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कुरुष्व 2As-लोँट्

Today we will look at the form कुरुष्व 2As-लोँट् from श्रीमद्भागवतम् Sb10-23-29.

पत्न्य ऊचुः
मैवं विभोऽर्हति भवान्गदितुं नृशंसं सत्यं कुरुष्व निगमं तव पादमूलम् ।
प्राप्ता वयं तुलसिदाम पदावसृष्टं केशैर्निवोढुमतिलङ्घ्य समस्तबन्धून् ।। १०-२३-२९ ।।

Gita Press translation – The wives (of the Brāhmaṇas) said: It is not becoming of You, O almighty Lord, to utter such cruel words. (Pray) vindicate the Vedic dictum, “One does not return” (on having attained me). Ignoring all our near and dear ones we have sought the soles of Your feet in order to wear on our locks the wreath of Tulasī leaves kicked off (even indifferently at us) by You.

Note: “(Pray) vindicate” is the translation for “सत्यं कुरुष्व”।

कुरुष्व is derived from the धातुः √कृ (डुकृञ् करणे, तनादि-गणः, धातु-पाठः #८. १०)

The विवक्षा is लोँट्, कर्तरि प्रयोग:, मध्यम-पुरुषः, एकवचनम्।

The “डु” at the beginning of this धातुः gets इत्-सञ्ज्ञा by 1-3-5 आदिर्ञिटुडवः। The ञकारः at the end gets इत्-सञ्ज्ञा by 1-3-3 हलन्त्यम्। Both take लोप: by 1-3-9 तस्य लोपः

Since the √कृ-धातुः has ञकारः as इत् in the धातु-पाठः by 1-3-72 स्वरितञितः कर्त्रभिप्राये क्रियाफले, the √कृ-धातुः will take आत्मनेपद-प्रत्ययाः when the fruit of the action (क्रियाफलम्) accrues to the doer (कर्त्रभिप्रायम् = कर्तृ-अभिप्रायम्)। In the remaining case – when the fruit of the action does not accrue to the doer – by 1-3-78 शेषात् कर्तरि परस्मैपदम् – the √कृ-धातुः will take परस्मैपद-प्रत्ययाः।

In reality though, this distinction of the fruit of the action accruing to the doer or not, is rarely honored in the language. So as a practical matter, a verbal root such as “√कृ” will take either आत्मनेपद-प्रत्ययाः or परस्मैपद-प्रत्ययाः regardless of whether the fruit of the action accrues to the doer or not. In short, √कृ-धातुः will be उभयपदी। In this verse, it has taken a आत्मनेपद-प्रत्यय:।

Since the विवक्षा is लोँट्, कर्तरि प्रयोग:, मध्यम-पुरुष-एकवचनम्, the प्रत्ययः is “थास्”।

(1) कृ + लोँट् । By 3-3-162 लोट् च, the affix लोँट् comes after a धातुः when used in the sense of command/request.

(2) कृ + ल् । अनुबन्ध-लोपः by 1-3-2 उपदेशेऽजनुनासिक इत्, 1-3-3 हलन्त्यम्, 1-3-9 तस्य लोपः

(3) कृ + थास् । 3-4-78 तिप्तस्झिसिप्थस्थमिब्वस्मस् तातांझथासाथांध्वमिड्वहिमहिङ् mandates the प्रत्ययः “थास्” as the substitute for the लकारः। “थास्” gets the सार्वधातुक-सञ्ज्ञा by 3-4-113 तिङ्शित्सार्वधातुकम्

(4) कृ + से । By 3-4-80 थासस्से the थास्-प्रत्ययः which substitutes a टित्-लकारः (a लकार: which has टकार: as a इत्), gets “से” as the replacement. “से” also gets the सार्वधातुक-सञ्ज्ञा by 1-1-56 स्थानिवदादेशोऽनल्विधौ

(5) कृ + स्व । By 3-4-91 सवाभ्यां वामौ, the एकारः of लोँट् which follows a सकारः or वकारः is replaced by “व” and “अम्” respectively.

(6) कृ + उ + स्व । By 3-1-79 तनादिकृञ्भ्य उः, when a सार्वधातुक-प्रत्ययः signifying the agent follows, the affix “उ” is placed after the verbal root √कृ (डुकृञ् करणे ८. १०) and also after a verbal root belonging to the तनादि-गणः। “उ” gets आर्धधातुक-सञ्ज्ञा by 3-4-114 आर्द्धधातुकं शेषः

(7) कर् + उ + स्व । By 7-3-84 सार्वधातुकार्धधातुकयोः, an अङ्गम् whose final letter is an इक् gets गुण-आदेशः, when a सार्वधातुक-प्रत्यय: or an आर्धधातुक-प्रत्यय: follows. By 1-1-51 उरण् रपरः, in the place of ऋवर्ण: if an अण् letter (अ, इ, उ) comes as a substitute, it is always followed by a रँ letter.
Since “स्व” has the सार्वधातुक-सञ्ज्ञा and is अपित् (does not have पकार: as a इत्) it becomes ङिद्वत् (as if it has ङकार: as a इत्) by 1-2-4 सार्वधातुकमपित्। Hence 1-1-5 ग्क्ङिति च prevents the गुणादेश: for the उकार: which would have taken place by 7-3-84 सार्वधातुकार्धधातुकयोः

(8) कुरु + स्व । By 6-4-110 अत उत्‌ सार्वधातुके, when √कृ (डुकृञ् करणे ८. १०) ends in the “उ”-प्रत्यय: and is followed by a सार्वधातुक-प्रत्ययः which is a कित् or a ङित्, then there is a substitution of उकारः in place of the अकारः (which is a result of गुणादेशः) of √कृ।

(9) कुरुष्व । षकारादेशः by 8-3-59 आदेश-प्रत्यययो:


1. Where is कुरुष्व used in the गीता?

2. What would have been the final form in this example if a परस्मैपद-प्रत्यय: had been used?

3. 3-4-91 सवाभ्यां वामौ is an अपवाद: for which सूत्रम्?

4. Which प्रातिपदिकम् used in the verse ends in the डवतुँ-प्रत्यय:?

5. By which सूत्रम् does “गदितुम्” get the अव्यय-सञ्ज्ञा?

6. How would you say this in Sanskrit?
“You (sir) ought to tell the truth.” Use a word from the verse for “ought” and “to tell.”

Easy questions:

1. In the verse can you spot a प्रातिपदिकम् ending in a नकार:?

2. Where has 6-1-105 दीर्घाज्जसि च been used?

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