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आपातरमणीयानाम् mGp

Today we will look at the form आपातरमणीयानाम् mGp from हितोपदेशः 11.79.

संयोगो हि वियोगस्य संसूचयति संभवम् । अनतिक्रमणीयस्य जन्म मृत्योरिवागमम् ।। ११-७९ ।।
आपातरमणीयानां संयोगानां प्रियैः सह । अपथ्यानामिवान्नानां परिणामोऽतिदारुणः ।। ११-८० ।।

Translation – Connection certainly indicates the possibility of separation, as birth indicates the coming of death which is unavoidable (79). The result of seemingly delightful (pleasant at first glance) associations with beloved persons, is exceedingly dreadful, like that of unwholesome foods (80).

लौकिक-विग्रहः
(1) आपाते रमणीय: = आपातरमणीय: – delightful/pleasant at first glance.

अलौकिक-विग्रह: –
(2) आपात ङि + रमणीय सुँ 2-1-40 (a) सप्तमी । Note: ‘सप्तमी’ इति योगविभागात्समास:। Since ‘रमणीय’ is not listed in the शौण्डादि-गण: we cannot use 2-1-40 सप्तमी शौण्डैः to form this compound. (The rules from 2-1-41 to 2-1-48 do not apply either.) So we split the rule 2-1-40 सप्तमी शौण्डैः in to two parts – 2-1-40 (a) सप्तमी and 2-1-40 (b) शौण्डैः। The meaning of part (a) becomes – A पदम् ending in a seventh case affix optionally compounds with a (syntactically related) पदम् ending in a सुँप् affix and the resulting compound gets the designation तत्पुरुष:। We can use this part (a) to justify the formation of the compound ‘आपातरमणीय’।

(3) By 1-2-43 प्रथमानिर्दिष्टं समास उपसर्जनम् – the term ‘आपात ङि’ gets the designation उपसर्जनम् because in the सूत्रम् 2-1-40 (a) (which prescribes the compounding) the term सप्तमी ends in the nominative case. Hence ‘आपात ङि’ is placed in the prior position in the compound as per the सूत्रम् 2-2-30 उपसर्जनं पूर्वम्‌ – In a compound a term which has the designation ‘उपसर्जन’ should be placed in the prior position.

Note: ‘आपात ङि + रमणीय सुँ’ gets the designation प्रातिपदिकम्‌ by 1-2-46 कृत्तद्धितसमासाश्च। This allows 2-4-71 to apply in the next step.

(4) आपात + रमणीय । By 2-4-71 सुपो धातुप्रातिपदिकयोः – A सुँप् affix takes a लुक् elision when it is a part of a धातुः or a प्रातिपदिकम्।

= आपातरमणीय ।

Note: In the present example the compound ‘आपातरमणीय’ (which is an adjective) is qualifying the masculine noun ‘संयोग’ and hence takes the masculine gender.

The विवक्षा is षष्ठी-बहुवचनम्।

(5) आपातरमणीय + आम् । By 4-1-2 स्वौजसमौट्छष्टाभ्याम्भिस्ङेभ्याम्भ्यस्ङसिँभ्याम्भ्यस्ङसोसाम्ङ्योस्सुप्
Note: 1-3-4 न विभक्तौ तुस्माः prevents the ending letter ‘म्’ of the affix ‘आम्’ from getting इत्-सञ्ज्ञा।

(6) आपातरमणीय + नुँट् आम् । By 7-1-54 ह्रस्वनद्यापो नुट् – The affix ‘आम्’ takes the augment ‘नुँट्’ when it follows a प्रातिपदिकम् which either ends in a short vowel or has the नदी-सञ्ज्ञा or ends in the feminine affix ‘आप्’।
As per 1-1-46 आद्यन्तौ टकितौ the augment ‘नुँट्’ joins at the beginning of the affix ‘आम्’।

(7) आपातरमणीय + नाम् । अनुबन्ध-लोपः by 1-3-2 उपदेशेऽजनुनासिक इत्, 1-3-3 हलन्त्यम् and 1-3-9 तस्य लोपः

(8) आपातरमणीयानाम् । By 6-4-3 नामि – The ending vowel of an अङ्गम् gets elongated if followed by the term ‘नाम्’।

Questions:

1. In verses 6-10 of Chapter One of the गीता can you spot a compound which may be justified by the statement – ‘सप्तमी’ इति योगविभागात्समास:?

2. Can you spot the affix ‘क’ in the verse?

3. Which कृत् affix is used to form the masculine प्रातिपदिकम् ‘आगम’ (used in the form आगमम् (द्वितीया-एकवचनम्) in the verse)?

4. Which सूत्रम् prescribes the कृत् affix ‘अनीयर्’ used to form the प्रातिपदिकम् ‘रमणीय’ (which is part of the compound ‘आपातरमणीय’)?

5. Where has the सूत्रम् 2-3-19 सहयुक्तेऽप्रधाने been used in the verse?

6. How would you say this in Sanskrit?
“The result of the seemingly delightful associations with the sense objects, is exceedingly dreadful.” Form a compound for ‘seemingly delightful’ (= ‘delightful at first glance.’) Use words from the verse for ‘result’ and ‘exceedingly dreadful.’ Use the masculine प्रातिपदिकम् ‘संयोग’ for ‘association’ and the masculine प्रातिपदिकम् ‘विषय’ for ‘sense object.’

Easy questions:

1. Which सूत्रम् prescribes the affix ‘णिच्’ in the form संसूचयति?

2. Where has the सूत्रम् 6-1-110 ङसिङसोश्च been used in the verse?

पराधीनम् mAs/nAs

Today we will look at the form पराधीनम् mAs/nAs from श्रीमद्भागवतम् 11.11.19.

गां दुग्धदोहामसतीं च भार्यां देहं पराधीनमसत्प्रजां च । वित्तं त्वतीर्थीकृतमङ्ग वाचं हीनां मया रक्षति दुःखदुःखी ।। ११-११-१९ ।।
यस्यां न मे पावनमङ्ग कर्म स्थित्युद्भवप्राणनिरोधमस्य । लीलावतारेप्सितजन्म वा स्याद्वन्ध्यां गिरं तां बिभृयान्न धीरः ।। ११-११-२० ।।

श्रीधर-स्वामि-टीका
एतदेवान्यार्थनिदर्शनैः प्रपञ्चयति – गामिति । दुह्यत इति दोहः पयः । दुग्धो दोहो नोत्तरत्र दोह्योऽस्ति यस्यास्तामर्थशून्याम् । असतीं भार्यां कामशून्याम् । देहं पराधीनं प्रतिक्षणं दुःखहेतुम् । असत्प्रजां दृष्टादृष्टसाधनशून्यं पुत्रम् । अतीर्थीकृतमागते पात्रेऽदत्तं वित्तं दुष्कीर्तिदुरितापादकम् । अङ्ग हे उद्धव, दुःखानन्तरं दुःखमेव यस्य स रक्षति ।। १९ ।। मया हीनां वाचमित्युक्तं विवृणोति । यस्यां वाचि मे जगतः शोधकं चरित्रं न स्यात् । किं तत् । अस्य विश्वस्य स्थित्यादिरूपम्, तद्धेतुरित्यर्थः । लीलावतारेष्वीप्सितं जगतः प्रेमास्पदं श्रीरामकृष्णादिजन्म वा न स्यात्तां निष्फलां गिरं धीरो धीमान्न धारयेत् ।। २० ।।

Translation – The man who maintains a cow that has been milked for good (offers no more prospect of yielding milk), a false wife, a body depending (for its support) on another and an unworthy son, nay, who guards wealth which is not bestowed on worthy recipients and cultivates, O dear Uddhava, speech which does not glorify Me reaps misery after misery (19). A wise man ought not to cultivate such barren speech as does not glorify, O dear Uddhava, My purifying activity responsible for the appearance, continuance and extinction of this universe and does not describe My advent (in the form of Śrī Rāma, Śrī Kṛṣṇa and so on), which is so dear to the world, among My (numerous) descents taken for the sake of sport (20).

(1) परस्मिन्नधि = पराधीन: – depending on other.
Note: The सूत्रम् 1-4-97 अधिरीश्वरे assigns the designation कर्मप्रवचनीय: to ‘अधि’ here. In connection with ‘अधि’ (which has the designation कर्मप्रवचनीय: here as per the सूत्रम् 1-4-97 अधिरीश्वरे), ‘पर’ takes a seventh case affix as per the सूत्रम् 2-3-9 यस्मादधिकं यस्य चेश्वरवचनं तत्र सप्तमी

अलौकिक-विग्रह: –
(2) पर ङि + अधि । By 2-1-40 सप्तमी शौण्डैः – A पदम् ending in a seventh case affix optionally compounds with a (syntactically related) पदम् composed by adding a सुँप् affix to ‘शौण्ड’ etc and the resulting compound gets the designation तत्पुरुष:।
Note: Since ‘अधि’ is a अव्ययम् the default सुँप् affix ‘सुँ’ following ‘अधि’ takes the लुक् elision as per the सूत्रम् 2-4-82 अव्ययादाप्सुपः
Note: The शौण्डादि-गण: is listed in the गणपाठ: as follows – शौण्ड। धूर्त। कितव। व्याड। प्रवीण। संवीत। अन्तर्। अधि। पटु। पण्डित। कुशल। चपल। निपुण।

(3) By 1-2-43 प्रथमानिर्दिष्टं समास उपसर्जनम् – the term ‘पर ङि’ gets the designation उपसर्जनम् because in the सूत्रम् 2-1-40 (which prescribes the compounding) the term सप्तमी ends in the nominative case. Hence ‘पर ङि’ is placed in the prior position in the compound as per the सूत्रम् 2-2-30 उपसर्जनं पूर्वम्‌ – In a compound a term which has the designation ‘उपसर्जन’ should be placed in the prior position.

Note: ‘पर ङि + अधि’ gets the designation प्रातिपदिकम्‌ by 1-2-46 कृत्तद्धितसमासाश्च। This allows 2-4-71 to apply in the next step.

(4) पर + अधि । By 2-4-71 सुपो धातुप्रातिपदिकयोः – A सुँप् affix takes a लुक् elision when it is a part of a धातुः or a प्रातिपदिकम्।

(5) पराधि । By 6-1-101 अकः सवर्णे दीर्घः

(6) पराधि + ख । By 5-4-7 अषडक्षाशितंग्वलंकर्मालंपुरुषाध्युत्तरपदात्ख: – The following प्रातिपदिकानि invariably take the तद्धित: affix ‘ख’ with no change in meaning – i) ‘अषडक्ष’ ii) ‘आशितङ्गु’ iii) ‘अलंकर्मन्’ vi) ‘अलंपुरुष’ and v) a compound having ‘अधि’ as its latter member.

(7) पराधि + ईन । By 7-1-2 आयनेयीनीयियः फढखछघां प्रत्ययादीना – the letters ‘फ्’, ‘ढ्’, ‘ख्’, ‘छ्’ and ‘घ्’ – when they occur at the beginning of a प्रत्यय: (affix) – are replaced respectively by ‘आयन्’, ‘एय्’, ‘ईन्’, ‘ईय्’ and ‘इय्’।
Note: As per the सूत्रम् 1-3-10 यथासंख्यमनुदेशः समानाम्, the substitutions take place respectively.

See question 1.

Note: The अङ्गम् ‘पराधि’ has the designation ‘भ’ here by 1-4-18 यचि भम्। This allows 6-4-148 to apply in the next step.

(8) पराध् + ईन । By 6-4-148 यस्येति च – When the letter ‘ई’ or a ‘तद्धित’ affix follows, the (ending) इ-वर्ण: (letter ‘इ’ or ‘ई’) or the (ending) अवर्ण: (letter ‘अ’ or ‘आ’) of a अङ्गम् with the भ-सञ्ज्ञा takes elision (लोपः)।

= पराधीन ।

Note: In the present example the compound ‘पराधीन’ (which is an adjective) is qualifying the masculine/neuter noun ‘देह’ and hence takes the masculine/neuter gender.

The विवक्षा is द्वितीया-एकवचनम् ।

(9) पराधीन + अम् । By 4-1-2 स्वौजसमौट्छष्टाभ्याम्भिस्ङेभ्याम्भ्यस्ङसिभ्याम्भ्यस्ङसोसाम्ङ्योस्सुप्‌।

(10) पराधीन + अम् । By 7-1-24 अतोऽम् – The affixes ‘सुँ’ and ‘अम्’ that follow a neuter अङ्गम् ending in the short vowel ‘अ’ take ‘अम्’ as their replacement. Note: In the neuter gender, 7-1-24 is required here to prevent 7-1-23 स्वमोर्नपुंसकात्‌ from applying.
1-3-4 न विभक्तौ तुस्माः prevents the ending letter ‘म्’ of the affix ‘अम्’ from getting इत्-सञ्ज्ञा।

(11) पराधीनम् । By 6-1-107 अमि पूर्वः – In place of a preceding अक् letter and the following vowel (अच्) belonging to the affix ‘अम्’ there is a single substitute of that preceding अक् letter.

Questions:

1. Why doesn’t the ending letter ‘न्’ of the substitute ‘ईन्’ (used in step 7) get the designation इत् (as per the सूत्रम् 1-3-3 हलन्त्यम्)? In answer to this the तत्त्वबोधिनी says आयनीनोर्नकारस्य नेत्त्वम्, फिनो नित्करणसामर्थ्यात्। Please explain. Note: ‘फिन्’ is a तद्धित: affix prescribed by the सूत्रम् 4-1-160 प्राचामवृद्धात्‌ फिन् बहुलम्‌।

2. Where has the सूत्रम् 8-2-45 ओदितश्च been used in the verses?

3. From which verbal root is the participle ‘ईप्सित’ (used in the compound ‘लीलावतारेप्सितजन्म’ in the verses) derived?

4. What is the विग्रह-वाक्यम् (explanatory sentence) of the अव्ययीभाव: compound प्रतिक्षणम् used in the commentary?

5. Which सूत्रम् prescribes the affix ‘ण्वुल्’ used in the form शोधकम् (प्रातिपदिकम् ‘शोधक’, नपुंसकलिङ्गे प्रथमा-एकवचनम्) in the commentary?

6. How would you say this in Sanskrit?
“In childhood I was not independent but now I am.” Paraphrase to “In childhood I was dependent on another but now I am self-dependent.” Use the neuter noun ‘शैशव’ for ‘childhood.’ Form a compound for ‘dependent on another’ and ‘self-dependent (dependent on oneself.)’

Easy questions:

1. Which सूत्रम् prescribes the substitution ‘इ’ in the form बिभृयात्?

2. Can you spot the affix ‘श्नु’ in the commentary?

दैवाधीनः mNs

Today we will look at the form दैवाधीनः mNs from श्रीमद्भागवतम् 3.3.23.

तस्यैवं रममाणस्य संवत्सरगणान्बहून् । गृहमेधेषु योगेषु विरागः समजायत ।। ३-३-२२ ।।
दैवाधीनेषु कामेषु दैवाधीनः स्वयं पुमान् । को विस्रम्भेत योगेन योगेश्वरमनुव्रतः ।। ३-३-२३ ।।

श्रीधर-स्वामि-टीका
गृहमेधेषु गृहधर्मेषु । योगेषु कामभोगोपायेषु । विराग औदासीन्यं जातमित्यर्थः ।। २२ ।। यदा स्वाधीनेष्वपि भगवतो विरागस्तदा दैवाधीनेषु को विस्रम्भेत विश्वासं प्रीतिं वा कुर्यात् । योगेन चेद्योगेश्वरं श्रीकृष्णमनुव्रतः ।। २३ ।।

Translation – As He thus enjoyed life for many years He felt an aversion for the performance of religious duties binding on a householder and conducive to the pleasures of sense (22). What man, then, who is himself in the power of Providence and who seeks to please Śrī Kṛṣṇa (the Master of Yogas) through the practice of Devotion, would set his heart on the pleasures of sense, which are in the power of Providence? (23)

(1) दैवेऽधि = दैवाधीन: – reliant on (in the power of) Providence.
Note: The सूत्रम् 1-4-97 अधिरीश्वरे assigns the designation कर्मप्रवचनीय: to ‘अधि’ here. In connection with ‘अधि’ (which has the designation कर्मप्रवचनीय: here as per the सूत्रम् 1-4-97 अधिरीश्वरे), ‘दैव’ takes a seventh case affix as per the सूत्रम् 2-3-9 यस्मादधिकं यस्य चेश्वरवचनं तत्र सप्तमी

अलौकिक-विग्रह: –
(2) दैव ङि + अधि । By 2-1-40 सप्तमी शौण्डैः – A पदम् ending in a seventh case affix optionally compounds with a (syntactically related) पदम् composed by adding a सुँप् affix to ‘शौण्ड’ etc and the resulting compound gets the designation तत्पुरुष:।
Note: Since ‘अधि’ is a अव्ययम् the default सुँप् affix ‘सुँ’ following ‘अधि’ takes the लुक् elision as per the सूत्रम् 2-4-82 अव्ययादाप्सुपः
Note: The शौण्डादि-गण: is listed in the गणपाठ: as follows – शौण्ड। धूर्त। कितव। व्याड। प्रवीण। संवीत। अन्तर्। अधि। पटु। पण्डित। कुशल। चपल। निपुण।

(3) By 1-2-43 प्रथमानिर्दिष्टं समास उपसर्जनम् – the term ‘दैव ङि’ gets the designation उपसर्जनम् because in the सूत्रम् 2-1-40 (which prescribes the compounding) the term सप्तमी ends in the nominative case. Hence ‘दैव ङि’ is placed in the prior position in the compound as per the सूत्रम् 2-2-30 उपसर्जनं पूर्वम्‌ – In a compound a term which has the designation ‘उपसर्जन’ should be placed in the prior position.

Note: ‘दैव ङि + अधि’ gets the designation प्रातिपदिकम्‌ by 1-2-46 कृत्तद्धितसमासाश्च। This allows 2-4-71 to apply in the next step.

(4) दैव + अधि । By 2-4-71 सुपो धातुप्रातिपदिकयोः – A सुँप् affix takes a लुक् elision when it is a part of a धातुः or a प्रातिपदिकम्।

(5) दैवाधि । By 6-1-101 अकः सवर्णे दीर्घः

(6) दैवाधि + ख । By 5-4-7 अषडक्षाशितंग्वलंकर्मालंपुरुषाध्युत्तरपदात्ख: – The following प्रातिपदिकानि invariably take the तद्धित: affix ‘ख’ with no change in meaning – i) ‘अषडक्ष’ ii) ‘आशितङ्‍गु’ iii) ‘अलंकर्मन्’ vi) ‘अलंपुरुष’ and v) a compound having ‘अधि’ as its latter member.

(7) दैवाधि + ईन । By 7-1-2 आयनेयीनीयियः फढखछघां प्रत्ययादीनाम् – the letters ‘फ्’, ‘ढ्’, ‘ख्’, ‘छ्’ and ‘घ्’ – when they occur at the beginning of a प्रत्यय: (affix) – are replaced respectively by ‘आयन्’, ‘एय्’, ‘ईन्’, ‘ईय्’ and ‘इय्’।
Note: As per the सूत्रम् 1-3-10 यथासंख्यमनुदेशः समानाम्, the substitutions take place respectively.

Note: The अङ्गम् ‘ दैवाधि’ has the designation ‘भ’ here by 1-4-18 यचि भम्। This allows 6-4-148 to apply in the next step.

(8) दैवाध् + ईन । By 6-4-148 यस्येति च – When the letter ‘ई’ or a ‘तद्धित’ affix follows, the (ending) इ-वर्ण: (letter ‘इ’ or ‘ई’) or the (ending) अवर्ण: (letter ‘अ’ or ‘आ’) of a अङ्गम् with the भ-सञ्ज्ञा takes elision (लोपः)।

= दैवाधीन ।

Note: In the present example the compound ‘दैवधीन’ (which is an adjective) is qualifying the masculine noun पुमान् and hence takes the masculine gender.

The विवक्षा is प्रथमा-एकवचनम् ।

(9) दैवाधीन + सुँ । By 4-1-2 स्वौजसमौट्छष्टाभ्याम्भिस्ङेभ्याम्भ्यस्ङसिँभ्याम्भ्यस्ङसोसाम्ङ्योस्सुप्

(10) दैवाधीन + स् । अनुबन्ध-लोपः by 1-3-2 उपदेशेऽजनुनासिक इत् and 1-3-9 तस्य लोपः।

(11) दैवाधीन: । रुँत्व-विसर्गौ by 8-2-66 ससजुषो रुः and 8-3-15 खरवसानयोर्विसर्जनीयः

Questions:

1. Commenting on the सूत्रम् 5-4-7 अषडक्षाशितंग्वलंकर्मालंपुरुषाध्युत्तरपदात्ख: (used in step 6) the सिद्धान्तकौमुदी says – नित्योऽयं ख:। उत्तरसूत्रे विभाषाग्रहणात्। Please explain.

2. Commenting on the सूत्रम् 7-1-2 आयनेयीनीयियः फढखछघां प्रत्ययादीनाम् (used in step 7) the तत्त्वबोधिनी says – प्रत्ययेति किम्? धातोरादीनां मा भूत्। फक्कति। ढौकते। खनति। छादयति। घूर्णते। Please explain.

3. Can you spot the augment मुँक् in the verses?

4. Where has the सूत्रम् 2-3-5 कालाध्वनोरत्यन्तसंयोगे been used in the verses?

5. Which सूत्रम् prescribes the substitution ‘आ’ in the form जातम् (प्रातिपदिकम् ‘जात’, नपुंसकलिङ्गे प्रथमा-एकवचनम्) used in the commentary? Hint: We have seen this सूत्रम् in a prior comment.

6. How would you say this in Sanskrit?
“Even the gods are in the power of Providence.”

Easy questions:

1. Which सूत्रम् prescribes the substitution ‘जा’ in the form समजायत?

2. Where has the सूत्रम् 6-4-109 ये च been used in the commentary?

विवेकनिपुणाः mNp

Today we will look at the form विवेकनिपुणाः mNp from श्रीमद्भागवतम् 11.24.2.

आसीज्ज्ञानमथो अर्थ एकमेवाविकल्पितम् । यदा विवेकनिपुणा आदौ कृतयुगेऽयुगे ।। ११-२४-२ ।।
तन्मायाफलरूपेण केवलं निर्विकल्पितम् । वाङ्मनोऽगोचरं सत्यं द्विधा समभवद्‍बृहत् ।। ११-२४-३ ।।

श्रीधर-स्वामि-टीका
अथोशब्दः कार्त्स्न्ये । ज्ञानं द्रष्टा तेन दृश्यः कृत्स्नोऽप्यर्थश्चाविकल्पितम् । विकल्पशून्यमेकमेव । ब्रह्मण्येव लीनमासीदित्यर्थः । कदेत्यपेक्षायामाह – अयुगे युगेभ्यः पूर्वम्, प्रलय इत्यर्थः । तथा आदौ यत्कृतयुगं तस्मिंश्चान्यदापि यदा विवेकनिपुणा जना भवन्ति तदापि तेषां भेदास्फूर्तेः ।। २ ।। तद्‍बृहद्ब्रह्म वाङ्मनोऽगोचरं यथा भवति तथा माया दृश्यं फलं तत्प्रकाशस्तद्रूपेण मायाविलासरूपेण वा द्विधाभूत् ।। ३ ।।

Translation – During the period of final dissolution (before the Yugas began to run their course), in the very first Satya Yuga (at the beginning of creation) and whenever there are men shrewd of judgement, (in their eyes too) the subjective consciousness (in the shape of the seer) as well as the entire objective existence was one absolutely undifferentiated substance (Brahma) indeed (2). That absolute undifferentiated reality, Brahma (the Infinite), which is beyond the ken of speech and the mind, became dual (as it were) in the shape of Māyā (objective existence) and that which is reflected in it (viz., the Jīva or the seer) (3).

(1) विवेके निपुणः = विवेकनिपुणः – shrewd of (in) judgment.

अलौकिक-विग्रह: –
(2) विवेक ङि + निपुण सुँ । By 2-1-40 सप्तमी शौण्डैः – A पदम् ending in a seventh case affix optionally compounds with a (syntactically related) पदम् composed by adding a सुँप् affix to ‘शौण्ड’ etc and the resulting compound gets the designation तत्पुरुष:।
Note: The शौण्डादि-गण: is listed in the गणपाठ: as follows – शौण्ड। धूर्त। कितव। व्याड। प्रवीण। संवीत। अन्तर्। अधि। पटु। पण्डित। कुशल। चपल। निपुण।

See question 1.

(3) By 1-2-43 प्रथमानिर्दिष्टं समास उपसर्जनम् – the term ‘विवेक ङि’ gets the designation उपसर्जनम् because in the सूत्रम् 2-1-40 (which prescribes the compounding) the term सप्तमी ends in the nominative case. Hence ‘विवेक ङि’ is placed in the prior position in the compound as per the सूत्रम् 2-2-30 उपसर्जनं पूर्वम्‌ – In a compound a term which has the designation ‘उपसर्जन’ should be placed in the prior position.

Note: ‘विवेक ङि + निपुण सुँ’ gets the designation प्रातिपदिकम्‌ by 1-2-46 कृत्तद्धितसमासाश्च। This allows 2-4-71 to apply in the next step.

(4) विवेक + निपुण । By 2-4-71 सुपो धातुप्रातिपदिकयोः – A सुँप् affix takes a लुक् elision when it is a part of a धातुः or a प्रातिपदिकम्।

= विवेकनिपुण ।

Note: As per the सूत्रम् 2-4-26 परवल्लिङ्गं द्वन्द्वतत्पुरुषयोः, the compound प्रातिपदिकम् ‘विवेकनिपुण’ is masculine since the latter member ‘निपुण’ of the compound is used in the masculine here. (As shown in the commentary, the compound ‘विवेकनिपुण’ is qualifying the masculine noun ‘जन’।) The compound declines like राम-शब्द:।

The विवक्षा is प्रथमा-बहुवचनम्।

(5) विवेकनिपुण + जस् । By 4-1-2 स्वौजसमौट्छष्टाभ्याम्भिस्ङेभ्याम्भ्यस्ङसिँभ्याम्भ्यस्ङसोसाम्ङ्योस्सुप्

(6) विवेकनिपुण + अस् । अनुबन्ध-लोपः by 1-3-7 चुटू and 1-3-9 तस्य लोपः। 1-3-4 न विभक्तौ तुस्माः prevents the ending letter ‘स्’ of ‘जस्’ from getting इत्-सञ्ज्ञा।

(7) विवेकनिपुणास् । 6-1-102 प्रथमयो: पूर्वसवर्ण: – When an अक् letter is followed by a vowel (अच्) of the first (nominative) or second (accusative) case then for the two of them (अक् + अच्) there is a single substitute which is the elongated form of the first member (the अक् letter.)

(8) विवेकनिपुणाः । रुँत्व-विसर्गौ by 8-2-66 ससजुषो रुः and 8-3-15 खरवसानयोर्विसर्जनीयः

Questions:

1. The वृत्ति: of the सूत्रम् 2-1-40 सप्तमी शौण्डैः (used in step 2) says – सप्तम्यन्तं शौण्डादिभि: सुबन्तै: सह वा समस्यते स तत्पुरुष:। Commenting on this the तत्त्वबोधिनी says – बहुवचननिर्देशाद्गणपाठसामर्थ्याच्च आद्यर्थावगति:। Please explain.

2. Which सूत्रम् prescribes the substitution ‘क्’ in the formation of the masculine प्रातिपदिकम् ‘विवेक’ (used as part of the compound ‘विवेकनिपुण’)?

3. Can you spot the affix ‘ल्युट्’ in the verses?

4. Where has the सूत्रम् 8-2-44 ल्वादिभ्यः been used in the commentary?

5. How would you say this in Sanskrit?
“In India even today there are many people who are proficient in grammar.” Use the adjective प्रातिपदिकम् ‘पण्डित’ for ‘proficient.’ Form a compound for ‘proficient in grammar.’

6. How would you say this in Sanskrit?
“My brother is a skilled musician.” Paraphrase to “My brother is skilled in music.” Use the adjective प्रातिपदिकम् ‘प्रवीण’ for ‘skilled’ and the neuter noun ‘संगीत’ for ‘music.’ Form a compound for ‘skilled in music.’

Easy questions:

1. Why doesn’t the सूत्रम् 6-1-109 एङः पदान्तादति apply between अथो + अर्थ:?

2. In the commentary can you spot a word in which the affix ‘सिँच्’ has taken the लुक् elision?

अध्वरधुराम् fAs

Today we will look at the form अध्वरधुराम् fAs from शिशुपालवधम् verse 2-103.

संभाव्य त्वामतिभरक्षमस्कन्धं स बान्धवः । सहायमध्वरधुरां धर्मराजो विवक्षते ।। २-१०३ ।।
महात्मानोऽनुगृह्णन्ति भजमानान् रिपूनपि । सपत्नीः प्रापयन्त्यब्धिं सिन्धवो नगनिम्नगाः ।। २-१०४ ।।

टीका
संभाव्येति ।। बन्धुरेव बान्धवः धर्मराजः अतिभरस्य क्षमः स्कन्धो यस्य स तम् । समानस्कन्धमित्यर्थः । त्वां सहायं संभाव्याभिसंधाय । अध्वरस्य धुरमध्वरधुराम् । ‘5-4-74 ऋक्पूर-‘ इत्यादिना समासान्तोऽप्रत्ययः । समासान्तानां प्रकृतिलिङ्गत्वात्तत्पुरुषे परवल्लिङ्गत्वे टाप् । विवक्षते वोढुमिच्छति । वहतेः स्वरितेतः सन्नन्ताल्लट् । तथा हि – विरोधे विश्वासघातो, बन्धुद्रोहश्च स्यातामिति भावः । विशेषणसाम्यात् प्रस्तुतयागधर्मप्रतीतेः समासोक्तिः ।। १०३ ।। ननु प्रतिश्रुत्याकरणे दोष:, प्रागेव परिहारे तु को दोष इत्यत आह – महात्मान इति ।। महात्मानो निग्रहानुग्रहसमर्था भजमानान् शरणागतान् रिपूनप्यनुगृह्णन्ति । किमुत बन्धूनिति भावः । अर्थान्तरं न्यस्यति – सिन्धवो महानद्यः समान एकः पतिर्यासां ताः सपत्नीः । ‘4-1-35 नित्यं सपत्न्यादिषु’ इति ङीप् नकारश्च । नगनिम्नगा गिरिनिर्झरिणीरब्धिं प्रापयन्ति । स्वसौभाग्यं ताभ्यः प्रयच्छन्तीति भावः । अतः परिहारेऽप्यनर्थ इति भावः ।। १०४ ।।

Translation – That kinsman Yudhiṣṭhira (the king of dharma) desires to bear the responsibility of (conducting) the sacrificial ceremony counting on you – whose shoulders are capable of (carrying) a heavy burden – as an ally. Great souls shower their grace on even enemies who are seeking their refuge even as the great rivers help the mountain-torrents – which are (like) their (competing) co-wives – to reach the ocean (which is their common master/husband.)

लौकिक-विग्रह: –
(1) अध्वरस्य धूः = अध्वरधुरा – burden/responsibility of (conducting) the sacrificial ceremony.
Note: The sixth case affix in अध्वरस्य is as per the सूत्रम् 2-3-50 षष्ठी शेषे।

अलौकिक-विग्रह: –
(2) अध्वर ङस् + धुर् सुँ । By 2-2-8 षष्ठी – A पदम् ending in a sixth case affix optionally compounds with a (syntactically related) पदम् ending in a सुँप् affix and the resulting compound gets the designation तत्पुरुष:।

(3) By 1-2-43 प्रथमानिर्दिष्टं समास उपसर्जनम् – the term ‘अध्वर ङस्’ gets the designation उपसर्जनम् because in the सूत्रम् 2-2-8 (which prescribes the compounding) the term षष्ठी ends in the nominative case. Hence ‘अध्वर ङस्’ is placed in the prior position in the compound as per the सूत्रम् 2-2-30 उपसर्जनं पूर्वम्‌ – In a compound a term which has the designation ‘उपसर्जन’ should be placed in the prior position.

Note: ‘अध्वर ङस् + धुर् सुँ’ gets the designation प्रातिपदिकम्‌ by 1-2-46 कृत्तद्धितसमासाश्च। This allows 2-4-71 to apply in the next step.

(4) अध्वर + धुर् । By 2-4-71 सुपो धातुप्रातिपदिकयोः – A सुँप् affix takes a लुक् elision when it is a part of a धातुः or a प्रातिपदिकम्।

(5) अध्वरधुर् + अ । By 5-4-74 ऋक्पूरब्धू:पथामानक्षे – Following a compound ending in either ‘ऋच्’ or ‘पुर्’ or ‘अप्’ or ‘धुर्’ (when it is not related to अक्ष: ‘axle’) or ‘पथिन्’ the तद्धित: affix ‘अ’ is prescribed and this affix becomes the ending member of the compound.
Note: ‘अ अनक्षे’ इतिच्‍छेदः – The term आनक्षे contained in the सूत्रम् 5-4-74 ऋक्पूरब्धू:पथामानक्षे should be split as अ + अनक्षे। The first case affix at the end of ‘अ’ has been irregularly elided.

= अध्वरधुर ।

Note: Since ‘धुर्’ is feminine in gender, as per the सूत्रम् 2-4-26 परवल्लिङ्गं द्वन्द्वतत्पुरुषयोः, the तत्पुरुषः compound प्रातिपदिकम् ‘अध्वरधुर’ is also feminine in gender and hence we have to add the appropriate feminine affix (स्त्रीप्रत्यय:) ‘टाप्’।
Note: The addition of a समासान्त-प्रत्यय: (an affix at the end of a compound) does not affect the gender of the compound. Hence in the present example, the addition of the affix ‘अ’ at the end of the compound does not block the application of 2-4-26 परवल्लिङ्गं द्वन्द्वतत्पुरुषयोः। This is what is explained in the commentary as – समासान्तानां प्रकृतिलिङ्गत्वात्तत्पुरुषे परवल्लिङ्गत्वे टाप्।

(6) अध्वरधुर + टाप् । By 4-1-4 अजाद्यतष्टाप्‌ – The प्रातिपदिकानि ‘अज’ etc. and प्रातिपदिकानि ending in the letter ‘अ’ get the टाप् affix in the feminine gender.

(7) अध्वरधुर + आ । अनुबन्ध-लोपः by 1-3-3 हलन्त्यम्, 1-3-7 चुटू, 1-3-9 तस्य लोपः

(8) अध्वरधुरा । By 6-1-101 अकः सवर्णे दीर्घः

The विवक्षा is द्वितीया-एकवचनम्।

(9) अध्वरधुरा + अम् । By 4-1-2 स्वौजसमौट्छष्टाभ्याम्भिस्ङेभ्याम्भ्यस्ङसिभ्याम्भ्यस्ङसोसाम्ङ्योस्सुप्‌।

(10) अध्वरधुराम् । By 6-1-107 अमि पूर्वः – In place of a preceding अक् letter and the following vowel (अच्) belonging to the affix ‘अम्’ there is a single substitute of that preceding अक् letter.

Questions:

1. Commenting on the सूत्रम् 5-4-74 ऋक्पूरब्धू:पथामानक्षे (used in step 5) the तत्त्वबोधिनी says – ‘अनक्षे’ इत्येतत्सामान्यतः श्रुतमपि धुरैव संबध्यते सामर्थ्यात्, नान्यै:। Please explain.

2. Commenting on the same सूत्रम् the काशिका says – अनक्ष इति किम्? अक्षस्य धूः = अक्षधूः। Please explain.

3. Under the सूत्रम् 5-4-74 the सिद्धान्तकौमुदी gives the example विष्णो: पू: = विष्णुपुरम्। Commenting on this example the तत्त्वबोधिनी says – यद्यपि पुरशब्देन समासेऽप्येतत्सिध्यति, तथापि ‘विष्णुपू:’ इत्यनिष्टवारणाय सूत्रे पूर्ग्रहणम्। Please explain.

4. Can you spot the affix ‘टच्’ in the verses?

5. From which verbal root is the form वोढुम् (used in the commentary) derived?

6. How would you say this in Sanskrit?
“King Daśaratha wanted to entrust the responsibility of (governing) the kingdom of Ayodhyā on Śrī Rāma’s shoulder.” Use the verbal root √अस् (असुँ क्षेपणे ४. १०६) preceded by the उपसर्ग: ‘नि’ for ‘to entrust.’ Form a षष्ठी-तत्पुरुष: compound for ‘the kingdom of Ayodhyā’ and use this compound to form the larger षष्ठी-तत्पुरुष: compound ‘the responsibility of the kingdom of Ayodhyā.’

Easy questions:

1. Can you spot the affix ‘सन्’ in the verses?

2. Where has the सूत्रम् 6-1-16 ग्रहिज्यावयिव्यधिवष्टिविचतिवृश्चतिपृच्छतिभृज्जतीनां ङिति च been used in the verses?

आकाशः/आकाशम् mNs/nNs

Today we will look at the form आकाशः mNs from श्रीमद्भागवतम् 11.16.37 and आकाशम् nNs from श्रीमद्भगवद्गीता 13-32.

पृथिवी वायुराकाश आपो ज्योतिरहं महान् । विकारः पुरुषोऽव्यक्तं रजः सत्त्वं तमः परम् ।। ११-१६-३७ ।।
अहमेतत्प्रसङ्ख्यानं ज्ञानं तत्त्वविनिश्चयः । मयेश्वरेण जीवेन गुणेन गुणिना विना । सर्वात्मनापि सर्वेण न भावो विद्यते क्वचित् ।। ११-१६-३८ ।। (श्रीमद्भागवतम्)

श्रीधर-स्वामि-टीका
तदेवं तत्र तत्र निर्धारणे तत्तत्संबन्धेन च विशेषतो विभूतीर्निरूप्येदानीं सामान्यतः सर्वा अपि निरूपयति – पृथ्वीति सार्धद्वयेन । पृथिव्यादिशब्दैस्तन्मात्राणि विवक्षितानि । अहमहंकारः । महान्महत्तत्वम् । एताः सप्त प्रकृतिविकृतयः । विकारः पञ्चमहाभूतानि एकादशेन्द्रियाणि चेत्वेवं षोडशसंख्याकः । पुरुषो जीवः । अव्यक्तं प्रकृतिः । एवं पञ्चविंशतितत्त्वानि । तदुक्तम् – ‘मूलप्रकृतिरविकृतिर्महदाद्याः प्रकृतिविकृतयः सप्त ।। षोडशकश्च विकारो न प्रकृतिर्न विकृतिः पुरुषः ।।’ इति । किंच रजः सत्त्वं तम इति प्रकृतेर्गुणाश्च परं ब्रह्म च । तदेतत्सर्वमहमेव । किंचैतत्प्रसंख्यानमेतेषां परिगणनमेतेषां लक्षणतो ज्ञानं च तत्फलं तत्त्वनिश्चयश्चाहमेव । एतदेव संक्षिप्याह – मयेति । जीवेश्वररूपो द्विविधो यो भावो यश्च गुणिगुणरूपो यश्च क्षेत्रज्ञक्षेत्ररूपः स सर्वोऽपि मया विना मद्व्यतिरेकेण नास्ति, अहमेव सर्वमित्यर्थः ।। ३७-३८ ।।

Gita Press translation – I am (the seven categories which are both of the nature of cause and effect, viz., the subtle elements of) earth, the air, ether, water, fire; the (cosmic) Ego and Mahat-tattva (the principle of cosmic intelligence); (sixteen categories which are) modifications (alone, viz., the five gross elements and the eleven Indriyas), the soul (which is neither a cause nor an effect), the Unmanifest (primordial Matter, which is a cause alone), (the three modes of Prakṛti, viz.,) Rajas, Sattva and Tamas as well as Brahma (the Absolute) (37). (Nay,) I am the numbering of these categories, their (distinguishing) knowledge (by means of their characteristics) and the (resultant) Realization of Truth. Nothing exists anywhere apart from Me, who am God as well as Jīva (the individual soul), the (three) Guṇas (modes of Prakṛti) as well as the categories made up of the (three) Guṇas (viz., the Mahat-tattva and so on), (nay,) who am the Inner Controller of all as well as all (38).

यथा सर्वगतं सौक्ष्म्यादाकाशं नोपलिप्यते । सर्वत्रावस्थितो देहे तथात्मा नोपलिप्यते ।। १३-३२ ।। (श्रीमद्भगवद्गीता)

श्रीधर-स्वामि-टीका
तत्र दृष्टान्तमाह – यथेति । यथा सर्वत्र पङ्कादिष्वपि स्थितमाकाशं सौक्ष्म्यादसङ्गत्वात्पङ्कादिभिर्नोपलिप्यते तथा सर्वत्र उत्तमे मध्यमेऽधमे वा देहेऽवस्थितोप्यात्मा नोपलिप्यते । दैहिकैर्गुणदोषैर्न युज्यत इत्यर्थः ।। ३२ ।।

Gita Press translation – As the all-pervading ether is not contaminated by reason of its subtlety, though permeating the body, the Self is not affected (by the attributes of the body due to Its attribute-less character) (33).

(1) As per the सूत्रम् 2-4-31 अर्धर्चाः पुंसि च – The words ‘अर्धर्च’ etc are masculine as well as neuter in gender.

Note: एवं ध्‍वजतीर्थशरीरमण्‍डपयूपदेहाङ्‍कुशपात्रसूत्रादयः । Similarly, the words ‘ध्‍वज’, ‘तीर्थ’, ‘शरीर’, ‘मण्‍डप’, ‘यूप’, ‘देह’, ‘अङ्‍कुश’, ‘पात्र’, ‘सूत्र’ (as well as ‘आकाश’) etc – which are listed in the अर्धर्चादि-गण: – are masculine as well as neuter in gender.

The form आकाशः as in the verse श्रीमद्भागवतम् ११-१६-३७ is derived in the masculine. The विवक्षा is प्रथमा-एकवचनम्।

(2) आकाश + सुँ । By 4-1-2 स्वौजसमौट्छष्टाभ्याम्भिस्ङेभ्याम्भ्यस्ङसिँभ्याम्भ्यस्ङसोसाम्ङ्योस्सुप्

(3) आकाश + स् । अनुबन्ध-लोपः by 1-3-2 उपदेशेऽजनुनासिक इत् and 1-3-9 तस्य लोपः।

(4) आकाश: । रुँत्व-विसर्गौ by 8-2-66 ससजुषो रुः and 8-3-15 खरवसानयोर्विसर्जनीयः

The form आकाशम् as in the verse श्रीमद्भगवद्गीता १३-३२ is derived in the neuter. The विवक्षा is प्रथमा-एकवचनम्।

(1) आकाश + सुँ । By 4-1-2 स्वौजसमौट्छष्टाभ्याम्भिस्ङेभ्याम्भ्यस्ङसिभ्याम्भ्यस्ङसोसाम्ङ्योस्सुप्‌।

(2) आकाश + अम् । By 7-1-24 अतोऽम् – The affixes ‘सुँ’ and ‘अम्’ that follow a neuter अङ्गम् ending in the short vowel ‘अ’ take ‘अम्’ as their replacement.
1-3-4 न विभक्तौ तुस्माः prevents the ending letter ‘म्’ of the affix ‘अम्’ from getting इत्-सञ्ज्ञा।

(3) आकाशम् । By 6-1-107 अमि पूर्वः – In place of a preceding अक् letter and the following vowel (अच्) belonging to the affix ‘अम्’ there is a single substitute of that preceding अक् letter.

Questions:

1. In the गीता verse 13-32 quoted in the example above can you spot another word (besides ‘आकाश’) which belongs to the अर्धर्चादि-गण:?

2. Commenting on the सूत्रम् 2-4-31 अर्धर्चाः पुंसि च (used in step 1) the तत्त्वबोधिनी says – इह केषांचिदर्थभेदेन व्यवस्थेष्यते। सा च व्यवस्था — मद्यमकरन्दमक्षिकाणां वाची मधुशब्दो द्विलिङ्गः, चैत्रादिवाची तु पुंलिङ्गः; भूतः पिशाचे द्विलिङ्गः, क्रियावचनस्तु विशेष्यलिङ्ग इत्येवं यथायथं ज्ञेयम्। Please explain.

3. Which कृत् affix is used to form the masculine प्रातिपदिकम् ‘वायु’ (used in the form वायु: (प्रथमा-एकवचनम्) in the verses from the भागवतम् quoted in the example above)?

4. Which सूत्रम् justifies the use of a fifth case affix in the form सौक्ष्म्यात् used in the गीता verse 13-32?

5. Where has the सूत्रम् 2-1-24 द्वितीया श्रितातीतपतितगतात्यस्तप्राप्तापन्नैः been used in the गीता verse 13-32?

6. How would you say this in Sanskrit?
“At night the sky is decorated by the stars.” Use the verbal root √भूष् (भूषँ अलङ्कारे १०.२५५) preceded by the उपसर्ग: ‘वि’ for ‘to decorate.’

Easy questions:

1. Can you spot the affix श्यन् in the verses from the भागवतम् quoted in the example above?

2. Which सूत्रम् prescribes the affix यक् used in the form उपलिप्यते in the गीता verse 13-32?

अर्धरात्रे mLs

Today we will look at the form अर्धरात्रे mLs from श्रीमद्-वाल्मीकि-रामायणम् 6.59.107.

इति मातुश्च रामस्य सुमित्रायाश्च संनिधौ । राजा दशरथः शोचञ्जीवितान्तमुपागमत् ।। २-६४-७७ ।।
तथा तु दीनः कथयन्नराधिपः प्रियस्य पुत्रस्य विवासनातुरः । गतेऽर्धरात्रे भृशदुःखपीडितस्तदा जहौ प्राणमुदारदर्शनः ।। २-६४-७८ ।।

Gita Press translation – Lamenting thus in the presence of Śrī Rāma’s mother (Kausalyā) and Sumitrā, King Daśaratha reached the end of his life (77). Speaking as aforesaid, the king of noble aspect, who was already feeling miserable and distressed on the score of his beloved son’s exile, felt sore stricken with agony by the time half the night passed and forthwith gave up the ghost (78).

लौकिक-विग्रह: –
(1) अर्धं रात्रे: = अर्धरात्रः – half of the night.

अलौकिक-विग्रह: –
(2) अर्ध सुँ + रात्रि ङस् । By 2-2-2 अर्धं नपुंसकम्‌ – (A पदम् formed by adding a सुँप् affix to) ‘अर्ध’ when used (exclusively) in the neuter – and hence having the meaning ‘(exactly) half’ – optionally compounds with a (syntactically related) सुबन्तं (ending in a सुँप् affix) पदम् denoting a single substance/thing consisting of parts and the resulting compound gets the designation तत्पुरुष:।
Note: षष्ठीसमासापवाद: – The compounding prescribed by this सूत्रम् is a अपवाद: (exception) to the षष्ठी-समास: prescribed by the सूत्रम् 2-2-8 षष्ठी।

(3) By 1-2-43 प्रथमानिर्दिष्टं समास उपसर्जनम् – the term ‘अर्ध सुँ’ gets the designation उपसर्जनम् because in the सूत्रम् 2-2-2 (which prescribes the compounding) the term अर्धम् ends in the nominative case. Hence ‘अर्ध सुँ’ is placed in the prior position in the compound as per the सूत्रम् 2-2-30 उपसर्जनं पूर्वम्‌ – In a compound a term which has the designation ‘उपसर्जन’ should be placed in the prior position.

Note: ‘अर्ध सुँ + रात्रि ङस्’ gets the designation प्रातिपदिकम्‌ by 1-2-46 कृत्तद्धितसमासाश्च। This allows 2-4-71 to apply in the next step.

(4) अर्ध + रात्रि । By 2-4-71 सुपो धातुप्रातिपदिकयोः – A सुँप् affix takes a लुक् elision when it is a part of a धातुः or a प्रातिपदिकम्।

(5) अर्धरात्रि + अच् । By 5-4-87 अह:सर्वैकदेशसंख्यातपुण्याच्च रात्रेः – The तद्धित: affix अच् is prescribed following a तत्पुरुष: compound ending in the word ‘रात्रि’ – provided ‘रात्रि’ is preceded by one of the following – and this affix becomes the ending member of the compound –
i) ‘अहन्’
ii) ‘सर्व’
iii) a word denoting a part (of the night)
iv) ‘संख्यात’
v) ‘पुण्य’
vi) a संख्या (numeral)
vii) a अव्ययम् (indeclinable)
Note: अहर्ग्रहणं द्वन्द्वार्थम् – The mention of ‘अहन्’ in this सूत्रम् is for the purpose of a द्वन्द्व: (and not a तत्पुरुष:) compound.

(6) अर्धरात्रि + अ । अनुबन्ध-लोपः by 1-3-3 हलन्त्यम्1-3-9 तस्य लोपः।
Note: The अङ्गम् ‘अर्धरात्रि’ has the designation ‘भ’ here by 1-4-18 यचि भम्। This allows 6-4-148 to apply in the next step.

(7) अर्धरात्र् + अ । By 6-4-148 यस्येति च – When the letter ‘ई’ or a ‘तद्धित’ affix follows, the (ending) इ-वर्ण: (letter ‘इ’ or ‘ई’) or the (ending) अवर्ण: (letter ‘अ’ or ‘आ’) of a अङ्गम् with the भ-सञ्ज्ञा takes elision (लोपः)।

= अर्धरात्र ।

Note: Since ‘रात्रि’ is feminine in gender, as per the सूत्रम् 2-4-26 परवल्लिङ्गं द्वन्द्वतत्पुरुषयोः, the compound प्रातिपदिकम् ‘अर्धरात्र’ would also be feminine in gender, but the सूत्रम् 2-4-29 रात्राह्नाहाः पुंसि intervenes.

(8) By 2-4-29 रात्राह्नाहाः पुंसि – The gender of a द्वन्द्व:/तत्पुरुष: compound ending in either ‘रात्र’ or ‘अह्न’ or ‘अह’ is always masculine.
Note: The सिद्धान्तकौमुदी makes the point that this सूत्रम् is a अपवाद: (exception) to not only the सूत्रम् 2-4-26 परवल्लिङ्गं द्वन्द्वतत्पुरुषयोः but also to the सूत्रम् 2-4-17 स नपुंसकम्‌।

अर्धरात्रे is सप्तमी-एकवचनम् of the पुंल्लिङ्ग-प्रातिपदिकम् ‘अर्धरात्र’।

(9) अर्धरात्र + ङि । By 4-1-2 स्वौजसमौट्छष्टाभ्याम्भिस्ङेभ्याम्भ्यस्ङसिभ्याम्भ्यस्ङसोसाम्ङ्योस्सुप्‌

(10) अर्धरात्र + इ । अनुबन्ध-लोपः by 1-3-8 लशक्वतद्धिते and 1-3-9 तस्य लोपः।

(11) अर्धरात्रे । By 6-1-87 आद्‍गुणः

Questions:

1. Commenting on the सूत्रम् 2-2-2 अर्धं नपुंसकम्‌ (used in step 2) the सिद्धान्तकौमुदी says – क्लीबे किम्‌? (ग्रामस्यार्ध: =) ग्रामार्ध:। Please explain.

2. Commenting further on the same सूत्रम् the सिद्धान्तकौमुदी says – द्रव्यैक्य एव। अर्धं पिप्पलीनाम्‌। Please explain.

3. Where has the सूत्रम् 2-3-37 यस्य च भावेन भावलक्षणम्‌ been used in the verses?

4. Which सूत्रम् justifies the तृतीया-तत्पुरुष: compound विवासनातुरः?

5. Can you spot the affix ‘कि’ in the verses?

6. How would you say this in Sanskrit?
“Even after half the night had passed I did not get sleep.”

Easy questions:

1. Where has the सूत्रम् 3-1-55 पुषादिद्‍युताद्‍यॢदितः परस्मैपदेषु been used in the verses?

2. Which सूत्रम् prescribes the substitution ‘औ’ in the form जहौ?

मध्यरात्रे mLs

Today we will look at the form मध्यरात्रे mLs from महाभारतम् 12.325.43.

पादशौचं तु कृत्वैव शुकः संध्यामुपास्य च । निषसादासने पुण्ये तमेवार्थं विचिन्तयन् ।। १२-३२५-४२ ।।
पूर्वरात्रे तु तत्रासौ भूत्वा ध्यानपरायणः । मध्यरात्रे यथान्यायं निद्रामाहारयत्प्रभुः ।। १२-३२५-४३ ।।
ततो मुहूर्तादुत्थाय कृत्वा शौचमनन्तरम् । स्त्रीभिः परिवृतो धीमान् ध्यानमेवान्वपद्यत ।। १२-३२५-४४ ।।
अनेन विधिना कार्ष्णिस्तदहःशेषमच्युतः । तां च रात्रिं नृपकुले वर्तयामास भारत ।। १२-३२५-४५ ।।

Translation – Having washed his feet and said his evening prayers, Śuka sat on the holy seat contemplating that very purpose (liberation.) And there having been absorbed in meditation during the first part of the night, that master (Śuka) appropriately partook of sleep during the middle portion of the night. Having shortly woken up and then washed himself, the wise Śuka (though) surrounded by women restored to meditation alone. It was in this way, O Bharat, that the infallible Śuka (son of Vyāsa) passed the remainder of that day and that night in the royal family.

लौकिक-विग्रह: –
(1) मध्यं रात्रे: = मध्यरात्रः – midnight (middle of the night.)

अलौकिक-विग्रह: –
(2) मध्य सुँ + रात्रि ङस् । By 2-2-1 पूर्वापराधरोत्तरमेकदेशिनैकाधिकरणे (A पदम् formed by adding a सुँप् affix to) either ‘पूर्व’ (front/prior part) or ‘अपर’ (back/latter part) or ‘अधर’ (lower part) or ‘उत्तर’ (upper part) optionally compounds with a (syntactically related) सुबन्तं (ending in a सुँप् affix) पदम् denoting a single substance/thing consisting of parts and the resulting compound gets the designation तत्पुरुष:।
Note: षष्ठीसमासापवाद: – The compounding prescribed by this सूत्रम् is a अपवाद: (exception) to the षष्ठी-समास: prescribed by the सूत्रम् 2-2-8 षष्ठी।

Note: सर्वोऽप्येकदेशोऽह्ना समस्यते – Any word – and not only ‘पूर्व’/’अपर’/’अधर’/’उत्तर’ – which denotes a part may compound with ‘अहन्’ to yield a एकदेशि-समास:। ‘६-३-११० संख्याविसाय-’ इति ज्ञापकात्‌ – We know this from the fact that the सूत्रम् 6-3-110 – which prescribes the optional substitution of ‘अहन्’ in place of ‘अह्न’ when followed by the affix ‘ङि’ and preceded by a numeral or ‘वि’ or ‘साय’ – presupposes the formation of the compound सायोऽह्न: = सायाह्न: – evening (the ending part of the day.) Similarly मध्यमह्न: = मध्याह्न:।

केचित्तु सर्वोऽप्येकदेश: कालेन समस्यते न त्वह्नैव, ज्ञापकस्य सामान्यापेक्षत्वात्‌ – According to some grammarians, any word – and not only ‘पूर्व’/’अपर’/’अधर’/’उत्तर’ – which denotes a part may compound with any word – not only ‘अहन्’ – which denotes a period of time to yield a एकदेशि-समास:। This is inferred by generalizing the indication given by the सूत्रम् 6-3-110. Hence we may form compounds like मध्यं रात्रे: = मध्यरात्र: – mid-night.

(3) By 1-2-43 प्रथमानिर्दिष्टं समास उपसर्जनम् – the term ‘मध्य सुँ’ gets the designation उपसर्जनम् because in the सूत्रम् 2-2-1 (which prescribes the compounding) the term पूर्वापराधरोत्तरम् (extended to include ‘मध्य’) ends in the nominative case. Hence ‘मध्य सुँ’ is placed in the prior position in the compound as per the सूत्रम् 2-2-30 उपसर्जनं पूर्वम्‌ – In a compound a term which has the designation ‘उपसर्जन’ should be placed in the prior position.

Note: ‘मध्य सुँ + रात्रि ङस्’ gets the designation प्रातिपदिकम्‌ by 1-2-46 कृत्तद्धितसमासाश्च। This allows 2-4-71 to apply in the next step.

(4) मध्य + रात्रि । By 2-4-71 सुपो धातुप्रातिपदिकयोः – A सुँप् affix takes a लुक् elision when it is a part of a धातुः or a प्रातिपदिकम्।

(5) मध्यरात्रि + अच् । By 5-4-87 अह:सर्वैकदेशसंख्यातपुण्याच्च रात्रेः – The तद्धित: affix अच् is prescribed following a तत्पुरुष: compound ending in the word ‘रात्रि’ – provided ‘रात्रि’ is preceded by one of the following – and this affix becomes the ending member of the compound –
i) ‘अहन्’
ii) ‘सर्व’
iii) a word denoting a part (of the night)
iv) ‘संख्यात’
v) ‘पुण्य’
vi) a संख्या (numeral)
vii) a अव्ययम् (indeclinable)
Note: अहर्ग्रहणं द्वन्द्वार्थम् – The mention of ‘अहन्’ in this सूत्रम् is for the purpose of a द्वन्द्व: (and not a तत्पुरुष:) compound.

(6) मध्यरात्रि + अ । अनुबन्ध-लोपः by 1-3-3 हलन्त्यम्1-3-9 तस्य लोपः।
Note: The अङ्गम् ‘मध्यरात्रि’ has the designation ‘भ’ here by 1-4-18 यचि भम्। This allows 6-4-148 to apply in the next step.

(7) मध्यरात्र् + अ । By 6-4-148 यस्येति च – When the letter ‘ई’ or a ‘तद्धित’ affix follows, the (ending) इ-वर्ण: (letter ‘इ’ or ‘ई’) or the (ending) अवर्ण: (letter ‘अ’ or ‘आ’) of a अङ्गम् with the भ-सञ्ज्ञा takes elision (लोपः)।

= मध्यरात्र ।

Note: Since ‘रात्रि’ is feminine in gender, as per the सूत्रम् 2-4-26 परवल्लिङ्गं द्वन्द्वतत्पुरुषयोः, the compound प्रातिपदिकम् ‘मध्यरात्र’ would also be feminine in gender, but the सूत्रम् 2-4-29 रात्राह्नाहाः पुंसि intervenes.

(8) By 2-4-29 रात्राह्नाहाः पुंसि – The gender of a द्वन्द्व:/तत्पुरुष: compound ending in either ‘रात्र’ or ‘अह्न’ or ‘अह’ is always masculine.
Note: The सिद्धान्तकौमुदी makes the point that this सूत्रम् is a अपवाद: (exception) to not only the सूत्रम् 2-4-26 परवल्लिङ्गं द्वन्द्वतत्पुरुषयोः but also to the सूत्रम् 2-4-17 स नपुंसकम्‌।

मध्यरात्रे is सप्तमी-एकवचनम् of the पुंल्लिङ्ग-प्रातिपदिकम् ‘मध्यरात्र’।

(9) मध्यरात्र + ङि । By 4-1-2 स्वौजसमौट्छष्टाभ्याम्भिस्ङेभ्याम्भ्यस्ङसिभ्याम्भ्यस्ङसोसाम्ङ्योस्सुप्‌

(10) मध्यरात्र + इ । अनुबन्ध-लोपः by 1-3-8 लशक्वतद्धिते and 1-3-9 तस्य लोपः।

(11) मध्यरात्रे । By 6-1-87 आद्‍गुणः

Questions:

1. Where else (besides in मध्यरात्रे) has the सूत्रम् 2-2-1 पूर्वापराधरोत्तरमेकदेशिनैकाधिकरणे (used in step 2) been used in the verses?

2. Can you spot a अव्ययीभाव: compound in the verses?

3. Which कृत् affix is used to form the masculine प्रातिपदिकम् ‘विधि’ (used in the form विधिना (तृतीया-एकवचनम्) in the verses)?

4. Where has the सूत्रम् 3-2-126 लक्षणहेत्वोः क्रियायाः been used in the verses?

5. Which सूत्रम् prescribes the substitution ‘ल्यप्’ (in place of the affix ‘क्त्वा’) in the form उपास्य?

6. How would you say this in Sanskrit?
“I heard a strange sound in the middle of the night.” Use the masculine noun ‘ध्वनि’ for ‘sound’ and the adjective ‘विचित्र’ for ‘strange.’

Easy questions:

1. Can you spot the augment अट् in the verses?

2. Where has the सूत्रम् 7-2-112 अनाप्यकः been used in the verses?

मध्याह्ने mLs

Today we will look at the form मध्याह्ने mLs from महाभारतम् 7.161.41.

पूजितस्तव पुत्रैश्च सर्वयोधैश्च भारत । वपुषातिप्रजज्वाल मध्याह्न इव भास्करः ।। ७-१६१-४१ ।।
भीमसेनं तु युध्यन्तं भारद्वाजरथं प्रति । स्वयं दुर्योधनो राजा प्रत्यविध्यच्छितैः शरैः ।। ७-१६१-४२ ।।
तं भीमसेनो दशभिः शरैर्विव्याध मारिष । दुर्योधनोऽपि विंशत्या शराणां प्रत्यविध्यत ।। ७-१६१-४३ ।।

Translation – Worshiped by thy sons as also by all warriors, O Bhārata, he (Aśwatthāmā) shone very brightly with his body like the sun at midday. King Duryodhana himself pierced with whetted shafts Bhīmasena who was battling towards Droṇa’s car. Bhīmasena, O respectable sir, pierced him (Duryodhana) with ten arrows. Duryodhana also pierced Bhīmasena in return with twenty arrows.

लौकिक-विग्रह: –
(1) मध्यमह्नः = मध्याह्नः – midday (middle of the day.)

अलौकिक-विग्रह: –
(2) मध्य सुँ + अहन् ङस् । By 2-2-1 पूर्वापराधरोत्तरमेकदेशिनैकाधिकरणे (A पदम् formed by adding a सुँप् affix to) either ‘पूर्व’ (front/prior part) or ‘अपर’ (back/latter part) or ‘अधर’ (lower part) or ‘उत्तर’ (upper part) optionally compounds with a (syntactically related) सुबन्तं (ending in a सुँप् affix) पदम् denoting a single substance/thing consisting of parts and the resulting compound gets the designation तत्पुरुष:।
Note: षष्ठीसमासापवाद: – The compounding prescribed by this सूत्रम् is a अपवाद: (exception) to the षष्ठी-समास: prescribed by the सूत्रम् 2-2-8 षष्ठी।

Note: सर्वोऽप्येकदेशोऽह्ना समस्यते – Any word – and not only ‘पूर्व’/’अपर’/’अधर’/’उत्तर’ – which denotes a part may compound with ‘अहन्’ to yield a एकदेशि-समास:। ‘६-३-११० संख्याविसाय-’ इति ज्ञापकात्‌ – We know this from the fact that the सूत्रम् 6-3-110 – which prescribes the optional substitution of ‘अहन्’ in place of ‘अह्न’ when followed by the affix ‘ङि’ and preceded by a numeral or ‘वि’ or ‘साय’ – presupposes the formation of the compound सायोऽह्न: = सायाह्न: – evening (the ending part of the day.) Similarly मध्यमह्न: = मध्याह्न:।

(3) By 1-2-43 प्रथमानिर्दिष्टं समास उपसर्जनम् – the term ‘मध्य सुँ’ gets the designation उपसर्जनम् because in the सूत्रम् 2-2-1 (which prescribes the compounding) the term पूर्वापराधरोत्तरम् (extended to include ‘मध्य’) ends in the nominative case. Hence ‘मध्य सुँ’ is placed in the prior position in the compound as per the सूत्रम् 2-2-30 उपसर्जनं पूर्वम्‌ – In a compound a term which has the designation ‘उपसर्जन’ should be placed in the prior position.

Note: ‘मध्य सुँ + अहन् ङस्’ gets the designation प्रातिपदिकम्‌ by 1-2-46 कृत्तद्धितसमासाश्च। This allows 2-4-71 to apply in the next step.

(4) मध्य + अहन् । By 2-4-71 सुपो धातुप्रातिपदिकयोः – A सुँप् affix takes a लुक् elision when it is a part of a धातुः or a प्रातिपदिकम्।

(5) मध्य + अहन् + टच् । By 5-4-91 राजाह:सखिभ्यष्टच्‌ – Following a तत्पुरुष: compound ending in either ‘राजन्’ or ‘अहन्’ or ‘सखि’ the तद्धित: affix टच् is prescribed and this affix becomes the ending member of the compound.

(6) मध्य + अहन् + अ । अनुबन्ध-लोपः by 1-3-7 चुटू, 1-3-3 हलन्त्यम्1-3-9 तस्य लोपः।

(7) मध्य + अह्न + अ । By 5-4-88 अह्नोऽह्न एतेभ्यः – When followed by the affix ‘टच्’ (prescribed by 5-4-91 राजाह:सखिभ्यष्टच्‌), the word ‘अहन्’ is replaced by ‘अह्न’ provided ‘अहन्’ is preceded by any one of the following –
i) ‘सर्व’
ii) a word denoting a part (of the day)
iii) ‘संख्यात’
iv) a संख्या (numeral)
v) a अव्ययम् (indeclinable)
Note: By 1-1-55 अनेकाल्शित्सर्वस्य, the entire term ‘अहन्’ is replaced by ‘अह्न’।
Note: एतच्छब्देन ‘अहःसर्वैकदेश-’ इति सूत्रस्थाः परामृश्यन्ते – The pronoun ‘एतद्’ (used in the सूत्रम् 5-4-88 अह्नोऽह्न एतेभ्यः) refers to the terms listed in the सूत्रम् 5-4-87 अह:सर्वैकदेशसंख्यातपुण्याच्च रात्रेः। But अहःशब्द इह न गृह्यते, असंभवात् – the word ‘अहन्’ is not included because it is not possible to compound ‘अहन्’ with ‘अहन्’ itself. ‘पुण्य’ is also not included because of the prohibition contained in the सूत्रम् 5-4-90 उत्तमैकाभ्यां च।

(8) मध्याह्न + अ । By 6-1-101 अकः सवर्णे दीर्घः

Note: The अङ्गम् ‘ मध्याह्न’ has the designation ‘भ’ here by 1-4-18 यचि भम्। This allows 6-4-148 to apply in the next step.

(9) मध्याह्न् + अ । By 6-4-148 यस्येति च – When the letter ‘ई’ or a ‘तद्धित’ affix follows, the (ending) इ-वर्ण: (letter ‘इ’ or ‘ई’) or the (ending) अवर्ण: (letter ‘अ’ or ‘आ’) of a अङ्गम् with the भ-सञ्ज्ञा takes elision (लोपः)।

= मध्याह्न ।

Note: Since ‘अहन्’ is neuter in gender, as per the सूत्रम् 2-4-26 परवल्लिङ्गं द्वन्द्वतत्पुरुषयोः, the compound प्रातिपदिकम् ‘ मध्याह्न’ would also be neuter in gender, but the सूत्रम् 2-4-29 रात्राह्नाहाः पुंसि intervenes.

(10) By 2-4-29 रात्राह्नाहाः पुंसि – The gender of a द्वन्द्व:/तत्पुरुष: compound ending in either ‘रात्र’ or ‘अह्न’ or ‘अह’ is always masculine.
Note: The सिद्धान्तकौमुदी makes the point that this सूत्रम् is a अपवाद: (exception) to not only the सूत्रम् 2-4-26 परवल्लिङ्गं द्वन्द्वतत्पुरुषयोः but also to the सूत्रम् 2-4-17 स नपुंसकम्‌।

मध्याह्ने is सप्तमी-एकवचनम् of the पुंल्लिङ्ग-प्रातिपदिकम् ‘मध्याह्न’।

(11) मध्याह्न + ङि । By 4-1-2 स्वौजसमौट्छष्टाभ्याम्भिस्ङेभ्याम्भ्यस्ङसिँभ्याम्भ्यस्ङसोसाम्ङ्योस्सुप्

(12) मध्याह्न + इ । अनुबन्ध-लोपः by 1-3-8 लशक्वतद्धिते and 1-3-9 तस्य लोपः।

(13) मध्याह्ने । By 6-1-87 आद्‍गुणः

Questions:

1. Can you spot a षष्ठी-तत्पुरुष-समास: in the verses?

2. Where has the सूत्रम् 1-4-90 लक्षणेत्थम्भूताख्यानभागवीप्सासु प्रतिपर्यनवः been used in the verses?

3. Which कृत् affix is used to derive the form दुर्योधन: (प्रातिपदिकम् ‘दुर्योधन’, पुंलिङ्गे प्रथमा-एकवचनम्)?

4. Which सूत्रम् is used to derive the प्रातिपदिकम् ‘भास्कर’ (used in the form भास्कर: (पुंलिङ्गे प्रथमा-एकवचनम्) in the verses)? Hint: We have seen this सूत्रम् in a prior post.

5. In which word in the verses has the affix णिच् been elided?

6. How would you say this in Sanskrit?
“At midday one should mutter the Gayatrī.”

Easy questions:

1. Which सूत्रम् prescribes the सम्प्रसारणम् in the form प्रत्यविध्यत्? Which one prescribes it in the form विव्याध?

2. Why doesn’t the सूत्रम् 7-3-103 बहुवचने झल्येत्‌ apply in the form दशभिः?

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