुबन्ध-लोपः by 1-3-3 हलन्त्यम्, 1-3-8 लशक्वतद्धिते and 1-3-9 तस्य लोपः।

Note: 1-1-5 क्क्ङिति च prevents 7-3-84 सार्वधातुकार्धधातुकयोः from applying.

(7) असत् + कृ तुँक् य By 6-1-71 ह्रस्वस्य पिति कृति तुक् – When followed by a कृत् affix which is a पित् (has the letter ‘प्’ as a इत्), a short vowel takes the augment ‘तुँक्’। As per 1-1-46 आद्यन्तौ टकितौ, the augment ‘तुँक्’ joins after the short vowel ‘ऋ’।

(8) असत् + कृ त् य । अनुबन्ध-लोप: by 1-3-3 हलन्त्यम्, 1-3-2 उपदेशेऽजनुनासिक इत् and 1-3-9 तस्य लोपः

= असत्कृत्य ।

‘असत्कृत्य’ gets the अव्यय-सञ्ज्ञा by 1-1-40 क्त्वातोसुन्कसुनः with the help of 1-1-56 स्थानिवदादेशोऽनल्विधौ। This allows 2-4-82 to apply below.

(9) असत्कृत्य + सुँ (default) । By 4-1-2 स्वौजसमौट्छष्टाभ्याम्भिस्ङेभ्याम्भ्यस्ङसिँभ्याम्भ्यस्ङसोसाम्ङ्योस्सुप्

(10) असत्कृत्य । By 2-4-82 अव्ययादाप्सुपः – The feminine affix आप् and सुँप् affixes that are prescribed after a अव्ययम् take the लुक् elision.

Questions:

1. In which other word (besides असत्कृत्य) has the substitution ‘ल्यप्’ (in place of the affix ‘क्त्वा’) been used in the verses?

2. Consider the example – सत्कृत्वा कार्यं गतः। Why doesn’t the substitution ‘ल्यप्’ (in place of the affix ‘क्त्वा’) take place here?

3. Which सूत्रम् is used to justify the use of the affix ‘अनीयर्’ used to construct the प्रातिपदिकम् ‘स्नानीय’ (which appears in the form स्नानीयम् (नपुंसकलिङ्गे प्रथमा-एकवचनम्) in the verses)?

4. Can you spot the कृत् affix ‘अ’ in the verses?

5. Where has the सूत्रम् 3-2-124 लटः शतृशानचावप्रथमासमानाधिकरणे been used in the verses?

6. How would you say this in Sanskrit?
“Having disrespected (ignored) the words of his wife, Vālī set out to fight with Sugrīva.” Use the verbal root √स्था (ष्ठा गतिनिवृत्तौ १. १०७७) preceded by the उपसर्गः ‘प्र’ for ‘to set out.’

Easy questions:

1. Can you spot the augment ‘ईट्’ in the verses?

2. Where has the सूत्रम् 6-4-66 घुमास्थागापाजहातिसां हलि been used in the verses?

सत्कृत्य ind

Today we will look at the form सत्कृत्य  ind from श्रीमद्-वाल्मीकि-रामायणम् 3.1.16.

वैदेहीं लक्ष्मणं रामं नेत्रैरनिमिषैरिव । आश्चर्यभूतान्ददृशुः सर्वे ते वनचारिणः ।। ३-१-१४ ।।
अत्रैनं हि महाभागाः सर्वभूतहिते रताः । अतिथिं पर्णशालायां राघवं संन्यवेशयन् ।। ३-१-१५ ।।
ततो रामस्य सत्कृत्य विधिना पावकोपमाः । आजह्रुस्ते महाभागाः सलिलं धर्मचारिणः ।। ३-१-१६ ।।

Gita Press translation – All those forest dwellers saw Vaidehī (the princess of Videha country), Lakṣmaṇa and Rāma as a wonder with eyes as though steady (14). Here, indeed, the highly fortunate sages, taking delight in the good of all beings, lodged the scion of Raghu as a guest in a hut made of leaves (15). Then honoring Rāma with traditional rites, the fire-like righteous sages of great fortune offered water (16).

(1) आदरं कृत्वा = सत्कृत्य – having honored.

सत्कृत्य is derived from the verbal root √कृ (डुकृञ् करणे ८. १०) preceded by the term ‘सत्’। ‘सत्’ gets the designation गति: here as per 1-4-63 आदरानादरयोः सदसती – The terms ‘सत्’ and ‘असत्’ when denoting ‘respect’ and ‘disrespect’ respectively get the designation ‘गति’ provided they are used in conjunction with a verb.

Note: Besides accent considerations, the purpose of assigning the designation ‘गति’ is to facilitate compound formation prescribed by the सूत्रम् 2-2-18 कुगतिप्रादयः which in turn allows for the substitution ‘ल्यप्‌’ (in place of ‘क्त्वा’) prescribed by the सूत्रम् 7-1-37 समासेऽनञ्पूर्वे क्त्वो ल्यप्‌ (in step 5.)

Note: Since the term ‘सत्’ has the designation ‘गति’ here it also gets the निपात-सञ्ज्ञा by 1-4-56 प्राग्रीश्वरान्निपाताः and hence the अव्यय-सञ्ज्ञा by 1-1-37 स्वरादिनिपातमव्ययम्।

(2) कृ + क्त्वा । By 3-4-21 समानकर्तृकयोः पूर्वकाले – The affix ‘क्त्वा’ is used following a verbal root which denotes a prior action relative to that of another verbal root, provided the agent of both the actions is the same. In the present example the later action (having the same agent – ‘the sages’) is आजह्रु: (‘offered.’)

(3) अलौकिक-विग्रह: –
सत् + कृ क्त्वा । By 2-2-18 कुगतिप्रादयः – The indeclinable ‘कु’, terms having the designation ‘गति’ (ref. 1-4-60 गतिश्च etc) as well as the terms ‘प्र’ etc. (ref. 1-4-58 प्रादयः) invariably compound with a syntactically related term and the resulting compound gets the designation तत्पुरुष:।
Note: The अनुवृत्ति: of नित्यम् (invariably) comes down from the prior सूत्रम् 2-2-17 नित्यं क्रीडाजीविकयोः।

(4) By 1-2-43 प्रथमानिर्दिष्टं समास उपसर्जनम् – the term ‘सत्’ gets the designation उपसर्जनम् because in the सूत्रम् 2-2-18 (which prescribes the compounding) the term कुगतिप्रादयः ends in the nominative case. Hence the term ‘सत्’ is placed in the prior position in the compound as per the सूत्रम् 2-2-30 उपसर्जनं पूर्वम्‌ – In a compound a term which has the designation ‘उपसर्जन’ should be placed in the prior position.

Note: ‘सत् + कृ क्त्वा’ gets the designation प्रातिपदिकम्‌ by 1-2-46 कृत्तद्धितसमासाश्च।

(5) सत् + कृ ल्यप् । By 7-1-37 समासेऽनञ्पूर्वे क्त्वो ल्यप्‌ – When the affix ‘क्त्वा’ occurs at the end of a compound, it is replaced by ‘ल्यप्’ provided the prior member of the compound is a अव्‍ययम् other than ‘नञ्’ (ref. 2-2-6).
Note: As per 1-1-56 स्थानिवदादेशोऽनल्विधौ, the substitution ‘ल्यप्’ (in place of the affix ‘क्त्वा’) inherits the property of being a कित् (having the letter ‘क्’ as a इत्) affix with the designation of कृत् (by 3-1-93) and आर्धधातुकम् (by 3-4-114.)

(6) सत् + कृ य । अनुबन्ध-लोपः by 1-3-3 हलन्त्यम्, 1-3-8 लशक्वतद्धिते and 1-3-9 तस्य लोपः।

Note: 1-1-5 क्क्ङिति च prevents 7-3-84 सार्वधातुकार्धधातुकयोः from applying.

(7) सत् + कृ तुँक् य By 6-1-71 ह्रस्वस्य पिति कृति तुक् – When followed by a कृत् affix which is a पित् (has the letter ‘प्’ as a इत्), a short vowel takes the augment ‘तुँक्’। As per 1-1-46 आद्यन्तौ टकितौ, the augment ‘तुँक्’ joins after the short vowel ‘ऋ’।

(8) सत् + कृ त् य । अनुबन्ध-लोप: by 1-3-3 हलन्त्यम्, 1-3-2 उपदेशेऽजनुनासिक इत् and 1-3-9 तस्य लोपः

= सत्कृत्य ।

‘सत्कृत्य’ gets the अव्यय-सञ्ज्ञा by 1-1-40 क्त्वातोसुन्कसुनः with the help of 1-1-56 स्थानिवदादेशोऽनल्विधौ। This allows 2-4-82 to apply below.

(9) सत्कृत्य + सुँ (default) । By 4-1-2 स्वौजसमौट्छष्टाभ्याम्भिस्ङेभ्याम्भ्यस्ङसिँभ्याम्भ्यस्ङसोसाम्ङ्योस्सुप्

(10) सत्कृत्य । By 2-4-82 अव्ययादाप्सुपः – The feminine affix आप् and सुँप् affixes that are prescribed after a अव्ययम् take the लुक् elision.

Questions:

1. Referring to the set of three rules 1-4-62 अनुकरणं चानितिपरम्, 1-4-63 आदरानादरयोः सदसती (used in step 1) and 1-4-64 भूषणेऽलम् the सिद्धान्तकौमुदी says – ‘1-4-62 अनुकरणम्-‘ इत्यादि त्रिसूत्री स्वभावात्कृञ्विषया। Please explain.

2. In which compound used in the verses does the वार्तिकम् (under 2-1-60 क्तेन नञ्विशिष्टेनानञ् in the सिद्धान्तकौमुदी) शाकपार्थिवादीनां सिद्धये उत्तरपदलोपस्योपसंख्यानम् find application?

3. Which सूत्रम् may be used to justify the use of a sixth case affix in the form रामस्य used in the verses?

4. Where has the सूत्रम् 3-2-78 सुप्यजातौ णिनिस्ताच्छील्ये been used in the verses?

5. Can you spot the affix ‘कि’ in the verses?

6. How would you say this in Sanskrit?
“One should give charity (after) having shown respect to the recipient.” Use the neuter noun ‘पात्र’ for ‘recipient.’

Easy questions:

1. Where has the सूत्रम् 3-1-26 हेतुमति च been used in the verses?

2. Which सूत्रम् prescribes the substitution ‘उस्’ in the form आजह्रु:?

ऊरीकृत्य ind

Today we will look at the form ऊरीकृत्य ind from शिशुपालवधम् 2.30.

आत्मोदयः परज्यानिर्द्वयं नीतिरितीयती । तदूरीकृत्य कृतिभिर्वाचस्पत्यं प्रतायते ।। २-३० ।।

मल्लिनाथ-टीका
आत्मोदय इति ।। आत्मन उदयो वृद्धिः परस्य शत्रोर्ज्यानिर्हानिः । ‘वीज्याज्वरिभ्यो निः’ इत्यौणादिको निः प्रत्ययः । इति द्वयम् । इदं परिमाणमस्या इति इयती एतावती । ‘5-2-40 किमिदंभ्यां वो घः’ इति वतुपो वस्य घश्च । ‘4-1-6 उगितश्च’ इति ङीप् । नीतिर्नीतिसंग्रहः । एतद्द्वयातिरिक्तो न कश्चिन्नीतिपदार्थोऽस्तीत्यर्थः । यदन्यत् षाड्गुण्यादिवर्णनं तत्सर्वमस्यैव प्रपञ्च इत्याह – तदिति । तद्द्वमूरीकृत्याङ्गीकृत्य । ‘ऊरीकृतमुररीकृतमङ्गीकृतम्’ इत्यमरः । ‘1-4-61 ऊर्यादिच्विडाचश्च’ इति गतिसंज्ञायां ‘2-2-18 कुगतिप्रादयः’ इति समासे क्त्वो ल्यप् । कृतिभिः कुशलैः वाचस्पत्यं वाग्मित्वम् । कस्कादित्वादलुक्सत्वे । ‘8-3-53 षष्ठ्याः पतिपुत्र-‘ इत्यादिना सत्वमिति स्वामी तन्न । तस्य छन्दोविषयत्वात् । ब्राह्मणादित्वाद्भावे ष्यञ्प्रत्ययः । प्रतायते विस्तार्यते कर्मणि लट् । ‘6-4-44 तनोतेर्यकि’ इत्यात्तवम् । तस्मादात्मोदयार्थिर्भिरविलम्बाच्छत्रुरुच्छेत्तव्यः । तत्रान्तरीयत्वात्तस्येति भावः ।। ३० ।।

Translation – One’s success and the enemy’s failure – these two alone constitute political wisdom. Having accepted this, eloquence is displayed by the wise.

(1) स्वीकृत्य = ऊरीकृत्य – having accepted

ऊरीकृत्य is derived from the verbal root √कृ (डुकृञ् करणे ८. १०) preceded by the term ‘ऊरी’। ‘ ऊरी’ gets the designation गति: here as per 1-4-61 ऊर्यादिच्विडाचश्च – The terms ‘ऊरी’ etc as well terms ending in the तद्धित: affix ‘च्विँ’ or ‘डाच्’ get the designation ‘गति’ provided they are used in conjunction with a verb.

Note: Besides accent considerations, the purpose of assigning the designation ‘गति’ is to facilitate compound formation prescribed by the सूत्रम् 2-2-18 कुगतिप्रादयः which in turn allows for the substitution ‘ल्यप्‌’ (in place of ‘क्त्वा’) prescribed by the सूत्रम् 7-1-37 समासेऽनञ्पूर्वे क्त्वो ल्यप्‌ (in step 5.)

Note: Since the term ‘ऊरी’ has the designation ‘गति’ here it also gets the निपात-सञ्ज्ञा by 1-4-56 प्राग्रीश्वरान्निपाताः and hence the अव्यय-सञ्ज्ञा by 1-1-37 स्वरादिनिपातमव्ययम्।

(2) कृ + क्त्वा । By 3-4-21 समानकर्तृकयोः पूर्वकाले – The affix ‘क्त्वा’ is used following a verbal root which denotes a prior action relative to that of another verbal root, provided the agent of both the actions is the same. In the present example the later action (having the same agent – ‘wise’) is प्रतायते (‘is displayed.’)

(3) अलौकिक-विग्रह: –
ऊरी + कृ क्त्वा । By 2-2-18 कुगतिप्रादयः – The indeclinable ‘कु’, terms having the designation ‘गति’ (ref. 1-4-60 गतिश्च etc) as well as the terms ‘प्र’ etc. (ref. 1-4-58 प्रादयः) invariably compound with a syntactically related term and the resulting compound gets the designation तत्पुरुष:।
Note: The अनुवृत्ति: of नित्यम् (invariably) comes down from the prior सूत्रम् 2-2-17 नित्यं क्रीडाजीविकयोः।

(4) By 1-2-43 प्रथमानिर्दिष्टं समास उपसर्जनम् – the term ‘ऊरी’ gets the designation उपसर्जनम् because in the सूत्रम् 2-2-18 (which prescribes the compounding) the term कुगतिप्रादयः ends in the nominative case. Hence the term ‘ऊरी’ is placed in the prior position in the compound as per the सूत्रम् 2-2-30 उपसर्जनं पूर्वम्‌ – In a compound a term which has the designation ‘उपसर्जन’ should be placed in the prior position.

Note: ‘ऊरी + कृ क्त्वा’ gets the designation प्रातिपदिकम्‌ by 1-2-46 कृत्तद्धितसमासाश्च।

(5) ऊरी + कृ ल्यप् । By 7-1-37 समासेऽनञ्पूर्वे क्त्वो ल्यप्‌ – When the affix ‘क्त्वा’ occurs at the end of a compound, it is replaced by ‘ल्यप्’ provided the prior member of the compound is a अव्‍ययम् other than ‘नञ्’ (ref. 2-2-6).
Note: As per 1-1-56 स्थानिवदादेशोऽनल्विधौ, the substitution ‘ल्यप्’ (in place of the affix ‘क्त्वा’) inherits the property of being a कित् (having the letter ‘क्’ as a इत्) affix with the designation of कृत् (by 3-1-93) and आर्धधातुकम् (by 3-4-114.)

(6) ऊरी + कृ य । अनुबन्ध-लोपः by 1-3-3 हलन्त्यम्, 1-3-8 लशक्वतद्धिते and 1-3-9 तस्य लोपः।

Note: 1-1-5 क्क्ङिति च prevents 7-3-84 सार्वधातुकार्धधातुकयोः from applying.

(7) ऊरी + कृ तुँक् य By 6-1-71 ह्रस्वस्य पिति कृति तुक् – When followed by a कृत् affix which is a पित् (has the letter ‘प्’ as a इत्), a short vowel takes the augment ‘तुँक्’। As per 1-1-46 आद्यन्तौ टकितौ, the augment ‘तुँक्’ joins after the short vowel ‘ऋ’।

(8) ऊरी + कृ त् य । अनुबन्ध-लोप: by 1-3-3 हलन्त्यम्, 1-3-2 उपदेशेऽजनुनासिक इत् and 1-3-9 तस्य लोपः

= ऊरीकृत्य ।

‘ऊरीकृत्य’ gets the अव्यय-सञ्ज्ञा by 1-1-40 क्त्वातोसुन्कसुनः with the help of 1-1-56 स्थानिवदादेशोऽनल्विधौ। This allows 2-4-82 to apply below.

(9) ऊरीकृत्य + सुँ (default) । By 4-1-2 स्वौजसमौट्छष्टाभ्याम्भिस्ङेभ्याम्भ्यस्ङसिँभ्याम्भ्यस्ङसोसाम्ङ्योस्सुप्

(10) ऊरीकृत्य । By 2-4-82 अव्ययादाप्सुपः – The feminine affix आप् and सुँप् affixes that are prescribed after a अव्ययम् take the लुक् elision.

Questions:

1. Commenting on the सूत्रम् 1-4-61 ऊर्यादिच्विडाचश्च (used in step 1) the तत्त्वबोधिनी says – च्विडाचौ कृभ्वस्तियोगे विहितौ, तत्साहचर्यादूर्यादीनामपि तत्रैव गतिसंज्ञा। माधवादिग्रन्थे तु ‘आविःप्रादुःशब्दौ मुक्त्वा, अन्येषां करोतिनैव योगे गतिसंज्ञा’ इति स्थितम्। Please explain.

2. Can you spot two षष्ठी-तत्पुरुष: compounds in the verses?

3. Which कृत् affix is used to derive the feminine प्रातिपदिकम् ‘नीति’ (seen in the form नीति: (प्रथमा-एकवचनम्) in the verses)?

4. Where has the सूत्रम् 2-2-6 नञ्‌ been used in the commentary?

5. Which सूत्रम् justifies the use of a fifth case affix in the form ब्राह्मणादित्वात् used in the commentary?

6. How would you say this in Sanskrit?
“Having accepted Śrī Rāma’s sandals, Bharata returned to Ayodhyā.”

Easy questions:

1. In the fourth quarter of Chapter Six of the अष्टाध्यायी can you find the सूत्रम् which prescribes the substitution ‘आ’ in the form प्रतायते? (Hint: The अनुवृत्ति: of ‘आत्’ runs down from 6-4-41 विड्वनोरनुनासिकस्यात्‌ to 6-4-45 सनः क्तिचि लोपश्चास्यान्यतरस्याम्।) What is the alternate form for प्रतायते?

2. From which verbal root is the form विस्तार्यते (used in the commentary) derived?

अतीत्य ind

Today we will look at the form अतीत्य  ind from श्रीमद्भागवतम् 3.15.27.

तद्विश्वगुर्वधिकृतं भुवनैकवन्द्यं दिव्यं विचित्रविबुधाग्र्यविमानशोचिः । आपुः परां मुदमपूर्वमुपेत्य योगमायाबलेन मुनयस्तदथो विकुण्ठम् ।। ३-१५-२६ ।।
तस्मिन्नतीत्य मुनयः षडसज्जमानाः कक्षाः समानवयसावथ सप्तमायाम् । देवावचक्षत गृहीतगदौ परार्ध्यकेयूरकुण्डलकिरीटविटङ्कवेषौ ।। ३-१५-२७ ।।

श्रीधर-स्वामि-टीका
तत्तदा तदपूर्वं विकुण्ठं अथो अनन्तरमुपेत्य मुनयः परामुत्कृष्टां मुदमापुः । अपूर्वत्वे हेतवः – विश्वगुरुणा हरिणाऽधिकृतमधिष्ठितम् । भुवनानामेकमेव वन्द्यम् । दिव्यमलौकिकम् । विचित्राणि विबुधाग्र्याणां विमानानि तेषां शोचिर्दीप्तिर्यस्मिन् । योगमायाबलेनेति अष्टाङ्गयोगप्रभावेणोपेत्य । परमेश्वरे तु योगमायेति चिच्छक्तिविलास इति द्रष्टव्यम् ।। २६ ।। तस्मिन्वैकुण्ठे षट् कक्षाः प्राकारद्वाराणि । असज्जमानाः भगवद्दर्शनोत्कण्ठया तत्तदद्भुतदर्शन आसक्तिमकुर्वाणाः । द्वारपालौ देवावपश्यन् । समानं वयो ययोः । गृहीते गदे याभ्याम् । परार्ध्यैः केयूरादिभिर्विटङ्कः सुन्दरो वेषो ययोः ।। २७ ।।

Gita Press translation – The sages (Sanaka and his three brothers) felt supremely delighted when they reached by dint of their Yogamāyā (wonderful power of Yoga) the divine and unique realm of Vaikuṇṭha, presided over by Lord Viṣṇu (the Father of the whole universe), which is the sole object of reverence for all the worlds, and shone resplendent with the wonderful aerial cars of the foremost gods (26). Having passed through six entrances to the Lord’s residence without feeling attached to anything, they saw at the seventh gate two shining beings of the same age, armed with a mace and adorned with most valuable armlets, ear-rings and diadems (27).

The verse (३-१४-२७) has appeared previously in the following post – http://avg-sanskrit.org/2013/06/28/अतीत्य-ind/

(1) अतीत्य – having gone beyond

अतीत्य is derived from the verbal root √इ (इण् गतौ २. ४०) preceded by the उपसर्ग: ‘अति’। ‘अति’ also gets the designation गति: here as per 1-4-60 गतिश्च

(2) इ + क्त्वा । By 3-4-21 समानकर्तृकयोः पूर्वकाले – The affix ‘क्‍त्‍वा’ is used following a verbal root which denotes a prior action relative to that of another verbal root, provided the agent of both the actions is the same. In the present example the later action (having the same agent – ‘they’) is अचक्षत (‘saw.’)

(3) अलौकिक-विग्रह: –

अति + इ + क्त्वा । By 2-2-18 कुगतिप्रादयः – The indeclinable ‘कु’, terms having the designation ‘गति’ (ref. 1-4-60 गतिश्च etc) as well as the terms ‘प्र’ etc. (ref. 1-4-58 प्रादयः) invariably compound with a syntactically related term and the resulting compound gets the designation तत्पुरुष:।
Note: The अनुवृत्ति: of नित्यम् (invariably) comes down from the prior सूत्रम् 2-2-17 नित्यं क्रीडाजीविकयोः।
Note: The designation ‘गति’ is prescribed in the section from 1-4-60 गतिश्च down to 1-4-79 जीविकोपनिषदावौपम्ये

(4) By 1-2-43 प्रथमानिर्दिष्टं समास उपसर्जनम् – the term ‘अति’ has the designation गति: here and therefore gets the designation उपसर्जनम् because in the सूत्रम् 2-2-18 (which prescribes the compounding) the term कुगतिप्रादयः ends in the nominative case.
Hence the term ‘अति’ is placed in the prior position in the compound as per the सूत्रम् 2-2-30 उपसर्जनं पूर्वम्‌ – In a compound a term which has the designation ‘उपसर्जन’ should be placed in the prior position.

Note: ‘अति + इ + क्त्वा’ gets the designation प्रातिपदिकम्‌ by 1-2-46 कृत्तद्धितसमासाश्च।

(5) अति + इ + ल्यप् । By 7-1-37 समासेऽनञ्पूर्वे क्त्वो ल्यप्‌ – When the affix ‘क्त्वा’ occurs at the end of a compound, it is replaced by ‘ल्यप्’ provided the prior member of the compound is a अव्‍ययम् other than ‘नञ्’ (ref. 2-2-6 नञ्)। The entire term ‘क्त्वा’ is replaced by ‘ल्यप्’ as per the परिभाषा-सूत्रम् 1-1-55 अनेकाल्शित्सर्वस्य
Note: As per 1-1-56 स्थानिवदादेशोऽनल्विधौ, the substitution ‘ल्यप्’ (in place of the affix ‘क्त्वा’) inherits the property of being a कित् (having the letter ‘क्’ as a इत्) affix with the designation of कृत् (by 3-1-93 कृदतिङ्) and आर्धधातुकम् (by 3-4-114 आर्धधातुकं शेषः।)

(6) अति + इ + य । अनुबन्ध-लोपः by 1-3-3 हलन्त्यम्, 1-3-8 लशक्वतद्धिते and 1-3-9 तस्य लोपः

Note: 1-1-5 क्क्ङिति च prevents 7-3-84 सार्वधातुकार्धधातुकयोः from applying.

(7) अती + य । By 6-1-101 अकः सवर्णे दीर्घः। Note: Since the affix ‘य’ is no longer preceded by a short vowel, 6-1-71 ह्रस्वस्य पिति कृति तुक् would not apply here. But now 6-1-86 षत्वतुकोरसिद्धः intervenes and says that when it comes to a possible addition of the augment ‘तुँक्’, the single substitute ‘ई’ (in place of ‘इ + इ’) is to be treated as if it has not occurred. Thus 6-1-71 ह्रस्वस्य पिति कृति तुक् still sees अति + इ + य and the addition of the augment ‘तुँक्’ does take place.

Note: The entire meaning of the सूत्रम् 6-1-86 षत्वतुकोरसिद्धः is – When the substitution ‘ष्’ or the augment ‘तुँक्’ is to be performed, a single replacement (in place of the preceding and following letter) is treated as if it has not occurred.

(8) अती तुँक् + य । By 6-1-71 ह्रस्वस्य पिति कृति तुक् – When followed by a कृत् affix which is a पित् (has the letter ‘प्’ as a इत्), a short vowel takes the augment ‘तुँक्’। As per 1-1-46 आद्यन्तौ टकितौ, the augment ‘तुँक्’ joins after the short vowel ‘इ’।

(9) अतीत्य । अनुबन्ध-लोप: by 1-3-3 हलन्त्यम्, 1-3-2 उपदेशेऽजनुनासिक इत् and 1-3-9 तस्य लोपः

‘अतीत्य’ gets the अव्यय-सञ्ज्ञा by 1-1-40 क्त्वातोसुन्कसुनः with the help of 1-1-56 स्थानिवदादेशोऽनल्विधौ। This allows 2-4-82 to apply below.

(10) अतीत्य + सुँ (default) । By 4-1-2 स्वौजसमौट्छष्टाभ्याम्भिस्ङेभ्याम्भ्यस्ङसिँभ्याम्भ्यस्ङसोसाम्ङ्योस्सुप्

(11) अतीत्य । By 2-4-82 अव्ययादाप्सुपः – The feminine affix आप् and सुँप् affixes that are prescribed after a अव्ययम् take the लुक् elision.

Questions:

1. In which Chapter of the गीता has the form अतीत्य been used?

2. Can you spot another (besides अतीत्य) गति-समास: in the verses?

3. Which two compounds occurring in the verses have been constructed using the सूत्रम् 2-2-6 नञ्‌?

4. Which सूत्रम् justifies the use of a third case affix in the form योगमायाबलेन used in the verses?

5. What is the लौकिक-विग्रह: of the compound भुवनैकवन्द्यम् (प्रातिपदिकम् ‘भुवनैकवन्द्य’, नपुंसकलिङ्गे द्वितीया-एकवचनम्) used in the verses? Hint: First form the कर्मधारय: compound ‘एकवन्द्य’ and use that to form the final षष्ठी-तत्पुरुष: compound ‘भुवनैकवन्द्य’।

6. How would you say this in Sanskrit?
“Having crossed (gone beyond) the ocean Śrī Hanumān reached Lanka.” Use the verbal root √आप् (आपॢँ व्याप्तौ ५. १६) preceded by the उपसर्ग: ‘प्र’ for ‘to reach.’

Easy questions:

1. Where has लिँट् been used in the verses?

2. Which सूत्रम् prescribes the substitution ‘अत्’ in the form अचक्षत?

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