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विग्लापयति 3AS-लँट्

Today we will look at the form विग्लापयति 3AS-लँट् from श्रीमद्भागवतम् Sb3.2.22.

तत्तस्य कैङ्कर्यमलं भृतान्नो विग्लापयत्यङ्ग यदुग्रसेनम् ।
तिष्ठन्निषण्णं परमेष्ठिधिष्ण्ये न्यबोधयद्देव निधारयेति ।। ३-२-२२ ।।

Gita Press translation “Standing before Ugrasena, who sat on his royal throne, He submitted, “My lord, listen (to my prayer)!” That He should thus behave like a servant confounds us, His slaves, to the utmost degree, dear Vidura.”

ग्लापयति is a causative form derived from the धातुः √ग्लै (ग्लै हर्षक्षये १. १०५१)

This धातुः has no इत letters. The ending ऐकार: of “ग्लै” is replaced by an आकार: by 6-1-45 आदेच उपदेशेऽशिति – The ending एच् (“ए”, “ओ”, “ऐ”, “औ”) letter of a धातु: in the धातु-पाठ: is replaced by a आकार:, but not in the context where a शकार: which is a इत् follows.

ग्ला + णिच् । By 3-1-26 हेतुमति च – The affix “णिच्” is used after a root, when the operation of a causer – such as the operation of directing – is to be expressed. “णिच्” gets आर्धधातुक-सञ्ज्ञा by 3-4-114 आर्धधातुकं शेषः
= ग्ला + इ । अनुबन्ध-लोपः by 1-3-3 हलन्त्यम्, 1-3-7 चुटू, 1-3-9 तस्य लोपः
= ग्ला पुक् + इ By 7-3-36 अर्त्तिह्रीव्लीरीक्नूयीक्ष्माय्यातां पुङ्णौ, the augment पुक् is added to the roots √ऋ (ऋ गतिप्रापणयोः १. १०८६, ऋ गतौ ३. १७), √ह्री (ह्री लज्जायाम् ३. ३), √व्ली (व्ली वरणे ९. ३७), √री (रीङ् श्रवणे ४. ३३, री गतिरेषणयोः ९. ३५), √क्नूय् (क्नूयीँ शब्द उन्दने च १. ५५८), √क्ष्माय् (क्ष्मायीँ विधूनने १. ५५९) and to a root ending in a आकार: when the causative affix “णि” follows. As per 1-1-46 आद्यन्तौ टकितौ, the “पुक्”-आगम: joins at the end of the अङ्गम् “ग्ला”।
= ग्लाप् + इ । अनुबन्ध-लोपः by 1-3-3 हलन्त्यम्, 1-3-9 तस्य लोपः। Note: The उकार: in “पुक्” is उच्चारणार्थ: (for pronunciation only.)
= ग्लापि

“ग्लापि” gets धातु-सञ्ज्ञा by 3-1-32 सनाद्यन्ता धातवः

As per 1-3-74 णिचश्च, the verbal roots that end in the णिच्-प्रत्ययः shall take आत्मनेपद-प्रत्ययाः when the fruit of the action (क्रियाफलम्) accrues to the doer (कर्त्रभिप्रायम् = कर्तृ-अभिप्रायम्)। In the remaining case – when the fruit of the action does not accrue to the doer these verbal roots shall take परस्मैपद-प्रत्ययाः।
In reality though, this distinction of the fruit of the action accruing to the doer or not, is rarely honored in the language. So as a practical matter, a verbal root that ends in the णिच्-प्रत्ययः will take either आत्मनेपद-प्रत्ययाः or परस्मैपद-प्रत्ययाः regardless of whether the fruit of the action accrues to the doer or not. In short, it will be उभयपदी। Here it has taken a परस्मैपद-प्रत्ययः।

The विवक्षा is लँट्, कर्तरि प्रयोगः, हेतुमति, प्रथम-पुरुषः, एकवचनम्, therefore the प्रत्यय: will be “तिप्”।

(1) ग्लापि + लँट् । By 3-2-123 वर्तमाने लट्, the affix लँट् comes after a धातुः when denoting an action in the present tense.

(2) ग्लापि + ल् । अनुबन्ध-लोपः by 1-3-2 उपदेशेऽजनुनासिक इत्, 1-3-3 हलन्त्यम्, 1-3-9 तस्य लोपः

(3) ग्लापि + तिप् । 3-4-78 तिप्तस्झिसिप्थस्थमिब्वस्मस्तातांझथासाथांध्वमिड्वहिमहिङ् mandates the प्रत्ययः “तिप्” as the substitute for the लकारः। “तिप्” gets the सार्वधातुक-सञ्ज्ञा by 3-4-113 तिङ्शित्सार्वधातुकम्

(4) ग्लापि + ति । अनुबन्ध-लोपः by 1-3-3 हलन्त्यम्, 1-3-9 तस्य लोपः

(5) ग्लापि + शप् + तिप् । By 3-1-68 कर्तरि शप्‌, the शप्-प्रत्यय: is placed after a verbal root, when followed by a सार्वधातुक-प्रत्यय: that is used signifying the agent.

(6) ग्लापि + अ + तिप् । अनुबन्ध-लोपः by 1-3-3 हलन्त्यम्, 1-3-8 लशक्वतद्धिते , 1-3-9 तस्य लोपः

(7) ग्लापे + अ + ति । By 7-3-84 सार्वधातुकार्धधातुकयोः, an अङ्गम् whose final letter is an इक् gets गुण-आदेशः, when a सार्वधातुक-प्रत्यय: or an आर्धधातुक-प्रत्यय: follows.

(8) ग्लापयति । By 6-1-78 एचोऽयवायावः

“वि” is the उपसर्गः (ref. 1-4-59 उपसर्गाः क्रियायोगे।)
वि + ग्लापयति = विग्लापयति।

Questions:

1. Where has 7-3-36 अर्त्तिह्रीव्लीरीक्नूयीक्ष्माय्यातां पुङ्णौ been used in a तिङन्तं पदम् in Chapter One of the गीता?

2. Can you spot a “अट्”-आगम: in the verse?

3. Commenting on the सूत्रम् 6-1-45 आदेच उपदेशेऽशिति, the काशिका says – “अशिति” इति किम्? ग्लायति। Please explain.

4. Commenting on the सूत्रम् 6-1-45 आदेच उपदेशेऽशिति, the तत्त्वबोधिनी says – धातोः किम्? गोभ्याम्। Please explain.

5. Which अव्ययम् used in the verse has been translated as “to the utmost degree”?

6. How would you say this in Sanskrit?
“Park your car here.” Use the neuter प्रातिपदिकम् “वाहन” for “car” and √स्था (ष्ठा गतिनिवृत्तौ १. १०७७) in the causative for “to park.”

Easy questions:

1. Which सूत्रम् is used for निर्धारय + इति = निधारयेति?

2. Which word used in the verse is an alternate (short) form for अस्मान् (प्रातिपदिकम् “अस्मद्”, द्वितीया-बहुवचनम्)?

पाययत 2Ap-लोँट्

Today we will look at the form पाययत 2Ap-लोँट् from श्रीमद्भागवतम् Sb10.29.22

तद्यात मा चिरं गोष्ठं शुश्रूषध्वं पतीन्सतीः ।
क्रन्दन्ति वत्सा बालाश्च तान्पाययत दुह्यत ।। १०-२९-२२ ।।

Gita Press translation “(Therefore) return without delay to Vraja and serve your husbands, O virtuous ladies! The calves as well as the children are crying (due to hunger); nourish them with milk and milk the cows.”

पाययत is a causative form derived from the धातुः √पा (पा पाने १. १०७४)

√पा-धातुः has no इत् letters.

पा + णिच् । By 3-1-26 हेतुमति च – The affix “णिच्” is used after a root, when the operation of a causer – such as the operation of directing – is to be expressed. “णिच्” gets आर्धधातुक-सञ्ज्ञा by 3-4-114 आर्धधातुकं शेषः
= पा + इ । अनुबन्ध-लोपः by 1-3-3 हलन्त्यम्, 1-3-7 चुटू, 1-3-9 तस्य लोपः
= पा युक् + इ । By 7-3-37 शाच्छासाह्वाव्यावेपां युक्, the verbal roots √शो (शो तनूकरणे ४. ४०), √छो (छो छेदने ४. ४१), √सो (षो अन्तकर्मणि ४. ४२), √ह्वे (ह्वेञ् स्पर्धायां शब्दे च १. ११६३), √व्ये (व्येञ् संवरणे १. ११६२), √वे (वेञ् तन्तुसन्ताने १. ११६१) and √पा (पा पाने १. १०७४) take the “युक्”-आगम: when the “णि”-प्रत्यय: follows. As per 1-1-46 आद्यन्तौ टकितौ “युक्”-आगमः attaches itself to the end of the अङगम् “पा”।
= पा य् + इ । अनुबन्ध-लोपः by 1-3-3 हलन्त्यम्, 1-3-9 तस्य लोपः। Note: The उकारः in “युक्” is उच्चारणार्थः (pronunciation only).
= पायि

“पायि” gets धातु-सञ्ज्ञा by 3-1-32 सनाद्यन्ता धातवः

As per 1-3-74 णिचश्च, the verbal roots that end in the णिच्-प्रत्ययः shall take आत्मनेपद-प्रत्ययाः when the fruit of the action (क्रियाफलम्) accrues to the doer (कर्त्रभिप्रायम् = कर्तृ-अभिप्रायम्)। In the remaining case – when the fruit of the action does not accrue to the doer these verbal roots shall take परस्मैपद-प्रत्ययाः।
In reality though, this distinction of the fruit of the action accruing to the doer or not, is rarely honored in the language. So as a practical matter, a verbal root that ends in the णिच्-प्रत्ययः will take either आत्मनेपद-प्रत्ययाः or परस्मैपद-प्रत्ययाः regardless of whether the fruit of the action accrues to the doer or not. In short, it will be उभयपदी। Here it has taken a परस्मैपद-प्रत्ययः।

The विवक्षा is लोँट्, कर्तरि प्रयोगः (हेतुमति), मध्यम-पुरुषः, बहुवचनम्, therefore the प्रत्यय: will be “थ”।

(1) पायि + लोँट् । By 3-3-162 लोट् च, the affix लोँट् comes after a धातुः when used in the sense of command/request.

(2) पायि + ल् । अनुबन्ध-लोपः by 1-3-2 उपदेशेऽजनुनासिक इत्, 1-3-3 हलन्त्यम्, 1-3-9 तस्य लोपः

(3) पायि + थ । 3-4-78 तिप्तस्झिसिप्थस्थमिब्वस्मस्तातांझथासाथांध्वमिड्वहिमहिङ् mandates “थ” as the substitute for the लकारः। “थ” gets the सार्वधातुक-सञ्ज्ञा by 3-4-113 तिङ्शित्सार्वधातुकम्

(4) पायि + त । By 3-4-85 लोटो लङ्वत्‌, लोँट् is treated like लँङ्। लँङ् is a ङित्-लकार: (it has ङकार: as an इत्)। The तिङ्-प्रत्ययाः “तस्”, “थस्”, “थ” and “मिप्” of a लकारः which is a ङित्, are replaced by “ताम्”, “तम्”, “त” and “अम्” respectively by 3-4-101 तस्थस्थमिपां तांतंतामः । Since लोँट् is treated like लँङ्, the थ-प्रत्ययः of लोँट् also is replaced by “त”। “त” gets the सार्वधातुक-सञ्ज्ञा by 1-1-56 स्थानिवदादेशोऽनल्विधौ

(5) पायि + शप् + त । By 3-1-68 कर्तरि शप्‌, the शप्-प्रत्यय: is placed after a verbal root, when followed by a सार्वधातुक-प्रत्यय: that is used signifying the agent.

(6) पायि + अ + त । अनुबन्ध-लोपः by 1-3-3 हलन्त्यम्, 1-3-8 लशक्वतद्धिते , 1-3-9 तस्य लोपः

(7) पाये + अ + त । By 7-3-84 सार्वधातुकार्धधातुकयोः, an अङ्गम् whose final letter is an इक् gets गुण-आदेशः, when a सार्वधातुक-प्रत्यय: or an आर्धधातुक-प्रत्यय: follows.

(8) पाययत। By 6-1-78 एचोऽयवायावः

Questions:

1. Can you spot a word in Chapter Three of the गीता where the विवक्षा (as in this example) is लोँट्, कर्तरि प्रयोगः (हेतुमति), मध्यम-पुरुषः, बहुवचनम्?

2. Commenting on this verse, the commentator says that the form (हे) सती: is आर्ष: (archaic – not according to the rules of grammar.) What should have been the form according to the rules of grammar?

3. On the form दुह्यत, the commentator says श्यन्नार्ष:। What does this mean? What should have been the from according to the rules of grammar?

4. Can you spot a word in the verse where the शप्-प्रत्यय: has taken the लुक् elision?

5. Where has the झि-प्रत्यय: been used in the verse?

6. Use some words from the verse to construct the following sentence in Sanskrit:
“All of you go home without delay.”

Easy questions:

1. Which सूत्रम् is used for the नकारादेश: in the forms पतीन् and तान्?

2. Where has 8-3-22 हलि सर्वेषाम् been used in the verse?

सन्दीपयत 2AS-लोँट्

Today we will look at the form सन्दीपयत 2Ap-लोँट् from श्रीमद्भागवतम् Sb7.2.12

यत्र यत्र द्विजा गावो वेदा वर्णाश्रमाः क्रियाः।
तं तं जनपदं यात सन्दीपयत वृश्चत ।। ७-२-१२ ।।

Translation “Repair to each such territory where there are Brāhmaṇas (lit., the twice-born), cows, the Vedas, the (four) Varṇas (grades of society) and (four) Āśramas (stages in life) and rituals. Set fire to them and cut them (their trees etc.) to pieces.”

दीपयत is a causative form derived from the धातुः √दीप् (दीपीँ दीप्तौ ४. ४५)

The ending ईकार: of “दीपीँ” is an इत् as per 1-3-2 उपदेशेऽजनुनासिक इत् and takes लोप: by 1-3-9 तस्य लोपः

दीप् + णिच् । By 3-1-26 हेतुमति च – The affix “णिच्” is used after a root, when the operation of a causer – such as the operation of directing – is to be expressed. “णिच्” gets आर्धधातुक-सञ्ज्ञा by 3-4-114 आर्धधातुकं शेषः
= दीप् + इ । अनुबन्ध-लोपः by 1-3-3 हलन्त्यम्, 1-3-7 चुटू, 1-3-9 तस्य लोपः
= दीपि

“दीपि” gets धातु-सञ्ज्ञा by 3-1-32 सनाद्यन्ता धातवः

As per 1-3-74 णिचश्च, the verbal roots that end in the णिच्-प्रत्ययः shall take आत्मनेपद-प्रत्ययाः when the fruit of the action (क्रियाफलम्) accrues to the doer (कर्त्रभिप्रायम् = कर्तृ-अभिप्रायम्)। In the remaining case – when the fruit of the action does not accrue to the doer these verbal roots shall take परस्मैपद-प्रत्ययाः।
In reality though, this distinction of the fruit of the action accruing to the doer or not, is rarely honored in the language. So as a practical matter, a verbal root that ends in the णिच्-प्रत्ययः will take either आत्मनेपद-प्रत्ययाः or परस्मैपद-प्रत्ययाः regardless of whether the fruit of the action accrues to the doer or not. In short, it will be उभयपदी। Here it has taken a परस्मैपद-प्रत्ययः।

The विवक्षा is लोँट्, कर्तरि प्रयोगः (हेतुमति), मध्यम-पुरुषः, बहुवचनम्, therefore the प्रत्यय: will be “थ”।

(1) दीपि + लोँट् । By 3-3-162 लोट् च, the affix लोँट् comes after a धातुः when used in the sense of command/request.

(2) दीपि + ल् । अनुबन्ध-लोपः by 1-3-2 उपदेशेऽजनुनासिक इत्, 1-3-3 हलन्त्यम्, 1-3-9 तस्य लोपः

(3) दीपि + थ । 3-4-78 तिप्तस्झिसिप्थस्थमिब्वस्मस्तातांझथासाथांध्वमिड्वहिमहिङ् mandates the प्रत्ययः “थ” as the substitute for the लकारः। “थ” gets the सार्वधातुक-सञ्ज्ञा by 3-4-113 तिङ्शित्सार्वधातुकम्

(4) दीपि + त । By 3-4-101 तस्थस्थमिपां तांतंतामः, the तिङ्-प्रत्ययाः “तस्”, “थस्”, “थ” and “मिप्” of a लकारः which is a ङित्, are replaced by “ताम्”, “तम्”, “त” and “अम्” respectively.

(5) दीपि + शप् + त । By 3-1-68 कर्तरि शप्‌, the शप्-प्रत्यय: is placed after a verbal root, when followed by a सार्वधातुक-प्रत्यय: that is used signifying the agent.

(6) दीपि + अ + त । अनुबन्ध-लोपः by 1-3-3 हलन्त्यम्, 1-3-8 लशक्वतद्धिते , 1-3-9 तस्य लोपः

(7) दीपे + अ + त । By 7-3-84 सार्वधातुकार्धधातुकयोः, an अङ्गम् whose final letter is an इक् gets गुण-आदेशः, when a सार्वधातुक-प्रत्यय: or an आर्धधातुक-प्रत्यय: follows.

(8) दीपयत । By 6-1-78 एचोऽयवायावः

“सम्” is the उपसर्गः (ref. 1-4-59 उपसर्गाः क्रियायोगे।)
सम् + दीपयत = संदीपयत । 8-3-23 मोऽनुस्वारः
= सन्दीपयत/संदीपयत । 8-4-59 वा पदान्तस्य

Questions:

1. Where has the “णिच्”-प्रत्यय: been used in a तिङन्तं पदम् in the last five verses of Chapter One of the गीता?

2. Which सूत्रम् is used for the सम्प्रसारणम् in the form वृश्चत?

3. Can you spot a place in the verse where the “शप्”-प्रत्यय: has taken the लुक् elision?

4. Where has 7-1-90 गोतो णित्‌ been used in the verse?

5. How would you say this in Sanskrit?
“This house was set on fire by the terrorists.” Use (in the masculine) the adjective प्रातिपदिकम् “आततायिन्” for “terrorist” and use (in the passive) √दीप् (दीपीँ दीप्तौ ४. ४५) in the causative for “to set on fire.”

6. How would you say this in Sanskrit?
“Many students are confused by this सूत्रम्।” Use (in the passive) √मुह् (मुहँ वैचित्त्ये ४. ९५) in the causative for “to confuse.”

Easy questions:

1. Consider the form क्रिया: (used in the verse.) It is प्रथमा-बहुवचनम् of the स्त्रीलिङ्ग-प्रातिपदिकम् “क्रिया”। Steps are as follows:
क्रिया + जस् | By 4-1-2 स्वौजसमौट्छष्टा…।
= क्रिया + अस् | By 1-3-7 चुटू, 1-3-9 तस्य लोपः। 1-3-4 न विभक्तौ तुस्माः prevents the ending सकार: of “जस्” from getting the इत्-सञ्ज्ञा।
= क्रियास् | By ?
= क्रिया: | Applying रुँत्व-विसर्गौ – 8-2-66 ससजुषो रुः, 8-3-15 खरवसानयोर्विसर्जनीयः।

Which सूत्रम् is used in the second last step – 6-1-101 अकः सवर्णे दीर्घः or 6-1-102 प्रथमयोः पूर्वसवर्णः?

2. Can you spot two places in the verse where 8-3-22 हलि सर्वेषाम् has been used?

अनुकीर्तय 2AS-लोँट्

Today we will look at the form अनुकीर्तय 2AS-लोँट् from श्रीमद्भागवतम् Sb3.25.3

यद्यद्विधत्ते भगवान्स्वच्छन्दात्माऽऽत्ममायया ।
तानि मे श्रद्दधानस्य कीर्तन्यान्यनुकीर्तय ।। ३-२५-३ ।।

Gita Press translation “Having assumed by His own Māyā a personality conforming to the will of His devotees, whatever the Lord does is all worth singing. Therefore, kindly narrate all those doings to me, full of reverence as I am.”

कीर्तय is derived from the धातुः √कॄत् (कॄतँ संशब्दने १०. १५५)

The ending अकार: of “कॄतँ” is an इत् as per 1-3-2 उपदेशेऽजनुनासिक इत् and takes लोप: by 1-3-9 तस्य लोपः

कॄत् + णिच् । By 3-1-25 सत्यापपाशरूपवीणातूलश्लोकसेनालोमत्वचवर्मवर्णचूर्णचुरादिभ्यो णिच् – The affix णिच् is used after these words – “सत्य” ‘truth’ (which then takes the form of “सत्याप्” as exhibited in the सूत्रम्), “पाश” ‘fetter’, “रूप” ‘form’, “वीणा” ‘lute’, “तूल” ‘cotton’, “श्लोक” ‘celebration’, “सेना” ‘army’, “लोमन्” ‘hair of the body’, “त्वच” ‘skin’, “वर्मन्” ‘mail’, “वर्ण” ‘color’, “चूर्ण” ‘powder’ and the verbal roots belonging to the चुरादि-गणः। “णिच्” gets आर्धधातुक-सञ्ज्ञा by 3-4-114 आर्धधातुकं शेषः
= कॄत् + इ । अनुबन्ध-लोपः by 1-3-3 हलन्त्यम्, 1-3-7 चुटू, 1-3-9 तस्य लोपः
= किर् त् + इ । By 7-1-101 उपधायाश्च, a ॠकार:, when it is the penultimate (उपधा) letter of a धातु:, takes the इकारादेश:। As per 1-1-51 उरण् रपरः, the रेफ: is added to the इकार:।
= कीर्ति । By 8-2-78 उपधायां च, a इक् letter is elongated if it is followed by a रेफ: or वकार:, provided the रेफ: or वकार: is the penultimate letter (उपधा) of a verbal root and is followed by a consonant.

“कीर्ति” gets धातु-सञ्ज्ञा by 3-1-32 सनाद्यन्ता धातवः

As per 1-3-74 णिचश्च, the verbal roots that end in the णिच्-प्रत्ययः shall take आत्मनेपद-प्रत्ययाः when the fruit of the action (क्रियाफलम्) accrues to the doer (कर्त्रभिप्रायम् = कर्तृ-अभिप्रायम्)। In the remaining case – when the fruit of the action does not accrue to the doer these verbal roots shall take परस्मैपद-प्रत्ययाः।
In reality though, this distinction of the fruit of the action accruing to the doer or not, is rarely honored in the language. So as a practical matter, a verbal root that ends in the णिच्-प्रत्ययः will take either आत्मनेपद-प्रत्ययाः or परस्मैपद-प्रत्ययाः regardless of whether the fruit of the action accrues to the doer or not. In short, it will be उभयपदी। Here it has taken a परस्मैपद-प्रत्ययः।

The विवक्षा is लोँट्, कर्तरि प्रयोगः, मध्यम-पुरुषः, एकवचनम्, therefore the प्रत्यय: will be “सिप्”।

(1) कीर्ति + लोँट् । By 3-3-162 लोट् च, the affix लोँट् comes after a धातुः when used in the sense of command/request.

(2) कीर्ति + ल् । अनुबन्ध-लोपः by 1-3-2 उपदेशेऽजनुनासिक इत्, 1-3-3 हलन्त्यम्, 1-3-9 तस्य लोपः

(3) कीर्ति + सिप् । 3-4-78 तिप्तस्झिसिप्थस्थमिब्वस्मस्तातांझथासाथांध्वमिड्वहिमहिङ् mandates the प्रत्ययः “सिप्” as the substitute for the लकारः। “सिप्” gets the सार्वधातुक-सञ्ज्ञा by 3-4-113 तिङ्शित्सार्वधातुकम्

(4) कीर्ति + सि । अनुबन्ध-लोपः by 1-3-3 हलन्त्यम्, 1-3-9 तस्य लोपः

(5) कीर्ति + हि । By 3-4-87 सेर्ह्यपिच्च, “सि” of लोँट् is substituted by “हि” and it is an अपित्।

(6) कीर्ति + शप् + हि । By 3-1-68 कर्तरि शप्‌, the शप्-प्रत्यय: is placed after a verbal root, when followed by a सार्वधातुक-प्रत्यय: that is used signifying the agent.

(7) कीर्ति + अ + हि । अनुबन्ध-लोपः by 1-3-3 हलन्त्यम्, 1-3-8 लशक्वतद्धिते , 1-3-9 तस्य लोपः

(8) कीर्ते + अ + हि । By 7-3-84 सार्वधातुकार्धधातुकयोः, an अङ्गम् whose final letter is an इक् gets गुण-आदेशः, when a सार्वधातुक-प्रत्यय: or an आर्धधातुक-प्रत्यय: follows.

(9) कीर्तय + हि । By 6-1-78 एचोऽयवायावः

(10) कीर्तय । By 6-4-105 अतो हेः, there is an elision of the affix “हि” when it follows an अङ्गम् ending in a अकार:।

“अनु” is the उपसर्गः (ref. 1-4-59 उपसर्गाः क्रियायोगे।)
अनु + कीर्तय = अनुकीर्तय।

Questions:

1. Where has the “णिच्”-प्रत्यय: been used in a तिङन्तं पदम् in the first five verses of Chapter 11 of the गीता?

2. Where has 8-2-38 दधस्तथोश्च been used in the verse?

3. Commenting on the सूत्रम् 8-2-78 उपधायां च (used in this example), the तत्त्वबोधिनी says – रेफवकारयोः किम्? (पुष्पँ विकसने ४. १६) पुष्प्यति। Please explain.

4. Commenting further on the same सूत्रम् 8-2-78, the तत्त्वबोधिनी says – हल्परयोः किम्? (चिरि हिंसायाम् ५. ३४) चिरिणोति। Please explain.

5. Commenting further on the same सूत्रम् 8-2-78, the तत्त्वबोधिनी says – इकः किम्? (नर्दँ शब्दे १. ५८) नर्दति। Please explain.

6. How would you say this in Sanskrit?
“Let us not mention the defects of others.” Use the masculine प्रातिपदिकम् “दोष” for “defect” and √कॄत् (कॄतँ संशब्दने १०. १५५) for “to mention.”

Easy questions:

1. A short (alternate) form for मह्यम् (प्रातिपदिकम् “अस्मद्”, चतुर्थी-एकवचनम्) has been used in the verse. Can you spot which one it is?

2. Can you spot two places in the verse where 7-1-72 नपुंसकस्य झलचः has been used?

घातयति 3AS-लँट्

Today we will look at the form घातयति 3AS-लँट् from श्रीमद्भगवद्गीता 2-21

वेदाविनाशिनं नित्यं य एनमजमव्ययम्‌ |
कथं स पुरुषः पार्थ कं घातयति हन्ति कम्‌ || 2-21||

Gita Press translation “Arjuna, the man who knows this soul to be imperishable; eternal and free from birth and decay, how and whom will he cause to be killed, how and whom will he kill?”

घातयति is a causative form derived from the धातुः √हन् (हनँ हिंसागत्योः २. २)

The ending vowel of “हनँ” is an इत् as per 1-3-2 उपदेशेऽजनुनासिक इत् and takes लोप: by 1-3-9 तस्य लोपः

हन् + णिच् । By 3-1-26 हेतुमति च – The affix “णिच्” is used after a root, when the operation of a causer – such as the operation of directing – is to be expressed. “णिच्” gets आर्धधातुक-सञ्ज्ञा by 3-4-114 आर्धधातुकं शेषः
= घन् + णिच् । By 7-3-54 हो हन्तेर्ञ्णिन्नेषु, the हकारः of √हन् gets replaced by a letter of the कवर्ग: when followed by an affix with ञकारः or णकारः as an इत् , or when followed (immediately) by a नकारः।
= घत् + णिच् । By 7-3-32 हनस्तोऽचिण्णलोः – The ending letter (नकार:) of the verbal root √हन् (हनँ हिंसागत्योः २. २) is replaced by a तकार:, when followed by a प्रत्यय: (other than “चिण्” or “णल्”) which is either ञित् or णित्।
= घात् + णिच् । By 7-2-116 अत उपधायाः – A penultimate (उपधा) अकार: of a अङ्गम् gets वृद्धिः as the substitute when followed by a प्रत्ययः which is either ञित् or णित्।
= घात् + इ । अनुबन्ध-लोपः by 1-3-3 हलन्त्यम्, 1-3-7 चुटू, 1-3-9 तस्य लोपः
= घाति।

“घाति” gets धातु-सञ्ज्ञा by 3-1-32 सनाद्यन्ता धातवः

As per 1-3-74 णिचश्च, the verbal roots that end in the णिच्-प्रत्ययः shall take आत्मनेपद-प्रत्ययाः when the fruit of the action (क्रियाफलम्) accrues to the doer (कर्त्रभिप्रायम् = कर्तृ-अभिप्रायम्)। In the remaining case – when the fruit of the action does not accrue to the doer these verbal roots shall take परस्मैपद-प्रत्ययाः।
In reality though, this distinction of the fruit of the action accruing to the doer or not, is rarely honored in the language. So as a practical matter, a verbal root that ends in the णिच्-प्रत्ययः will take either आत्मनेपद-प्रत्ययाः or परस्मैपद-प्रत्ययाः regardless of whether the fruit of the action accrues to the doer or not. In short, it will be उभयपदी। Here it has taken a परस्मैपद-प्रत्ययः।

The विवक्षा is लँट्, कर्तरि प्रयोगः, हेतुमति, प्रथम-पुरुषः, एकवचनम्, therefore the प्रत्यय: will be “तिप्”।

(1) घाति + लँट् । By 3-2-123 वर्तमाने लट्, the affix लँट् comes after a धातुः when denoting an action in the present tense.

(2) घाति + ल् । अनुबन्ध-लोपः by 1-3-2 उपदेशेऽजनुनासिक इत्, 1-3-3 हलन्त्यम्, 1-3-9 तस्य लोपः

(3) घाति + तिप् । 3-4-78 तिप्तस्झिसिप्थस्थमिब्वस्मस्तातांझथासाथांध्वमिड्वहिमहिङ् mandates the प्रत्ययः “तिप्” as the substitute for the लकारः। “तिप्” gets the सार्वधातुक-सञ्ज्ञा by 3-4-113 तिङ्शित्सार्वधातुकम्

(4) घाति + ति । अनुबन्ध-लोपः by 1-3-3 हलन्त्यम्, 1-3-9 तस्य लोपः

(5) घाति + शप् + तिप् । By 3-1-68 कर्तरि शप्‌, the शप्-प्रत्यय: is placed after a verbal root, when followed by a सार्वधातुक-प्रत्यय: that is used signifying the agent.

(6) घाति + अ + तिप् । अनुबन्ध-लोपः by 1-3-3 हलन्त्यम्, 1-3-8 लशक्वतद्धिते , 1-3-9 तस्य लोपः

(7) घाते + अ + ति । By 7-3-84 सार्वधातुकार्धधातुकयोः, an अङ्गम् whose final letter is an इक् gets गुण-आदेशः, when a सार्वधातुक-प्रत्यय: or an आर्धधातुक-प्रत्यय: follows.

(8) घातयति । By 6-1-78 एचोऽयवायावः

Questions:

1. In the last verse of which chapter of the गीता has √हन् (हनँ हिंसागत्योः २. २) been used in a तिङन्तं पदम्?

2. Can you spot a “णल्”-प्रत्यय: in the verse?

3. Where has 2-4-34 द्वितीयाटौस्स्वेनः been used in the verse?

4. In the verse, can you spot a word in which the शप्-प्रत्यय: has taken the लुक् elision?

5. How would you say this in Sanskrit?
“O Lord! Destroy all my sins.” Use √हन् (हनँ हिंसागत्योः २. २) in the causative for “to destroy” (literally – “cause to be killed.”)

6. How would you say this in Sanskrit?
“You should teach my son grammar.” Use √इ (इङ् अध्ययने | नित्यमधिपूर्वः २. ४१) in the causative with the उपसर्ग: “अधि” for “to teach” (literally – “cause to study.”) Use द्वितीया विभक्ति: with both “son” and “grammar.”

Easy questions:

1. Where has 6-1-69 एङ्ह्रस्वात्‌ सम्बुद्धेः been used in the verse?

2. Can you spot a place in the verse where the “सुँ”-प्रत्यय: has taken लोप:?

बध्नन्ति 3Ap-लँट्

Today we will look at the form बध्नन्ति 3Ap-लँट् from श्रीमद्भागवतम् Sb11.23.37

तर्जयन्त्यपरे वाग्भिः स्तेनोऽयमिति वादिनः ।
बध्नन्ति रज्ज्वा तं केचिद्बध्यतां बध्यतामिति ।। ११-२३-३७ ।।

Gita Press translation – Calling him a thief, others threatened him with words; while others tied him with a rope, exclaiming “Let him be bound, let him be bound!”

बध्नन्ति is derived from the धातुः √बन्ध् (क्रयादि-गणः, बन्धँ बन्धने, धातु-पाठः # ९. ४४)

The अकारः at the end of “बन्धँ” gets इत्-सञ्ज्ञा by 1-3-2 उपदेशेऽजनुनासिक इत् and takes लोप: by 1-3-9 तस्य लोपः। This इत् letter has उदात्त-स्वरः। Thus √बन्ध् is devoid of any indications for bringing in आत्मनेपद-प्रत्यया:। (Neither 1-3-12 अनुदात्तङित आत्मनेपदम् nor 1-3-72 स्वरितञितः कर्त्रभिप्राये क्रियाफले applies.) Therefore, as per 1-3-78 शेषात् कर्तरि परस्मैपदम्, √बन्ध् takes परस्मैपद-प्रत्यया: by default in कर्तरि प्रयोग:।

The विवक्षा is लँट्, कर्तरि प्रयोगः, प्रथम-पुरुषः, बहुवचनम्, therefore the प्रत्यय: will be “झि”।

(1) बन्ध् + लँट् । By 3-2-123 वर्तमाने लट्, the affix लँट् comes after a धातुः when denoting an action in the present tense.

(2) बन्ध् + ल् । अनुबन्ध-लोपः by 1-3-2 उपदेशेऽजनुनासिक इत्, 1-3-3 हलन्त्यम्, 1-3-9 तस्य लोपः

(3) बन्ध् + झि । 3-4-78 तिप्तस्झिसिप्थस्थमिब्वस्मस्तातांझथासाथांध्वमिड्वहिमहिङ् mandates the प्रत्ययः “झि” as the substitute for the लकारः। “झि” gets the सार्वधातुक-सञ्ज्ञा by 3-4-113 तिङ्शित्सार्वधातुकम्

(4) बन्ध् + श्ना + झि । By 3-1-81 क्र्यादिभ्यः श्ना, the श्ना-प्रत्यय: is placed after the verbal roots belonging to the क्र्यादि-गणः, when followed by a सार्वधातुक-प्रत्ययः that is used signifying the agent. This सूत्रम् is a अपवाद: (exception) to 3-1-68 कर्तरि शप्‌। “श्ना” which is a शित्, gets सार्वधातुक-सञ्ज्ञा by 3-4-113 तिङ्शित्सार्वधातुकम्

(5) बन्ध् + ना + झि । अनुबन्ध-लोपः by 1-3-8 लशक्वतद्धिते, 1-3-9 तस्य लोपः

(6) बध् + ना + झि । By 6-4-24 अनिदितां हल उपधायाः क्ङिति, the penultimate नकारः of bases that end in a consonant and that do not have इकारः as a marker, takes लोपः when followed by an affix that has ककारः or ङकारः as a marker.
(Note: Since the सार्वधातुक-प्रत्यय: “श्ना” is अपित्, by 1-2-4 सार्वधातुकमपित् it behaves ङिद्वत् – as if it has ङकार: as a इत्। This allows 6-4-24 to apply.)

(7) बध् + ना + अन्ति । By 7-1-3 झोऽन्तः, “अन्त्” comes in as a replacement for the झकारः of a प्रत्यय:।

(8) बध्नन्ति । By 6-4-112 श्नाऽभ्यस्तयोरातः, when followed by a सार्वधातुक-प्रत्ययः which is a कित् or a ङित्, the आकारः of the श्ना-प्रत्ययः or of a reduplicated root (अभ्यस्तम्) is elided.
(Note: Since the सार्वधातुक-प्रत्यय: “अन्ति” is अपित्, by 1-2-4 सार्वधातुकमपित् it behaves ङिद्वत् – as if it has ङकार: as a इत्। This allows 6-4-112 to apply.)

Questions:

1. Where has √बन्ध् (क्रयादि-गणः, बन्धँ बन्धने, धातु-पाठः # ९. ४४) been used in a तिङन्तं पदम् in a कर्मणि प्रयोग: in the first twenty verses of Chapter Eighteen of the गीता?

2. Can you spot a “णिच्”-प्रत्यय: in the verse?

3. Can you spot a “यक्”-प्रत्यय: in the verse?

4. The अव्ययम् “इति” normally ends a quotation. Based on the context we have to find out where the quotation begins. “इति” has been used twice in the verse. In each case, from where does the quotation begin?

5. How would you say this in Sanskrit?
“This bridge was built by my grandfather.” Use the masculine प्रातिपदिकम् “सेतु” for “bridge” and the use the masculine प्रातिपदिकम् “पितामह” for “grandfather (father’s father.)” Use (in the passive) √बन्ध् (क्रयादि-गणः, बन्धँ बन्धने, धातु-पाठः # ९. ४४) for “to build.”

6. How would you say this in Sanskrit?
“(You) maintain silence.” Use the neuter प्रातिपदिकम् “मौन” for “silence” and √बन्ध् (क्रयादि-गणः, बन्धँ बन्धने, धातु-पाठः # ९. ४४) for “to maintain.”

Easy questions:

1. Derive the form वाग्भि: (तृतीया-बहुवचनम्) from the स्त्रीलिङ्ग-प्रातिपदिकम् “वाच्”।

2. Can you spot a “टा”-प्रत्यय: in the verse?

उपयुञ्जीत 3Ap-लिँङ्

Today we will look at the form उपयुञ्जीत 3As-विधिलिँङ् from श्रीमद्भागवतम् Sb7.13.8

न शिष्याननुबध्नीत ग्रन्थान्नैवाभ्यसेद्बहून् ।
न व्याख्यामुपयुञ्जीत नारम्भानारभेत्क्वचित् ।। ७-१३-८ ।।

Gita Press translation “He should not attach (a number of) disciples of himself nor should he study many a book (that may divert his mind from the object of pursuit, viz., spiritual enlightenment). He should neither take to discoursing nor should he engage in undertakings (such as the construction of a monastery and so on) on any account.”

युञ्जीत is derived from the धातुः √युज् (रुधादि-गणः, युजिँर् योगे, धातु-पाठः # ७. ७)

By the वार्तिकम् – इर इत्सञ्ज्ञा वाच्या, “इर्” of “युजिँर्” gets the इत्-सञ्ज्ञा । The इकारः of “इर्” has a स्वरित-स्वर: here. Therefore, as per the सूत्रम् 1-3-72 स्वरितञितः कर्त्रभिप्राये क्रियाफले, the √युज्-धातुः will take आत्मनेपद-प्रत्ययाः when the fruit of the action (क्रियाफलम्) accrues to the doer (कर्त्रभिप्रायम् = कर्तृ-अभिप्रायम्)। In the remaining case – when the fruit of the action does not accrue to the doer – by 1-3-78 शेषात् कर्तरि परस्मैपदम् – the √युज्-धातुः will take परस्मैपद-प्रत्ययाः।
In reality though, this distinction of the fruit of the action accruing to the doer or not, is rarely honored in the language. So as a practical matter, a verbal root such as √युज् will take either आत्मनेपद-प्रत्ययाः or परस्मैपद-प्रत्ययाः regardless of whether the fruit of the action accrues to the doer or not. In short, √युज्-धातुः will be उभयपदी। In this verse it has taken a आत्मनेपद-प्रत्यय:।

The विवक्षा is विधिलिँङ्, कर्तरि प्रयोग:, प्रथम-पुरुषः, एकवचनम्, therefore the प्रत्यय: will be “त”।

(1) युज् + लिँङ् । By 3-3-161 विधिनिमन्त्रणामन्त्रणाधीष्टसंप्रश्नप्रार्थनेषु लिङ्, the affix लिङ् is prescribed after a धातुः when used in the sense of command, direction, invitation, request, inquiry and entreaty.

(2) युज् + ल् । अनुबन्ध-लोपः by 1-3-2 उपदेशेऽजनुनासिक इत्, 1-3-3 हलन्त्यम्, 1-3-9 तस्य लोपः

(3) युज् + त । 3-4-78 तिप्तस्झिसिप्थस्थमिब्वस्मस्तातांझथासाथांध्वमिड्वहिमहिङ् mandates the प्रत्ययः “त” as the substitute for the लकारः। “त” gets the सार्वधातुक-सञ्ज्ञा by 3-4-113 तिङ्शित्सार्वधातुकम्

(4) युज् + सीयुट् त । By 3-4-102 लिङस्सीयुट् , the affixes of लिँङ् get सीयुट् as the augment. As per 1-1-46 आद्यन्तौ टकितौ, the सीयुट्-आगमः joins at the beginning of the प्रत्यय:।

(5) युज् + सीय् त । The उकार: in सीयुट् is for pronunciation only (उच्चारणार्थम्)। The टकार: is an इत् by 1-3-3 हलन्त्यम् and takes लोप: by 1-3-9 तस्य लोपः

(6) यु श्नम् ज् + सीय् त । By 3-1-78 रुधादिभ्यः श्नम्, the श्नम्-प्रत्ययः is placed after the verbal roots belonging to the रुधादि-गणः, when followed by a सार्वधातुक-प्रत्ययः that is used signifying the agent. श्नम् is a मित्। Hence as per 1-1-47 मिदचोऽन्त्यात्परः, it is placed after the last vowel (उकार:) of the अङ्गम् “युज्”।
This सूत्रम् is a अपवादः (exception) to 3-1-68 कर्तरि शप्‌
Note: The purpose of the शकार: (which is an इत् by 1-3-8) in “श्नम्” is in order for पाणिनि: to be able to refer specifically to this प्रत्यय: in rules such as 6-4-23, 6-4-111 etc. It is not for getting the सार्वधातुक-सञ्ज्ञा (by 3-4-113.) Since this प्रत्यय: does not follow the अङ्गम् (it is placed inside the अङ्गम् as per 1-1-47), it cannot act on the अङ्गम् and hence no purpose would be served by assigning the सार्वधातुक-सञ्ज्ञा।

(7) युनज् + सीय् त । अनुबन्ध-लोपः by 1-3-3 हलन्त्यम् , 1-3-8 लशक्वतद्धिते, 1-3-9 तस्य लोपः

(8) युन्ज् + सीय् त । By 6-4-111 श्नसोरल्लोपः, the अकारः of “श्न” and of the verbal root √अस् (असँ भुवि २. ६०) is elided when followed by सार्वाधातुक-प्रत्ययः which is a कित् or a ङित्।
Note: “श्न” refers to the “श्नम्”-प्रत्यय: (ref. 3-1-78 रुधादिभ्यः श्नम्)।
Note: By 1-2-4 सार्वधातुकमपित्, the “सीय् त”-प्रत्यय: becomes ङिद्वत् (behaves like having a ङकारः as an इत्)। This allows 6-4-111 to apply.

(9) युन्ज् + ई य् त । By 7-2-79 लिङः सलोपोऽनन्‍त्‍यस्‍य, the सकारः of a सार्वधातुक-लिङ् affix is elided, provided it is not the final letter of the affix.

(10) युन्ज् + ईत । By 6-1-66 लोपो व्‍योर्वलि , a वकारः or a यकारः is elided when it is followed by a letter of the वल्-प्रत्याहारः।

(11) युंजीत । By 8-3-24 नश्चापदान्तस्य झलि, the नकारः (which is not at the end of the पदम्) gets अनुस्वारः as replacement since a झल् letter follows.

(12) युञ्जीत । By 8-4-58 अनुस्वारस्य ययि परसवर्णः, when a यय् letter follows, अनुस्वारः gets the सवर्णः of the यय् letter as its replacement.

“उप” is the उपसर्गः (ref. 1-4-59 उपसर्गाः क्रियायोगे।)
उप + युञ्जीत = उपयुञ्जीत।

Questions:

1. Where has युञ्जीत been used in the गीता?

2. Commenting on the form अनुबध्नीत used in this verse, the commentator says – तङार्ष:। Please explain.

3. Commenting on the form आरभेत् used in this verse, the commentator says – तङभाव आर्ष:। Please explain.

4. How would you say this in Sanskrit?
“One should not use an incomplete word.” Use the neuter (compound) प्रातिपदिकम् “अपद” for “incomplete word” and use √युज् (रुधादि-गणः, युजिँर् योगे, धातु-पाठः # ७. ७) with the उपसर्ग: “प्र” for “to use.”

5. How would you say this in Sanskrit?
“Who disclosed the error in my sentence?” Use the masculine प्रातिपदिकम् “दोष” for “error” and use √काश् (काशृँ दीप्तौ १. ७३४) in the causative with the उपसर्ग: “प्र” for “to disclose.”

6. How would you say this in Sanskrit?
“The hurricane made all these trees fall.” Use the masculine प्रातिपदिकम् “प्रभञ्जन” for “hurricane” and use √पत् (पतॢँ गतौ १. ९७९) in the causative for “to cause to fall.”

Easy questions:

1. Which सूत्रम् is used for अभ्यसेत् + बहून् = अभ्यसेद्बहून्?

2. Can you spot four places in the verse where 6-1-103 तस्माच्छसो नः पुंसि has been used?

कथय 2As-लोँट्

Today we will look at the form कथय 2As-लोँट् from श्रीमद्भागवतम् Sb10.58.19

का त्वं कस्यासि सुश्रोणि कुतोऽसि किं चिकीर्षसि ।
मन्ये त्वां पतिमिच्छन्तीं सर्वं कथय शोभने ।। १०-५८-१९ ।।

Gita Press translation “Who are you and whose daughter may you be, O fair damsel? Where do you come from and what do you mean to do? I infer you to be in quest of a (suitable) match. (Pray), relate everything (to me), O good maiden!”

कथय is derived from the धातुः √कथ (चुरादि-गणः, कथ वाक्यप्रबन्धे (वाक्यप्रबन्धने), धातु-पाठः # १०. ३८९)

The ending अकारः of “कथ” is not a अनुनासिक: and hence does not get the इत्-सञ्ज्ञा by 1-3-2 उपदेशेऽजनुनासिक इत्

By 3-1-25 सत्यापपाशरूपवीणातूलश्लोकसेनालोमत्वचवर्मवर्णचूर्णचुरादिभ्यो णिच् , the affix णिच् is used after these words – “सत्य” ‘truth’ (which then takes the form of “सत्याप्” as exhibited in the सूत्रम्), “पाश” ‘fetter’, “रूप” ‘form’, “वीणा” ‘lute’, “तूल” ‘cotton’, “श्लोक” ‘celebration’, “सेना” ‘army’, “लोमन्” ‘hair of the body’, “त्वच” ‘skin’, “वर्मन्” ‘mail’, “वर्ण” ‘color’, “चूर्ण” ‘powder’ and the verbal roots belonging to the चुरादि-गणः

कथ + णिच् । By 3-1-25. “णिच्” gets आर्धधातुक-सञ्ज्ञा by 3-4-114 आर्धधातुकं शेषः
= कथ् + णिच् । By 6-4-48 अतो लोपः, when an आर्धधातुकम् affix follows, the अकारः at the end of a अङ्गम् is elided if the अङ्गम् ends in a अकार: at the time when the आर्धधातुकम् affix is prescribed. Note: As per 7-2-116 अत उपधायाः, the णिच्-प्रत्यय: would do a वृद्धि: substitution in place of the अकार: of the अङ्गम् “कथ्”। But this does not happen because as per 1-1-57 अचः परस्मिन् पूर्वविधौ, the लोप: done by 6-4-48 has स्थानिवद्-भाव: (it behaves like the item it replaced – अकार:) when it comes to an operation (वृद्धि:) that would be performed to the left of it. Hence as far as 7-2-116 is concerned, the उपधा of the अङ्गम् is the थकार: and hence it cannot apply.
= कथ् + इ । अनुबन्ध-लोपः by 1-3-3 हलन्त्यम्, 1-3-7 चुटू, 1-3-9 तस्य लोपः
= कथि।

“कथि” gets धातु-सञ्ज्ञा by 3-1-32 सनाद्यन्ता धातवः

As per 1-3-74 णिचश्च, the verbal roots that end in the णिच्-प्रत्ययः shall take आत्मनेपद-प्रत्ययाः when the fruit of the action (क्रियाफलम्) accrues to the doer (कर्त्रभिप्रायम् = कर्तृ-अभिप्रायम्)। In the remaining case – when the fruit of the action does not accrue to the doer these verbal roots shall take परस्मैपद-प्रत्ययाः।
In reality though, this distinction of the fruit of the action accruing to the doer or not, is rarely honored in the language. So as a practical matter, a verbal root that ends in the णिच्-प्रत्ययः will take either आत्मनेपद-प्रत्ययाः or परस्मैपद-प्रत्ययाः regardless of whether the fruit of the action accrues to the doer or not. In short, it will be उभयपदी। Here it has taken a परस्मैपद-प्रत्ययः।

The विवक्षा is लोँट्, कर्तरि प्रयोगः, मध्यम-पुरुषः, एकवचनम्, therefore the प्रत्यय: will be “सिप्”।

(1) कथि + लोँट् । By 3-3-162 लोट् च, the affix लोँट् comes after a धातुः when used in the sense of command/request.

(2) कथि + ल् । अनुबन्ध-लोपः by 1-3-2 उपदेशेऽजनुनासिक इत्, 1-3-3 हलन्त्यम्, 1-3-9 तस्य लोपः

(3) कथि + सिप् । 3-4-78 तिप्तस्झिसिप्थस्थमिब्वस्मस्तातांझथासाथांध्वमिड्वहिमहिङ् mandates the प्रत्ययः “सिप्” as the substitute for the लकारः। “सिप्” gets the सार्वधातुक-सञ्ज्ञा by 3-4-113 तिङ्शित्सार्वधातुकम्

(4) कथि + सि । अनुबन्ध-लोपः by 1-3-3 हलन्त्यम्, 1-3-9 तस्य लोपः

(5) कथि + हि । By 3-4-87 सेर्ह्यपिच्च, “सि” of लोँट् is substituted by “हि” and it is an अपित्।

(6) कथि + शप् + हि । By 3-1-68 कर्तरि शप्‌, the शप्-प्रत्यय: is placed after a verbal root, when followed by a सार्वधातुक-प्रत्यय: that is used signifying the agent.

(7) कथि + अ + हि । अनुबन्ध-लोपः by 1-3-3 हलन्त्यम्, 1-3-8 लशक्वतद्धिते , 1-3-9 तस्य लोपः

(8) कथे + अ + हि । By 7-3-84 सार्वधातुकार्धधातुकयोः, an अङ्गम् whose final letter is an इक् gets गुण-आदेशः, when a सार्वधातुक-प्रत्यय: or an आर्धधातुक-प्रत्यय: follows.

(9) कथय + हि । By 6-1-78 एचोऽयवायावः

(10) कथय । By 6-4-105 अतो हेः, there is an elision of the affix “हि” when it follows an अङ्गम् ending in a अकार:।

Questions:

1. Where has कथय been used in the गीता?

2. What is the special feature of all the verbal roots in the section beginning with √कथ (चुरादि-गणः, कथ वाक्यप्रबन्धे (वाक्यप्रबन्धने), धातु-पाठः # १०. ३८९) and going up to the end of the चुरादि-गण:?

3. Where has 7-4-50 तासस्त्योर्लोपः been used in the verse?

4. Can you spot a श्यन्-प्रत्यय: in the verse?

5. How would you say this in Sanskrit?
“I think you’re a brave man.” Use the adjective प्रातिपदिकम् “वीर” for “brave” and use a verb from the verse for “I think.”

6. How would you say this in Sanskrit?
“Tell me everything that happened yesterday in the temple.” Use the adjective प्रातिपदिकम् “वृत्त” for “happened”, use the अव्ययम् “श्वस्” for “yesterday” and use चतुर्थी विभक्ति: with “me” (प्रातिपदिकम् “अस्मद्”)। Use some words from the verse for “tell” and “everything.”

Easy questions:

1. Where has 7-3-106 सम्बुद्धौ च been used in the verse?

2. Why didn’t the सूत्रम् 7-2-103 किमः कः apply in the form किम् (सर्वनाम-प्रातिपदिकम् “किम्”, नपुंसकलिङ्गे द्वितीया-एकवचनम्)?

जानीहि 2As-लोँट्

Today we will look at the form जानीहि 2As-लोँट् from श्रीमद्भागवतम् Sb10.48.35

गच्छ जानीहि तद्वृत्तमधुना साध्वसाधु वा ।
विज्ञाय तद्विधास्यामो यथा शं सुहृदां भवेत् ।। १०-४८-३५ ।।

Gita Press translation “Go (therefore) and ascertain his behavior (towards them) now – whether it is good or bad. Having definitely known it, we shall so arrange that the welfare of our relations (the Pāṇḍavas) may be ensured.”

जानीहि is derived from the धातुः √ज्ञा (क्र्यादि-गणः, ज्ञा अवबोधने, धातु-पाठः # ९. ४३)

The √ज्ञा-धातुः does not have any इत् letters in the धातु-पाठः। Thus it is devoid of any indications for bringing in आत्मनेपद-प्रत्यया:। (Neither 1-3-12 अनुदात्तङित आत्मनेपदम् nor 1-3-72 स्वरितञितः कर्त्रभिप्राये क्रियाफले applies.) Therefore by default, as per 1-3-78 शेषात् कर्तरि परस्मैपदम्, √ज्ञा-धातुः takes परस्मैपद-प्रत्यया: in कर्तरि प्रयोग:।

The विवक्षा is लोँट्, कर्तरि प्रयोगः, मध्यम-पुरुषः, एकवचनम्, therefore the प्रत्यय: is “सिप्”।

(1) ज्ञा + लोँट् । By 3-3-162 लोट् च, the affix लोँट् comes after a धातुः when used in the sense of command/request.

(2) ज्ञा + ल् । अनुबन्ध-लोपः by 1-3-2 उपदेशेऽजनुनासिक इत्, 1-3-3 हलन्त्यम्, 1-3-9 तस्य लोपः

(3) ज्ञा + सिप् । 3-4-78 तिप्तस्झिसिप्थस्थमिब्वस्मस्तातांझथासाथांध्वमिड्वहिमहिङ् mandates the प्रत्ययः “सिप्” as the substitute for the लकारः। “सिप्” gets the सार्वधातुक-सञ्ज्ञा by 3-4-113 तिङ्शित्सार्वधातुकम् – The affixes of the तिङ्-प्रत्याहारः and the affixes that have शकारः as an इत् get the designation of सार्वधातुकम् if they are prescribed in the “धातो:” अधिकार:।

(4) ज्ञा + सि । अनुबन्ध-लोपः by 1-3-3 हलन्त्यम् , 1-3-9 तस्य लोपः

(5) ज्ञा + हि । By 3-4-87 सेर्ह्यपिच्च , “सि” of लोँट् is substituted by “हि” and it is an अपित्। “हि” also gets सार्वधातुक-सञ्ज्ञा by 1-1-56 स्थानिवदादेशोऽनल्विधौ

(6) ज्ञा + श्ना + हि । By 3-1-81 क्र्यादिभ्यः श्ना, the श्ना-प्रत्यय: is placed after the verbal roots belonging to the क्र्यादि-गणः, when followed by a सार्वधातुक-प्रत्ययः that is used signifying the agent. This सूत्रम् is a अपवाद: (exception) to 3-1-68 कर्तरि शप्‌। “श्ना” which is a शित्, gets सार्वधातुक-सञ्ज्ञा by 3-4-113 तिङ्शित्सार्वधातुकम्

(7) ज्ञा + ना + हि । अनुबन्ध-लोपः by 1-3-8 लशक्वतद्धिते , 1-3-9 तस्य लोपः

(8) जा + ना + हि । By 7-3-79 ज्ञाजनोर्जा, the verbal roots √ज्ञा (ज्ञा अवबोधने ९. ४३) and √जन् (जनीँ प्रादुर्भावे ४. ४४) are substituted by “जा” when followed by a शित्-प्रत्ययः । See easy question 1.

(9) जानीहि । By 6-4-113 ई हल्यघोः, when followed by a हलादि: (beginning with a consonant) सार्वधातुक-प्रत्ययः which is a कित् or a ङित्, the आकारः of the श्ना-प्रत्ययः or of a reduplicated root (अभ्यस्तम्) is substituted by ईकारः, excepting the आकारः of the verbal roots having the घु-सञ्ज्ञा । (Note: Since the सार्वधातुक-प्रत्यय: “हि” is अपित्, by 1-2-4 सार्वधातुकमपित् it behaves ङिद्वत् – as if it has ङकार: as a इत्। This allows 6-4-113 to apply.)

Questions:

1. Where does जानीहि occur in the गीता?

2. Which सूत्रम् is used for the छकारादेश: in the form गच्छ?

3. Commenting on the सूत्रम् 6-4-113 ई हल्यघोः (used in the last step of this example), the तत्त्वबोधिनी says क्ङितीति किम्? लुनाति। Please explain.

4. Commenting further on the same सूत्रम् (as in the question above), the तत्त्वबोधिनी says अघोः किम? दत्तः। Please explain.

5. Use some words from the verse to compose the following sentence in Sanskrit:
“I don’t know whether your behavior is good or bad.”

6. How would you say this in Sanskrit?
“This anxiety troubles me even at night.” Use the feminine प्रातिपदिकम् “चिन्ता” for “anxiety” and use √त्रस् (त्रसीँ उद्वेगे ४. ११) in the causative for “to trouble.”

Easy questions:

1. In step 8, why didn’t the substitute (आदेश:) “जा” replace only the ending आकार: of the item being substituted (स्थानी) “ज्ञा” as per 1-1-52 अलोऽन्त्यस्य?

2. By which सूत्रम् does वा get the अव्यय-सञ्ज्ञा?

मथ्नन्ति 3Ap-लँट्

Today we will look at the form मथ्नन्ति 3Ap-लँट् from श्रीमद्भागवतम् Sb5.18.36

यस्य स्वरूपं कवयो विपश्चितो गुणेषु दारुष्विव जातवेदसम् ।
मथ्नन्ति मथ्ना मनसा दिदृक्षवो गूढं क्रियार्थैर्नम ईरितात्मने ।। ५-१८-३६ ।।

Gita Press translation “Even as those well-versed in rituals churn out the fire hidden in pieces of (sacrificial) wood with the help of the fire-producing wooden stick, so the wise, keen to perceive Your reality, obscured by (attachment to) actions and their fruits, try to discover it (as the all-pervading self) in the discipline of their body and senses etc., (which are products of matter) with the help of (their) discriminating mind (reason). Hail to You who reveal Yourself through this process (of chastening the body and senses).”

मथ्नन्ति is derived from the धातुः √मन्थ् (क्र्यादि-गणः, मन्थँ विलोडने, धातु-पाठः # ९. ४७)

The अकारः at the end gets इत्-सञ्ज्ञा by 1-3-2 उपदेशेऽजनुनासिक इत् and takes लोप: by 1-3-9 तस्य लोपः। This इत् letter has उदात्त-स्वरः। Thus √मन्थ् is devoid of any indications for bringing in आत्मनेपद-प्रत्यया:। (Neither 1-3-12 अनुदात्तङित आत्मनेपदम् nor 1-3-72 स्वरितञितः कर्त्रभिप्राये क्रियाफले applies.) Therefore, as per 1-3-78 शेषात् कर्तरि परस्मैपदम्, √मन्थ् takes परस्मैपद-प्रत्यया: in कर्तरि प्रयोग:।

The विवक्षा is लँट्, कर्तरि प्रयोगः, प्रथम-पुरुषः, बहुवचनम्, therefore the प्रत्यय: will be “झि”।

(1) मन्थ् + लँट् । By 3-2-123 वर्तमाने लट्, the affix लँट् comes after a धातुः when denoting an action in the present tense.

(2) मन्थ् + ल् । अनुबन्ध-लोपः by 1-3-2 उपदेशेऽजनुनासिक इत्, 1-3-3 हलन्त्यम्, 1-3-9 तस्य लोपः

(3) मन्थ् + झि । 3-4-78 तिप्तस्झिसिप्थस्थमिब्वस्मस्तातांझथासाथांध्वमिड्वहिमहिङ् mandates the प्रत्ययः “झि” as the substitute for the लकारः। “झि” gets the सार्वधातुक-सञ्ज्ञा by 3-4-113 तिङ्शित्सार्वधातुकम्

(4) मन्थ् + श्ना + झि । By 3-1-81 क्र्यादिभ्यः श्ना, the श्ना-प्रत्यय: is placed after the verbal roots belonging to the क्र्यादि-गणः, when followed by a सार्वधातुक-प्रत्ययः that is used signifying the agent. This सूत्रम् is a अपवाद: (exception) to 3-1-68 कर्तरि शप्‌। “श्ना” which is a शित्, gets सार्वधातुक-सञ्ज्ञा by 3-4-113 तिङ्शित्सार्वधातुकम्

(5) मन्थ् + ना + झि । अनुबन्ध-लोपः by 1-3-8 लशक्वतद्धिते, 1-3-9 तस्य लोपः

(6) मथ् + ना + झि । By 6-4-24 अनिदितां हल उपधायाः क्ङिति, the penultimate नकारः of bases that end in a consonant and that do not have इकारः as a marker, takes लोपः when followed by an affix that has ककारः or ङकारः as a marker.
(Note: Since the सार्वधातुक-प्रत्यय: “श्ना” is अपित्, by 1-2-4 सार्वधातुकमपित् it behaves ङिद्वत् – as if it has ङकार: as a इत्। This allows 6-4-24 to apply.)

(7) मथ् + ना + अन्ति । By 7-1-3 झोऽन्तः, “अन्त्” comes in as a replacement for the झकारः of a प्रत्यय:।

(8) मथ्नन्ति । By 6-4-112 श्नाऽभ्यस्तयोरातः, when followed by a सार्वधातुक-प्रत्ययः which is a कित् or a ङित्, the आकारः of the श्ना-प्रत्ययः or of a reduplicated root (अभ्यस्तम्) is elided.
(Note: Since the सार्वधातुक-प्रत्यय: “अन्ति” is अपित्, by 1-2-4 सार्वधातुकमपित् it behaves ङिद्वत् – as if it has ङकार: as a इत्। This allows 6-4-112 to apply.)

Questions:

1. In the first five verses of Chapter Fourteen of the गीता, can you find a word wherein 3-1-81 क्र्यादिभ्यः श्ना as well as 6-4-24 अनिदितां हल उपधायाः क्ङिति has been used (as in this example)?

2. Which प्रातिपदिकम् has been used in the word मथ्ना (तृतीया-एकवचनम्)?
i. “मथिन्”
ii. “मथन्”
iii. “मथि”
iv. “मथन”

3. Which two rules used in this example belong to the “असिद्धवत्‌” अधिकार:?

4. How would you say this in Sanskrit?
“Who destroyed the demon?” Use √मन्थ् (क्र्यादि-गणः, मन्थँ विलोडने, धातु-पाठः # ९. ४७) with the उपसर्ग: “प्र” for “to destroy” and use the masculine प्रातिपदिकम् “राक्षस” for “demon.”

5. How would you say this in Sanskrit?
“My mind is agitated by these statements.” Use (in the passive) √मन्थ् (क्र्यादि-गणः, मन्थँ विलोडने, धातु-पाठः # ९. ४७) for “to agitate.”

6. How would you say this in Sanskrit?
“Enough of this nonsense!” Use the अव्ययम् “अलम्” to express the meaning of “enough of.” Use the adjective “अनर्थक” for “nonsense.” Use तृतीया विभक्ति: with “this” and “nonsense.”

Easy questions:

1. Where has 7-3-103 बहुवचने झल्येत्‌ been used in the verse?

2. Derive the form “दिदृक्षव:” (पुंलिङ्गे प्रथमा-बहुवचनम्) from the प्रातिपदिकम् “दिदृक्षु”।

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