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क्षिणोति 3As-लँट्

Today we will look at the form क्षिणोति 3As-लँट् from श्रीमद्भागवतम् Sb10.39.30

योऽह्नः क्षये व्रजमनन्तसखः परीतो गोपैर्विशन्खुररजश्छुरितालकस्रक् ।
वेणुं क्वणन्स्मितकटाक्षनिरीक्षणेन चित्तं क्षिणोत्यमुमृते नु कथं भवेम ।। १०-३९-३० ।।

Gita Press translation “How can we really survive without Him who – while entering Vraja at the close of the day, accompanied by Balarāma (who is possessed of infinite strength) and surrounded by cowherd boys and playing on the flute, His curly locks and wreaths of flowers covered all over with the dust raised by the hoofs of the cows – used to captivate our mind with His sidelong glances full of smiles?”

Note: As per श्रीधर-स्वामी, here the meaning of क्षिणोति = हरति।

क्षिणोति is derived from the धातुः √क्षि (स्वादि-गणः, क्षि हिंसायाम्, धातु-पाठः # ५. ३३)

In the धातुपाठ:, √क्षि does not have any इत् letter. Hence this धातु: is devoid of any indications for taking आत्मनेपदप्रत्यया:। (Neither 1-3-12 अनुदात्तङित आत्मनेपदम् nor 1-3-72 स्वरितञितः कर्त्रभिप्राये क्रियाफले applies.) Hence as per 1-3-78 शेषात् कर्तरि परस्मैपदम्, in the active voice √क्षि takes परस्मैपद-प्रत्ययाः by default.

Since the विवक्षा is लँट्, कर्तरि प्रयोग:, प्रथम-पुरुष-एकवचनम्, the प्रत्ययः is “तिप्”।

(1) क्षि + लँट् । By 3-2-123 वर्तमाने लट्, the affix लँट् comes after a धातुः when denoting an action in the present tense.

(2) क्षि + ल् । अनुबन्ध-लोपः by 1-3-2 उपदेशेऽजनुनासिक इत्, 1-3-3 हलन्त्यम्, 1-3-9 तस्य लोपः

(3) क्षि + तिप् । 3-4-78 तिप्तस्झिसिप्थस्थमिब्वस्मस्तातांझथासाथांध्वमिड्वहिमहिङ् mandates the प्रत्ययः “तिप्” as the substitute for the लकारः। “तिप्” gets the सार्वधातुक-सञ्ज्ञा by 3-4-113 तिङ्शित्सार्वधातुकम् – The affixes of the तिङ्-प्रत्याहारः and the affixes that have शकारः as an इत् get the designation of सार्वधातुकम् if they are prescribed in the “धातो:” अधिकार:।

(4) क्षि + ति । अनुबन्ध-लोपः by 1-3-3 हलन्त्यम्, 1-3-9 तस्य लोपः

(5) क्षि + श्नु + ति । By 3-1-73 स्वादिभ्यः श्नुः, the श्नु-प्रत्यय: is placed after the verbal roots of the स्वादि-गणः, when followed by a सार्वधातुक-प्रत्यय: that is used signifying the agent. This सूत्रम् is a अपवाद: (exception) to 3-1-68 कर्तरि शप्‌

(6) क्षि + नु + ति । अनुबन्ध-लोपः by 1-3-8 लशक्वतद्धिते , 1-3-9 तस्य लोपः

Note: By 1-2-4 सार्वधातुकमपित्, the नु-प्रत्यय: becomes ङिद्वत् (behaves like having a ङकारः as an इत्)। Hence 1-1-5 क्क्ङिति च prevents the गुणादेशः for the ending इकार: (of the अङ्गम् “क्षि”) which would have been done by 7-3-84 सार्वधातुकार्धधातुकयोः

(7) क्षिनोति । By 7-3-84 सार्वधातुकार्धधातुकयोः, an अङ्गम् whose final letter is an इक् gets गुण-आदेशः, when a सार्वधातुक-प्रत्यय: or an आर्धधातुक-प्रत्यय: follows.

(8) क्षिणोति । णकारादेश: by 8-4-2 अट्कुप्वाङ्नुम्व्यवायेऽपि

Questions:

1. Where has 3-1-73 स्वादिभ्यः श्नुः (used in step 5 of this example) been used in the last five verses of Chapter Sixteen of the गीता?

2. Where has the “अदस्”-प्रातिपदिकम् been used in the verse?

3. Where has 3-4-99 नित्यं ङितः been used in the verse?

4. Which सूत्रम् from the “भस्य”-अधिकार: has been used in the verse?

5. Use some words from the verse to construct the following sentence in Sanskrit:
“How would we possibly survive (live) without water?” Use √जीव् (जीवँ प्राणधारणे १. ६४३) for “to live.”

6. Use some words from the verse to construct the following sentence in Sanskrit:
“At the end of the day we were all tried.” Use the adjective “श्रान्त” for “tired.”

Easy questions:

1. Which सूत्रम् is used for the “नुँम्”-आगम: in the form विशन् (पुंलिङ्गे प्रथमा-एकवचनम्, प्रातिपदिकम् “विशत्”)? Note: The प्रातिपदिकम् “विशत्” ends in the “शतृँ”-प्रत्यय:।

2. Where has 7-1-9 अतो भिस ऐस् been used in the verse?

कुर्वीत 3As-विधिलिँङ्

Today we will look at the form कुर्वीत 3As-विधिलिँङ् from श्रीमद्भागवतम् Sb12.6.34

अतिवादांस्तितिक्षेत नावमन्येत कञ्चन ।
न चेमं देहमाश्रित्य वैरं कुर्वीत केनचित् ।। १२-६-३४ ।।

Gita Press translation “One should put up with abusive words, and show disrespect to none, nor should one enter into hostility with anyone for the sake of this (perishable) body.”

कुर्वीत is derived from the धातुः √कृ (तनादि-गणः, डुकृञ् करणे, धातु-पाठः # ८. १०)

The “डु” at the beginning of this धातुः gets इत्-सञ्ज्ञा by 1-3-5 आदिर्ञिटुडवः। The ञकारः at the end gets इत्-सञ्ज्ञा by 1-3-3 हलन्त्यम्। Both take लोप: by 1-3-9 तस्य लोपः

Since the √कृ-धातुः has ञकारः as इत् in the धातु-पाठः, by 1-3-72 स्वरितञितः कर्त्रभिप्राये क्रियाफले the √कृ-धातुः will take आत्मनेपद-प्रत्ययाः when the fruit of the action (क्रियाफलम्) accrues to the doer (कर्त्रभिप्रायम् = कर्तृ-अभिप्रायम्)। In the remaining case – when the fruit of the action does not accrue to the doer – by 1-3-78 शेषात् कर्तरि परस्मैपदम् – the √कृ-धातुः will take परस्मैपद-प्रत्ययाः।

In reality though, this distinction of the fruit of the action accruing to the doer or not, is rarely honored in the language. So as a practical matter, a verbal root such as “√कृ” will take either आत्मनेपद-प्रत्ययाः or परस्मैपद-प्रत्ययाः regardless of whether the fruit of the action accrues to the doer or not. In short, √कृ-धातुः will be उभयपदी। In this verse, it has taken a आत्मनेपद-प्रत्यय:।

Since the विवक्षा is विधिलिँङ्, कर्तरि प्रयोग:, प्रथम-पुरुष-एकवचनम्, the प्रत्ययः is “त”।

(1) कृ + लिँङ् । By 3-3-161 विधिनिमन्त्रणामन्त्रणाधीष्टसंप्रश्नप्रार्थनेषु लिङ्, the affix लिङ् is prescribed after a धातुः when used in the sense of command, direction, invitation, request, inquiry and entreaty.

(2) कृ + ल् । अनुबन्ध-लोपः by 1-3-2 उपदेशेऽजनुनासिक इत्, 1-3-3 हलन्त्यम्, 1-3-9 तस्य लोपः

(3) कृ + त । 3-4-78 तिप्तस्झिसिप्थस्थमिब्वस्मस्तातांझथासाथांध्वमिड्वहिमहिङ् mandates the प्रत्ययः “त” as the substitute for the लकारः। “त” gets the सार्वधातुक-सञ्ज्ञा by 3-4-113 तिङ्शित्सार्वधातुकम् – The affixes of the तिङ्-प्रत्याहारः and the affixes that have शकारः as an इत् get the designation of सार्वधातुकम् if they are prescribed in the “धातो:” अधिकार:।

(4) कृ + सीयुट् त । By 3-4-102 लिङस्सीयुट्, the affixes of लिँङ् get “सीयुट्” as the augment. As per 1-1-46 आद्यन्तौ टकितौ, the “सीयुट्”-आगमः joins at the beginning of the प्रत्यय:।

(5) कृ + सीय् त । The उकार: in “सीयुट्” is for pronunciation only (उच्चारणार्थम्)। The टकार: is an इत् by 1-3-3 हलन्त्यम् and takes लोप: by 1-3-9 तस्य लोपः

(6) कृ + ई य् त । By 7-2-79 लिङः सलोपोऽनन्‍त्‍यस्‍य, the सकारः of a सार्वधातुक-लिङ् affix is elided, provided it is not the final letter of the affix.

(7) कृ + ईत । By 6-1-66 लोपो व्‍योर्वलि, a वकारः or a यकारः is elided when it is followed by a letter of the वल्-प्रत्याहारः।

(8) कृ + उ + ईत । By 3-1-79 तनादिकृञ्भ्य उः, when a सार्वधातुक-प्रत्ययः signifying the agent follows, the affix “उ” is placed after the verbal root √कृ (डुकृञ् करणे ८. १०) and also after a verbal root belonging to the तनादि-गणः। “उ” gets आर्धधातुक-सञ्ज्ञा by 3-4-114 आर्द्धधातुकं शेषः

(9) कर् + उ + ईत । By 7-3-84 सार्वधातुकार्धधातुकयोः, an अङ्गम् whose final letter is an इक् gets गुण-आदेशः, when a सार्वधातुक-प्रत्यय: or an आर्धधातुक-प्रत्यय: follows. By 1-1-51 उरण् रपरः, in the place of ऋवर्ण: if an अण् letter (“अ”, “इ”, “उ”) comes as a substitute, it is always followed by a रँ (“र्”, “ल्”) letter.
Note: Since “ईत” is a सार्वधातुक-प्रत्यय: which is not a पित्, by 1-2-4 सार्वधातुकमपित् it becomes ङिद्वत्। Hence 1-1-5 ग्क्ङिति च prevents the गुणादेश: for the उकार: which would have taken place by 7-3-84 सार्वधातुकार्धधातुकयोः

(10) कुर् + उ + ईत । By 6-4-110 अत उत्‌ सार्वधातुके, when √कृ (डुकृञ् करणे ८. १०) ends in the “उ”-प्रत्यय: and is followed by a सार्वधातुक-प्रत्ययः which is a कित् or a ङित्, then there is a substitution of उकारः in place of the अकारः (which is a result of गुणादेशः) of √कृ। See question 2.

(11) कुर्वीत । By 6-1-77 इको यणचि। See question 3.

Questions:

1. Where has the “सीयुट्”-आगम: (used in step 4 of this example) been used in the first ten verses of Chapter Five of the गीता?

2. After step 10, why didn’t the उकार: of the अङ्गम् “कुर्” take the गुणादेश: by 7-3-86 पुगन्तलघूपधस्य च?

3. After step 11, why didn’t the उकार: of the अङ्गम् “कुर्” take the दीर्घादेश: by 8-2-77 हलि च?

4. What would have been the final form in this example if a परस्मैप्रत्यय: had been used?

5. Can you spot a “श्यन्”-प्रत्यय: in the verse?

6. How would you say this in Sanskrit?
“One should never use abusive words.” Use the धातु: √युज् (युजिँर् योगे ७. ७) with the उपसर्ग: “प्र” for to “use.” Use a word from the verse for “abusive words.”

Easy questions:

1. Derive the form केन (पुंलिङ्गे तृतीया-एकवचनम्) from the सर्वनाम-प्रातिपदिकम् “किम्”।

2. Where has 8-3-7 नश्छव्यप्रशान् been used in the verse?

(प्रति) कुर्यात् 3As-विधिलिँङ्

Today we will look at the form (प्रति) कुर्यात् 3As-विधिलिँङ् from श्रीमद्भागवतम् Sb3.31.18

येनेदृशीं गतिमसौ दशमास्य ईश सङ्ग्राहितः पुरुदयेन भवादृशेन ।
स्वेनैव तुष्यतु कृतेन स दीननाथः को नाम तत्प्रति विनाञ्जलिमस्य कुर्यात् ।। ३-३१-१८ ।।

Gita Press translation “Overflowing with compassion, it is Your peerless Self, O Lord, that has imparted to this creature, who is (hardly) ten months old, such (incomparable) wisdom. May that protector of the afflicted (Yourself) be pleased with His own (benevolent) act (the bestowal of wisdom); for who can ever repay His obligations except by joining his palms (out of gratitude)?”

Note: कुर्यात् connects with प्रति to give the meaning of प्रतिकुर्यात् (= प्रत्युपकारं कुर्यात् = प्रत्युपकारं कर्तुं शक्नुयात्) = “can repay”.

कुर्यात् is derived from the धातुः √कृ (तनादि-गणः, डुकृञ् करणे, धातु-पाठः # ८. १०)

The “डु” at the beginning of this धातुः gets इत्-सञ्ज्ञा by 1-3-5 आदिर्ञिटुडवः। The ञकारः at the end gets इत्-सञ्ज्ञा by 1-3-3 हलन्त्यम्। Both take लोप: by 1-3-9 तस्य लोपः

Since the √कृ-धातुः has ञकारः as इत् in the धातु-पाठः by 1-3-72 स्वरितञितः कर्त्रभिप्राये क्रियाफले, the √कृ-धातुः will take आत्मनेपद-प्रत्ययाः when the fruit of the action (क्रियाफलम्) accrues to the doer (कर्त्रभिप्रायम् = कर्तृ-अभिप्रायम्)। In the remaining case – when the fruit of the action does not accrue to the doer – by 1-3-78 शेषात् कर्तरि परस्मैपदम् – the √कृ-धातुः will take परस्मैपद-प्रत्ययाः।

In reality though, this distinction of the fruit of the action accruing to the doer or not, is rarely honored in the language. So as a practical matter, a verbal root such as “√कृ” will take either आत्मनेपद-प्रत्ययाः or परस्मैपद-प्रत्ययाः regardless of whether the fruit of the action accrues to the doer or not. In short, √कृ-धातुः will be उभयपदी। In this verse, it has taken a परस्मैपद-प्रत्यय:।

Since the विवक्षा is विधिलिँङ्, कर्तरि प्रयोग:, प्रथम-पुरुष-एकवचनम्, the प्रत्ययः is “तिप्”।

(1) कृ + लिँङ् । By 3-3-161 विधिनिमन्त्रणामन्त्रणाधीष्टसंप्रश्नप्रार्थनेषु लिङ्, the affix लिङ् is prescribed after a धातुः when used in the sense of command, direction, invitation, request, inquiry and entreaty.

(2) कृ + ल् । अनुबन्ध-लोपः by 1-3-2 उपदेशेऽजनुनासिक इत्, 1-3-3 हलन्त्यम्, 1-3-9 तस्य लोपः

(3) कृ + तिप् । 3-4-78 तिप्तस्झिसिप्थस्थमिब्वस्मस्तातांझथासाथांध्वमिड्वहिमहिङ् mandates the प्रत्ययः “तिप्” as the substitute for the लकारः। “तिप्” gets the सार्वधातुक-सञ्ज्ञा by 3-4-113 तिङ्शित्सार्वधातुकम् – The affixes of the तिङ्-प्रत्याहारः and the affixes that have शकारः as an इत् get the designation of सार्वधातुकम् if they are prescribed in the “धातो:” अधिकार:।

(4) कृ + ति । अनुबन्ध-लोपः by 1-3-3 हलन्त्यम् , 1-3-9 तस्य लोपः

(5) कृ + त् । 3-4-100 इतश्च, the ending letter (इकारः) of a इकारान्तः (ending in a इकारः) परस्मैपद-प्रत्ययः which came in the place of a ङित्-लकारः, is elided.

(6) कृ + यासुट् त् । By 3-4-103 यासुट् परस्मैपदेषूदात्तो ङिच्च, the परस्मैपदम् affixes of लिँङ् get यासुट् as an augment, and this augment is उदात्तः and a ङित्। 1-1-46 आद्यन्तौ टकितौ places the यासुट्-आगमः before the प्रत्यय:।

(7) कृ + यास् त् । The उकार: in यासुट् is for pronunciation only (उच्चारणार्थम्)। The टकार: is an इत् by 1-3-3 हलन्त्यम् and takes लोप: by 1-3-9 तस्य लोपः

(8) कृ + यात् । By 7-2-79 लिङः सलोपोऽनन्‍त्‍यस्‍य, the सकारः of a सार्वधातुक-लिङ् affix is elided, provided it is not the final letter of the affix.

(9) कृ + उ + यात् । By 3-1-79 तनादिकृञ्भ्य उः, when a सार्वधातुक-प्रत्ययः signifying the agent follows, the affix “उ” is placed after the verbal root √कृ (डुकृञ् करणे ८. १०) and also after a verbal root belonging to the तनादि-गणः। “उ” gets आर्धधातुक-सञ्ज्ञा by 3-4-114 आर्द्धधातुकं शेषः

(10) कर् + उ + यात् । By 7-3-84 सार्वधातुकार्धधातुकयोः, an अङ्गम् whose final letter is an इक् gets गुण-आदेशः, when a सार्वधातुक-प्रत्यय: or an आर्धधातुक-प्रत्यय: follows. By 1-1-51 उरण् रपरः, in the place of ऋवर्ण: if an अण् letter (“अ”, “इ”, “उ”) comes as a substitute, it is always followed by a रँ (“र्”, “ल्”) letter.
Note: Since यासुट् is a ङित् (by 3-4-103 यासुट् परस्मैपदेषूदात्तो ङिच्च), 1-1-5 ग्क्ङिति च prevents the गुणादेश: for the उकार: which would have taken place by 7-3-84 सार्वधातुकार्धधातुकयोः

(11) कुर् + उ + यात् । By 6-4-110 अत उत्‌ सार्वधातुके, when √कृ (डुकृञ् करणे ८. १०) ends in the “उ”-प्रत्यय: and is followed by a सार्वधातुक-प्रत्ययः which is a कित् or a ङित्, then there is a substitution of उकारः in place of the अकारः (which is a result of गुणादेशः) of √कृ।

(12) कुर्यात् । By 6-4-109 ये च, the उकारः of a प्रत्ययः following the verbal root √कृ (डुकृञ् करणे, # ८. १०) takes लोप: (elision), when followed by an affix beginning with a यकारः।

Note: 8-2-79 न भकुर्छुराम् prevents the दीर्घादेशः (elongation) of the उपधा (उकारः) of the अङ्गम् “कुर्” that would have been done by 8-2-77 हलि च

Questions:

1. Where has 6-4-109 ये च been used in Chapter Three of the गीता?

2. Can you spot a “श्यन्”-प्रत्यय: in the verse?

3. Where has 7-2-113 हलि लोपः been used in the verse?

4. Commenting on the सूत्रम् 3-4-100 इतश्च (used in step 5 of this example), the काशिका says – परस्मैपदेषु इत्येव, अपचावहि। Please explain.

5. Where has the “अदस्” प्रातिपदिकम् been used in the verse?

6. How would you say this in Sanskrit?
“How may I return this favor?” Use the masculine प्रातिपदिकम् “उपकार” for “favor” and use the अव्ययम् “कथम्” for “how.”

Easy questions:

1. Which intervening letter prevented the नकार: in भवादृशेन from being substituted by a णकार:?

2. Can you spot a “क”-आदेश: in the verse?

अनुभुङ्क्ष्व 2As-लोँट्

Today we will look at the form अनुभुङ्क्ष्व 2As-लोँट् from श्रीमद्भागवतम् Sb7.10.11

नृसिंह उवाच
नैकान्तिनो मे मयि जात्विहाशिष आशासतेऽमुत्र च ये भवद्विधाः ।
अथापि मन्वन्तरमेतदत्र दैत्येश्वराणामनुभुङ्क्ष्व भोगान् ।। ७-१०-११ ।।

Gita Press translation – Lord Nṛsiṁha replied : “Those like you, who are exclusively devoted to Me, never seek (even) from Me benefits in this or the next world. Nevertheless enjoy here during (the whole of) this Manvantara continuously the luxuries of the lords of the Daityas.”

भुङ्क्ष्व is derived from the धातुः √भुज् (रुधादि-गणः, भुजँ पालनाभ्यवहारयोः, धातु-पाठः # ७. १७)

The ending अकारः of the √भुज्-धातुः has a उदात्त-स्वरः। Thus it is devoid of any indications for bringing in आत्मनेपद-प्रत्यया:। (Neither 1-3-12 अनुदात्तङित आत्मनेपदम् nor 1-3-72 स्वरितञितः कर्त्रभिप्राये क्रियाफले applies.) Therefore, as per 1-3-78 शेषात् कर्तरि परस्मैपदम्, the √भुज्-धातुः, in कर्तरि प्रयोग:, would take परस्मैपद-प्रत्यया: by default. But as per 1-3-66 भुजोऽनवने, the root √भुज् (भुजँ पालनाभ्यवहारयोः # ७. १७), takes आत्मनेपद-प्रत्यया: except when used in the sense of protecting. It takes परस्मैपद-प्रत्यया: only when used in the sense of अवने (protecting.) When used in any other meaning it takes आत्मनेपद-प्रत्यया:।
In the present example, √भुज् has not been used in the sense of अवने (protecting), hence it has taken a आत्मनेपद-प्रत्यय:।

The विवक्षा is लोँट्, कर्तरि प्रयोग:, मध्यम-पुरुषः, एकवचनम्, therefore the प्रत्यय: will be “थास्”।

(1) भुज् + लोँट् । By 3-3-162 लोट् च, the affix लोँट् follows a धातुः when used in the sense of command/request.

(2) भुज् + ल् । अनुबन्ध-लोपः by 1-3-2 उपदेशेऽजनुनासिक इत्, 1-3-3 हलन्त्यम्, 1-3-9 तस्य लोपः

(3) भुज् + थास् । 3-4-78 तिप्तस्झिसिप्थस्थमिब्वस्मस्तातांझथासाथांध्वमिड्वहिमहिङ् mandates the प्रत्ययः “थास्” as the substitute for the लकारः। “थास्” gets the सार्वधातुक-सञ्ज्ञा by 3-4-113 तिङ्शित्सार्वधातुकम् – The affixes of the तिङ्-प्रत्याहारः and the affixes that have शकारः as an इत् get the designation of सार्वधातुकम् if they are prescribed in the “धातो:” अधिकार:।
Note: By 1-2-4 सार्वधातुकमपित्, the “थास्”-प्रत्यय: becomes ङिद्वत् (behaves like having a ङकारः as an इत्)।

(4) भुज् + से । By 3-4-80 थासस्से, the थास्-प्रत्ययः which substitutes a टित्-लकारः (a लकार: which has टकार: as a इत्), gets “से” as the replacement.

(5) भुज् + स्व । By 3-4-91 सवाभ्यां वामौ, the एकारः of लोँट् which follows a सकारः or वकारः is replaced by “व” and “अम्” respectively.

(6) भु श्नम् ज् + स्व । By 3-1-78 रुधादिभ्यः श्नम्, the श्नम्-प्रत्ययः is placed after the verbal roots belonging to the रुधादि-गणः, when followed by a सार्वधातुक-प्रत्ययः that is used signifying the agent. श्नम् is a मित्। Hence as per 1-1-47 मिदचोऽन्त्यात्परः, it is placed after the last vowel (उकार:) of the अङ्गम् “भुज्”।
This सूत्रम् is a अपवादः (exception) to 3-1-68 कर्तरि शप्‌
Note: The purpose of the शकार: (which is an इत् by 1-3-8) in “श्नम्” is in order for पाणिनि: to be able to refer specifically to this प्रत्यय: in rules such as 6-4-23, 6-4-111 etc. It is not for getting the सार्वधातुक-सञ्ज्ञा (by 3-4-113.) Since this प्रत्यय: does not follow the अङ्गम् (it is placed inside the अङ्गम् as per 1-1-47), it cannot act on the अङ्गम् and hence no purpose would be served by assigning the सार्वधातुक-सञ्ज्ञा।

(7) भुनज् + स्व । अनुबन्ध-लोपः by 1-3-3 हलन्त्यम् , 1-3-8 लशक्वतद्धिते, 1-3-9 तस्य लोपः

(8) भुन्ज् + स्व । By 6-4-111 श्नसोरल्लोपः, the अकारः of “श्न” and of the verbal root √अस् (असँ भुवि २. ६०) is elided when followed by सार्वाधातुक-प्रत्ययः which is a कित् or a ङित्।
Note: “श्न” refers to the “श्नम्”-प्रत्यय: (ref. 3-1-78 रुधादिभ्यः श्नम्)।

(9) भुन्ग् + स्व । By 8-2-30 चोः कुः, the consonants of the च-वर्ग: (च्, छ्, ज्, झ्, ञ्) get the consonants of the क-वर्ग: (क्, ख्, ग्, घ्, ङ्) as a replacement when they occur at the end of a पदम् or when they are followed by a झल् letter.

(10) भुंग् + स्व । By 8-3-24 नश्चापदान्तस्य झलि, the नकारः (which is not at the end of the पदम्) gets अनुस्वारः as replacement since a झल् letter follows.

(11) भुंग् + ष्व । 8-3-59 आदेशप्रत्यययोः , the letter स् is replaced by the cerebral ष् when preceded either by a letter of the इण्-प्रत्याहार: or a letter of the क-वर्ग: (क्, ख्, ग्, घ्, ङ्)। This substitution only takes place if the स् is an आदेश: (substitute) or part of a प्रत्यय: (affix.)

(12) भुंक् + ष्व । 8-4-55 खरि च

(13) भुङ्क्ष्व । By 8-4-58 अनुस्वारस्य ययि परसवर्णः, when a यय् letter follows, अनुस्वारः gets the सवर्णः of the यय् letter as its replacement.

“अनु” is the उपसर्गः (ref. 1-4-59 उपसर्गाः क्रियायोगे।)
अनु + भुङ्क्ष्व = अनुभुङ्क्ष्व।

Questions:

1. Where has भुङ्क्ष्व been used in the गीता?

2. 3-4-91 सवाभ्यां वामौ (used in the step 5 of the example) is a अपवाद: for which सूत्रम्?

3. Can you spot a “अत्”-आदेश: in the verse?

4. In the verse, which two अव्यये have been together translated as “never”?

5. Where has 8-3-60 शासिवसिघसीनां च been used in the verse?

6. How would you say this in Sanskrit?
“Enjoy this delicious food.” Use the adjective “मिष्ट” for “delicious” and the neuter प्रातिपदिकम् “अन्नम्” for “food.”

Easy questions:

1. Where has 6-1-103 तस्माच्छसो नः पुंसि been used in the verse?

2. Why didn’t the सूत्रम् 7-2-102 त्यदादीनामः apply in the form एतद् (नपुंसकलिङ्गे द्वितीया-एकवचनम् derived from the सर्वनाम-प्रातिपदिकम् “एतद्”)?

पिनष्टि 3As-लँट्

Today we will look at the form पिनष्टि 3As-लँट् from श्रीमद्भागवतम् Sb5.10.23

शास्ताभिगोप्ता नृपतिः प्रजानां यः किङ्करो वै न पिनष्टि पिष्टम् ।
स्वधर्ममाराधनमच्युतस्य यदीहमानो विजहात्यघौघम् ।। ५-१०-२३ ।।

Gita Press translation “(Granted that the relation of master and servant subsisting between a ruler and his subjects is not permanent or unchangeable) A king is (nevertheless for the time being) the ruler and protector of the people. He who is a servant (of the Lord, that is, he who does his duty as a piece if service to the Lord) does not grind what is already ground (undertake an unprofitable business), for (although he may not be able to rid a dunce of his stupidity by upbraiding him for his remissness, he thereby carries out the Lord’s behests and) by offering worship to the Lord in the shape of performing his duty he is able to get rid of his stock of sins.”

पिनष्टि is derived from the धातुः √पिष् (रुधादि-गणः, पिषॢँ सञ्चूर्णने, धातु-पाठः # ७. १५)

The ending ऌकारः of “पिषॢँ” has a उदात्त-स्वरः। Thus it is devoid of any indications for bringing in आत्मनेपद-प्रत्यया:। (Neither 1-3-12 अनुदात्तङित आत्मनेपदम् nor 1-3-72 स्वरितञितः कर्त्रभिप्राये क्रियाफले applies.) Therefore, as per 1-3-78 शेषात् कर्तरि परस्मैपदम्, the √पिष्-धातुः, in कर्तरि प्रयोग:, will take the परस्मैपद-प्रत्यया: by default. As per 1-4-99 लः परस्मैपदम्, 1-4-100 तङानावात्मनेपदम्, the nine प्रत्यया: from “तिप्” to “मस्” get the परस्मैपद-सञ्ज्ञा। So √पिष्-धातुः can take only one of these nine प्रत्यया: in कर्तरि प्रयोगः।

The विवक्षा is लँट्, कर्तरि प्रयोग:, प्रथम-पुरुषः, एकवचनम्, therefore the प्रत्यय: will be “तिप्”।

(1) पिष् + लँट् । By 3-2-123 वर्तमाने लट्, the affix लँट् comes after a धातुः when denoting an action in the present tense.

(2) पिष् + ल् । अनुबन्ध-लोपः by 1-3-2 उपदेशेऽजनुनासिक इत्, 1-3-3 हलन्त्यम्, 1-3-9 तस्य लोपः

(3) पिष् + तिप् । 3-4-78 तिप्तस्झिसिप्थस्थमिब्वस्मस्तातांझथासाथांध्वमिड्वहिमहिङ् mandates the प्रत्ययः “तिप्” as the substitute for the लकारः। “तिप्” gets the सार्वधातुक-सञ्ज्ञा by 3-4-113 तिङ्शित्सार्वधातुकम् – The affixes of the तिङ्-प्रत्याहारः and the affixes that have शकारः as an इत् get the designation of सार्वधातुकम् if they are prescribed in the “धातो:” अधिकार:।

(4) पिष् + ति । अनुबन्ध-लोपः by 1-3-3 हलन्त्यम्, 1-3-9 तस्य लोपः

(5) पि श्नम् ष् + ति । By 3-1-78 रुधादिभ्यः श्नम्, the श्नम्-प्रत्ययः is placed after the verbal roots belonging to the रुधादि-गणः, when followed by a सार्वधातुक-प्रत्ययः that is used signifying the agent. श्नम् is a मित्। Hence as per 1-1-47 मिदचोऽन्त्यात्परः, it is placed after the last vowel (इकार:) of the अङ्गम् “पिष्”।
This सूत्रम् is a अपवादः (exception) to 3-1-68 कर्तरि शप्‌
Note: The purpose of the शकार: (which is an इत् by 1-3-8) in “श्नम्” is in order for पाणिनि: to be able to refer specifically to this प्रत्यय: in rules such as 6-4-23, 6-4-111 etc. It is not for getting the सार्वधातुक-सञ्ज्ञा (by 3-4-113.) Since this प्रत्यय: does not follow the अङ्गम् (it is placed inside the अङ्गम् as per 1-1-47), it cannot act on the अङ्गम् and hence no purpose would be served by assigning the सार्वधातुक-सञ्ज्ञा।

(6) पिनष् + ति । अनुबन्ध-लोपः by 1-3-3 हलन्त्यम् , 1-3-8 लशक्वतद्धिते, 1-3-9 तस्य लोपः

(7) पिनष्टि । By 8-4-41 ष्टुना ष्टुः , when the letter स् or a letter of the त-वर्ग: (त्, थ्, द्, ध्, न्) comes in contact with either the letter ष् or a letter of the ट-वर्ग: (ट्, ठ्, ड्, ढ्, ण्) then it is replaced respectively by ष्, ट-वर्ग: (ट्, ठ्, ड्, ढ्, ण्).

Questions:

1. Where has 3-1-78 रुधादिभ्यः श्नम् been used in Chapter Thirteen of the गीता?

2. Can you spot a “अनँङ्”-आदेश: in the verse?

3. Can you spot a “श्लु” elision in the verse?

4. Approximately how many verbal roots are listed in the रुधादि-गण:?
i. 25
ii. 50
iii. 100
iv. 200

5. Use some words from the verse to construct the following sentence in Sanskrit.
“Why do you grind what has (already) been ground?” (This is an idiomatic expression which means “Doing something which has already been done.”) Use the अव्ययम् “कस्मात्” for “why.”

6. How would you say this in Sanskrit?
“Get rid of this anxiety.” Use the feminine प्रातिपदिकम् “चिन्ता” for “anxiety.” Use a धातु:/उपसर्ग: from the verse for “to get rid of.”

Easy questions:

1. Which सूत्रम् has been used for the “नुँट्”-आगम: in the form प्रजानाम्?

2. Where has 6-1-114 हशि च been used in the verse?

संयुनक्ति 3As-लँट्

Today we will look at the form संयुनक्ति 3As-लँट् from श्रीमद्भागवतम् Sb1.13.40

नारद उवाच
मा कञ्चन शुचो राजन्यदीश्वरवशं जगत् ।
लोकाः सपाला यस्येमे वहन्ति बलिमीशितुः ।
स संयुनक्ति भूतानि स एव वियुनक्ति च ।। १-१३-४० ।।

Gita Press translation “Grieve not for anybody, O king; for the world is under control of God. It is to Him, the supreme Ruler of all, that all these worlds along with their rulers offer their homage. It is He who unites and He again who parts living beings from one another.”

युनक्ति is derived from the धातुः √युज् (रुधादि-गणः, युजिँर् योगे, धातु-पाठः # ७. ७)

By the वार्तिकम् – इर इत्सञ्ज्ञा वाच्या, “इर्” of “युजिँर्” gets the इत्-सञ्ज्ञा । The इकारः of “इर्” has a स्वरित-स्वर: here. Therefore, as per the सूत्रम् 1-3-72 स्वरितञितः कर्त्रभिप्राये क्रियाफले, the √युज्-धातुः will take आत्मनेपद-प्रत्ययाः when the fruit of the action (क्रियाफलम्) accrues to the doer (कर्त्रभिप्रायम् = कर्तृ-अभिप्रायम्)। In the remaining case – when the fruit of the action does not accrue to the doer – by 1-3-78 शेषात् कर्तरि परस्मैपदम् – the √युज्-धातुः will take परस्मैपद-प्रत्ययाः।
In reality though, this distinction of the fruit of the action accruing to the doer or not, is rarely honored in the language. So as a practical matter, a verbal root such as √युज् will take either आत्मनेपद-प्रत्ययाः or परस्मैपद-प्रत्ययाः regardless of whether the fruit of the action accrues to the doer or not. In short, √युज्-धातुः will be उभयपदी। In this verse it has taken a परस्मैपद-प्रत्यय:।

The विवक्षा is लँट्, कर्तरि प्रयोग:, प्रथम-पुरुषः, एकवचनम्, therefore the प्रत्यय: will be “तिप्”।

(1) युज् + लँट् । By 3-2-123 वर्तमाने लट्, the affix लँट् comes after a धातुः when denoting an action in the present tense.

(2) युज् + ल् । अनुबन्ध-लोपः by 1-3-2 उपदेशेऽजनुनासिक इत्, 1-3-3 हलन्त्यम्, 1-3-9 तस्य लोपः

(3) युज् + तिप् । 3-4-78 तिप्तस्झिसिप्थस्थमिब्वस्मस्तातांझथासाथांध्वमिड्वहिमहिङ् mandates the प्रत्ययः “तिप्” as the substitute for the लकारः। “तिप्” gets the सार्वधातुक-सञ्ज्ञा by 3-4-113 तिङ्शित्सार्वधातुकम् – The affixes of the तिङ्-प्रत्याहारः and the affixes that have शकारः as an इत् get the designation of सार्वधातुकम् if they are prescribed in the “धातो:” अधिकार:।

(4) युज् + ति । अनुबन्ध-लोपः by 1-3-3 हलन्त्यम्, 1-3-9 तस्य लोपः

(5) यु श्नम् ज् + ति । By 3-1-78 रुधादिभ्यः श्नम्, the श्नम्-प्रत्ययः is placed after the verbal roots belonging to the रुधादि-गणः, when followed by a सार्वधातुक-प्रत्ययः that is used signifying the agent. श्नम् is a मित्। Hence as per 1-1-47 मिदचोऽन्त्यात्परः, it is placed after the last vowel (उकार:) of the अङ्गम् “युज्”।
This सूत्रम् is a अपवादः (exception) to 3-1-68 कर्तरि शप्‌
Note: The purpose of the शकार: (which is an इत् by 1-3-8) in “श्नम्” is in order for पाणिनि: to be able to refer specifically to this प्रत्यय: in rules such as 6-4-23, 6-4-111 etc. It is not for getting the सार्वधातुक-सञ्ज्ञा (by 3-4-113.) Since this प्रत्यय: does not follow the अङ्गम् (it is placed inside the अङ्गम् as per 1-1-47), it cannot act on the अङ्गम् and hence no purpose would be served by assigning the सार्वधातुक-सञ्ज्ञा।

(6) युनज् + ति । अनुबन्ध-लोपः by 1-3-3 हलन्त्यम् , 1-3-8 लशक्वतद्धिते, 1-3-9 तस्य लोपः

(7) युनग् + ति । By 8-2-30 चोः कुः, the consonants of the च-वर्ग: (च्, छ्, ज्, झ्, ञ्) get the consonants of the क-वर्ग: (क्, ख्, ग्, घ्, ङ्) as a replacement when they occur at the end of a पदम् or when they are followed by a झल् letter.

(8) युनक्ति । 8-4-55 खरि च

“सम्” is the उपसर्गः (ref 1-4-59 उपसर्गाः क्रियायोगे)
सम् + युनक्ति = संयुनक्ति (8-3-23 मोऽनुस्वारः)

Questions:

1. Where has √युज् (रुधादि-गणः, युजिँर् योगे, धातु-पाठः # ७. ७) been used in a तिङन्तं पदम् in the first ten verses of Chapter Six of the गीता?

2. What would have been the final form in this verse had a आत्मनेपद-प्रत्यय: been used?

3. Why didn’t 6-4-111 श्नसोरल्लोपः apply in this example? (Which condition was not satisfied?)

4. Where has 7-2-109 दश्च been used in the verse?

5. How would you say this in Sanskrit?
“The teacher appointed me for (in) this job.” Use √युज् (युजिँर् योगे, धातु-पाठः # ७. ७) with the उपसर्ग: “नि” for “to appoint.” Use a आत्मनेपद-प्रत्यय:। Use the neuter प्रातिपदिकम् “कार्य” for “job.” Use सप्तमी विभक्ति: with “this job.”

6. How would you say this in Sanskrit?
“(You) Be ready for war.” Use √युज् (युजिँर् योगे, धातु-पाठः # ७. ७) in the passive for “to be ready.” Use चतुर्थी विभक्ति: with “war.”

Easy questions:

1. Where has 8-2-8 न ङिसम्बुद्ध्योः been used in the verse?

2. Can you spot a यकार-लोप: (elision of the letter “य्”) in the verse?

अनुपृच्छसि 2As-लँट्

Today we will look at the form अनुपृच्छसि 2As-लँट् from श्रीमद्भागवतम् Sb10.87.10

श्वेतद्वीपं गतवति त्वयि द्रष्टुं तदीश्वरम् ।
ब्रह्मवादः सुसंवृत्तः श्रुतयो यत्र शेरते ।
तत्र हायमभूत्प्रश्नस्त्वं मां यमनुपृच्छसि ।। १०-८७-१० ।।

Gita Press translation “On one occasion when you (O Nārada!) had departed to Śwetadwīpa to see Lord Aniruddha (the Ruler of that island, a form of Lord Viṣṇu), there ensued (among the Ṛṣis of that sphere) a masterly and thorough discussion concerning Brahma (the Absolute), about which the Vedas (too) remain silent. There (in that assembly) arose the same question which you have (just) put to me.

पृच्छसि is derived from the धातुः √प्रच्छ् (तुदादि-गणः, प्रच्छँ ज्ञीप्सायाम्, धातु-पाठः # ६. १४९)

In the धातु-पाठः, the ending अकार: (which is a इत् by 1-3-2 उपदेशेऽजनुनासिक इत्) of “प्रच्छँ” has a उदात्त-स्वर:। Thus the √प्रच्छ्-धातुः is devoid of any indications for bringing in आत्मनेपद-प्रत्यया:। (Neither 1-3-12 अनुदात्तङित आत्मनेपदम् nor 1-3-72 स्वरितञितः कर्त्रभिप्राये क्रियाफले applies.) Therefore, as per 1-3-78 शेषात् कर्तरि परस्मैपदम्, the √प्रच्छ्-धातुः, in कर्तरि प्रयोग:, takes the परस्मैपद-प्रत्यया: by default.

The विवक्षा is लँट्, कर्तरि प्रयोग:, मध्यम-पुरुषः, एकवचनम्, therefore the प्रत्यय: will be “सिप्”।

(1) प्रच्छ् + लँट् । By 3-2-123 वर्तमाने लट्, the affix लँट् comes after a धातुः when denoting an action in the present tense.

(2) प्रच्छ् + ल् । अनुबन्ध-लोपः by 1-3-2 उपदेशेऽजनुनासिक इत्, 1-3-3 हलन्त्यम्, 1-3-9 तस्य लोपः

(3) प्रच्छ् + सिप् । 3-4-78 तिप्तस्झिसिप्थस्थमिब्वस्मस्तातांझथासाथांध्वमिड्वहिमहिङ् mandates the प्रत्ययः “सिप्” as the substitute for the लकारः। “सिप्” gets the सार्वधातुक-सञ्ज्ञा by 3-4-113 तिङ्शित्सार्वधातुकम् – The affixes of the तिङ्-प्रत्याहारः and the affixes that have शकारः as an इत् get the designation of सार्वधातुकम् if they are prescribed in the “धातो:” अधिकार:।

(4) प्रच्छ् + सि । अनुबन्ध-लोपः by 1-3-3 हलन्त्यम्, 1-3-9 तस्य लोपः

(5) प्रच्छ् + श + सि । By 3-1-77 तुदादिभ्यः शः, the श-प्रत्यय: is placed after the verbal roots of the तुदादि-गणः, when followed by a सार्वधातुक-प्रत्यय: that is used signifying the agent. This सूत्रम् is a अपवाद: (exception) to 3-1-68 कर्तरि शप्‌

(6) प्रच्छ् + अ + सि । अनुबन्ध-लोपः by 1-3-8 लशक्वतद्धिते , 1-3-9 तस्य लोपः

(7) प् र् अच्छ् + अ + सि = प् अच्छ् + अ + सि । By 6-1-16 ग्रहिज्यावयिव्यधिवष्टिविचतिवृश्चतिपृच्छतिभृज्जतीनां ङिति च, the verbal roots √ग्रह (ग्रहँ उपादाने ९. ७१), √ज्या (ज्या वयोहानौ ९. ३४), √वय् (वयँ गतौ १. ५४७), √व्यध् (व्यधँ ताडने ४. ७८), √वश् (वशँ कान्तौ २. ७५), √व्यच् (व्यचँ व्याजीकरणे ६. १३), √व्रश्च् (ओँव्रश्चूँ छेदने ६. १२), √प्रच्छ् (प्रच्छँ ज्ञीप्सायाम् ६.१४९) and √भ्रस्ज् (भ्रस्जँ पाके ६. ४) take सम्प्रसारणम् (ref. 1-1-45) when followed by an affix which is a कित् or a ङित्।
Note: Since the सार्वधातुक-प्रत्यय: “श” is अपित्, by 1-2-4 सार्वधातुकमपित् it behaves ङिद्वत् – as if it has ङकार: as a इत्। This allows 6-1-16 to apply.

(8) पृच्छसि । By 6-1-108 सम्प्रसारणाच्च, when a सम्प्रसारणम् is followed by a अच् (vowel), there is a single replacement (in place of both the सम्प्रसारणम् and the following अच्) of the prior letter (the सम्प्रसारणम्)।

“अनु” is the उपसर्गः (ref. 1-4-59 उपसर्गाः क्रियायोगे।)
अनु + पृच्छसि = अनुपृच्छसि।

Questions:

1. Where has 3-1-77 तुदादिभ्यः शः (used in step 5 of this example) been used in the last five verses of Chapter Two of the गीता?

2. Can you spot a “रुँट्”-आगम: in the verse?

3. Where has the सूत्रम् 7-2-111 इदोऽय् पुंसि been used in the verse?

4. How would you say this in Sanskrit?
“Only one who is lazy sleeps in the daytime.” Use the adjective प्रातिपदिकम् “अलस” for “one who is lazy” and use the अव्ययम् “दिवा” for “in the daytime.” Use a धातु: from the verse for “to sleep.”

5. How would you say this in Sanskrit?
“Let us ask the teacher this question.” Use द्वितीया विभक्ति: with “teacher” and “question.”

6. How would you say this in Sanskrit?
“Wait a moment! I know the answer to (of) this question.” In Sanskrit the धातु: √कृ (डुकृञ् करणे ८. १०) can be used in the sense of spending (passing time.) Paraphrase “Wait a moment” to “Make (pass) a moment.” Use the masculine/neuter प्रातिपदिकम् “क्षण” for “moment.” Use √विद् (विदँ ज्ञाने २. ५९) for “to know.”

Easy questions:

1. Where has 7-3-109 जसि च been used in the verse?

2. Derive the form “यम्” (पुंलिङ्गे द्वितीया-एकवचनम्) from the सर्वनाम-प्रातिपदिकम् “यद्”।

हिंस्यात् 3As-विधिलिँङ्

Today we will look at the form हिंस्यात् 3As-विधिलिँङ् from श्रीमद्भागवतम् Sb6.18.47

श्रीकश्यप उवाच
न हिंस्याद्भूतजातानि न शपेन्नानृतं वदेत् ।
न छिन्द्यान्नखरोमाणि न स्पृशेद्यदमङ्गलम् ।। ६-१८-४७ ।।

Gita Press translation Kaśyapa said : “A woman observing this vow must not injure (much less kill any one of) the multitudes of living beings nor curse any one nor should she tell a lie. She must not pare her nails or cut the hair on her person nor should she touch that which is impure.”

हिंस्यात् is derived from the धातुः √हिन्स् (रुधादि-गणः, हिसिँ हिंसायाम्, धातु-पाठः # ७. १९)

The इकारः at the end of “हिसिँ” gets इत्-सञ्ज्ञा by 1-3-2 उपदेशेऽजनुनासिक इत्। Therefore this धातुः is an इदित् and by 7-1-58 इदितो नुम् धातोः, it gets the नुँम्-आगमः।

हिसिँ = हिस् । 1-3-2 उपदेशेऽजनुनासिक इत्, 1-3-9 तस्य लोपः
= हि नुँम् स् । 7-1-58 इदितो नुम् धातोः, 1-1-47 मिदचोऽन्त्यात्परः
= हि न् स् । 1-3-2 उपदेशेऽजनुनासिक इत्, 1-3-3 हलन्त्यम्
= हिन्स् ।

The ending इकारः of “हिसिँ” has a उदात्त-स्वरः। Thus it is devoid of any indications for bringing in आत्मनेपद-प्रत्यया:। (Neither 1-3-12 अनुदात्तङित आत्मनेपदम् nor 1-3-72 स्वरितञितः कर्त्रभिप्राये क्रियाफले applies.) Therefore, as per 1-3-78 शेषात् कर्तरि परस्मैपदम्, the √हिन्स्-धातुः, in कर्तरि प्रयोग:, will take the परस्मैपद-प्रत्यया: by default. As per 1-4-99 लः परस्मैपदम्, 1-4-100 तङानावात्मनेपदम्, the nine प्रत्यया: from “तिप्” to “मस्” get the परस्मैपद-सञ्ज्ञा। So √हिन्स्-धातुः can take only one of these nine प्रत्यया: in कर्तरि प्रयोगः।

The विवक्षा is विधिलिँङ्, कर्तरि प्रयोग:, प्रथम-पुरुषः, एकवचनम्, therefore the प्रत्यय: will be “तिप्”।

(1) हिन्स् + लिँङ् । By 3-3-161 विधिनिमन्त्रणामन्त्रणाधीष्टसंप्रश्नप्रार्थनेषु लिङ्, the affix लिङ् is prescribed after a धातुः when used in the sense of command, direction, invitation, request, inquiry and entreaty.

(2) हिन्स् + ल् । अनुबन्ध-लोपः by 1-3-2 उपदेशेऽजनुनासिक इत्, 1-3-3 हलन्त्यम्, 1-3-9 तस्य लोपः

(3) हिन्स् + तिप् । 3-4-78 तिप्तस्झिसिप्थस्थमिब्वस्मस्तातांझथासाथांध्वमिड्वहिमहिङ् mandates the प्रत्ययः “तिप्” as the substitute for the लकारः। “तिप्” gets the सार्वधातुक-सञ्ज्ञा by 3-4-113 तिङ्शित्सार्वधातुकम् – The affixes of the तिङ्-प्रत्याहारः and the affixes that have शकारः as an इत् get the designation of सार्वधातुकम् if they are prescribed in the “धातो:” अधिकार:।

(4) हिन्स् + ति । अनुबन्ध-लोपः by 1-3-3 हलन्त्यम् , 1-3-9 तस्य लोपः

(5) हिन्स् + त् । 3-4-100 इतश्च, the ending letter (इकारः) of a इकारान्तः (ending in a इकारः) परस्मैपद-प्रत्ययः which came in the place of a ङित्-लकारः, is elided.

(6) हिन्स् + यासुट् त् । By 3-4-103 यासुट् परस्मैपदेषूदात्तो ङिच्च, the परस्मैपदम् affixes of लिँङ् get यासुट् as an augment, and this augment is उदात्तः and a ङित्। 1-1-46 आद्यन्तौ टकितौ places the यासुट्-आगमः at the beginning of the प्रत्यय:।

(7) हिन्स् + यास् त् । The उकार: in यासुट् is for pronunciation only (उच्चारणार्थम्)। The टकार: is an इत् by 1-3-3 हलन्त्यम् and takes लोप: by 1-3-9 तस्य लोपः

(8) हि श्नम् न्स् + यास् त् । By 3-1-78 रुधादिभ्यः श्नम्, the श्नम्-प्रत्ययः is placed after the verbal roots belonging to the रुधादि-गणः, when followed by a सार्वधातुक-प्रत्ययः that is used signifying the agent. श्नम् is a मित्। Hence as per 1-1-47 मिदचोऽन्त्यात्परः, it is placed after the last vowel (इकार:) of the अङ्गम् “हिस्”।
This सूत्रम् is a अपवादः (exception) to 3-1-68 कर्तरि शप्‌
Note: The purpose of the शकार: (which is an इत् by 1-3-8) in “श्नम्” is in order for पाणिनि: to be able to refer specifically to this प्रत्यय: in rules such as 6-4-23, 6-4-111 etc. It is not for getting the सार्वधातुक-सञ्ज्ञा (by 3-4-113.) Since this प्रत्यय: does not follow the अङ्गम् (it is placed inside the अङ्गम् as per 1-1-47), it cannot act on the अङ्गम् and hence no purpose would be served by assigning the सार्वधातुक-सञ्ज्ञा।

(9) हिनन्स् + यास् त् । अनुबन्ध-लोपः by 1-3-3 हलन्त्यम् , 1-3-8 लशक्वतद्धिते, 1-3-9 तस्य लोपः

(10) हिनस् + यास् त् । By 6-4-23 श्नान्नलोपः, a नकारः is elided when it follows the श्नम्-प्रत्ययः।

(11) हिनस् + या त् । By 7-2-79 लिङः सलोपोऽनन्त्यस्य, the सकारः of a सार्वधातुक-लिङ् affix is elided, provided it is not the final letter of the affix.

(12) हिन् स् + या त् । By 6-4-111 श्नसोरल्लोपः, the अकारः of “श्न” and of the verbal root √अस् (असँ भुवि २. ६०) is elided when followed by सार्वाधातुक-प्रत्ययः which is a कित् or a ङित्।
Note: “श्न” refers to the “श्नम्”-प्रत्यय: (ref. 3-1-78 रुधादिभ्यः श्नम्)।

(13) हिंस्यात् । By 8-3-24 नश्चापदान्तस्य झलि, the नकारः (which is not at the end of the पदम्) gets अनुस्वारः as replacement since a झल् letter follows.

Questions:

1. Where has 6-4-23 श्नान्नलोपः (used in step 10 of this example) been used in the last ten verses of Chapter Thirteen of the गीता?

2. In the verse, where else (besides in हिंस्यात्) has 3-1-78 रुधादिभ्यः श्नम् been used?

3. Can you spot a “इय्”-आदेश: in the verse?

4. In commenting on the सूत्रम् 8-3-24 नश्चापदान्तस्य झलि, the काशिका says – अपदान्तस्य इति किम्? राजन् भुङ्क्ष्व। Please explain.

5. How would you say this in Sanskrit?
“One should not curse anyone.” Use a word from the verse for “one should curse.”

6. How would you say this in Sanskrit?
“Why did you hurt me?” Use the अव्ययम् “कस्मात्” for “why” and use the same धातु: as in this example for “to hurt.”

Easy questions:

1. Can you spot a “शि”-आदेश: in the verse?

2. In how many places in the verse has 8-4-45 यरोऽनुनासिकेऽनुनासिको वा been used?

निरुन्ध्यात् 3As-विधिलिँङ्

Today we will look at the form निरुन्ध्यात् 3As-विधिलिँङ् from श्रीमद्भागवतम् Sb11.2.38

अविद्यमानोऽप्यवभाति हि द्वयो ध्यातुर्धिया स्वप्नमनोरथौ यथा ।
तत्कर्मसङ्कल्पविकल्पकं मनो बुधो निरुन्ध्यादभयं ततः स्यात् ।। ११-२-३८ ।।

Gita Press translation “Though duality has no (real) existence, it does appear like a dream or mental image to the mind of one who dwells upon it. Therefore, a wise man should control that mind from which proceed ideations and doubts. Fearlessness will follow from it.”

रुन्ध्यात् is derived from the धातुः √रुध् (रुधादि-गणः, रुधिँर् आवरणे, धातु-पाठः # ७. १)

In the धातु-पाठः, the √रुध्-धातुः has “इर्” as इत्। The इकारः of “इर्” has a स्वरित-स्वर: here. Therefore, as per the सूत्रम् 1-3-72 स्वरितञितः कर्त्रभिप्राये क्रियाफले, the √रुध्-धातुः will take आत्मनेपद-प्रत्ययाः when the fruit of the action (क्रियाफलम्) accrues to the doer (कर्त्रभिप्रायम् = कर्तृ-अभिप्रायम्)। In the remaining case – when the fruit of the action does not accrue to the doer – by 1-3-78 शेषात् कर्तरि परस्मैपदम् – the √रुध्-धातुः will take परस्मैपद-प्रत्ययाः।
In reality though, this distinction of the fruit of the action accruing to the doer or not, is rarely honored in the language. So as a practical matter, a verbal root such as √रुध् will take either आत्मनेपद-प्रत्ययाः or परस्मैपद-प्रत्ययाः regardless of whether the fruit of the action accrues to the doer or not. In short, √रुध्-धातुः will be उभयपदी। In this verse it has taken a परस्मैपद-प्रत्यय:।

The विवक्षा is विधिलिँङ्, कर्तरि प्रयोग:, प्रथम-पुरुषः, एकवचनम्, therefore the प्रत्यय: will be “तिप्”।

(1) रुध् + लिँङ् । By 3-3-161 विधिनिमन्त्रणामन्त्रणाधीष्टसंप्रश्नप्रार्थनेषु लिङ्, the affix लिङ् is prescribed after a धातुः when used in the sense of command, direction, invitation, request, inquiry and entreaty.

(2) रुध् + ल् । अनुबन्ध-लोपः by 1-3-2 उपदेशेऽजनुनासिक इत्, 1-3-3 हलन्त्यम्, 1-3-9 तस्य लोपः

(3) रुध् + तिप् । 3-4-78 तिप्तस्झिसिप्थस्थमिब्वस्मस्तातांझथासाथांध्वमिड्वहिमहिङ् mandates the प्रत्ययः “तिप्” as the substitute for the लकारः। “तिप्” gets the सार्वधातुक-सञ्ज्ञा by 3-4-113 तिङ्शित्सार्वधातुकम् – The affixes of the तिङ्-प्रत्याहारः and the affixes that have शकारः as an इत् get the designation of सार्वधातुकम् if they are prescribed in the “धातो:” अधिकार:।

(4) रुध् + ति । अनुबन्ध-लोपः by 1-3-3 हलन्त्यम् , 1-3-9 तस्य लोपः

(5) रुध् + त् । 3-4-100 इतश्च, the ending letter (इकारः) of a इकारान्तः (ending in a इकारः) परस्मैपद-प्रत्ययः which came in the place of a ङित्-लकारः, is elided.

(6) रुध् + यासुट् त् । By 3-4-103 यासुट् परस्मैपदेषूदात्तो ङिच्च, the परस्मैपदम् affixes of लिँङ् get यासुट् as an augment, and this augment is उदात्तः and a ङित्। 1-1-46 आद्यन्तौ टकितौ places the यासुट्-आगमः at the beginning of the प्रत्यय:।

(7) रुध् + यास् त् । The उकार: in यासुट् is for pronunciation only (उच्चारणार्थम्)। The टकार: is an इत् by 1-3-3 हलन्त्यम् and takes लोप: by 1-3-9 तस्य लोपः

(8) रु श्नम् ध् + यास् त् । By 3-1-78 रुधादिभ्यः श्नम्, the श्नम्-प्रत्ययः is placed after the verbal roots belonging to the रुधादि-गणः, when followed by a सार्वधातुक-प्रत्ययः that is used signifying the agent. श्नम् is a मित्। Hence as per 1-1-47 मिदचोऽन्त्यात्परः, it is placed after the last vowel (उकार:) of the अङ्गम् “रुध्”।
This सूत्रम् is a अपवादः (exception) to 3-1-68 कर्तरि शप्‌
Note: The purpose of the शकार: (which is an इत् by 1-3-8) in “श्नम्” is in order for पाणिनि: to be able to refer specifically to this प्रत्यय: in rules such as 6-4-23, 6-4-111 etc. It is not for getting the सार्वधातुक-सञ्ज्ञा (by 3-4-113.) Since this प्रत्यय: does not follow the अङ्गम् (it is placed inside the अङ्गम् as per 1-1-47), it cannot act on the अङ्गम् and hence no purpose would be served by assigning the सार्वधातुक-सञ्ज्ञा।

(9) रुनध् + यास् त् । अनुबन्ध-लोपः by 1-3-3 हलन्त्यम् , 1-3-8 लशक्वतद्धिते, 1-3-9 तस्य लोपः

(10) रुनध् + या त् । By 7-2-79 लिङः सलोपोऽनन्त्यस्य, the सकारः of a सार्वधातुक-लिङ् affix is elided, provided it is not the final letter of the affix.

(11) रुन् ध् + या त् । By 6-4-111 श्नसोरल्लोपः, the अकारः of “श्न” and of the verbal root √अस् (असँ भुवि २. ६०) is elided when followed by सार्वाधातुक-प्रत्ययः which is a कित् or a ङित्।
Note: “श्न” refers to the “श्नम्”-प्रत्यय: (ref. 3-1-78 रुधादिभ्यः श्नम्)।

(12) रुंध्यात् । By 8-3-24 नश्चापदान्तस्य झलि, the नकारः (which is not at the end of the पदम्) gets अनुस्वारः as replacement since a झल् letter follows.

(13) रुन्ध्यात् । By 8-4-58 अनुस्वारस्य ययि परसवर्णः, when a यय् letter follows, अनुस्वारः gets the सवर्णः of the यय् letter as its replacement.

“नि” is the उपसर्गः (ref. 1-4-59 उपसर्गाः क्रियायोगे।)
नि + रुन्ध्यात् = निरुन्ध्यात्।

Questions:

1. Can you spot a word in the first ten verses of Chapter Two of the गीता wherein (as in this example) 3-1-78 रुधादिभ्यः श्नम् and 6-4-111 श्नसोरल्लोपः have been used?

2. Where else (besides in रुन्ध्यात्) has 6-4-111 श्नसोरल्लोपः been used in the verse?

3. In the verse, in which two words has the शप्-प्रत्यय: taken the लुक् elision?

4. Where has the ङस्-प्रत्यय: been used the verse?

5. Why doesn’t the नकार: in रुन्ध्यात् take the णकारादेश: by 8-4-2 अट्कुप्वाङ्नुम्व्यवायेऽपि?

6. How would you say this in Sanskrit?
“The enemies blocked all the gates of the city.” Use the neuter प्रातिपदिकम् “द्वार” for “gate”, use the neuter प्रातिपदिकम् “नगर” for “city” and use the same धातु:/उपसर्ग: (as in this example) for “to block.”

Easy questions:

1. Where has 6-1-104 नादिचि been used in the verse?

2. In the verse, can you spot a आदेश: which has ङकार: as a इत्?

मुञ्च 2As-लोँट्

Today we will look at the form मुञ्च 2As-लोँट् from श्रीमद्भागवतम् Sb7-7-8

प्राह मैनां सुरपते नेतुमर्हस्यनागसम् ।
मुञ्च मुञ्च महाभाग सतीं परपरिग्रहम् ।। ७-७-८ ।।

Gita Press translation – He peremptorily said, “You should not take this innocent lady, O lord of divinities! Leave, leave, blessed one, the good woman, who is another’s wedded wife.”

मुञ्च is derived from the धातुः √मुच् (तुदादि-गणः, मुचॢँ मोक्षणे (मोचने), धातु-पाठः # ६. १६६)

The ending ऌकार: (which is an इत् by 1-3-2 उपदेशेऽजनुनासिक इत्) of “मुचॢँ” has स्वरित-स्वर:। Therefore, as per the सूत्रम् 1-3-72 स्वरितञितः कर्त्रभिप्राये क्रियाफले, the √मुच्-धातुः will take आत्मनेपद-प्रत्ययाः when the fruit of the action (क्रियाफलम्) accrues to the doer (कर्त्रभिप्रायम् = कर्तृ-अभिप्रायम्)। In the remaining case – when the fruit of the action does not accrue to the doer – by 1-3-78 शेषात् कर्तरि परस्मैपदम् – the √मुच्-धातुः will take परस्मैपद-प्रत्ययाः।
In reality though, this distinction of the fruit of the action accruing to the doer or not, is rarely honored in the language. So as a practical matter, a verbal root such as √मुच् will take either आत्मनेपद-प्रत्ययाः or परस्मैपद-प्रत्ययाः regardless of whether the fruit of the action accrues to the doer or not. In short, √मुच्-धातुः will be उभयपदी। In this verse it has taken a परस्मैपद-प्रत्यय:।

The विवक्षा is लोँट्, कर्तरि प्रयोग:, मध्यम-पुरुषः, एकवचनम्, therefore the प्रत्यय: will be “सिप्”।

(1) मुच् + लोँट् । By 3-3-162 लोट् च, the affix लोँट् follows a धातुः when used in the sense of command/request.

(2) मुच् + ल् । अनुबन्ध-लोपः by 1-3-2 उपदेशेऽजनुनासिक इत्, 1-3-3 हलन्त्यम्, 1-3-9 तस्य लोपः

(3) मुच् + सिप् । 3-4-78 तिप्तस्झिसिप्थस्थमिब्वस्मस्तातांझथासाथांध्वमिड्वहिमहिङ् mandates the प्रत्ययः “सिप्” as the substitute for the लकारः। “सिप्” gets the सार्वधातुक-सञ्ज्ञा by 3-4-113 तिङ्शित्सार्वधातुकम्

(4) मुच् + सि । अनुबन्ध-लोपः by 1-3-3 हलन्त्यम्, 1-3-9 तस्य लोपः

(5) मुच् + हि । By 3-4-87 सेर्ह्यपिच्च, “सि” of लोँट् is substituted by “हि” and it is an अपित्।

(6) मुच् + श + हि । By 3-1-77 तुदादिभ्यः शः, the श-प्रत्यय: is placed after the verbal roots of the तुदादि-गणः, when followed by a सार्वधातुक-प्रत्यय: that is used signifying the agent. This सूत्रम् is a अपवाद: (exception) to 3-1-68 कर्तरि शप्‌

(7) मुच् + अ + हि । अनुबन्ध-लोपः by 1-3-8 लशक्वतद्धिते , 1-3-9 तस्य लोपः

(8) मु नुँम् च् + अ + हि । By 7-1-59 शे मुचादीनाम्, the eight verbal roots √मुच् (मुचॢँ मोक्षणे (मोचने) #६. १६६), √लुप् (लुपॢँ छेदने #६. १६७), √विद् (विदॢ्ँ लाभे #६. १६८), √लिप् (लिपँ उपदेहे #६. १६९), √सिच् (षिचँ क्षरणे #६. १७०), √कृत् (कृतीँ छेदने #६. १७१), √खिद् (खिदँ परिघाते (परिघातने) #६. १७२) and √पिश् (पिशँ अवयवे #६. १७३) get the नुँम्-आगमः when श-प्रत्ययः follows. As per 1-1-47 मिदचोऽन्त्यात्परः, the “नुँम्”-आगम: attaches after the last vowel (उकार:) of the अङ्गम् “मुच्”।

(9) मु न् च् + अ + हि । अनुबन्ध-लोपः by 1-3-2 उपदेशेऽजनुनासिक इत्, 1-3-3 हलन्त्यम्, 1-3-9 तस्य लोपः

(10) मुन्च । By 6-4-105 अतो हेः, there is an elision of the affix “हि” when it follows an अङ्गम् ending in a अकार:।

(11) मुंच । By 8-3-24 नश्चापदान्तस्य झलि, the नकारः (which is not at the end of the पदम्) gets अनुस्वारः as replacement since a झल् letter follows.

(12) मुञ्च । By 8-4-58 अनुस्वारस्य ययि परसवर्णः, when a यय् letter follows, अनुस्वारः gets the सवर्णः of the यय् letter as its replacement.

Questions:

1. Where has 7-1-59 शे मुचादीनाम् been used in Chapter Eighteen of the गीता?

2. Can you spot a अन्वादेश: in the verse?

3. Commenting on the सूत्रम् 7-1-59 शे मुचादीनाम्, the काशिका says – मुचादीनाम् इति किम्? तुदति। Please explain.

4. The eight verbal roots √मुच् etc. are the last eight in the तुदादि-गण:। Can you recall another सूत्रम् which refers to a set of verbal roots that occur at the end of a गण:?

5. How would you say this in Sanskrit?
“Why are your crying?” Paraphrase to “Why do you shed tears?” Use the neuter प्रातिपदिकम् “अश्रु” for “tear”, use the अव्ययम् “कस्मात्” for “why” and use the same धातु: as in this example for “to shed.”

6. How would you say this in Sanskrit?
“You should come here quickly.” Use the अव्ययम् “आगन्तुम्” for “to come”, use the अव्ययम् “अत्र” for “here” and use the अव्ययम् “आशु” for “quickly.” Use a धातु: from the verse for “should.”

Easy questions:

1. Which term used in the verse has the नदी-सञ्ज्ञा? By which सूत्रम् does पाणिनि: define the नदी-सञ्ज्ञा?

2. Where has 6-1-69 एङ्ह्रस्वात्‌ सम्बुद्धेः been used in the verse?

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