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शयीरन् 3Ap-विधिलिँङ्

Today we will look at the form शयीरन् 3Ap-विधिलिँङ् from श्रीमद्भागवतम् 5-13-15.

मनस्विनो निर्जितदिग्गजेन्द्रा ममेति सर्वे भुवि बद्धवैराः ।
मृधे शयीरन्न तु तद्व्रजन्ति यन्न्यस्तदण्डो गतवैरोऽभियाति ।। ५-१३-१५ ।।

Gita Press translation “(Even great) heroes, who have completely subdued the great elephants guarding the quarters as well as the four intervening corners, all bite the dust on the field of battle, having contracted confirmed hostility with one another for the sake of (dominion over) the earth, claiming it as their own. None of them, however, attains the goal which is reached by the recluse (who has completely shaken off all forms of violence and) who is free from enmity.”

शयीरन् is derived from the धातुः √शी (शीङ् स्वप्ने, अदादि-गणः, धातु-पाठः २. २६)

The विवक्षा is विधिलिँङ्, कर्तरि प्रयोग:, प्रथम-पुरुषः, बहुवचनम्।

The धातुः √शी is a ङित् (has ङकारः as a इत् letter)। Thus by 1-3-12 अनुदात्तङित आत्मनेपदम् √शी will get आत्मनेपद-प्रत्ययाः। As per 1-4-100 तङानावात्मनेपदम्, the nine प्रत्यया: from “त” to “महिङ्” get the आत्मनेपद-सञ्ज्ञा। So √शी can take only one of these nine प्रत्यया: in कर्तरि प्रयोग:। Since the विवक्षा is प्रथम-पुरुष-बहुवचनम्, the प्रत्यय: will be “झ”।

(1) शी + लिँङ् । By 3-3-161 विधिनिमन्त्रणामन्त्रणाधीष्टसंप्रश्नप्रार्थनेषु लिङ्, the affix लिङ् is prescribed after a धातुः when used in the sense of command, direction, invitation, request, inquiry and entreaty.

(2) शी + ल् । अनुबन्ध-लोपः by 1-3-2 उपदेशेऽजनुनासिक इत्, 1-3-3 हलन्त्यम्, 1-3-9 तस्य लोपः

(3) शी + झ । 3-4-78 तिप्तस्झिसिप्थस्थमिब्वस्मस् तातांझथासाथांध्वमिड्वहिमहिङ् mandates the प्रत्ययः “झ” as the substitute for the लकारः। “झ” gets the सार्वधातुक-सञ्ज्ञा by 3-4-113 तिङ्शित्सार्वधातुकम् – The affixes of the तिङ्-प्रत्याहारः and the affixes that have शकारः as an इत् get the designation of सार्वधातुकम् if they are prescribed in the “धातो:” अधिकार:।

(4) शी + रन्। By 3-4-105 झस्य रन्, the affix झ of लिँङ् is replaced by रन्। As per 1-1-55 अनेकाल्शित्सर्वस्य, the entire प्रत्यय: “झ” gets replaced. 1-3-4 न विभक्तौ तुस्माः prevents the ending नकारः of रन्-प्रत्ययः from getting the इत्-सञ्ज्ञा। रन् also gets सार्वधातुक-सञ्ज्ञा by 1-1-56 स्थानिवदादेशोऽनल्विधौ

(5) शी + सीयुट् रन् । By 3-4-102 लिङस्सीयुट् , the affixes of लिँङ् get सीयुट् as the augment. 1-1-46 आद्यन्तौ टकितौ places the सीयुट्-आगमः before the प्रत्यय:।

(6) शी + सीय् रन् । The उकार: in सीयुट् is for pronunciation only (उच्चारणार्थम्)। The टकार: is an इत् by 1-3-3 हलन्त्यम् and takes लोप: by 1-3-9 तस्य लोपः

(7) शी + शप् + सीय् रन् । By 3-1-68 कर्तरि शप्‌, the शप्-प्रत्यय: is placed after a verbal root, when followed by a सार्वधातुक-प्रत्यय: that is used signifying the agent. The शप्-प्रत्यय: which is a शित्, gets सार्वधातुक-सञ्ज्ञा by 3-4-113 तिङ्शित्सार्वधातुकम्

(8) शी + सीय् रन् । By 2-4-72 अदिप्रभृतिभ्यः शपः, the शप्-प्रत्ययः takes the लुक् elision when following a verbal root belonging to अदादि-गणः।

(9) शी + ई य् रन् । By 7-2-79 लिङः सलोपोऽनन्‍त्‍यस्‍य, the सकारः of a सार्वधातुक-लिङ् affix is elided, provided it is not the final letter of the affix.

(10) शी + ईरन् । By 6-1-66 लोपो व्‍योर्वलि , a वकारः or a यकारः is elided when it is followed by a letter of the वल्-प्रत्याहारः।

(11) शे + ईरन् । By 7-4-21 शीङः सार्वधातुके गुणः, the verbal root √शी (शीङ् स्वप्ने २. २६) takes गुण-आदेशः when a सार्वधातुक-प्रत्ययः follows.

(12) शयीरन् । अयादेशः by 6-1-78 एचोऽयवायावः


1. 3-4-105 झस्य रन् is used in only one place in the गीता। Where is that?

2. Where else (besides in शयीरन्) has 2-4-72 अदिप्रभृतिभ्यः शपः been used in the verse?

3. 3-4-105 झस्य रन् is an अपवाद: for which सूत्रम्?

4. The अव्ययम् “इति” normally ends a quotation. Based on the context we have to find out where the quotation begins. From where does the quotation begin in this verse?

5. Can you spot a “उवँङ्”-आदेश: in the verse?

6. How would you say this in Sanskrit?
“This child does not sleep without his (own) mother.” Use the masculine प्रातिपदिकम् “शिशु” for “child”, use the अव्ययम् “विना” for without, use द्वितीया विभक्ति: with “own mother.”

Easy questions:

1. Can you recall a सूत्रम् (which we have studied) which is a अपवाद: for 6-1-78 एचोऽयवायावः?

2. Where has 7-1-3 झोऽन्तः been used in the verse?

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