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पारगः mNs

Today we will look at the form पारगः mNs from श्रीमद्-वाल्मीकि-रामायणम् 1.41.4.

शूरश्च कृतविद्यश्च पूर्वैस्तुल्योऽसि तेजसा | पितॄणां गतिमन्विच्छ येन चाश्वोऽपवाहितः ।। १-४१-२ ।।
अन्तर्भौमानि सत्त्वानि वीर्यवन्ति महान्ति च | तेषां त्वं प्रतिघातार्थं सासिं गृह्णीष्व कार्मुकम् ।। १-४१-३ ।।
अभिवाद्याभिवाद्यांस्त्वं हत्वा विघ्नकरानपि | सिद्धार्थः संनिवर्तस्व मम यज्ञस्य पारगः ।। १-४१-४ ।।
एवमुक्तोंऽशुमान्सम्यक्सगरेण महात्मना | धनुरादाय खड्गं च जगाम लघुविक्रमः ।। १-४१-५ ।।

Gita Press translation – ‘You are valiant and learned and the compeer of your forbears in splendor. Trace the whereabouts of your uncles as well as of the man by whom the (sacrificial) horse has been stolen away (2). The living beings inhabiting the subterranean regions are full of (great) prowess and gigantic (of body). In order to meet their assault, therefore, take up a bow along with a sword (3). Bowing to those who deserve to be greeted and at the same time killing those who come in your way, return (only) when you have accomplished your purpose, and (thus) ensure the completion of my sacrificial performance.’ (4) Duly instructed thus by the high-souled Sagara and taking his bow and sword, Aṁśumān departed with quick paces (5).

पारं गच्छतीति पारग:।

“ग” is a कृदन्त-प्रातिपदिकम् (participle form) derived from the verbal root √गम् (गमॢँ गतौ १. ११३७).

The (compound) प्रातिपदिकम् “पारग” is derived as follows:

(1) पार + ङस् + गम् + ड । By 3-2-48 अन्तात्यन्ताध्वदूरपारसर्वानन्तेषु डः – The affix “ड” may be used after the verbal root √गम् (गमॢँ गतौ १. ११३७) when in composition with a कर्म-पदम् (a पदम् which denotes the object of the action) which is either “अन्त” or “अत्यन्त” or “अध्वन्” or “दूर” or “पार” or “सर्व” or “अनन्त”।

Note: In the सूत्रम् 3-2-48, the term अन्तात्यन्ताध्वदूरपारसर्वानन्तेषु ends in the seventh (locative) case. Hence “पार + ङस्” gets the उपपद-सञ्ज्ञा here by 3-1-92 तत्रोपपदं सप्तमीस्थम्‌ – The designation उपपदम् is applied to a term which denotes a thing – like a pot etc. – which is present (as the thing to be expressed) in a word ending in the locative case in the सूत्रम्।
Note: The affix “ङस्” is used here as per 2-3-65 कर्तृकर्मणोः कृति – To express the agent or the object (of an action), a nominal stem takes a sixth case affix when the nominal stem is used in conjunction with a term which ends in a कृत् affix. (This is what is called as कृद्योगे षष्ठी)।

(2) पार + ङस् + गम् + अ । अनुबन्ध-लोप: by 1-3-7 चुटू and 1-3-9 तस्य लोपः

(3) पार + ङस् + ग् + अ । By 6-4-143 टेः – When the अङ्गम् has the भ-सञ्ज्ञा, then its टि portion takes लोप: when followed by an affix that has डकारः as an indicatory letter. Note: The अङ्गम् does not have the भ-सञ्ज्ञा here. But still टि-लोप: is done because otherwise no purpose would be served by having डकार: as a इत् in “ड”। डित्वसामर्थ्यादभस्यापि टेर्लोपः। See easy question 2.

= पार ङस् + ग ।

We form a compound between “पार ङस्” (which is the उपपदम्) and “ग” by using the सूत्रम् 2-2-19 उपपदमतिङ् – A सुबन्तम् (term ending in a सुँप् affix) having the designation “उपपद” (in this case “पार ङस्”) invariably compounds with a syntactically related term (in this case “ग”) as long as the compound does not end in a तिङ् affix.

In the compound, “पार ङस्” is placed in the prior position as per 2-2-30 उपसर्जनं पूर्वम्‌ – In a compound a term which has the designation “उपसर्जन” should be placed in the prior position. Note: Here “पार ङस्” is the उपपदम् and hence it gets the उपसर्जन-सञ्ज्ञा by 1-2-43 प्रथमानिर्दिष्टं समास उपसर्जनम् – A term denoted by a word (in this case “उपपदम्”) ending in a nominative case in a सूत्रम् (in this case 2-2-19 उपपदमतिङ्) which prescribes a compound gets the designation “उपसर्जन”।
“पार ङस् + ग” gets प्रातिपदिक-सञ्ज्ञा by 1-2-46 कृत्तद्धितसमासाश्च – A word form that ends in a कृत्-प्रत्ययः or a तद्धित-प्रत्ययः and so also compounds gets the name प्रातिपदिकम्।

(4) पार + ग । By 2-4-71 सुपो धातुप्रातिपदिकयोः – A सुँप् affix takes a लुक् elision when it is a part of a धातुः or a प्रातिपदिकम्।

= पारग ।

The विवक्षा is पुंलिङ्गे, प्रथमा-एकवचनम्

(5) पारग + सुँ । By 4-1-2 स्वौजसमौट्छष्टाभ्याम्भिस्ङेभ्याम्भ्यस्ङसिँभ्याम्भ्यस्ङसोसाम्ङ्योस्सुप्

(6) पारग + स् । अनुबन्ध-लोपः by 1-3-2 उपदेशेऽजनुनासिक इत्, 1-3-9 तस्य लोपः

(7) पारगः । रुँत्व-विसर्गौ by 8-2-66 ससजुषो रुः and 8-3-15 खरवसानयोर्विसर्जनीयः

Questions:

1. Where has the affix ‘ड’ been used with the verbal root √गम् (गमॢँ गतौ १. ११३७) in Chapter Twelve of the गीता?

2. Commenting on the सूत्रम् 3-2-48 अन्तात्यन्ताध्वदूरपारसर्वानन्तेषु डः (used in step 1) the सिद्धान्तकौमुदी says – संज्ञायामिति निवृत्तम्। Please explain.

3. Where has the सूत्रम् 6-4-113 ई हल्यघोः been used in the verses?

4. Can you spot the affix ‘ट’ in the verses?

5. Which सूत्रम् is used for the substitution ‘व’ in the form संनिवर्तस्व?

6. How would you say this in Sanskrit?
“I wish I become a master of grammar.” Use आशीर्लिँङ् to express the meaning of “I wish.” Use a उपपद-समास: for “master.”

Easy questions:

1. Where has the सूत्रम् 6-4-10 सान्तमहतः संयोगस्य been used in the verses?

2. By which सूत्रम् does पाणिनि: define the term टि?

धनञ्जयः mNs

Today we will look at the form धनञ्जयः mNs from श्रीमद्भागवतम् 1.7.50.

सूत उवाच
धर्म्यं न्याय्यं सकरुणं निर्व्यलीकं समं महत् । राजा धर्मसुतो राज्ञ्याः प्रत्यनन्दद्वचो द्विजाः ।। १-७-४९ ।।
नकुलः सहदेवश्च युयुधानो धनञ्जयः । भगवान्देवकीपुत्रो ये चान्ये याश्च योषितः ।। १-७-५० ।।
तत्राहामर्षितो भीमस्तस्य श्रेयान्वधः स्मृतः । न भर्तुर्नात्मनश्चार्थे योऽहन्सुप्ताञ्शिशून्वृथा ।। १-७-५१ ।।

श्रीधर-स्वामि-टीका
धर्म्यमित्यादयो वचस: षड्गुणा: पूर्वश्लोकषट्के द्रष्टव्या: । तत्र धर्म्यं धर्मादनपेतं मुच्यतां मुच्यतामिति । न्याय्यं न्यायादनपेतं सरहस्य इत्यादि । सकरुणं तस्यात्मनोऽर्धमिति । निर्व्यलीकं तद्धर्मज्ञेति । समं मा रोदीदिति दुःखसाम्योक्तेः । महत् यैः कोपितमिति निष्ठुरोक्त्या हितोपदेशात् । एवंभूतं राज्ञ्या वचो हे द्विजाः, राजा प्रत्यनन्ददनुमोदितवान् ।। ४९ ।। नकुलादयश्च प्रत्यनन्दन् । युयुधानः सात्यकिः ।। ५० ।। तस्य तथाविधस्य द्रौणेर्वध एव श्रेष्ठः । अन्यथाऽस्य नरकपातप्रसङ्गात् । तदाह – न भर्तुरिति । अहन् जघान ।। ५१ ।।

Gita Press translation – Sūta went on: King Yudhiṣṭhira, the son of Dharma (the god of virtue,) O holy Brāhmaṇas, greeted the queen’s words, which were pious and fair, compassionate, guileless, impartial and noble (49). Nakula and Sahadeva, Yuyudhāna (Sātyaki), Arjuna, the divine Śrī Kṛṣṇa (the son of Devakī) Himself and all other men and women (who happened to be there) endorsed what she said (50). On that occasion Bhīma indignantly (intervened and) said, “For him who wantonly murdered sleeping youngsters without any gain either to himself or to his master, death has been declared as a boon.” (51)

धनं जयतीति धनंजय:/धनञ्जय:।

“जय” is a कृदन्त-प्रातिपदिकम् (participle form) derived from the verbal root √जि (जि अभिभवे, # १. १०९६).

The (compound) प्रातिपदिकम् “धनंजय/धनञ्जय” is derived as follows:

(1) धन + ङस् + जि + खच् । By 3-2-46 संज्ञायां भृतॄवृजिधारिसहितपिदमः – To derive a word which is a proper name, the affix “खच्” may be used after the following verbal roots – √भृ (डुभृञ् धारणपोषणयोः, # ३. ६), √तॄ (तॄ प्लवनतरणयोः, # १. ११२४), √वृ (वृञ् वरणे, # ५. ८ and वृङ् सम्भक्तौ, # ९. ४५), √जि (जि अभिभवे, # १. १०९६), √धारि (causative form of धृञ् धारणे, # १. १०४७), √सह् (षह मर्षणे, # १. ९८८), √तप् (तपँ सन्तापे, # १. ११४०) and √दम् (दमुँ उपशमे, # ४. १००) – when in composition with a कर्म-पदम् (a पदम् which denotes the object of the action) or a पदम् which ends in a सुप् affix (ref. 4-1-2 स्वौजसमौट्छष्टा…) as the case may be.
Note: In the cases where the meaning of the derived compound follows the meaning of its constituents, the उपपदम् is a कर्म-पदम्। For example विश्वं बिभर्तीति विश्वंभरा (पृथिवी)। In the cases where the the meaning of the derived compound does not follow the meaning of its constituents, the उपपदम् may be any सुबन्तं पदम्। For example रथेन रथे वा तरतीति रथन्तरं (साम)।

Note: The term कर्मणि (which comes as अनुवृत्ति: in to the सूत्रम् 3-2-46 from the सूत्रम् 3-2-1) ends in the seventh (locative) case. Hence “धन + ङस्” (which is the object (कर्म-पदम्) of जयति) gets the उपपद-सञ्ज्ञा here by 3-1-92 तत्रोपपदं सप्तमीस्थम्‌ – The designation उपपदम् is applied to a term which denotes a thing – like a pot etc. – which is present (as the thing to be expressed) in a word ending in the locative case in the सूत्रम्।
Note: The affix “ङस्” is used here as per 2-3-65 कर्तृकर्मणोः कृति – To express the agent or the object (of an action), a nominal stem takes a sixth case affix when the nominal stem is used in conjunction with a term which ends in a कृत् affix. (This is what is called as कृद्योगे षष्ठी)।

(2) धन + ङस् + जि + अ । अनुबन्ध-लोप: by 1-3-8 लशक्वतद्धिते, 1-3-3 हलन्त्यम् and 1-3-9 तस्य लोपः

(3) धन + ङस् + जे + अ । By 7-3-84 सार्वधातुकार्धधातुकयोः, an अङ्गम् whose final letter is an इक् gets गुण-आदेशः, when a सार्वधातुक-प्रत्यय: or a आर्धधातुक-प्रत्यय: follows.

(4) धन + ङस् + जय् + अ । By 6-1-78 एचोऽयवायावः

= धन ङस् + जय

We form a compound between “धन ङस्” (which is the उपपदम्) and “जय” by using the सूत्रम् 2-2-19 उपपदमतिङ् – A सुबन्तम् (term ending in a सुँप् affix) having the designation “उपपद” (in this case “धन ङस्”) invariably compounds with a syntactically related term (in this case “जय”) as long as the compound does not end in a तिङ् affix.

In the compound, “धन ङस्” is placed in the prior position as per 2-2-30 उपसर्जनं पूर्वम्‌ – In a compound a term which has the designation “उपसर्जन” should be placed in the prior position. Note: Here “धन ङस्” is the उपपदम् and hence it gets the उपसर्जन-सञ्ज्ञा by 1-2-43 प्रथमानिर्दिष्टं समास उपसर्जनम् – A term denoted by a word (in this case “उपपदम्”) ending in a nominative case in a सूत्रम् (in this case 2-2-19 उपपदमतिङ्) which prescribes a compound gets the designation “उपसर्जन”।
“धन ङस् + जय” gets प्रातिपदिक-सञ्ज्ञा by 1-2-46 कृत्तद्धितसमासाश्च – A word form that ends in a कृत्-प्रत्ययः or a तद्धित-प्रत्ययः and so also compounds gets the name प्रातिपदिकम्।

(5) धन + जय । By 2-4-71 सुपो धातुप्रातिपदिकयोः – A सुँप् affix takes a लुक् elision when it is a part of a धातुः or a प्रातिपदिकम्।

(6) धन मुँम् + जय । By 6-3-67 अरुर्द्विषदजन्तस्य मुम् – When followed by a उत्तरपदम् (latter member of a compound) which ends in a खित् (having खकार: as a इत्) affix, the पूर्वपदम् (prior member of a compound) takes the augment मुँम् provided the following two conditions are satisfied:
(i) the पूर्वपदम् is either “अरुस्”, “द्विषत्” or ends in a अच् (vowel)
(ii) the पूर्वपदम् is not a अव्ययम्
As per 1-1-47 मिदचोऽन्त्यात्परः, the मुँम् augment joins after the last vowel (अकार:) of the “धन”।

(7) धनम् + जय । अनुबन्ध-लोप: by 1-3-2 उपदेशेऽजनुनासिक इत्, 1-3-3 हलन्त्यम् and 1-3-9 तस्य लोपः

(8) धनं जय । By 8-3-23 मोऽनुस्वारः

(9) धनञ्जय/धनंजय । By 8-4-59 वा पदान्तस्य

The विवक्षा is पुंलिङ्गे, प्रथमा-एकवचनम्

(10) धनञ्जय + सुँ । By 4-1-2 स्वौजसमौट्छष्टाभ्याम्भिस्ङेभ्याम्भ्यस्ङसिँभ्याम्भ्यस्ङसोसाम्ङ्योस्सुप्

(11) धनञ्जय + स् । अनुबन्ध-लोपः by 1-3-2 उपदेशेऽजनुनासिक इत्, 1-3-9 तस्य लोपः

(12) धनञ्जयः । रुँत्व-विसर्गौ by 8-2-66 ससजुषो रुः and 8-3-15 खरवसानयोर्विसर्जनीयः

Questions:

1. Where has 3-2-46 संज्ञायां भृतॄवृजिधारिसहितपिदमः (used in step 1) been used for the last time in the गीता?

2. Commenting on the सूत्रम् 3-2-46 संज्ञायां भृतॄवृजिधारिसहितपिदमः, the तत्त्वबोधिनी says – सज्ञायां किम्? कुटुम्बं बिभर्तीति कुटुम्बभारः।

3. In which word in the verses has the तकार: of the affix तिप् taken लोप:?

4. In which word in the commentary has the सकार: of the affix सिँच् taken लोप:?

5. Can you spot an affix तृच् in the verses?

6. How would you say this in Sanskrit?
“Śrī Kṛṣṇa became Arjuna’s charioteer.”

Easy Questions:

1. Can you spot an augment आट् in the verses?

2. In the commentary can you spot a प्रातिपदिकम् which ends in a षकार:?

 

परंतपः mNs

Today we will look at the form परंतपः mNs from श्रीमद्-वाल्मीकि-रामायणम् 5.58.25.

ततः पश्याम्यहं देवीं सुरसां नागमातरम् । समुद्रमध्ये सा देवी वचनं मामभाषत ।। ५-५८-२२ ।।
मम भक्ष्यः प्रदिष्टस्त्वममरैर्हरिसत्तम । ततस्त्वां भक्षयिष्यामि विहितस्त्वं हि मे सुरैः ।। ५-५८-२३ ।।
एवमुक्तः सुरसया प्राञ्जलिः प्रणतः स्थितः । विवर्णवदनो भूत्वा वाक्यं चेदमुदीरयम् ।। ५-५८-२४ ।।
रामो दाशरथिः श्रीमान्प्रविष्टो दण्डकावनम् । लक्ष्मणेन सह भ्रात्रा सीतया च परंतपः ।। ५-५८-२५ ।।

Gita Press translation – Then I perceived in mid ocean the goddess Surasā, the mother of the serpents, and that goddess spoke (to me) as follows – (22) ‘You have been destined by the immortals to be my food, O jewel among monkeys! I shall accordingly devour you since you have been sent by the gods.'(23) Spoken to the aforesaid by Surasā, I stood bent low with joined palms (before her); and my face turning pale, I submitted (to her) as follows: -(24) The glorious Śrī Rāma, son of Daśaratha and the scourge of his foes, penetrated deep into the Daṇḍaka forest with his (younger half-) brother, Lakṣmaṇa, and (his consort) Sītā (25).

परान् (शत्रून्) तापयतीति परंतप:/परन्तप:।

“तप” is a कृदन्त-प्रातिपदिकम् (participle form) derived from the causative form of the verbal root √तप् (भ्वादि-गणः, तपँ सन्तापे, धातु-पाठः #१. ११४०).

(1) तप् + णिच् । By 3-1-26 हेतुमति च – The affix “णिच्” is used after a root, when the operation of a causer – such as the operation of directing – is to be expressed.

(2) तप् + इ । अनुबन्ध-लोपः by 1-3-3 हलन्त्यम्, 1-3-7 चुटू, 1-3-9 तस्य लोपः।

(3) ताप् + इ । By 7-2-116 अत उपधायाः – A penultimate (उपधा) अकार: of a अङ्गम् gets वृद्धिः as the substitute when followed by a प्रत्ययः which is a ञित् or a णित्।

= तापि । “तापि” gets धातु-सञ्ज्ञा by 3-1-32 सनाद्यन्ता धातवः।

The (compound) प्रातिपदिकम् “परंतप/परन्तप” is derived as follows:

(4) पर + आम् + तापि + खच् । By 3-2-39 द्विषत्परयोस्तापेः – The affix “खच्” may be used after the verbal root “तापि” when in composition with a कर्म-पदम् (a पदम् which denotes the object of the action) which is either “द्विषत्” or “पर”। Note: The verbal root “तापि” refers to either √तप् (तपँ दाहे, # १०. ३५०) or a causative form of √तप् (तपँ सन्तापे, # १. ११४०).

Note: In the सूत्रम् 3-2-39, the term द्विषत्परयो: ends in the seventh (locative) case. Hence “पर + आम्” (which is the object (कर्म-पदम्) of तापयति) gets the उपपद-सञ्ज्ञा here by 3-1-92 तत्रोपपदं सप्तमीस्थम्‌ – The designation उपपदम् is applied to a term which denotes a thing – like a pot etc. – which is present (as the thing to be expressed) in a word ending in the locative case in the सूत्रम्।
Note: The affix “आम्” is used here as per 2-3-65 कर्तृकर्मणोः कृति – To express the agent or the object (of an action), a nominal stem takes a sixth case affix when the nominal stem is used in conjunction with a term which ends in a कृत् affix. (This is what is called as कृद्योगे षष्ठी)।

(5) पर + आम् + तापि + अ । अनुबन्ध-लोप: by 1-3-8 लशक्वतद्धिते, 1-3-3 हलन्त्यम् and 1-3-9 तस्य लोपः

(6) पर + आम् + तपि + अ । By 6-4-94 खचि ह्रस्वः – The penultimate letter (vowel) of a अङ्गम् is shortened when the अङ्गम् is followed by the affix “णि” which itself is followed by the affix खच्।

(7) पर + आम् + तप् + अ । By 6-4-51 णेरनिटि – The “णि”-प्रत्यय: is elided when followed by an आर्धधातुक-प्रत्यय: which does not have the augment इट्।

= पर + आम् + तप

We form a compound between “पर + आम्” (which is the उपपदम्) and “तप” by using the सूत्रम् 2-2-19 उपपदमतिङ् – A सुबन्तम् (term ending in a सुँप् affix) having the designation “उपपद” (in this case “पर + आम्”) invariably compounds with a syntactically related term (in this case “तप”) as long as the compound does not end in a तिङ् affix.

In the compound, “पर + आम्” is placed in the prior position as per 2-2-30 उपसर्जनं पूर्वम्‌ – In a compound a term which has the designation “उपसर्जन” should be placed in the prior position. Note: Here “पर + आम्” is the उपपदम् and hence it gets the उपसर्जन-सञ्ज्ञा by 1-2-43 प्रथमानिर्दिष्टं समास उपसर्जनम् – A term denoted by a word (in this case “उपपदम्”) ending in a nominative case in a सूत्रम् (in this case 2-2-19 उपपदमतिङ्) which prescribes a compound gets the designation “उपसर्जन”।
“पर + आम् + तप” gets प्रातिपदिक-सञ्ज्ञा by 1-2-46 कृत्तद्धितसमासाश्च – A word form that ends in a कृत्-प्रत्ययः or a तद्धित-प्रत्ययः and so also compounds gets the name प्रातिपदिकम्।

(8) पर + तप । By 2-4-71 सुपो धातुप्रातिपदिकयोः – A सुँप् affix takes a लुक् elision when it is a part of a धातुः or a प्रातिपदिकम्।

(9) पर मुँम् + तप । By 6-3-67 अरुर्द्विषदजन्तस्य मुम् – When followed by a उत्तरपदम् (latter member of a compound) which ends in a खित् (having खकार: as a इत्) affix, the पूर्वपदम् (prior member of a compound) takes the augment मुँम् provided the following two conditions are satisfied:
(i) the पूर्वपदम् is either “अरुस्”, “द्विषत्” or ends in a अच् (vowel)
(ii) the पूर्वपदम् is not a अव्ययम्
As per 1-1-47 मिदचोऽन्त्यात्परः, the मुँम् augment joins after the last vowel (अकार:) of “पर”।

(10) परम् + तप । अनुबन्ध-लोप: by 1-3-2 उपदेशेऽजनुनासिक इत्, 1-3-3 हलन्त्यम् and 1-3-9 तस्य लोपः

(11) परं तप । By 8-3-23 मोऽनुस्वारः

(12) परन्तप/परंतप । By 8-4-59 वा पदान्तस्य

The विवक्षा is पुंलिङ्गे, प्रथमा-एकवचनम्

(13) परंतप + सुँ । By 4-1-2 स्वौजसमौट्छष्टाभ्याम्भिस्ङेभ्याम्भ्यस्ङसिँभ्याम्भ्यस्ङसोसाम्ङ्योस्सुप्

(14) परंतप + स् । अनुबन्ध-लोपः by 1-3-2 उपदेशेऽजनुनासिक इत्, 1-3-9 तस्य लोपः

(15) परंतपः । रुँत्व-विसर्गौ by 8-2-66 ससजुषो रुः and 8-3-15 खरवसानयोर्विसर्जनीयः

Questions:

1. Where has 3-2-39 द्विषत्परयोस्तापेः been used for the first time in the गीता?

2. In the verses can you spot a तिङन्तं पदम् which is a आर्ष-प्रयोग: (irregular grammatical usage)?

3. Where has the सूत्रम् 4-1-15 टिड्ढाणञ्द्वयसज्दघ्नञ्मात्रच्तयप्ठक्ठञ्कञ्क्वरपः been used in the verses?

4. Where has the affix यत् been used in the verses?

5. Which लकार: has been used in the form भक्षयिष्यामि?
i) लँट् ii) लिँट् iii) लुँट् iv) लृँट्

6. How would you say this in Sanskrit?
“Arjuna became well-known as a scorcher of foes.” Use the adjective प्रातिपदिकम् “प्रसिद्ध” for “well-known.” Use the अव्ययम् “इति” to express the meaning of “as.”

Easy Questions:

1. Where has the सूत्रम् 7-3-78 पाघ्राध्मास्थाम्नादाण्दृश्यर्त्तिसर्त्तिशदसदां पिबजिघ्रधमतिष्ठमनयच्छपश्यर्च्छधौशीयसीदाः been used in the verses?

2. Can you spot an augment अट् in the verses?

अरुन्तुदम् mAs

Today we will look at the form अरुन्तुदम् mAs from श्रीमद्भागवतम् 11.23.49.

मनोवशेऽन्ये ह्यभवन्स्म देवा मनश्च नान्यस्य वशं समेति । भीष्मो हि देवः सहसः सहीयान्युञ्ज्याद्वशे तं स हि देवदेवः ।। ११-२३-४८ ।।
तं दुर्जयं शत्रुमसह्यवेगमरुन्तुदं तन्न विजित्य केचित् । कुर्वन्त्यसद्विग्रहमत्र मर्त्यैर्मित्राण्युदासीनरिपून्विमूढाः ।। ११-२३-४९ ।।

श्रीधर-स्वामि-टीका
नन्वितरेन्द्रियजयः प्रयोजनं स्यान्नेत्याह – मनोवश इति । देवा इन्द्रियाणि तदधिष्ठातारो वा । भीष्मो योगिनामपि भयंकरो मनोलक्षणो देवः । कुतः । सहसो बलादपि बलिनोऽपि वा सहीयान्बलवान् । अतस्तं यो वशवर्तिनं कुर्यात्स एव देवदेवः सर्वेन्द्रियजेता भविता नान्यः । तथा च श्रुतिः – ‘मनसो वशे सर्वमिदं बभूव नान्यस्य मनो वशमन्वियाय ।। भीष्मो हि देवः सहसः सहीयान् ।।’ इति ।। ४८ ।। अतोऽसह्या रागादयो वेगा यस्य तम्, अत एवारुन्तुदं – अरुर्मर्म तत्तुदति व्यथयतीत्यरुन्तुदस्तम् । तत् नेति च्छेदः । तं न विजित्याजित्वा तत् ततो ये केचिन्मर्त्यैः कैश्चिदसद्विग्रहं कुर्वन्ति । तत्र चानुकूलप्रतिकूलादीनन्यान्मित्रादीन्कुर्वन्ति ते मूढा इत्यर्थः ।। ४९ ।।

Gita Press translation – Indeed others, i.e., the senses (or even the gods presiding over them – viz., Brahmā and others) are under the control of the mind. But the mind does not readily come under the control of anyone else; for the god (of a mind) is redoubtable (being the cause of the manifold worldly sufferings) and more powerful than the powerful, so that he who is able to bring it under control is adorable even to the gods (48). Unable to conquer that enemy (in the guise of the mind), of irrestible tempo, which is (so) difficult to conquer (otherwise than by the Lord’s grace), and which torments the (very) vitals, some deluded persons thereupon make friends, neutrals and enemies of men and wage a wicked warfare in this world (49).

अरुः (मर्मस्थानं) तुदति (पीडयति) इति अरुन्तुदः।

“तुद” is a कृदन्त-प्रातिपदिकम् (participle form) derived from the verbal root √तुद् (तुदादि-गणः, तुदँ व्यथने, धातु-पाठः #६. १).

The (compound) प्रातिपदिकम् “अरुन्तुद” is derived as follows:

(1) अरुस् + ङस् + तुद् + खश् । By 3-2-35 विध्वरुषोस्तुदः – The affix “खश्” may be used after the verbal root √तुद् (तुदँ व्यथने ६. १) when in composition with a कर्म-पदम् (a पदम् which denotes the object of the action) which is either “विधु” or “अरुस्”। (We have not studied this सूत्रम् in the class.)

Note: The term कर्मणि (which comes as अनुवृत्ति: in to the सूत्रम् 3-2-35 from the सूत्रम् 3-2-1 कर्मण्यण्) ends in the seventh (locative) case. Hence “अरुस् ङस्” (which is the object (कर्म-पदम्) of तुदति) gets the उपपद-सञ्ज्ञा here by 3-1-92 तत्रोपपदं सप्तमीस्थम्‌ – The designation उपपदम् is applied to a term which denotes a thing – like a pot etc. – which is present (as the thing to be expressed) in a word ending in the locative case in the सूत्रम्।
Note: The affix “ङस्” is used here as per 2-3-65 कर्तृकर्मणोः कृति – To express the agent or the object (of an action), a nominal stem takes a sixth case affix when the nominal stem is used in conjunction with a term which ends in a कृत् affix. (This is what is called as कृद्योगे षष्ठी)।

(2) अरुस् + ङस् + तुद् + अ । अनुबन्ध-लोप: by 1-3-8 लशक्वतद्धिते, 1-3-3 हलन्त्यम् and 1-3-9 तस्य लोपः

(3) अरुस् + ङस् + तुद् + श + अ । By 3-1-77 तुदादिभ्यः शः – The श-प्रत्यय: is placed after the verbal roots belonging to the तुदादि-गणः, when followed by a सार्वधातुक-प्रत्यय: that is used signifying the agent. This सूत्रम् is a अपवाद: (exception) to 3-1-68 कर्तरि शप्‌।
Note: The affix खश् (which has the सार्वधातुक-सञ्ज्ञा by 3-4-113 तिङ्शित्सार्वधातुकम्) is used कर्तरि (to signify the agent) as per 3-4-67 कर्तरि कृत्‌ – The affixes designated as कृत् are used to denote the agent. This allows 3-1-77 to apply here.

(4) अरुस् + ङस् + तुद् + अ + अ । अनुबन्ध-लोपः by 1-3-8 लशक्वतद्धिते, 1-3-9 तस्य लोपः।
Note: By 1-2-4 सार्वधातुकमपित्, the “श”-प्रत्यय: becomes ङिद्वत् (behaves like having a ङकारः as an इत्)। Hence 1-1-5 क्क्ङिति च prevents the गुणादेशः for the उकार: (of the अङ्गम् “तुद्”) which would have been done by 7-3-86 पुगन्तलघूपधस्य च।

(5) अरुस् + ङस् + तुद । By 6-1-97 अतो गुणे

We form a compound between “अरुस् + ङस्” (which is the उपपदम्) and “तुद” by using the सूत्रम् 2-2-19 उपपदमतिङ् – A सुबन्तम् (term ending in a सुँप् affix) having the designation “उपपद” (in this case “अरुस् + ङस्”) invariably compounds with a syntactically related term (in this case “तुद”) as long as the compound does not end in a तिङ् affix.

In the compound, “अरुस् + ङस्” is placed in the prior position as per 2-2-30 उपसर्जनं पूर्वम्‌ – In a compound a term which has the designation “उपसर्जन” should be placed in the prior position. Note: Here “अरुस् + ङस्” is the उपपदम् and hence it gets the उपसर्जन-सञ्ज्ञा by 1-2-43 प्रथमानिर्दिष्टं समास उपसर्जनम् – A term denoted by a word (in this case “उपपदम्”) ending in a nominative case in a सूत्रम् (in this case 2-2-19 उपपदमतिङ्) which prescribes a compound gets the designation “उपसर्जन”।
“अरुस् + ङस् + तुद” gets प्रातिपदिक-सञ्ज्ञा by 1-2-46 कृत्तद्धितसमासाश्च – A word form that ends in a कृत्-प्रत्ययः or a तद्धित-प्रत्ययः and so also compounds gets the name प्रातिपदिकम्।

(6) अरुस् + तुद । By 2-4-71 सुपो धातुप्रातिपदिकयोः – A सुँप् affix takes a लुक् elision when it is a part of a धातुः or a प्रातिपदिकम्।

(7) अरु मुँम् स् + तुद । By 6-3-67 अरुर्द्विषदजन्तस्य मुम् – When followed by a उत्तरपदम् (latter member of a compound) which ends in a खित् (having खकार: as a इत्) affix, the पूर्वपदम् (prior member of a compound) takes the augment मुँम् provided the following two conditions are satisfied:
(i) the पूर्वपदम् is either “अरुस्”, “द्विषत्” or ends in a अच् (vowel)
(ii) the पूर्वपदम् is not a अव्ययम्
As per 1-1-47 मिदचोऽन्त्यात्परः, the मुँम् augment joins after the last vowel (उकार:) of “अरुस्”।

(8) अरुम् स् + तुद । अनुबन्ध-लोप: by 1-3-2 उपदेशेऽजनुनासिक इत्, 1-3-3 हलन्त्यम् and 1-3-9 तस्य लोपः। “अरुम् स्” has the पद-सञ्ज्ञा here by 1-4-14 सुप्तिङन्तं पदम् with the help of 1-1-62 प्रत्ययलोपे प्रत्ययलक्षणम्। This allows 8-2-23 संयोगान्तस्य लोपः to apply in the next step.

(9) अरुम् तुद । By 8-2-23 संयोगान्तस्य लोपः

(10) अरुंतुद । By 8-3-23 मोऽनुस्वारः

(11) अरुन्तुद/अरुंतुद । By 8-4-59 वा पदान्तस्य

The विवक्षा is पुंलिङ्गे, द्वितीया-एकवचनम्

(12) अरुन्तुद + अम् । By 4-1-2 स्वौजसमौट्छष्टाभ्याम्भिस्ङेभ्याम्भ्यस्ङसिँभ्याम्भ्यस्ङसोसाम्ङ्योस्सुप्1-3-4 न विभक्तौ तुस्माः prevents the ending मकारः of “अम्” from getting इत्-सञ्ज्ञा ।

(13) अरुन्तुदम् । By 6-1-107 अमि पूर्वः – In place of a preceding अक् letter and the following vowel (अच्) belonging to the affix “अम्” there is a single substitute of that preceding अक् letter.

Questions:

1. In the last verse of which chapter of the गीता has the affix ‘श’ (used in step 3) been used?

2. Commenting on the form ‘अरुन्तुद’, the सिद्धान्तकौमुदी says – मुमि कृते संयोगान्तस्य लोप:। Please explain.

3. Can you spot an affix अच् in the verses?

4. Where has the सूत्रम् 6-4-78 अभ्यासस्यासवर्णे been used in the commentary?

5. How would you say this in Sanskrit?
“Rāhu (is) the one who torments the moon.” Use a उपपद-समास: for “one who torments the moon.”

 

Advanced question:

1. In the अष्टाध्यायी, the section which prescribes the affix खच् runs from 3-2-38 प्रियवशे वदः खच् up to 3-2-47 गमश्च। In this section can you find a सूत्रम् (which we have not studied in the class) which is used to derive the प्रातिपदिकम् ‘भयंकर’ (used in the commentary)?

 

Easy Questions:

1. Where has the augment अट् been used in the verses?

2. Can you spot a नकारान्त-नपुंसकलिङ्ग-प्रातिपदिकम् (a neuter प्रातिपदिकम् which ends in the letter ‘न्’) used in the commentary?

 

प्रियंवद mVs

Today we will look at the form प्रियंवद mVs from श्रीमद्-वाल्मीकि-रामायणम् 3.16.4.

स कदाचित् प्रभातायां शर्वर्यां रघुनन्दनः । प्रययावभिषेकार्थं रम्यां गोदावरीं नदीम् ।। ३-१६-२ ।।
प्रह्वः कलशहस्तस्तु सीतया सह वीर्यवान् । पृष्ठतोऽनुव्रजन्भ्राता सौमित्रिरिदमब्रवीत् ।। ३-१६-३ ।।
अयं स कालः सम्प्राप्तः प्रियो यस्ते प्रियंवद । अलङ्कृत इवाभाति येन संवत्सरः शुभः ।। ३-१६-४ ।।
नीहारपरुषो लोकः पृथिवी सस्यमालिनी । जलान्यनुपभोग्यानि सुभगो हव्यवाहनः ।। ३-१६-५ ।।

Gita Press translation – Once that delight of the Raghus, at break of day, went to the beautiful Godāvarī river for the sake of a bath (2). Following at the heels of Śrī Rāma with a vessel for water in his hand together with Sītā, his brave brother, the son of Sumitrā, spoke as follows :- (3) “Now has arrived that season which is dear to you, O polite brother, with which the blessed year appears as though ornamented (4). The people feel dry with cold, the earth is rich with crops; the waters are unenjoyable, the fire is agreeable” (5).

प्रियं वदतीति प्रियंवद:।

“वद” is a कृदन्त-प्रातिपदिकम् (participle form) derived from the verbal root √वद् (वदँ व्यक्तायां वाचि, # १. ११६४).

The (compound) प्रातिपदिकम् “प्रियंवद” is derived as follows:

(1) प्रिय + ङस् + वद् + खच् । By 3-2-38 प्रियवशे वदः खच् – The affix “खच्” may be used after the verbal root √वद् (वदँ व्यक्तायां वाचि, # १. ११६४) when in composition with a कर्म-पदम् (a पदम् which denotes the object of the action) which is either “प्रिय” or “वश”।

Note: In the सूत्रम् 3-2-38, the term प्रियवशे ends in the seventh (locative) case. Hence “प्रिय ङस्” (which is the object (कर्म-पदम्) of वदति) gets the उपपद-सञ्ज्ञा here by 3-1-92 तत्रोपपदं सप्तमीस्थम्‌ – The designation उपपदम् is applied to a term which denotes a thing – like a pot etc. – which is present (as the thing to be expressed) in a word ending in the locative case in the सूत्रम्।
Note: The affix “ङस्” is used here as per 2-3-65 कर्तृकर्मणोः कृति – To express the agent or the object (of an action), a nominal stem takes a sixth case affix when the nominal stem is used in conjunction with a term which ends in a कृत् affix. (This is what is called as कृद्योगे षष्ठी)।

(2) प्रिय + ङस् + वद् + अ । अनुबन्ध-लोप: by 1-3-8 लशक्वतद्धिते, 1-3-3 हलन्त्यम् and 1-3-9 तस्य लोपः

= प्रिय + ङस् + वद

We form a compound between “प्रिय + ङस्” (which is the उपपदम्) and “वद” by using the सूत्रम् 2-2-19 उपपदमतिङ् – A सुबन्तम् (term ending in a सुँप् affix) having the designation “उपपद” (in this case “प्रिय + ङस्”) invariably compounds with a syntactically related term (in this case “वद”) as long as the compound does not end in a तिङ् affix.

In the compound, “प्रिय + ङस्” is placed in the prior position as per 2-2-30 उपसर्जनं पूर्वम्‌ – In a compound a term which has the designation “उपसर्जन” should be placed in the prior position. Note: Here “प्रिय + ङस्” is the उपपदम् and hence it gets the उपसर्जन-सञ्ज्ञा by 1-2-43 प्रथमानिर्दिष्टं समास उपसर्जनम् – A term denoted by a word (in this case “उपपदम्”) ending in a nominative case in a सूत्रम् (in this case 2-2-19 उपपदमतिङ्) which prescribes a compound gets the designation “उपसर्जन”।
“प्रिय + ङस् + वद” gets प्रातिपदिक-सञ्ज्ञा by 1-2-46 कृत्तद्धितसमासाश्च – A word form that ends in a कृत्-प्रत्ययः or a तद्धित-प्रत्ययः and so also compounds gets the name प्रातिपदिकम्।

(3) प्रिय + वद । By 2-4-71 सुपो धातुप्रातिपदिकयोः – A सुँप् affix takes a लुक् elision when it is a part of a धातुः or a प्रातिपदिकम्।

(4) प्रिय मुँम् + वद । By 6-3-67 अरुर्द्विषदजन्तस्य मुम् – When followed by a उत्तरपदम् (latter member of a compound) which ends in a खित् (having खकार: as a इत्) affix, the पूर्वपदम् (prior member of a compound) takes the augment मुँम् provided the following two conditions are satisfied:
(i) the पूर्वपदम् is either “अरुस्”, “द्विषत्” or ends in a अच् (vowel)
(ii) the पूर्वपदम् is not a अव्ययम्
As per 1-1-47 मिदचोऽन्त्यात्परः, the मुँम् augment joins after the last vowel (in this case अकार:) of “प्रिय”।

(5) प्रियम् + वद । अनुबन्ध-लोप: by 1-3-2 उपदेशेऽजनुनासिक इत्, 1-3-3 हलन्त्यम् and 1-3-9 तस्य लोपः। प्रियम् has the पद-सञ्ज्ञा here by 1-4-14 सुप्तिङन्तं पदम् with the help of 1-1-62 प्रत्ययलोपे प्रत्ययलक्षणम्। This allows 8-3-23 मोऽनुस्वारः to apply in the next step

(6) प्रियंवद । By 8-3-23 मोऽनुस्वारः

The विवक्षा is पुंलिङ्गे सम्बुद्धिः

(7) (हे) प्रियंवद + सुँ (सम्बुद्धिः) । By 4-1-2 स्वौजसमौट्छष्टा…। The affix “सुँ” has the सम्बुद्धि-सञ्ज्ञा here by 2-3-49 एकवचनं संबुद्धिः

(8) (हे) प्रियंवद + स् । अनुबन्ध-लोप: by 1-3-2 उपदेशेऽजनुनासिक इत् and 1-3-9 तस्य लोपः। The सकार: which is an एकाल् (single letter) प्रत्यय: gets the अपृक्त-सञ्ज्ञा by 1-2-41 अपृक्त एकाल् प्रत्ययः

(9) (हे) प्रियंवद । By 6-1-69 एङ्ह्रस्वात्‌ सम्बुद्धेः

Questions:

1. Commenting on the affix खच् prescribed by the सूत्रम् 3-2-38 प्रियवशे वदः खच् (used in step 1), the काशिका says – चकारः ‘6-4-94 खचि ह्रस्वः’ इति विशेषणार्थः। Please explain.

2. Commenting on the comment (shown in question 1) made in the काशिका, the तत्त्वबोधिनी says – ‘एकानुबन्धग्रहणे द्व्यनुबन्धस्य न ग्रहणम्’ इति खशि न भविष्यतीत्यादिना वृत्तिग्रन्थस्यायुक्तत्वमाहुः। Please explain.

3. Can you spot an affix यत् in the verses?

4. Which affix is used to derive the form ‘प्रिय’?

5. Which सूत्रम् prescribes the affix ङीप् in the form ‘नदी’?

6. How would you say this in Sanskrit?
“No one likes a person who does not speak kindly.” Paraphrase to “A person who does not speak kindly is not pleasing unto anyone.” Use √रुच् (रुचँ दीप्तावभिप्रीतौ च १. ८४७) for “to please.” To express the meaning of “unto” use चतुर्थी विभक्ति: with “anyone.” Use a उपपद-समास: for “one who speaks kindly.”

Easy Questions:

1. Where has 7-3-105 आङि चापः been used in the verses?

2. In which word in the verses has लँट् been used?

जनमेजयः mNs

Today we will look at the form जनमेजयः mNs from श्रीमद्भागवतम् 9.20.2.

श्रीबादरायणिरुवाच
पूरोर्वंशं प्रवक्ष्यामि यत्र जातोऽसि भारत । यत्र राजर्षयो वंश्या ब्रह्मवंश्याश्च जज्ञिरे ।। ९-२०-१ ।।
जनमेजयो ह्यभूत्पूरोः प्रचिन्वांस्तत्सुतस्ततः । प्रवीरोऽथ नमस्युर्वै तस्माच्चारुपदोऽभवत् ।। ९-२०-२ ।।

श्रीधर-स्वामि-टीका
No commentary on these verses.

Gita Press translation – Śrī Śuka resumed : I shall (now) give a detailed account of the line Pūru, in which you were born, O scion of Bharata, and in which (many) royal sages and Brāhmaṇas, each propagating his line, appeared (1). Now, Janamejaya was born of Pūru and Janamejaya’s son was Pracinvān, from whose loins appeared Pravīra. From him indeed followed Namasyu (and) to him was born Cārupada (2).

जनमेजयतीति जनमेजय:।

“एजय” is a कृदन्त-प्रातिपदिकम् (participle form) derived from the causative form of the verbal root √एज् (एजृँ कम्पने, # १. २६७).

(1) एज् + णिच् । By 3-1-26 हेतुमति च – The affix “णिच्” is used after a root, when the operation of a causer – such as the operation of directing – is to be expressed.

(2) एज् + इ । अनुबन्ध-लोपः by 1-3-3 हलन्त्यम्, 1-3-7 चुटू, 1-3-9 तस्य लोपः।

= एजि । “एजि” gets धातु-सञ्ज्ञा by 3-1-32 सनाद्यन्ता धातवः।

The (compound) प्रातिपदिकम् “जनमेजय” is derived as follows:

(3) जन + ङस् + एजि + खश् । By 3-2-28 एजेः खश् – The affix “खश्” may be used after the causative form of the verbal root √एज् (एजृँ कम्पने, # १. २६७) when in composition with a पदम् which denotes the object (of the action.)

Note: The term कर्मणि (which comes as अनुवृत्ति: in to the सूत्रम् 3-2-28 from the सूत्रम् 3-2-1 कर्मण्यण्) ends in the seventh (locative) case. Hence “जन ङस्” (which is the object (कर्म-पदम्) of एजयति) gets the उपपद-सञ्ज्ञा here by 3-1-92 तत्रोपपदं सप्तमीस्थम्‌ – The designation उपपदम् is applied to a term which denotes a thing – like a pot etc. – which is present (as the thing to be expressed) in a word ending in the locative case in the सूत्रम्।
Note: The affix “ङस्” is used here as per 2-3-65 कर्तृकर्मणोः कृति – To express the agent or the object (of an action), a nominal stem takes a sixth case affix when the nominal stem is used in conjunction with a term which ends in a कृत् affix. (This is what is called as कृद्योगे षष्ठी)।

(4) जन + ङस् + एजि + अ । अनुबन्ध-लोप: by 1-3-8 लशक्वतद्धिते, 1-3-3 हलन्त्यम् and 1-3-9 तस्य लोपः

(5) जन + ङस् + एजि + शप् + अ । By 3-1-68 कर्तरि शप्‌, the शप्-प्रत्यय: is placed after a verbal root, when followed by a सार्वधातुक-प्रत्यय: that is used signifying the agent. Note: The affix खश् (which has the सार्वधातुक-सञ्ज्ञा by 3-4-113 तिङ्शित्सार्वधातुकम्) is used कर्तरि (to signify the agent) as per 3-4-67 कर्तरि कृत्‌ – The affixes designated as कृत् are used to denote the agent. This allows 3-1-68 to apply here.

(6) जन + ङस् + एजि + अ + अ । अनुबन्ध-लोपः by 1-3-3 हलन्त्यम्, 1-3-8 लशक्वतद्धिते, 1-3-9 तस्य लोपः।

(7) जन ङस् + एजे + अ + अ । By 7-3-84 सार्वधातुकार्धधातुकयोः, an अङ्गम् whose final letter is an इक् gets गुण-आदेशः, when a सार्वधातुक-प्रत्यय: or a आर्धधातुक-प्रत्यय: follows.

(8) जन ङस् + एजय् + अ + अ । By 6-1-78 एचोऽयवायावः

(9) जन ङस् + एजय । By 6-1-97 अतो गुणे

We form a compound between “जन ङस्” (which is the उपपदम्) and “एजय” by using the सूत्रम् 2-2-19 उपपदमतिङ् – A सुबन्तम् (term ending in a सुँप् affix) having the designation “उपपद” (in this case “जन ङस्”) invariably compounds with a syntactically related term (in this case “एजय”) as long as the compound does not end in a तिङ् affix.

In the compound, “जन ङस्” is placed in the prior position as per 2-2-30 उपसर्जनं पूर्वम्‌ – In a compound a term which has the designation “उपसर्जन” should be placed in the prior position. Note: Here “जन ङस्” is the उपपदम् and hence it gets the उपसर्जन-सञ्ज्ञा by 1-2-43 प्रथमानिर्दिष्टं समास उपसर्जनम् – A term denoted by a word (in this case “उपपदम्”) ending in a nominative case in a सूत्रम् (in this case 2-2-19 उपपदमतिङ्) which prescribes a compound gets the designation “उपसर्जन”।
“जन ङस् + एजय” gets प्रातिपदिक-सञ्ज्ञा by 1-2-46 कृत्तद्धितसमासाश्च – A word form that ends in a कृत्-प्रत्ययः or a तद्धित-प्रत्ययः and so also compounds gets the name प्रातिपदिकम्।

(10) जन + एजय । By 2-4-71 सुपो धातुप्रातिपदिकयोः – A सुँप् affix takes a लुक् elision when it is a part of a धातुः or a प्रातिपदिकम्।

(11) जन मुँम् + एजय । By 6-3-67 अरुर्द्विषदजन्तस्य मुम् – When followed by a उत्तरपदम् (latter member of a compound) which ends in a खित् (having खकार: as a इत्) affix, the पूर्वपदम् (prior member of a compound) takes the augment मुँम् provided the following two conditions are satisfied:
(i) the पूर्वपदम् is either “अरुस्”, “द्विषत्” or ends in a अच् (vowel)
(ii) the पूर्वपदम् is not a अव्ययम्
As per 1-1-47 मिदचोऽन्त्यात्परः, the मुँम् augment joins after the last vowel (अकार:) of “जन”।

(12) जनम् + एजय । अनुबन्ध-लोप: by 1-3-2 उपदेशेऽजनुनासिक इत्, 1-3-3 हलन्त्यम् and 1-3-9 तस्य लोपः

= जनमेजय

The विवक्षा is पुंलिङ्गे, प्रथमा-एकवचनम्

(13) जनमेजय + सुँ । By 4-1-2 स्वौजसमौट्छष्टाभ्याम्भिस्ङेभ्याम्भ्यस्ङसिँभ्याम्भ्यस्ङसोसाम्ङ्योस्सुप्

(14) जनमेजय + स् । अनुबन्ध-लोपः by 1-3-2 उपदेशेऽजनुनासिक इत्, 1-3-9 तस्य लोपः

(15) जनमेजयः । रुँत्व-विसर्गौ by 8-2-66 ससजुषो रुः and 8-3-15 खरवसानयोर्विसर्जनीयः

Questions:

1. Commenting on the affix खश् prescribed by the सूत्रम् 3-2-28 एजेः खश् (used in step 1) the काशिका says – खकारो मुमर्थः।Please explain.

2. Commenting further on the same affix the काशिका says – शकारः सार्वधातुकसंज्ञार्थः। Please explain.

3. The form जज्ञिरे can be derived from which two verbal roots? Which one has been used in the verses?

4. The form प्रवक्ष्यामि can be derived from which two verbal roots? Which one has been used in the verses?

5. Where has लुँङ् been used in the verses?

6. How would you say this in Sanskrit?
“The lion’s roar made the deer tremble.” Paraphrase to “The lion’s roar became one that makes the deer tremble.” Use a उपपद-समास: for “one that makes the deer tremble.”

Easy Questions:

1. Where has लँङ् been used in the verses?

2. Where has लँट् been used in the verses?

भास्करः mNs

Today we will look at the form भास्करः mNs from श्रीमद्भागवतम् 10.70.15.

गृहीत्वा पाणिना पाणी सारथेस्तमथारुहत् । सात्यक्युद्धवसंयुक्तः पूर्वाद्रिमिव भास्करः ।। १०-७०-१५ ।।
ईक्षितोऽन्तःपुरस्त्रीणां सव्रीडप्रेमवीक्षितैः । कृच्छ्राद्विसृष्टो निरगाज्जातहासो हरन्मनः ।। १०-७०-१६ ।।
सुधर्माख्यां सभां सर्वैर्वृष्णिभिः परिवारितः । प्राविशद्यन्निविष्टानां न सन्त्यङ्ग षडूर्मयः ।। १०-७०-१७ ।।

श्रीधर-स्वामि-टीका
पाणी कृताञ्जली गृहीत्वा ।। १५ ।। सव्रीडप्रेमवीक्षितैरीक्षितः क्षणं स्थितस्ताभिरेव वीक्षितैः कृच्छ्राद्विसृष्टो निरगादिति ।। १६ ।। एवं सर्वगृहेभ्यः पृथक्पृथङ्निर्गत्यानन्तरमेक एव सन्सुधर्मां प्राविशत्यन्निविष्टानां यत्र प्रविष्टानाम् ।। १७ ।।

Gita Press translation – Holding the charioteer’s hands in His own hand, Śrī Kṛṣṇa would then (proceed to) mount the chariot accompanied by Sātyaki and Uddhava, even as the sun ascends the eastern hills (15). Watched with bashful and affectionate glances by the ladies of the gynaeceum and reluctantly permitted by them to go, the Lord would smile at them (for a moment) and, thus captivating their heart, would sally forth (to the Council Hall) (16). Parīkṣit, surrounded by all the Yadus, Śrī Kṛṣṇa would (then) enter the Hall bearing the name of Sudharmā, the inmates of which would not experience (for the time being) the six waves of existence (viz., hunger and thirst, grief and delusion, old age and death) (17).

भासं करोतीति भास्करः ।

“कर” is a कृदन्त-प्रातिपदिकम् (participle form) derived from the verbal root √कृ (डुकृञ् करणे, # ८. १०).

The (compound) प्रातिपदिकम् “भास्कर” is derived as follows:

(1) भास् + ङस् + कृ + ट । By 3-2-21 दिवाविभानिशाप्रभाभास्कारान्तानन्तादिबहुनान्दीकिंलिपिलिबिबलिभक्तिकर्तृचित्रक्षेत्रसंख्याजङ्घाबाह्वहर्यत्तद्धनुररुष्षु – The affix ‘ट’ may employed after the verbal root √कृ (डुकृञ् करणे, # ८. १०) when in composition with one of the following – ‘दिवा’ “by day”, ‘विभा’ “light”, ‘निशा’ “night”, ‘प्रभा’ “splendor”, ‘भास्’ “light”, ‘कार’ “work”, ‘अन्त’ “end”, ‘अनन्त’ “endless”, ‘आदि’ “beginning”, ‘बहु’ “much”, ‘नान्दी’ “benediction”, ‘किम्’ “what”, ‘लिपि’ “writing”, ‘लिबि’ “writing”, ‘बलि’ “oblation”, ‘भक्ति’ “devotion”, ‘कर्तृ’ “agent”, ‘चित्र’ “painting”, ‘क्षेत्र’ “field”, words denoting numerals, ‘जङ्घा’ “thigh”, ‘बाहु’ “hand”, ‘अहर्’ “day”, ‘यत्’ “what”, ‘तत्’ “that”, ‘धनुस्’ “bow” and ‘अरुस्’ “wound”.

Note: In the सूत्रम् 3-2-21 the term दिवाविभानिशाप्रभाभास्कारान्तानन्तादिबहुनान्दीकिंलिपिलिबिबलिभक्तिकर्तृचित्रक्षेत्रसंख्याजङ्घाबाह्वहर्यत्तद्धनुररुष्षु ends in the seventh (locative) case. Hence “भास् + ङस्” gets the उपपद-सञ्ज्ञा here by 3-1-92 तत्रोपपदं सप्तमीस्थम्‌ – The designation उपपदम् is applied to a term which denotes a thing – like a pot etc. – which is present (as the thing to be expressed) in a word ending in the locative case in the सूत्रम्।
Note: The affix “ङस्” is used here as per 2-3-65 कर्तृकर्मणोः कृति – To express the agent or the object (of an action), a nominal stem takes a sixth case affix when the nominal stem is used in conjunction with a term which ends in a कृत् affix. (This is what is called as कृद्योगे षष्ठी)।

(2) भास् + ङस् + कृ + अ । अनुबन्ध-लोप: by 1-3-7 चुटू and 1-3-9 तस्य लोपः

(3) भास् + ङस् + कर् अ । By 7-3-84 सार्वधातुकार्धधातुकयोः, an अङ्गम् whose final letter is an इक् gets गुण-आदेशः, when a सार्वधातुक-प्रत्यय: or an आर्धधातुक-प्रत्यय: follows. By 1-1-51 उरण् रपरः, in the place of ऋवर्ण: if an अण् letter (“अ”, “इ”, “उ”) comes as a substitute, it is always followed by a “रँ” (“र्”, “ल्”) letter.

= भास् + ङस् + कर

We form a compound between “भास् + ङस्” (which is the उपपदम्) and “कर” by using the सूत्रम् 2-2-19 उपपदमतिङ् – A सुबन्तम् (term ending in a सुँप् affix) having the designation “उपपद” (in this case “भास् + ङस्”) invariably compounds with a syntactically related term (in this case “कर”) as long as the compound does not end in a तिङ् affix.

In the compound, “भास् + ङस्” is placed in the prior position as per 2-2-30 उपसर्जनं पूर्वम्‌ – In a compound a term which has the designation “उपसर्जन” should be placed in the prior position. Note: Here “भास् + ङस्” is the उपपदम् and hence it gets the उपसर्जन-सञ्ज्ञा by 1-2-43 प्रथमानिर्दिष्टं समास उपसर्जनम् – A term denoted by a word (in this case “उपपदम्”) ending in a nominative case in a सूत्रम् (in this case 2-2-19 उपपदमतिङ्) which prescribes a compound gets the designation “उपसर्जन”।
“भास् + ङस् + कर” gets प्रातिपदिक-सञ्ज्ञा by 1-2-46 कृत्तद्धितसमासाश्च – A word form that ends in a कृत्-प्रत्ययः or a तद्धित-प्रत्ययः and so also compounds gets the name प्रातिपदिकम्।

(4) भास् + कर । By 2-4-71 सुपो धातुप्रातिपदिकयोः – A सुँप् affix takes a लुक् elision when it is a part of a धातुः or a प्रातिपदिकम्।

= भास्कर । See questions 2 and 3 and also advanced question.

The विवक्षा is पुंलिङ्गे, प्रथमा-एकवचनम्

(5) भास्कर + सुँ । By 4-1-2 स्वौजसमौट्छष्टाभ्याम्भिस्ङेभ्याम्भ्यस्ङसिँभ्याम्भ्यस्ङसोसाम्ङ्योस्सुप्

(6) भास्कर + स् । अनुबन्ध-लोपः by 1-3-2 उपदेशेऽजनुनासिक इत्, 1-3-9 तस्य लोपः

(7) भास्करः । रुँत्व-विसर्गौ by 8-2-66 ससजुषो रुः and 8-3-15 खरवसानयोर्विसर्जनीयः

Questions:

1. In which verse of the गीता has the प्रातिपदिकम् “भास्” been used twice?

2. Why doesn’t 8-2-66 ससजुषो रुः apply after step 4? The काशिका gives the following reasoning – सकारस्य निपातनाद् विसर्जनीयजिह्वामूलीयौ न भवतः। Please explain.

3. Could we have used 8-3-46 अतः कृकमिकंसकुम्भपात्रकुशाकर्णीष्वनव्ययस्य for the सकारादेश: in भास्करः? In answer to this the धातुवृत्ति: says – ‘8-3-46 अतः कृकमि..’ इति सत्वं तपरनिर्देशान्न प्राप्नोति। Please explain.

4. The verbal root √इ (इण् गतौ २. ४०) has been used in which तिङन्तं पदम् in the verses?

5. Why is आरुहत् a आर्ष-प्रयोग:? What would be the grammatically correct form?

6. How would you say this in Sanskrit?
“The Sun has infinite rays.” Paraphrase to “Infinite rays of the Sun exist.” Use the adjective प्रातिपदिकम् “अनन्त” for “infinite (endless.)”

Advanced question:

1. Commenting on the सकार: in भास्करः, the सिद्धान्त-कौमुदी says – कस्कादित्वात्स:। Please explain. Hint: The reference is to the सूत्रम् 8-3-48 कस्कादिषु च। (We have not studied this सूत्रम् in the class.)

Easy questions:

1. Where has the सूत्रम् 6-1-102 प्रथमयोः पूर्वसवर्णः been used in the verses?

2. Which सूत्रम् is used for the substitution “ना” in the form पाणिना?

शङ्करः mNs

Today we will look at the form शङ्करः mNs from श्रीमद्भागवतम् 4.4.1.

मैत्रेय उवाच
एतावदुक्त्वा विरराम शङ्करः पत्न्यङ्गनाशं ह्युभयत्र चिन्तयन् । सुहृद्दिदृक्षुः परिशङ्किता भवान्निष्क्रामती निर्विशती द्विधास सा ।। ४-४-१ ।।
सुहृद्दिदृक्षाप्रतिघातदुर्मनाः स्नेहाद्रुदत्यश्रुकलातिविह्वला । भवं भवान्यप्रतिपूरुषं रुषा प्रधक्ष्यतीवैक्षत जातवेपथुः ।। ४-४-२ ।।

श्रीधर-स्वामि-टीका
चतुर्थे तु पतिं हित्वा गता पित्रावमानिता ।। रुषा निर्भर्त्स्य तं यज्ञे जहौ देहमितीर्यते ।। १ ।। उभयत्रानुज्ञाने बलान्निवारणे च । सुहृद्दिदृक्षुर्निष्क्रामन्ती भवात्परिशङ्किता पुनर्निर्विशन्ती च तदा सा सती द्विधा आस बभूव । न गता न च स्थिता आन्दोलावद्गतिरभवत् ।। १ ।। सुहृदां दिदृक्षायाः प्रतिघातेन दुर्मनाः । अश्रूणां कलाभिर्लेशैरतिविह्वला व्याकुला । अप्रतिपूरुषं स्वसमानपुषान्तररहितम् । प्रधक्ष्यतीव भस्मीकरिष्यतीव रुषा जातो वेपथुः कम्पो यस्याः ।। २ ।।

Maitreya continued: Having said this much, Lord Śaṅkara (the Bestower of happiness) became silent; for He thought the death of His consort was inevitable in either case (whether she proceeded to her father’s house or stayed behind.) (As for the latter) she swung like a pendulum, (now) sallying forth in her eagerness to see her relations and (now) returning for fear of Lord Śiva (the Source of the universe) (1). Vexed at the thwarting of her desire to see her relations and overpowered with emotion, she burst into tears and wept. Shaking with anger, Satī (the spouse of Lord Bhava) looked at her peerless lord, Bhava, as if she would burn Him (2).

शं करोतीति शङ्करः ।

“कर” is a कृदन्त-प्रातिपदिकम् (participle form) derived from the verbal root √कृ (डुकृञ् करणे, # ८. १०).

The (compound) प्रातिपदिकम् “शङ्कर” is derived as follows:

(1) शम् + कृ + अच् । By 3-2-14 शमि धातोः संज्ञायाम् – To derive a word which is a proper name, the affix ‘अच्’ may employed after any verbal root when in composition with शम्। (We have not discussed this सूत्रम् in the class.) Note: शम् is a अव्ययम् meaning “welfare/happiness.”

Note: In the सूत्रम् 3-2-14 शमि धातोः संज्ञायाम् the term शमि ends in the seventh (locative) case. Hence शम् gets the उपपद-सञ्ज्ञा here by 3-1-92 तत्रोपपदं सप्तमीस्थम्‌ – The designation उपपदम् is applied to a term which denotes a thing – like a pot etc. – which is present (as the thing to be expressed) in a word ending in the locative case in the सूत्रम्।

(2) शम् + कृ + अ । अनुबन्ध-लोप: by 1-3-3 हलन्त्यम् and 1-3-9 तस्य लोपः

(3) शम् + कर् अ । By 7-3-84 सार्वधातुकार्धधातुकयोः, an अङ्गम् whose final letter is an इक् gets गुण-आदेशः, when a सार्वधातुक-प्रत्यय: or an आर्धधातुक-प्रत्यय: follows. By 1-1-51 उरण् रपरः, in the place of ऋवर्ण: if an अण् letter (“अ”, “इ”, “उ”) comes as a substitute, it is always followed by a “रँ” (“र्”, “ल्”) letter.

= शम् + कर

We form a compound between “शम्” (which is the उपपदम्) and “कर” by using the सूत्रम् 2-2-19 उपपदमतिङ् – A सुबन्तम् (term ending in a सुँप् affix) having the designation “उपपद” (in this case “शम्”) invariably compounds with a syntactically related term (in this case “कर”) as long as the compound does not end in a तिङ् affix.

In the compound, शम् is placed in the prior position as per 2-2-30 उपसर्जनं पूर्वम्‌ – In a compound a term which has the designation “उपसर्जन” should be placed in the prior position. Note: Here शम् is the उपपदम् and hence it gets the उपसर्जन-सञ्ज्ञा by 1-2-43 प्रथमानिर्दिष्टं समास उपसर्जनम् – A term denoted by a word (in this case “उपपदम्”) ending in a nominative case in a सूत्रम् (in this case 2-2-19 उपपदमतिङ्) which prescribes a compound gets the designation “उपसर्जन”।
“शम् + कर” gets प्रातिपदिक-सञ्ज्ञा by 1-2-46 कृत्तद्धितसमासाश्च – A word form that ends in a कृत्-प्रत्ययः or a तद्धित-प्रत्ययः and so also compounds gets the name प्रातिपदिकम्।

(5) शं + कर । By 8-3-23 मोऽनुस्वारः

(6) शङ्कर/शंकर । By 8-4-59 वा पदान्तस्य

The विवक्षा is पुंलिङ्गे, प्रथमा-एकवचनम्

(6) शङ्कर + सुँ । By 4-1-2 स्वौजसमौट्छष्टाभ्याम्भिस्ङेभ्याम्भ्यस्ङसिँभ्याम्भ्यस्ङसोसाम्ङ्योस्सुप्

(7) शङ्कर + स् । अनुबन्ध-लोपः by 1-3-2 उपदेशेऽजनुनासिक इत्, 1-3-9 तस्य लोपः

(8) शङ्करः । रुँत्व-विसर्गौ by 8-2-66 ससजुषो रुः and 8-3-15 खरवसानयोर्विसर्जनीयः

Questions:

1. Where has the सूत्रम् 3-2-14 शमि धातोः संज्ञायाम् been used in the गीता?

2. Commenting on the सूत्रम् 3-2-14 शमि धातोः संज्ञायाम्, the सिद्धान्तकौमुदी says – पुनर्धातुग्रहणं बाधकविषयेऽपि प्रवृत्त्यर्थम्। कृञो हेत्वादिषु टो मा भूत्। Please explain. (Hint: Refer to the सूत्रम् 3-2-20 कृञो हेतुताच्छील्यानुलोम्येषु।)

3. Which सूत्रम् justifies the use of a परस्मैपदम् affix in the form विरराम?

4. Where has the सूत्रम् 6-1-90 आटश्च been used in a तिङन्तं पदम् in the verses?

5. In the verses, can you spot a अव्ययम् which is a तिङन्त-प्रतिरूपकम् (mimics a तिङन्तम्)?

6. How would you say this in Sanskrit?
“Lord Śaṅkara bears a trident in (his) hand and a digit of the moon on (his) forehead.”

 

Easy Questions:

1. Where has the affix “ङसिँ” been used in the verses?

2. In the commentary, can you spot a प्रातिपदिकम् which ends in a ऋकार:?

 

विधिकरीः fAp

Today we will look at the form विधिकरीः fAp from श्रीमद्भागवतम् 10.31.8.

प्रणतदेहिनां पापकर्शनं तृणचरानुगं श्रीनिकेतनम् । फणिफणार्पितं ते पदाम्बुजं कृणु कुचेषु नः कृन्धि हृच्छयम् ।। १०-३१-७ ।।
मधुरया गिरा वल्गुवाक्यया बुधमनोज्ञया पुष्करेक्षण । विधिकरीरिमा वीर मुह्यतीरधरसीधुनाप्याययस्व नः ।। १०-३१-८ ।।

श्रीधर-स्वामि-टीका
अविशेषेण प्रणतानां देहिनां पापकर्शनं पापहन्तृ तृणचरान्पशूनप्यनु गच्छति कृपयेति तथा सौभाग्येन श्रियो निकेतनं वीर्यातिरेकेण फणिनः फणास्वर्पितं ते पदाम्बुजं नः कुचेषु कृणु कुरु । किमर्थम् । हृच्छयं कामं कृन्धि छिन्धि ।। ७ ।। हे पुष्करेक्षण, तवैव मधुरया गिरा वल्गूनि वाक्यानि यस्यां तया बुधानां मनोज्ञया हृद्यया गम्भीरयेत्यर्थः । मुह्यतीरिमा नो विधिकरीः किङ्करीरधरसीधुना आप्याययस्व संजीवयेति ।। ८ ।।

Gita Press translation – Set on our bosom Your lotus-feet – which dissipate the sins of (all) embodied beings that bow down to You, which follow (out of affection even) animals that live on grass, (nay,) which are the abode of beauty and prosperity and which were (dauntlessly) placed on the hoods of a (terrible) snake (Kāliya) – and thereby soothe the pangs of love pent up in our heart (7). (Pray,) revive with the nectar of Your lips O valiant one, these women, in the person of ourselves, who are ready to do Your bidding and who are getting charmed, O Lord with lotus eyes, by Your melodious speech, consisting of delightful expressions and pleasing (even) to the learned (8).

विधिं करोत्यनुलोमा विधिकरी (गोपी)।

“कर” is a कृदन्त-प्रातिपदिकम् (participle form) derived from the verbal root √कृ (डुकृञ् करणे, # ८. १०).

The (compound) प्रातिपदिकम् “विधिकर” is derived as follows:

(1) विधि + ङस् + कृ + ट । By 3-2-20 कृञो हेतुताच्छील्यानुलोम्येषु – When in composition with a पदम् which denotes the object (of the action), the verbal root √कृ (डुकृञ् करणे, # ८. १०) may take the affix “ट” to express the meaning of a cause or habitual/natural action or amiability (going with the grain.)

Note: The term कर्मणि (which comes as अनुवृत्ति: in to the सूत्रम् 3-2-20 from the सूत्रम् 3-2-1 कर्मण्यण्) ends in the seventh (locative) case. Hence “विधि ङस्” (which is the object (कर्म-पदम्) of करोति) gets the उपपद-सञ्ज्ञा here by 3-1-92 तत्रोपपदं सप्तमीस्थम्‌ – The designation उपपदम् is applied to a term which denotes a thing – like a pot etc. – which is present (as the thing to be expressed) in a word ending in the locative case in the सूत्रम्।
Note: The affix “ङस्” is used here as per 2-3-65 कर्तृकर्मणोः कृति – To express the agent or the object (of an action), a nominal stem takes a sixth case affix when the nominal stem is used in conjunction with a term which ends in a कृत् affix. (This is what is called as कृद्योगे षष्ठी)।

(2) विधि + ङस् + कृ + अ । अनुबन्ध-लोप: by 1-3-7 चुटू and 1-3-9 तस्य लोपः

(3) विधि ङस् + कर् अ । By 7-3-84 सार्वधातुकार्धधातुकयोः, an अङ्गम् whose final letter is an इक् gets गुण-आदेशः, when a सार्वधातुक-प्रत्यय: or an आर्धधातुक-प्रत्यय: follows. By 1-1-51 उरण् रपरः, in the place of ऋवर्ण: if an अण् letter (“अ”, “इ”, “उ”) comes as a substitute, it is always followed by a “रँ” (“र्”, “ल्”) letter.

= विधि ङस् + कर

We form a compound between “विधि ङस्” (which is the उपपदम्) and “कर” by using the सूत्रम् 2-2-19 उपपदमतिङ् – A सुबन्तम् (term ending in a सुँप् affix) having the designation “उपपद” (in this case “विधि ङस्”) invariably compounds with a syntactically related term (in this case “कर”) as long as the compound does not end in a तिङ् affix.

In the compound, “विधि ङस्” is placed in the prior position as per 2-2-30 उपसर्जनं पूर्वम्‌ – In a compound a term which has the designation “उपसर्जन” should be placed in the prior position. Note: Here “विधि ङस्” is the उपपदम् and hence it gets the उपसर्जन-सञ्ज्ञा by 1-2-43 प्रथमानिर्दिष्टं समास उपसर्जनम् – A term denoted by a word (in this case “उपपदम्”) ending in a nominative case in a सूत्रम् (in this case 2-2-19 उपपदमतिङ्) which prescribes a compound gets the designation “उपसर्जन”।
“विधि ङस् + कर” gets प्रातिपदिक-सञ्ज्ञा by 1-2-46 कृत्तद्धितसमासाश्च – A word form that ends in a कृत्-प्रत्ययः or a तद्धित-प्रत्ययः and so also compounds gets the name प्रातिपदिकम्।

(4) विधि + कर । By 2-4-71 सुपो धातुप्रातिपदिकयोः – A सुँप् affix takes a लुक् elision when it is a part of a धातुः or a प्रातिपदिकम्।

The feminine प्रातिपदिकम् “विधिकरी” is derived as follows:

(5) विधिकर + ङीप् । By 4-1-15 टिड्ढाणञ्द्वयसज्दघ्नञ्मात्रच्तयप्ठक्ठञ्कञ्क्वरपः – To denote the feminine gender, the affix ङीप् is used following a प्रातिपदिकम् which satisfies the following conditions:
(i) the प्रातिपदिकम् ends in a अकार:
(ii) the प्रातिपदिकम् ends in a non-secondary affix which is either टित् (has टकार: as a इत्) or is one of the following – ‘ढ’, ‘अण्’, ‘अञ्’, ‘द्वयसच्’, ‘दघ्नच्’, ‘मात्रच्’, ‘तयप्’, ‘ठक्’, ‘ठञ्’, ‘कञ्’ or ‘क्वरप्’।

(6) विधिकर + ई । अनुबन्ध-लोप: by 1-3-3 हलन्त्यम्, 1-3-8 लशक्वतद्धिते and 1-3-9 तस्य लोपः। ‘विधिकर’ gets the भ-सञ्ज्ञा here by 1-4-18 यचि भम्

(7) विधिकर् + ई । By 6-4-148 यस्येति च – When a ईकारः or a तद्धित-प्रत्यय: follows, the (ending) इ-वर्ण: (इकारः or ईकारः) or the (ending) अवर्ण: (अकारः or आकारः) of the अङ्गम् with the भ-सञ्ज्ञा takes लोपः। As per 1-1-52 अलोऽन्त्यस्य, only the ending अकार: takes लोपः।

= विधिकरी ।

The विवक्षा is स्त्रीलिङ्गे, द्वितीया-बहुवचनम्

(8) विधिकरी + शस् । By 4-1-2 स्वौजसमौट्छष्टाभ्याम्भिस्ङेभ्याम्भ्यस्ङसिँभ्याम्भ्यस्ङसोसाम्ङ्योस्सुप्

(9) विधिकरी + अस् । अनुबन्ध-लोपः by 1-3-8 लशक्वतद्धिते and 1-3-9 तस्य लोपः। 1-3-4 न विभक्तौ तुस्माः prevents the ending सकारः of “शस्” from getting इत्-सञ्ज्ञा।

(10) विधिकरीस् । 6-1-102 प्रथमयो: पूर्वसवर्ण: – When an अक् letter is followed by a vowel (अच्) of the first (nominative) or second (accusative) case then for the two of them (अक् + अच्) there is a single substitute which is the elongated form of the first member (the अक् letter.)

(11) विधिकरीः । रुँत्व-विसर्गौ by 8-2-66 ससजुषो रुः and 8-3-15 खरवसानयोर्विसर्जनीयः

Questions:

1. Where has 3-2-20 कृञो हेतुताच्छील्यानुलोम्येषु (used in step 1) been used in the first five verses of Chapter Five of the गीता?

2. Commenting on the सूत्रम् 3-2-20 कृञो हेतुताच्छील्यानुलोम्येषु (used in step 1) the तत्त्वबोधिनी says – इह प्रसिद्धतरत्वाद्द्व्यनुबन्धोऽपि करोतिरेव गृह्यते, न तु कृञ् हिंसायामिति।

3. Where has the सूत्रम् 3-1-135 इगुपधज्ञाप्रीकिरः कः been used in the commentary?

4. From which verbal root is the form कृन्धि derived?

5. Which सूत्रम् is used for the उकारादेश: in the form कुरु (used in the commentary)?

6. How would you say this in Sanskrit?
“Lack of knowledge (is) the cause of sorrow.” Use the feminine (compound) प्रातिपदिकम् “अविद्या” for “lack of knowledge.” Use a उपपद-समास: for “the cause of sorrow.” (शोकस्य हेतु:)।

Easy Questions:

1. Where has the प्रातिपदिकम् “अस्मद्” been used in the verses?

2. Can you spot an augment तुँक् in the commentary?

यशस्करम् nAs

Today we will look at the form यशस्करम् nAs from श्रीमद्-वाल्मीकि-रामायणम् 1.2.42.

तस्य शिष्यास्ततः सर्वे जगुः श्लोकमिमं पुनः । मुहुर्मुहुः प्रीयमाणाः प्राहुश्च भृशविस्मिताः ।। १-२-३९ ।।
समाक्षरैश्चतुर्भिर्यः पादैर्गीतो महर्षिणा । सोऽनुव्याहरणाद्भूयः शोकः श्लोकत्वमागतः ।। १-२-४० ।।
तस्य बुद्धिरियं जाता वाल्मीकेर्भावितात्मनः । कृत्स्नं रामायणं काव्यमीदृशैः करवाण्यहम् ।। १-२-४१ ।।
उदारवृत्तार्थपदैर्मनोरमैस्तदास्य रामस्य चकार कीर्तिमान् । समाक्षरैः श्लोकशतैर्यशस्विनो यशस्करं काव्यमुदारदर्शनः ।। १-२-४२ ।।

Gita Press translation – Then all his pupils repeated the aforesaid verse (uttered by their teacher) and, getting delighted again and again, spoke (to one another as follows), greatly astonished (at the honor conferred on their teacher by the creator himself by calling on him of his own accord) :- (39) “What was uttered by the great sage (Vālmīki) in four feet consisting of an equal number of syllables was (nothing but) his grief converted into a verse because of it being voiced by him.” (40) The thought occurred to the great sage of purified mind that he should compose the entire poem of the Rāmāyaṇa in such verses (similar to the one already uttered by him out of grief) (41). The illustrious sage, endowed (as he was) with a catholic outlook, then composed in hundreds (thousands) of soul-ravishing verses with their feet comprising an even number of syllables and consisting of words depicting the noble deeds of the glorious Śrī Rāma, a poem which has brought (great) renown to him (42).

यश: करोतीति यशस्करम् (काव्यम्)। यशसो हेतु: (काव्यम्) इत्यर्थ:।

“कर” is a कृदन्त-प्रातिपदिकम् (participle form) derived from the verbal root √कृ (डुकृञ् करणे, # ८. १०).

The (compound) प्रातिपदिकम् “यशस्कर” is derived as follows:

(1) यशस् + ङस् + कृ + ट । By 3-2-20 कृञो हेतुताच्छील्यानुलोम्येषु – When in composition with a पदम् which denotes the object (of the action), the verbal root √कृ (डुकृञ् करणे, # ८. १०) may take the affix “ट” to express the meaning of a cause or habitual/natural action or amiability (going with the grain.)

Note: The term कर्मणि (which comes as अनुवृत्ति: in to the सूत्रम् 3-2-20 from the सूत्रम् 3-2-1 कर्मण्यण्) ends in the seventh (locative) case. Hence “यशस् ङस्” (which is the object (कर्म-पदम्) of करोति) gets the उपपद-सञ्ज्ञा here by 3-1-92 तत्रोपपदं सप्तमीस्थम्‌ – The designation उपपदम् is applied to a term which denotes a thing – like a pot etc. – which is present (as the thing to be expressed) in a word ending in the locative case in the सूत्रम्।
Note: The affix “ङस्” is used here as per 2-3-65 कर्तृकर्मणोः कृति – To express the agent or the object (of an action), a nominal stem takes a sixth case affix when the nominal stem is used in conjunction with a term which ends in a कृत् affix. (This is what is called as कृद्योगे षष्ठी)।

(2) यशस् + ङस् + कृ + अ । अनुबन्ध-लोप: by 1-3-7 चुटू and 1-3-9 तस्य लोपः

(3) यशस् ङस् + कर् अ । By 7-3-84 सार्वधातुकार्धधातुकयोः, an अङ्गम् whose final letter is an इक् gets गुण-आदेशः, when a सार्वधातुक-प्रत्यय: or an आर्धधातुक-प्रत्यय: follows. By 1-1-51 उरण् रपरः, in the place of ऋवर्ण: if an अण् letter (“अ”, “इ”, “उ”) comes as a substitute, it is always followed by a “रँ” (“र्”, “ल्”) letter.

= यशस् ङस् + कर

We form a compound between “यशस् ङस्” (which is the उपपदम्) and “कर” by using the सूत्रम् 2-2-19 उपपदमतिङ् – A सुबन्तम् (term ending in a सुँप् affix) having the designation “उपपद” (in this case “यशस् ङस्”) invariably compounds with a syntactically related term (in this case “कर”) as long as the compound does not end in a तिङ् affix.

In the compound, “यशस् ङस्” is placed in the prior position as per 2-2-30 उपसर्जनं पूर्वम्‌ – In a compound a term which has the designation “उपसर्जन” should be placed in the prior position. Note: Here “यशस् ङस्” is the उपपदम् and hence it gets the उपसर्जन-सञ्ज्ञा by 1-2-43 प्रथमानिर्दिष्टं समास उपसर्जनम् – A term denoted by a word (in this case “उपपदम्”) ending in a nominative case in a सूत्रम् (in this case 2-2-19 उपपदमतिङ्) which prescribes a compound gets the designation “उपसर्जन”।
“यशस् ङस् + कर” gets प्रातिपदिक-सञ्ज्ञा by 1-2-46 कृत्तद्धितसमासाश्च – A word form that ends in a कृत्-प्रत्ययः or a तद्धित-प्रत्ययः and so also compounds gets the name प्रातिपदिकम्।

(4) यशस् + कर । By 2-4-71 सुपो धातुप्रातिपदिकयोः – A सुँप् affix takes a लुक् elision when it is a part of a धातुः or a प्रातिपदिकम्।

(5) यशः + कर । रुँत्व-विसर्गौ by 8-2-66 ससजुषो रुः and 8-3-15 खरवसानयोर्विसर्जनीयः

Note: At this point 8-3-37 कुप्वोः ≍क≍पौ च would apply, but the special सूत्रम् 8-3-46 अतः कृकमिकंसकुम्भपात्रकुशाकर्णीष्वनव्ययस्य comes into effect.

(6) यशस्कर । By 8-3-46 अतः कृकमिकंसकुम्भपात्रकुशाकर्णीष्वनव्ययस्य – In a compound, a विसर्ग: always takes सकार: as a substitute if the following conditions are satisfied:
(i) the विसर्ग: is preceded by a अकार:
(ii) the विसर्ग: does not belong to a अव्ययम्
(iii) the विसर्ग: is followed by one of the following – √कृ (डुकृञ् करणे, # ८. १०), √कम् (कमुँ कान्तौ, # १. ५११), ‘कंस’, ‘कुम्भ’, ‘पात्र’, ‘कुशा’ or ‘कर्णी’।

The विवक्षा is नपुंसकलिङ्गे, द्वितीया-एकवचनम्

(7) यशस्कर + अम् । By 4-1-2 स्वौजसमौट्छष्टाभ्याम्भिस्ङेभ्याम्भ्यस्ङसिँभ्याम्भ्यस्ङसोसाम्ङ्योस्सुप्

(8) यशस्कर + अम् । By 7-1-24 अतोऽम् – The affixes “सुँ” and “अम्” that follow a neuter अङ्गम् ending in the short vowel “अ” take “अम्” as their replacement. 1-3-4 न विभक्तौ तुस्माः prevents the ending मकार: of “अम्” from getting the इत्-सञ्ज्ञा।

(9) यशस्करम् । By 6-1-107 अमि पूर्वः – In place of a preceding अक् letter and the following vowel (अच्) belonging to the affix “अम्” there is a single substitute of that preceding अक् letter.

Questions:

1. In the सिद्धान्तकौमुदी the वृत्ति: of the सूत्रम् 3-2-20 कृञो हेतुताच्छील्यानुलोम्येषु (used in step 1) is given as एषु द्योत्येषु करोतेष्टः स्यात्। Commenting on this, the तत्त्वबोधिनी says – एषु किम्? कुम्भकार:। Please explain.

2. Commenting on the  सूत्रम् 8-3-46 अतः कृकमिकंसकुम्भपात्रकुशाकर्णीष्वनव्ययस्य (used in step 6) the सिद्धान्तकौमुदी says – समासे किम्? यश: करोति। Please explain.

3. Where has the सूत्रम् 3-4-89 मेर्निः been used in the verses?

4. Can you spot an affix क्यप् in the verses?

5. From which verbal root is जगुः derived?

6. How would you say this in Sanskrit?
“Ignorance (is) the cause of bondage.” Use a उपपद-समास: for “the cause of bondage.”

Easy Questions:

1. Where has the सूत्रम् 7-2-110 यः सौ been used in the verses?

2. In the verses can you spot a प्रातिपदिकम् which is used only in the plural (no singular or dual)?

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