Home » 2016 » March

Monthly Archives: March 2016

Recent Comments

March 2016
M T W T F S S
« Feb   Apr »
 123456
78910111213
14151617181920
21222324252627
28293031  

युधिष्ठिरकिरीटिनोः mGd

Today we will look at the form युधिष्ठिरकिरीटिनोः mGd from महाभारतम् 1.2.273.

अतः परं कर्णपर्व प्रोच्यते परमाद्भुतम् । सारथ्ये विनियोगश्च मद्रराजस्य धीमतः ।। १-२-२६९ ।।
आख्यातं यत्र पौराणं त्रिपुरस्य निपातनम् । प्रयाणे परुषश्चात्र संवादः कर्णशल्ययोः ।। १-२-२७० ।।
हंसकाकीयमाख्यानं तत्रैवाक्षेपसंहितम् । वधः पाण्ड्यस्य च तथा अश्वत्थाम्ना महात्मना ।। १-२-२७१ ।।
दण्डसेनस्य च ततो दण्डस्य च वधस्तथा । द्वैरथे यत्र कर्णेन धर्मराजो युधिष्ठिरः ।। १-२-२७२ ।।
संशयं गमितो युद्धे मिषतां सर्वधन्विनाम् । अन्योन्यं प्रति च क्रोधो युधिष्ठिरकिरीटिनोः ।। १-२-२७३ ।।

Gita Press translation – After this is outlined the most wonderful Parva named after Karṇa. In it is described the appointment of the wise Śalya (king of the Madra) as the charioteer (of Karṇa) (269). Then is narrated the well-known legend of the destruction of Tripura as well as the interchange of strong words between Karṇa and Śalya on their setting out for battle (270). Then is told the story of the swan and the crow as an insulting allusion (to Karṇa) followed by an account of the death of Pāṇḍya at the hands of the high-souled Aśwathāma as well as the death of Danḍasena and then of Danḍa. In this same Parva (named after Karṇa) is the narration of a duel between Karṇa and Yudhiṣṭhira – witnessed by all the archers – in which the the former put the life of the latter in danger. Then comes the (display of) anger of Yudhiṣṭhira and Arjuna towards each other. (271-273)

(1) युधिष्ठिरश्च किरीटी च = युधिष्ठिरकिरीटिनौ – Yudhiṣṭhira and Arjuna.

(2) युधिष्ठिर सुँ + किरीटिन् सुँ । By 2-2-29 चार्थे द्वन्द्वः – Two or more terms having the designation पदम् and standing in a relation expressible by ‘च’ (‘and’) may optionally compound to yield a compound called द्वन्द्वः।

(3) युधिष्ठिर सुँ + किरीटिन् सुँ । As per the सूत्रम् 2-2-34 अल्पाच्तरम्‌, ‘किरीटिन्’ should have been placed in the prior position in this compound because ‘युधिष्ठिर’ has four syllables while ‘किरीटिन्’ has only three. But since ‘युधिष्ठिर’ is the name of the elder brother while ‘किरीटिन्’ refers to the younger brother (Arjuna), ‘युधिष्ठिर सुँ’ is placed in the prior position as per the वार्तिकम् (under 2-2-34 अल्पाच्तरम्‌) भ्रातुर्ज्यायस: – In a द्वन्द्व: compound the name of an elder brother is placed in the prior position.

Note: ‘युधिष्ठिर सुँ + किरीटिन् सुँ’ gets the designation प्रातिपदिकम्‌ by 1-2-46 कृत्तद्धितसमासाश्च। This allows 2-4-71 to apply in the next step.

(4) युधिष्ठिर + किरीटिन् । By 2-4-71 सुपो धातुप्रातिपदिकयोः – A सुँप् affix takes a लुक् elision when it is a part of a धातुः or a प्रातिपदिकम्।

= युधिष्ठिरकिरीटिन् ।

The विवक्षा is षष्ठी-द्विवचनम् ।

(5) युधिष्ठिरकिरीटिन् + ओस् । By 4-1-2 स्वौजसमौट्छष्टाभ्याम्भिस्ङेभ्याम्भ्यस्ङसिभ्याम्भ्यस्ङसोसाम्ङ्योस्सुप्‌1-3-4 न विभक्तौ तुस्माः prevents the ending letter ‘स्’ of ‘ओस्’ from getting the इत्-सञ्ज्ञा।

(6) युधिष्ठिरकिरीटिनोः । रुँत्व-विसर्गौ 8-2-66 ससजुषो रुः and 8-3-15 खरवसानयोर्विसर्जनीयः

Questions:

1. In which compound in the verses has the affix टच् been used?

2. Can you spot a term which is used as a कर्मप्रवचनीय: in the verses?

3. Which सूत्रम् justifies the formation of the compound सर्वधन्विनाम् (षष्ठी-बहुवचनम्) used in the verses?

4. From which verbal root is the form वधः derived?

5. In which word in the verses has the गण-सूत्रम् (in the धातुपाठ:, below the गण-सूत्रम् ‘घटादयो मित:’) – जनीजॄष्क्नसुरञ्जोऽमन्ताश्च been used?

6. How would you say this in Sanskrit?
“Both Yudhiṣṭhira and Arjuna were devotees of Śrī Kṛṣṇa.”

Easy questions:

1. Which सूत्रम् prescribes the सम्प्रसारणम् in the form उच्यते?

2. Where has the सूत्रम् 6-4-134 अल्लोपोऽनः been used in the verses?

केशवार्जुनयोः mGd

Today we will look at the form केशवार्जुनयोः  mGd from श्रीमद्भगवद्गीता 18.76

इत्यहं वासुदेवस्य पार्थस्य च महात्मनः । संवादमिममश्रौषमद्भुतं रोमहर्षणम्‌ ।। १८-७४ ।।
व्यासप्रसादाच्छ्रुतवानेतद्गुह्यमहं परम्‌ । योगं योगेश्वरात्कृष्णात्साक्षात्कथयतः स्वयम्‌ ।। १८-७५ ।।
राजन्संस्मृत्य संस्मृत्य संवादमिममद्भुतम्‌ । केशवार्जुनयोः पुण्यं हृष्यामि च मुहुर्मुहुः ।। १८-७६ ।।
तच्च संस्मृत्य संस्मृत्य रूपमत्यद्भुतं हरेः । विस्मयो मे महान्‌ राजन्हृष्यामि च पुनः पुनः ।। १८-७७ ।।
यत्र योगेश्वरः कृष्णो यत्र पार्थो धनुर्धरः । तत्र श्रीर्विजयो भूतिर्ध्रुवा नीतिर्मतिर्मम ।। १८-७८ ।।

श्रीधर-स्वामि-टीका
तदेवं धृतराष्ट्रं प्रति श्रीकृष्णार्जुनसंवादं कथयित्वा प्रस्तुतां कथामनुसंदधानः संजय उवाच – इतीति । रोमहर्षणं रोमाञ्चकरं संवादमश्रौषं श्रुतवानहम् । स्पष्टमन्यत् ।। ७४ ।। आत्मनस्तच्छ्रवणे संभावनामाह – व्यासप्रसादादिति । भगवता व्यासेन दिव्यं चक्षुःश्रोत्रादि मह्यं दत्तम्, अतो व्यासस्य प्रसादादेतदहं श्रुतवानस्मि । किं तदित्यपेक्षायामाह परं योगम् । परत्वमाविष्करोति । योगेश्वराच्छ्रीकृष्णात्स्वयमेसाक्षात्कथयतः श्रुतावानिति ।। ७५ ।। किंच – राजन्निति । हृष्यामि रोमाञ्चितो भवामि हर्षं प्राप्नोमीति वा । स्पष्टमन्यत् ।। ७६ ।। किंच तच्चेति । तदिति विश्वरूपं निर्दिशति । स्पष्टमन्यत् ।। ७७ ।। अतस्त्वं पुत्राणां राज्यादिशङ्कां परित्यजेत्याशयेनाह – यत्रैति । यत्र येषां पाण्डवानां पक्षे योगेश्वरः श्रीकृष्णो वर्तते, यत्रपार्थो गाण्डीवधनुर्धरः तत्रैश्री राज्यलक्ष्मीः तत्रैव च विजयः तत्रैव च भूतिरुत्तरोत्तराभिवृद्धिश्च, तत्रैनीतिर्नयोऽपि ध्रुवा निश्चितेति सर्वत्र संबद्ध्यते । इति मम मतिर्निश्चयः । अत इदानीमपि तावत्सपुत्रस्त्वं श्रीकृष्णं शरणमुपेत्य पाण्डवान्प्रसाद्य सर्वस्वं च तेभ्यो निवेद्य पुत्रप्राणरक्षणं कुर्विति भावः ।। ७८ ।।

Gita Press translation – Sañjaya said: Thus I heard the mysterious and thrilling conversation between Śrī Kṛṣṇa and the high-souled Arjuna, the son of Kuntī (74). Having been blessed with the divine vision by the grace of Śrī Vyāsa, I heard in person this supremely esoteric gospel from the Lord of Yoga, Śrī Kṛṣṇa Himself, imparting it to Arjuna (75). Remembering, over and over, that sacred and mystic conversation between Bhagavān Śrī Kṛṣṇa and Arjuna, O King! I rejoice again and yet again (76). Remembering also, again and again, that most wonderful form of Śrī Kṛṣṇa, great is my wonder and I am thrilled over and over again (77). Wherever there is Bhagavān Śrī Kṛṣṇa, the Lord of Yoga, and wherever there is Arjuna, the wielder of the Gāṇḍīva bow, goodness, victory, glory and unfailing righteousness will surely be there : such is my conviction (78).

(1) केशवश्चार्जुनश्च = केशवार्जुनौ – Śrī Kṛṣṇa and Arjuna.

(2) केशव सुँ + अर्जुन सुँ । By 2-2-29 चार्थे द्वन्द्वः – Two or more terms having the designation पदम् and standing in a relation expressible by ‘च’ (‘and’) may optionally compound to yield a compound called द्वन्द्वः।

(3) केशव सुँ + अर्जुन सुँ । As per the सूत्रम् 2-2-33 अजाद्यदन्तम्‌, ‘अर्जुन’ should be placed in the prior position in the compound because ‘अर्जुन’ begins with a vowel and ends in the letter ‘अ’ while ‘केशव’ does not. But as per the वार्तिकम् (under 2-2-34 अल्पाच्तरम्‌) अभ्यर्हितं च – In a द्वन्द्व: compound the term which denotes that which commands greater respect is placed in the prior position. In the present example, ‘केशव’ is the name of the Lord/teacher while ‘अर्जुन’ is the name of the devotee/student hence clearly ‘केशव सुँ’ denotes that which commands greater respect and is placed in the prior position in the compound.
Note: This वार्तिकम् over-rides all the other rules which prescribe placement in a prior position in a द्वन्द्व: compound.

Note: ‘केशव सुँ + अर्जुन सुँ’ gets the designation प्रातिपदिकम्‌ by 1-2-46 कृत्तद्धितसमासाश्च। This allows 2-4-71 to apply in the next step.

(4) केशव + अर्जुन । By 2-4-71 सुपो धातुप्रातिपदिकयोः – A सुँप् affix takes a लुक् elision when it is a part of a धातुः or a प्रातिपदिकम्।

(5) केशवार्जुन । By 6-1-101 अकः सवर्णे दीर्घः

The विवक्षा is षष्ठी-द्विवचनम् ।

(6) केशवार्जुन + ओस् । By 4-1-2 स्वौजसमौट्छष्टाभ्याम्भिस्ङेभ्याम्भ्यस्ङसिभ्याम्भ्यस्ङसोसाम्ङ्योस्सुप्‌1-3-4 न विभक्तौ तुस्माः prevents the ending letter ‘स्’ of ‘ओस्’ from getting the इत्-सञ्ज्ञा।

(7) केशवार्जुने + ओस् । By 7-3-104 ओसि च, the ending letter ‘अ’ of a प्रातिपदिकम् changes to letter ‘ए’ when followed by the affix ‘ओस्’ ।

(8) केशवार्जुनयोस् । अयादेशः by 6-1-78 एचोऽयवायावः

(9) केशवार्जुनयोः । रुँत्व-विसर्गौ 8-2-66 ससजुषो रुः and 8-3-15 खरवसानयोर्विसर्जनीयः

Questions:

1. What is the विग्रह: of the compound धनुर्धरः used in the verses?

2. Which सूत्रम् prescribes the substitution ‘आ’ in the form महात्मनः (प्रातिपदिकम् ‘महात्मन्’, पुंलिङ्गे षष्ठी-एकवचनम्) used in the verses?

3. Which word in the verses is composed using the वार्तिकम् (under 3-2-178 अन्येभ्योऽपि दृश्यते) क्विब्वचिप्रच्छ्यायतस्तुकटप्रुजुश्रीणां दीर्घोऽसम्प्रसारणं च?

4. Can you spot the affix ‘ट’ in the commentary?

5. What kind of compound is सपुत्र: used in the commentary?
i. द्वन्द्व:
ii. बहुव्रीहि:
iii. अव्ययीभाव:
iv. प्रादि-तत्पुरुष:

6. How would you say this in Sanskrit?
“The sacred conversation between Śrī Kṛṣṇa and Arjuna should be studied by everyone.”

Easy questions:

1. Which सूत्रम् prescribes the वृद्धि: substitution in the form अश्रौषम्?

2. Where has the सूत्रम् 6-4-110 अत उत्‌ सार्वधातुके been used in the commentary?

फलपुष्पाक्षताङ्कुरैः mIp(nIp)

Today we will look at the form फलपुष्पाक्षताङ्कुरैः  mIp(nIp) from श्रीमद्भागवतम् 1.11.14.

सम्मार्जितमहामार्गरथ्यापणकचत्वराम् । सिक्तां गन्धजलैरुप्तां फलपुष्पाक्षताङ्कुरैः ।। १-११-१४ ।।
द्वारि द्वारि गृहाणां च दध्यक्षतफलेक्षुभिः । अलङ्कृतां पूर्णकुम्भैर्बलिभिर्धूपदीपकैः ।। १-११-१५ ।।

श्रीधर-स्वामि-टीका
संमार्जितानि नि:सारितरजस्कानि महामार्गादीनि यस्यां ताम् । महामार्गा राजमार्गाः । रथ्या इतरमार्गाः । आपणकाः पण्यवीथयः । चत्वराण्यङ्गनानि । फलादिभिरुप्तामवकीर्णाम् ।। १४ ।।

Gita Press translation – Its highways, streets, bazaars and quadrangles had been thoroughly cleaned and sprinkled with scented water and were strewn with fruits, flowers, unbroken rice and sprouts (that had been rained on the Lord as something auspicious) (14). The entrance of every house in the city was adorned with curds, unbroken rice, fruits and sugar-cane, pitchers full of water, offering, incense and lights (15).

(1) फलानि च पुष्पाणि चाक्षताश्च चाङ्कुराश्च = फलपुष्पाक्षताङ्कुराः or फलानि च पुष्पाणि चाक्षताश्च चाङ्कुराणि च = फलपुष्पाक्षताङ्कुराणि – fruits, flowers, unbroken rice and sprouts

(2) फल जस् + पुष्प जस् + अक्षत जस् + अङ्कुर जस् । By 2-2-29 चार्थे द्वन्द्वः – Two or more terms having the designation पदम् and standing in a relation expressible by ‘च’ (‘and’) may optionally compound to yield a compound called द्वन्द्वः।

(3) फल जस् + पुष्प जस् + अक्षत जस् + अङ्कुर जस् । As per the सूत्रम् 2-2-33 अजाद्यदन्तम्‌, either ‘अक्षत जस्’ or ‘अङ्कुर जस्’ should be placed in the prior position in the compound because ‘अक्षत/अङ्कुर’ begins with a vowel and ends in the letter ‘अ’ while ‘फल/पुष्प’ does not. But since ‘फल/पुष्प’ has only two syllables while ‘अक्षत/अङ्कुर’ has three syllables, either ‘फल जस्’ or ‘पुष्प जस्’ should be placed in the prior position in the compound as per the सूत्रम् 2-2-34 अल्पाच्तरम्‌
2-2-34 अल्पाच्तरम्‌ being a later rule in the अष्टाध्यायी has greater force than the prior rule 2-2-33 अजाद्यदन्तम्‌। Therefore either ‘फल जस्’ or ‘पुष्प जस्’ should be placed in the prior position in this compound.
Now, both the vowels (‘अ’) in ‘फल’ have the designation लघु as per the सूत्रम् 1-4-10 ह्रस्वं लघु। While in ‘पुष्प’ the first vowel ‘उ’ precedes the conjunct ‘ष्प्’ and therefore does not have the designation लघु। It has the designation गुरु as per the सूत्रम् 1-4-11 संयोगे गुरु। So ‘फल जस्’ is placed in the prior position in the compound as per the वार्तिकम् (under 2-2-34 अल्पाच्तरम्‌) लघ्वक्षरं पूर्वम्‌ – In a द्वन्द्व: compound the term whose vowels have the designation लघु (ref. 1-4-10 ह्रस्वं लघु) is placed in the prior position.

Note: ‘फल जस् + पुष्प जस् + अक्षत जस् + अङ्कुर जस्’ gets the designation प्रातिपदिकम्‌ by 1-2-46 कृत्तद्धितसमासाश्च। This allows 2-4-71 to apply in the next step.

(4) फल + पुष्प + अक्षत + अङ्कुर । By 2-4-71 सुपो धातुप्रातिपदिकयोः – A सुँप् affix takes a लुक् elision when it is a part of a धातुः or a प्रातिपदिकम्।

(5) फलपुष्पाक्षताङ्कुर । By 6-1-101 अकः सवर्णे दीर्घः

As per the सूत्रम् 2-4-26 परवल्लिङ्गं द्वन्द्वतत्पुरुषयोः, the compound प्रातिपदिकम् ‘फलपुष्पाक्षताङ्कुर’ is masculine/neuter since the final member ‘अङ्कुर’ of the compound is masculine/neuter.

The विवक्षा is तृतीया-बहुवचनम्।

(6) फलपुष्पाक्षताङ्कुर + भिस् । By 4-1-2 स्वौजसमौट्छष्टाभ्याम्भिस्ङेभ्याम्भ्यस्ङसिभ्याम्भ्यस्ङसोसाम्ङ्योस्सुप्‌

(7) फलपुष्पाक्षताङ्कुर + ऐस् । By 7-1-9 अतो भिस ऐस् – Following a अङ्गम् ending in the letter ‘अ’, the affix ‘भिस्’ is replaced by ‘ऐस्’। As per the परिभाषा-सूत्रम् 1-1-55 अनेकाल्शित्सर्वस्य the entire affix ‘भिस्’ is replaced by ‘ऐस्’। 1-3-4 न विभक्तौ तुस्माः prevents the ending letter ‘स्’ of ‘ऐस्’ from getting the इत्-सञ्ज्ञा।

(8) फलपुष्पाक्षताङ्कुरैस् । By 6-1-88 वृद्धिरेचि

(9) फलपुष्पाक्षताङ्कुरैः । रुँत्व-विसर्गौ by 8-2-66 ससजुषो रुः and 8-3-15 खरवसानयोर्विसर्जनीयः

Questions:

1. Which सूत्रम् prescribes the placement of the term ‘धूप’ in the prior position in the compound धूपदीपकैः?

2. Where has the सूत्रम् 8-1-4 नित्यवीप्सयोः been used in the verses?

3. In the verses can you spot a compound composed using the वार्तिकम् (under 2-1-60 क्तेन नञ्विशिष्टेनानञ् in the सिद्धान्तकौमुदी) शाकपार्थिवादीनां सिद्धये उत्तरपदलोपस्योपसंख्यानम्?

4. From which verbal root is the form उप्ताम् (स्त्रीलिङ्गे द्वितीया-एकवचनम्) derived?

5. In which compound in the commentary has the affix ‘कप्’ been used?

6. How would you say this in Sanskrit?
“The Lord is pleased even by only fruits and flowers offered with devotion.” Use the adjective प्रातिपदिकम् ‘केवल’ for ‘only.’ Use a causative form of the verbal root √ऋ (ऋ गतिप्रापणयोः १. १०८६, ऋ गतौ ३. १७) for ‘to offer.’

Easy questions:

1. In which other words (besides फलपुष्पाक्षताङ्कुरैः) in the verses has the सूत्रम् 7-1-9 अतो भिस ऐस् (use in step 7) been used?

2. Why doesn’t the सूत्रम् 7-1-9 अतो भिस ऐस् apply in the word दध्यक्षतफलेक्षुभिः? (Which condition is not satisfied?)

वस्त्राभरणदातारः mNp

Today we will look at the form वस्त्राभरणदातारः mNp from महाभारतम् 13.23.91.

वस्त्राभरणदातारो भक्तपानान्नदास्तथा । कुटुम्बानां च दातार: पुरुषाः स्वर्गगामिनः ।। १३-२३-९१ ।।
सर्वहिंसानिवृत्ताश्च नराः सर्वसहाश्च ये । सर्वस्याश्रयभूताश्च ते नराः स्वर्गगामिनः ।। १३-२३-९२ ।।
मातरं पितरं चैव शुश्रूषन्ति जितेन्द्रियाः । भ्रातॄणां चैव सस्नेहास्ते नराः स्वर्गगामिनः ।। १३-२३-९३ ।।

Translation – Those men who distribute clothes and ornaments, as also meals, drinks and food, and who help (others’) families, go to heaven (91). Those men who have abstained from all sorts of injury or harm, who endure everything, and who support all others, go to heaven (92). Those men who, with their senses controlled, serve their parents and who are affectionate towards their brothers, go to heaven (93).

(1) वस्त्राणि चाभरणानि च = वस्त्राभरणानि – clothes and ornaments

(2) वस्त्र जस् + आभरण जस् । By 2-2-29 चार्थे द्वन्द्वः – Two or more terms having the designation पदम् and standing in a relation expressible by ‘च’ (‘and’) may optionally compound to yield a compound called द्वन्द्वः।

(3) वस्त्र जस् + आभरण जस् । As per the सूत्रम् 2-2-33 अजाद्यदन्तम्‌, ‘आभरण जस्’ should be placed in the prior position in the compound because ‘आभरण’ begins with a vowel and ends in the letter ‘अ’ while ‘वस्त्र’ does not. But since ‘वस्त्र’ has only two syllables while ‘आभरण’ has three syllables, ‘वस्त्र जस्’ should be placed in the prior position in the compound as per the सूत्रम् 2-2-34 अल्पाच्तरम्‌ – In a द्वन्द्व: compound the term having the least number of syllables (vowels) is placed in the prior position.
2-2-34 अल्पाच्तरम्‌ being a later rule in the अष्टाध्यायी has greater force than the prior rule 2-2-33 अजाद्यदन्तम्‌। Therefore ‘वस्त्र जस्’ is placed in the prior position in this compound.

Note: ‘वस्त्र जस् + आभरण जस्’ gets the designation प्रातिपदिकम्‌ by 1-2-46 कृत्तद्धितसमासाश्च। This allows 2-4-71 to apply in the next step.

(4) वस्त्र + आभरण । By 2-4-71 सुपो धातुप्रातिपदिकयोः – A सुँप् affix takes a लुक् elision when it is a part of a धातुः or a प्रातिपदिकम्।

(5) वस्त्राभरण । By 6-1-101 अकः सवर्णे दीर्घः

Now we form the षष्ठी-तत्पुरुषः compound वस्त्राभरणदातारः।

(6) वस्त्राभरणानां दाता = वस्त्राभरणदाता – who distributes clothes and ornaments

(7) वस्त्राभरण आम् + दातृ सुँ । By 2-2-8 षष्ठी – A पदम् ending in a sixth case affix optionally compounds with a (syntactically related) पदम् ending in a सुँप् affix and the resulting compound gets the designation तत्पुरुष:।

Note: By 1-2-43 प्रथमानिर्दिष्टं समास उपसर्जनम् – the term ‘वस्त्राभरण आम्’ gets the designation उपसर्जनम् because in the सूत्रम् 2-2-8 (which prescribes the compounding) the term षष्ठी ends in the nominative case. Hence ‘वस्त्राभरण आम्’ is placed in the prior position in the compound as per the सूत्रम् 2-2-30 उपसर्जनं पूर्वम्‌ – In a compound a term which has the designation ‘उपसर्जन’ should be placed in the prior position.

Note: ‘वस्त्राभरण आम् + दातृ सुँ’ gets the designation प्रातिपदिकम्‌ by 1-2-46 कृत्तद्धितसमासाश्च। This allows 2-4-71 सुपो धातुप्रातिपदिकयोः to apply in the next step.

(8) वस्त्राभरण + दातृ । By 2-4-71 सुपो धातुप्रातिपदिकयोः – A सुँप् affix takes a लुक् elision when it is a part of a धातुः or a प्रातिपदिकम्।

= वस्त्राभरणदातृ ।

As per the सूत्रम् 2-4-26 परवल्लिङ्गं द्वन्द्वतत्पुरुषयोः, the compound प्रातिपदिकम् ‘वस्त्राभरणदातृ’ is masculine since the final member ‘दातृ’ of the compound is used here in the masculine. (The entire compound is qualifying पुरुषाः।)

The विवक्षा is प्रथमा-बहुवचनम् ।

(9) वस्त्राभरणदातृ + जस् । By 4-1-2 स्वौजसमौट्छष्टाभ्याम्भिस्ङेभ्याम्भ्यस्ङसिँभ्याम्भ्यस्ङसोसाम्ङ्योस्सुप्। Note: The affix ‘जस्’ has the सर्वनामस्थान-सञ्ज्ञा here as per 1-1-43 सुडनपुंसकस्य। This allows 7-3-110 to apply in step 11 below.

(10) वस्त्राभरणदातृ + अस् । अनुबन्ध-लोपः by 1-3-7 चुटू and 1-3-9 तस्य लोपः। 1-3-4 न विभक्तौ तुस्माः prevents the ending letter ‘स्’ of ‘जस्’ from getting इत्-सञ्ज्ञा।

(11) वस्त्राभरणदातर् + अस् । By 7-3-110 ऋतो ङिसर्वनामस्थानयोः – The ending letter ‘ऋ’ of a अङ्गम् gets a गुणः replacement, when followed by the affix ‘ङि’ (सप्तमी-एकवचनम्) or an affix with the designation सर्वनामस्थानम्। By 1-1-51 उरण् रपरः, in the place of ऋवर्ण: if a अण् letter (‘अ’, ‘इ’, ‘उ’) comes as a substitute, it is always followed by a ‘रँ’ (‘र्’, ‘ल्’) letter. Hence ‘ऋ’ is replaced by ‘अर्’।

(12) वस्त्राभरणदातार् + अस् । By 6-4-11 अप्तृन्तृच्स्वसृनप्तृनेष्टृत्वष्टृक्षत्तृहोतृपोतृप्रशास्तॄणाम् – When a सर्वनामस्थानम् affix that is not a सम्बुद्धिः follows, the penultimate vowel of ‘अप्’, of words ending in affixes ‘तृन्’ and ‘तृच्’ and of the words ‘स्वसृ’, ‘नप्तृ’, ‘नेष्टृ’, ‘त्वष्टृ’, ‘क्षत्तृ’, ‘होतृ’, ‘पोतृ’ and ‘प्रशास्तृ’ is elongated. (This सूत्रम् applies in the present situation because ‘दातृ’ ends in the affix ‘तृच्’)।

(13) वस्त्राभरणदातारः । रुँत्व-विसर्गौ by 8-2-66 ससजुषो रुः and 8-3-15 खरवसानयोर्विसर्जनीयः

Questions:

1. Where has the सूत्रम् 3-2-78 सुप्यजातौ णिनिस्ताच्छील्ये been used in the verses?

2. Which compound used in the verses is a पञ्चमी-तत्पुरुष: compound?

3. Can you spot the affix ‘क’ in the verses?

4. What type of compound is जितेन्द्रियाः as used in the verses?
i. द्वन्द्व:
ii. कर्मधारय:
iii. बहुव्रीहि:
iv. षष्ठी-तत्पुरुष:

5. Which सूत्रम् prescribes the substitution ‘स’ in the compound सस्नेहा:?

6. How would you say this in Sanskrit?
“King Janaka gave his (own) daughter Sītā – adorned with clothes and ornaments – to Śrī Rāma.”

Easy questions:

1. Why is शुश्रूषन्ति a आर्ष-प्रयोग: (irregular grammatical usage)?

2. In which word(s) in the verses has the सूत्रम् 6-4-3 नामि been used?

इन्द्रविष्णुसमौ mAd

Today we will look at the form इन्द्रविष्णुसमौ  mAd from महाभारतम् 5.59.11.

श्यामौ बृहन्तौ तरुणौ शालस्कन्धाविवोद्गतौ । एकासनगतौ दृष्ट्वा भयं मां महदाविशत् ।। ५-५९-१० ।।
इन्द्रविष्णुसमावेतौ मन्दात्मा नावबुध्यते । संश्रयाद् द्रोणभीष्माभ्यां कर्णस्य च विकत्थनात् ।। ५-५९-११ ।।
निदेशस्थाविमौ यस्य मानसस्तस्य सेत्स्यते । संकल्पो धर्मराजस्य निश्चयो मे तदाभवत् ।। ५-५९-१२ ।।
सत्कृतश्चान्नपानाभ्यामासीनो लब्धसत्क्रियः । अञ्जलिं मूर्ध्नि संधाय तौ संदेशमचोदयम् ।। ।। ५-५९-१३ ।।

Translation – Having seen the two young men (Śrī Kṛṣṇa and Arjuna) of black complexion and large stature rising like the trunks of Śala trees, seated on the same seat, a great fear seized me (10). Owing to his reliance on Droṇa and Bhīṣma and owing to the boasting of Karṇa, the one (Duryodhana) of dim intellect does not understand that these two are like Indra and Viṣṇu (11). At that time I was convinced that the mental resolve of Yudhiṣṭhira (the king of virtue) –  who has these two under his command – is bound to bear fruit  (12). Entertained with food and drink and being seated with honor, I placed my clasped hands on my head and conveyed to them your message (13).

(1) इन्द्रश्च विष्णुश्च = इन्द्रविष्णू – Indra and Viṣṇu

(2) इन्द्र सुँ + विष्णु सुँ । By 2-2-29 चार्थे द्वन्द्वः – Two or more terms having the designation पदम् and standing in a relation expressible by ‘च’ (‘and’) may optionally compound to yield a compound called द्वन्द्वः।

(3) इन्द्र सुँ + विष्णु सुँ । As per the सूत्रम् 2-2-32 द्वन्द्वे घि, ‘विष्णु सुँ’ should be placed in the prior position in the compound because ‘विष्णु’ has the designation ‘घि’ (as per the सूत्रम् 1-4-7 शेषो घ्यसखि) while ‘इन्द्र’ does not. But as per the सूत्रम् 2-2-33 अजाद्यदन्तम्‌, ‘इन्द्र सुँ’ should be placed in the prior position in the compound because ‘इन्द्र’ begins with a vowel and ends in the letter ‘अ’ while ‘विष्णु’ does not.
The सूत्रम् 2-2-33 अजाद्यदन्तम्‌ being a later rule in the अष्टाध्यायी has greater force than the earlier rule 2-2-32 द्वन्द्वे घि। Hence when in a द्वन्द्व: compound there is one term which has the designation ‘घि’ and another which beings with a vowel and ends in the letter ‘अ’, the term which beings with a vowel and ends in the letter ‘अ’ is placed in the prior position. Therefore ‘इन्द्र सुँ’ is placed in the prior position in this compound.

Note: ‘इन्द्र सुँ + विष्णु सुँ’ gets the designation प्रातिपदिकम्‌ by 1-2-46 कृत्तद्धितसमासाश्च। This allows 2-4-71 to apply in the next step.

(4) इन्द्र + विष्णु । By 2-4-71 सुपो धातुप्रातिपदिकयोः – A सुँप् affix takes a लुक् elision when it is a part of a धातुः or a प्रातिपदिकम्।

= इन्द्रविष्णु ।

Now we form the तत्पुरुषः compound इन्द्रविष्णुसमौ।

(5) इन्द्रविष्णुभ्यां समौ or इन्द्रविष्ण्वो:  समौ = इन्द्रविष्णुसमौ – like Indra and Viṣṇu

(6) इन्द्रविष्णु भ्याम् + सम सुँ । By 2-1-31 पूर्वसदृशसमोनार्थकलहनिपुणमिश्रश्लक्ष्णैः – A पदम् ending in a third case affix optionally compounds with (a syntactically related पदम् composed by adding a सुँप् affix to) any one of the following and the resulting compound gets the designation तत्पुरुष: –
i) ‘पूर्व’ (prior)
ii) ‘सदृश’ (like/similar)
iii) ‘सम’ (equal to)
iv) ‘ऊनार्थ’ – ‘ऊन’ (less) or any of its synonyms
v) ‘कलह’ (quarrel)
vi) ‘निपुण’ (skillful)
vii) ‘मिश्र’ (mixed)
viii) ‘श्लक्ष्ण’ (gentle/polished.)
Note: By 1-2-43 प्रथमानिर्दिष्टं समास उपसर्जनम् – the term ‘इन्द्रविष्णु भ्याम्’ gets the designation उपसर्जनम् because in the सूत्रम् 2-1-31 (which prescribes the compounding) the term तृतीया (which comes as अनुवृत्ति: from 2-1-30 तृतीया तत्कृतार्थेन गुणवचनेन) ends in the nominative case. Hence ‘इन्द्रविष्णु भ्याम्’ is placed in the prior position in the compound as per the सूत्रम् 2-2-30 उपसर्जनं पूर्वम्‌ – In a compound a term which has the designation ‘उपसर्जन’ should be placed in the prior position.

or

(6) इन्द्रविष्णु ओस् + सम सुँ । By 2-2-8 षष्ठी – A पदम् ending in a sixth case affix optionally compounds with a (syntactically related) पदम् ending in a सुँप् affix and the resulting compound gets the designation तत्पुरुष:।
Note: By the सूत्रम् 1-2-43 प्रथमानिर्दिष्टं समास उपसर्जनम् – ‘इन्द्रविष्णु ओस्’ (which ends in a sixth case affix) gets the designation उपसर्जनम् because in the सूत्रम् 2-2-8 षष्ठी (which prescribes the compounding) the term षष्ठी ends in the nominative case. Hence ‘इन्द्रविष्णु ओस्’ is placed in the prior position in the compound as per the सूत्रम् 2-2-30 उपसर्जनं पूर्वम्‌ – In a compound a term which has the designation ‘उपसर्जन’ should be placed in the prior position.

Note: ‘इन्द्रविष्णु भ्याम् + सम सुँ’ / ‘इन्द्रविष्णु ओस् + सम सुँ’ gets the designation प्रातिपदिकम्‌ by 1-2-46 कृत्तद्धितसमासाश्च। This allows 2-4-71 सुपो धातुप्रातिपदिकयोः to apply in the next step.

(7) इन्द्रविष्णु + सम । By 2-4-71 सुपो धातुप्रातिपदिकयोः – A सुँप् affix takes a लुक् elision when it is a part of a धातुः or a प्रातिपदिकम्।

= इन्द्रविष्णुसम ।

As per the सूत्रम् 2-4-26 परवल्लिङ्गं द्वन्द्वतत्पुरुषयोः, the compound प्रातिपदिकम् ‘इन्द्रविष्णुसम’ is masculine since the final member ‘सम’ of the compound is used here in the masculine. (The entire compound is qualifying श्रीकृष्णार्जुनौ।)

The विवक्षा is द्वितीया-द्विवचनम् ।

(8) इन्द्रविष्णुसम + औट् । By 4-1-2 स्वौजसमौट्छष्टाभ्याम्भिस्ङेभ्याम्भ्यस्ङसिँभ्याम्भ्यस्ङसोसाम्ङ्योस्सुप्

(9) इन्द्रविष्णुसम + औ । अनुबन्ध-लोपः by 1-3-3 हलन्त्यम् and 1-3-9 तस्य लोपः

(10) इन्द्रविष्णुसमौ । By 6-1-88 वृद्धिरेचि । Note: 6-1-104 नादिचि stops 6-1-102 प्रथमयोः पूर्वसवर्णः।

Questions:

1. In which other compound (besides ‘इन्द्रविष्णु’) in the verses has the सूत्रम् 2-2-33 अजाद्यदन्तम्‌ (used in step 3) been applied?

2. Can you spot a द्वितीया-तत्पुरुष: compound in the verses?

3. In which compound in the verses has the affix ‘टच्’ been used?

4. Which सूत्रम् prescribes the substitution ‘ई’ in the form आसीन:?

5. In which word in the verses has the substitution ‘ल्यप्’ (in place of the affix ‘क्त्वा’) been used?

6. How would you say this in Sanskrit?
“In prowess, Sugrīva and (Śrī) Hanumān were equal to Indra and Vāyu.”

Easy questions:

1. Can you spot the affix ‘श’ in the verses?

2. Which सूत्रम् prescribes the affix ‘श्यन्’ in the form अवबुध्यते?

ऋक्षसिंहमृगद्विजान् mAp

Today we will look at the form ऋक्षसिंहमृगद्विजान् mAp from श्रीमद्-वाल्मीकि-रामायणम् 3.69.31.

अग्निज्वालानिकाशेन ललाटस्थेन दीप्यता । महापक्ष्मेण पिङ्गेन विपुलेनायतेन च ।। ३-६९-२९ ।।
एकेनोरसि घोरेण नयनेन सुदर्शिना । महादंष्ट्रोपपन्नं तं लेलिहानं महामुखम् ।। ३-६९-३० ।।
भक्षयन्तं महाघोरानृक्षसिंहमृगद्विजान् । घोरौ भुजौ विकुर्वाणमुभौ योजनमायतौ ।। ३-६९-३१ ।।
कराभ्यां विविधान्गृह्य ऋक्षान्पक्षिगणान्मृगान् । आकर्षन्तं विकर्षन्तमनेकान्मृगयूथपान् ।। ३-६९-३२ ।।

Gita Press translation – Endowed with a single fearful reddish yet brown fiery eye, both long and wide and bright as a flame, located in a forehead in (the center of) the chest, (nay) furnished with long lashes and possessing a good vision, the ogre was licking again and again his enormous mouth set with big teeth (29-30). The ogre devoured the fiercest bears and lions as well as other beasts and birds. Stretching out both his frightful arms, each eight miles long, and seizing with his hands bears and other beasts and flocks of birds of various kinds, he drew towards himself many leaders of herds of deer and cast aside others (31-32).

(1) ऋक्षाश्च सिंहाश्च मृगाश्च द्विजाश्च = ऋक्षसिंहमृगद्विजा: – bears and lions and (other) beasts and birds

(2) ऋक्ष जस् + सिंह जस् + मृग जस् + द्विज जस् । By 2-2-29 चार्थे द्वन्द्वः – Two or more terms having the designation पदम् and standing in a relation expressible by ‘च’ (‘and’) may optionally compound to yield a compound called द्वन्द्वः।

(3) ऋक्ष जस् + सिंह जस् + मृग जस् + द्विज जस् । By 2-2-33 अजाद्यदन्तम्‌ – In a द्वन्द्व: compound the term which begins with a vowel and ends in the letter ‘अ’ is placed in the prior position. ‘ ऋक्ष’ begins with a vowel and ends in the letter ‘अ’। Hence as per 2-2-33, ‘ ऋक्ष जस्’ is placed in the prior position in this द्वन्द्व: compound (and the remaining terms of the compound may be placed in any order.)

Note: ‘ऋक्ष जस् + सिंह जस् + मृग जस् + द्विज जस्’ gets the designation प्रातिपदिकम्‌ 1-2-46 कृत्तद्धितसमासाश्च। This allows 2-4-71 to apply in the next step.

(4) ऋक्ष + सिंह + मृग + द्विज । By 2-4-71 सुपो धातुप्रातिपदिकयोः – A सुँप् affix takes a लुक् elision when it is a part of a धातुः or a प्रातिपदिकम्।

= ऋक्षसिंहमृगद्विज ।

As per the सूत्रम् 2-4-26 परवल्लिङ्गं द्वन्द्वतत्पुरुषयोः, the compound प्रातिपदिकम् ‘ऋक्षसिंहमृगद्विज’ is masculine since the latter member ‘द्विज’ of the compound is used here in the masculine. The compound declines like राम-शब्द:।

The विवक्षा is द्वितीया-बहुवचनम्।

(5) ऋक्षसिंहमृगद्विज + शस् । By 4-1-2 स्वौजसमौट्छष्टाभ्याम्भिस्ङेभ्याम्भ्यस्ङसिभ्याम्भ्यस्ङसोसाम्ङ्योस्सुप्‌

(6) ऋक्षसिंहमृगद्विज + अस् । अनुबन्ध-लोपः by 1-3-8 लशक्वतद्धिते and 1-3-9 तस्य लोपः1-3-4 न विभक्तौ तुस्माः prevents the ending letter ‘स्’ of ‘शस्’ from getting the इत्-सञ्ज्ञा ।

(7) ऋक्षसिंहमृगद्विजास् । By 6-1-102 प्रथमयोः पूर्वसवर्णः – When a अक् letter is followed by a vowel (अच्) of the first (nominative) or second (accusative) case then for the two of them (अक् + अच्) there is a single substitute which is the elongated form of the first member (the अक् letter.)

(8) ऋक्षसिंहमृगद्विजान् । By 6-1-103 तस्माच्छसो नः पुंसि – In the masculine gender, when the letter ‘स्’ of the affix ‘शस्’ follows a vowel which has been elongated by 6-1-102 then it is replaced by the letter ‘न्’।

Questions:

1. Commenting on the सूत्रम् 2-2-33 अजाद्यदन्तम्‌ (used in step 3) the काशिका says – तपरकरणं किम्? अश्वावृषौ, वृषाश्व इति वा। Please explain.

2. In which word(s) in the verses has the कृत् affix ‘क’ been used?

3. Which सूत्रम् prescribes the affix ल्युट् in the neuter प्रातिपदिकम् ‘नयन’ (used in the form नयनेन (तृतीया-एकवचनम्) in the verses)? Hint: The विग्रह: is नीयतेऽनेन।

4. In which compound(s) in the verses has the सूत्रम् 6-3-46 आन्महतः समानाधिकरणजातीययोः been used?

5. The form गृह्य used in the verses is a आर्ष-प्रयोग: (irregular grammatical usage.) What is the grammatically correct form?

6. How would you say this in Sanskrit?
“There was a fierce battle between Indra and Vṛtra.” Use the adjective प्रातिपदिकम् ‘उग्र’ for ‘fierce.’ Construct a द्वन्द्व: compound for ‘Indra and Vṛtra’ = इन्द्रश्च वृत्रश्च।

Easy questions:

1. In the verses can you spot a प्रातिपदिकम् which is used only in the dual (no singular or plural)?

2. Where has the सूत्रम् 7-3-102 सुपि च been used in the verses?

पवनाग्निसमागमः mNs

Today we will look at the form पवनाग्निसमागमः  mNs from रघुवंशम् verse 8-4.

स बभूव दुरासदः परैर्गुरुणाऽथर्वविदा कृतक्रियः ।
पवनाग्निसमागमो ह्ययं सहितं ब्रह्म यदस्त्रतेजसा ॥ ८-४ ॥

मल्लिनाथ-टीका
इति अथर्वविदाऽथर्ववेदाभिज्ञेन गुरुणा वसिष्ठेन कृतक्रियः । अथर्वोक्तविधिना कृताभिषेकसंस्कार इत्यर्थ: । सोऽजः परैः शत्रुभिर्दुरासदो दुर्धर्षो बभूव । तथा हि – अस्त्रतेजसा क्षत्रतेजसा सहितं युक्तं यद्ब्रह्म ब्रह्मतेजोऽयं पवनाग्निसमागमो हि तत्कल्प इत्यर्थः । ‘पवनाग्नि’ इत्यत्र पूर्वनिपातशास्त्रस्यानित्यत्वात् ‘2-2-32 द्वन्द्वे घि’ इति नाग्निशब्दस्य पूर्वनिपातः । तथा च काशिकायाम् – ‘अयमेकस्तु लक्षणहेत्वोरिति निर्देशः पूर्वनिपातव्यभिचारचिह्नम्’ इति । क्षात्रेणैवायं दुर्धर्षः किमयं पुनर्वसिष्ठमन्त्रप्रभावे सतीत्यर्थः । अत्र मनुः – ‘नाक्षत्रं ब्रह्म भवति क्षत्रं नाब्रह्म वर्धते । ब्रह्म क्षत्रं च संपृक्तमिह चामुत्र च वर्धते ।।’ इति ।। ४ ।।

Translation – Thus when his preceptor, who was deep-learned in Atharva texts, had performed the rites for his installation, he became irresistable to his foes : for like Wind and Fire uniting are sacred lore joined to the glory of weapons (4).

(1) पवनश्चाग्निश्च = पवनाग्नी – Wind and Fire

(2) पवन सुँ + अग्नि सुँ । By 2-2-29 चार्थे द्वन्द्वः – Two or more terms having the designation पदम् and standing in a relation expressible by ‘च’ (‘and’) may optionally compound to yield a compound called द्वन्द्वः।

(3) पवन सुँ + अग्नि सुँ । ‘अग्नि’ has the designation ‘घि’ (as per the सूत्रम् 1-4-7 शेषो घ्यसखि) while ‘पवन’ does not. Hence ‘अग्नि सुँ’ should be placed in the prior position in the compound as per the सूत्रम् 2-2-32 द्वन्द्वे घि – In a द्वन्द्व: compound the term having the designation ‘घि’ is placed in the prior position.
Also ‘पवन’ has three syllables while ‘अग्नि’ has two syllables. Therefore ‘अग्नि सुँ’ should be placed in the prior position as per the सूत्रम् 2-2-34 अल्पाच्तरम्‌ – In a द्वन्द्व: compound the term having the least number of syllables (vowels) is placed in the prior position.

(4) The placement of ‘पवन सुँ’ in the prior position is justified using the ज्ञापकम् contained in the सूत्रम् 3-2-126 लक्षणहेत्वोः क्रियायाः। ‘लक्षण’ has three syllables while ‘हेतु’ has two syllables. Therefore as per the सूत्रम् 2-2-34 अल्पाच्तरम्‌, ‘हेतु’ should have been placed in the prior position (in the compound लक्षणहेत्वोः)। But पाणिनि: has placed ‘लक्षण’ in the prior position. This gives us a hint that we may occasionally find violations of the rules which prescribe prior placement in a compound.

Note: ‘पवन सुँ + अग्नि सुँ’ gets the designation प्रातिपदिकम्‌ 1-2-46 कृत्तद्धितसमासाश्च। This allows 2-4-71 to apply in the next step.

(5) पवन + अग्नि । By 2-4-71 सुपो धातुप्रातिपदिकयोः – A सुँप् affix takes a लुक् elision when it is a part of a धातुः or a प्रातिपदिकम्।

(6) पवनाग्नि । By 6-1-101 अकः सवर्णे दीर्घः

Now we form the षष्ठी-समास: – पवनाग्न्योः समागम: = पवनाग्निसमागम: ।

(6) पवनाग्नि ओस् + समागम सुँ । By 2-2-8 षष्ठी – A पदम् ending in a sixth case affix optionally compounds with a (syntactically related) पदम् ending in a सुँप् affix and the resulting compound gets the designation तत्पुरुष:।

(7) By 1-2-43 प्रथमानिर्दिष्टं समास उपसर्जनम् – the term ‘पवनाग्नि ओस्’ gets the designation उपसर्जनम् because in the सूत्रम् 2-2-8 (which prescribes the compounding) the term षष्ठी ends in the nominative case. Hence ‘पवनाग्नि ओस्’ is placed in the prior position in the compound as per the सूत्रम् 2-2-30 उपसर्जनं पूर्वम्‌ – In a compound a term which has the designation ‘उपसर्जन’ should be placed in the prior position.

Note: ‘पवनाग्नि ओस् + समागम सुँ’ gets the designation प्रातिपदिकम्‌ by 1-2-46 कृत्तद्धितसमासाश्च। This allows 2-4-71 to apply in the next step.

(8) पवनाग्नि + समागम । By 2-4-71 सुपो धातुप्रातिपदिकयोः – A सुँप् affix takes a लुक् elision when it is a part of a धातुः or a प्रातिपदिकम्।

= पवनाग्निसमागम ।

As per the सूत्रम् 2-4-26 परवल्लिङ्गं द्वन्द्वतत्पुरुषयोः, the compound प्रातिपदिकम् ‘पवनाग्निसमागम’ is masculine since the latter member ‘समागम’ of the compound is masculine. The compound declines like राम-शब्द:।

The विवक्षा is प्रथमा-एकवचनम् ।

(9) पवनाग्निसमागम + सुँ । By 4-1-2 स्वौजसमौट्छष्टाभ्याम्भिस्ङेभ्याम्भ्यस्ङसिँभ्याम्भ्यस्ङसोसाम्ङ्योस्सुप्

(10) पवनाग्निसमागम + स् । अनुबन्ध-लोपः by 1-3-2 उपदेशेऽजनुनासिक इत् and 1-3-9 तस्य लोपः।

(11) पवनाग्निसमागम: । रुँत्व-विसर्गौ by 8-2-66 ससजुषो रुः and 8-3-15 खरवसानयोर्विसर्जनीयः

Questions:

1. What type of compound is कृतक्रियः used in the verses?
i. द्वन्द्व:
ii. षष्ठीतत्पुरुष:
iii. कर्मधारय:
iv. बहुव्रीहि:

2. Which कृत् affix is used to derive the form दुरासदः used in the verse?

3. Where has the सूत्रम् 2-3-19 सहयुक्तेऽप्रधाने been used in the verse?

4. Can you spot the affix ‘क्विँप्’ in the verse?

5. Which सूत्रम् justifies the use of a seventh case affix in the words वसिष्ठमन्त्रप्रभावे and सति in the commentary?

6. How would you say this in Sanskrit?
“One should avoid onion and garlic.” Construct a द्वन्द्व: compound for ‘onion and garlic’ = पलाण्डुं च लशुनं च। Use the verbal root √वृज् (वृजीँ वर्जने १०. ३४४) for ‘to avoid.’

Easy questions:

1. Which सूत्रम् prescribes the augment ‘वुक्’ in the form बभूव?

2. Where has the सूत्रम् 3-4-79 टित आत्मनेपदानां टेरे been used in the commentary?

वृष्णिपार्थानाम् mGp

Today we will look at the form वृष्णिपार्थानाम् mGp from श्रीमद्भागवतम् verse 1.16.14.

तत्र तत्रोपशृण्वानः स्वपूर्वेषां महात्मनाम् । प्रगीयमाणं च यशः कृष्णमाहात्म्यसूचकम् ।। १-१६-१३ ।।
आत्मानं च परित्रातमश्वत्थाम्नोऽस्त्रतेजसः । स्नेहं च वृष्णिपार्थानां तेषां भक्तिं च केशवे ।। १-१६-१४ ।।
तेभ्यः परमसंतुष्टः प्रीत्युज्जृम्भितलोचनः । महाधनानि वासांसि ददौ हारान्महामनाः ।। १-१६-१५ ।।

श्रीधर-स्वामि-टीका
प्रगीयमानं यशः । यशआदीनि शृण्वंस्तेभ्यो ददाविति तृतीयेनान्वयः ।। १३ – १६ ।।

Gita Press translation – Everywhere he heard the people sing the praises of his high-souled forbears (the Pāṇḍavas), revealing at the same time the glory of Śrī Kṛṣṇa (13). He also heard the story of his own deliverance (at the hands of Śrī Kṛṣṇa) from the fire of the missile discharged by Aśwatthāmā (the son of Droṇa), as well as of the cordial relations existing between the Vṛṣṇis (the Yādavas) and the sons of Pṛthā (Kuntī) and of the latters’ devotion to Lord Keśava (Śrī Kṛṣṇa) (14). Highly pleased with them (those who sang these stories) the noble-minded emperor bestowed on them costly garments and necklaces, his eyes open with joy (15).

(1) वृष्णयश्च पार्थाश्च = वृष्णिपार्था: – Vṛṣṇis (the Yādavas) and the sons of Pṛthā (Kuntī)

(2) वृष्णि जस् + पार्थ जस् । By 2-2-29 चार्थे द्वन्द्वः – Two or more terms having the designation पदम् and standing in a relation expressible by ‘च’ (‘and’) may optionally compound to yield a compound called द्वन्द्वः।

(3) वृष्णि जस् + पार्थ जस् । ‘वृष्णि’ has the designation ‘घि’ (as per the सूत्रम् 1-4-7 शेषो घ्यसखि) while ‘पार्थ’ does not. Hence ‘वृष्णि जस्’ is placed in the prior position in the compound as per the सूत्रम् 2-2-32 द्वन्द्वे घि – In a द्वन्द्व: compound the term having the designation ‘घि’ is placed in the prior position.

Note: ‘वृष्णि जस् + पार्थ जस्’ gets the designation प्रातिपदिकम्‌ by 1-2-46 कृत्तद्धितसमासाश्च। This allows 2-4-71 to apply in the next step.

(4) वृष्णि + पार्थ । By 2-4-71 सुपो धातुप्रातिपदिकयोः – A सुँप् affix takes a लुक् elision when it is a part of a धातुः or a प्रातिपदिकम्।

= वृष्णिपार्थ ।

As per the सूत्रम् 2-4-26 परवल्लिङ्गं द्वन्द्वतत्पुरुषयोः, the compound प्रातिपदिकम् ‘वृष्णिपार्थ’ is masculine since the final member ‘पार्थ’ of the compound is used here in the masculine. This द्वन्द्वः compound (which expresses इतरेतरयोगः) is dual in number because it has two members. It declines like राम-शब्द:।

The विवक्षा is षष्ठी-बहुवचनम्।

(5) वृष्णिपार्थ + आम् । By 4-1-2 स्वौजसमौट्छष्टाभ्याम्भिस्ङेभ्याम्भ्यस्ङसिँभ्याम्भ्यस्ङसोसाम्ङ्योस्सुप्
Note: 1-3-4 न विभक्तौ तुस्माः prevents the ending letter ‘म्’ of the affix ‘आम्’ from getting इत्-सञ्ज्ञा।

(6) वृष्णिपार्थ + नुँट् आम् । By 7-1-54 ह्रस्वनद्यापो नुट् – The affix ‘आम्’ takes the augment ‘नुँट्’ when it follows a प्रातिपदिकम् which either ends in a short vowel or has the नदी-सञ्ज्ञा or ends in the feminine affix ‘आप्’।
As per 1-1-46 आद्यन्तौ टकितौ the augment ‘नुँट्’ joins at the beginning of the affix ‘आम्’।

(7) वृष्णिपार्थ + नाम् । अनुबन्ध-लोपः by 1-3-2 उपदेशेऽजनुनासिक इत्, 1-3-3 हलन्त्यम् and 1-3-9 तस्य लोपः

(8) वृष्णिपार्थानाम् । By 6-4-3 नामि – The ending vowel of an अङ्गम् gets elongated if followed by the term ‘नाम्’।

Questions:

1. Commenting on the सूत्रम् 2-2-32 द्वन्द्वे घि (used in step 3) the तत्त्वबोधिनी says – ‘अनेकम्’ इति सर्वेषामेव प्रथमानिर्दिष्टत्वेनोपसर्जनत्वाविशेषादनियमप्राप्तावयमारम्भः। Please explain.

2. Commenting on the same सूत्रम् the काशिका says – द्वन्द्व इति किम्? विस्पष्टपटुः। Please explain. Hint: The पदमञ्जरी (which is a commentary on the काशिका) analyses the compound विस्पष्टपटुः as विस्पष्टं पटुरिति विगृह्य ‘सुप्सुपा’ इति समास:।

2. What is the विग्रह: of the compound प्रीत्युज्जृम्भितलोचनः used in the verses?

3. Where does the सूत्रम् 1-4-25 भीत्रार्थानां भयहेतुः find application in the verses?

4. The seventh case affix in the form केशवे used in the verse is prescribed by the सूत्रम् 2-3-36 सप्तम्यधिकरणे च because ‘केशव’ has the designation अधिकरणम् as per the सूत्रम् 1-4-45 आधारोऽधिकरणम्। आधारः is of three kinds (i) औपश्लेषिक: involving contact or proximity (ii) वैषयिक: involving a subject matter (iii) अभिव्यापक: involving pervasion. Which one (of these three) is it here?

5. Which सूत्रम् prescribes the substitution ‘ण्’ (in place of the letter ‘न्’) in the form प्रगीयमाणम् used in the verses?

6. How would you say this in Sanskrit?
“There is no difference between (Lord) Viṣṇu and (Lord) Śiva.” Form a द्वन्द्व: compound for ‘(Lord) Viṣṇu and (Lord) Śiva’ = ‘हरिश्च हरश्च’।

Easy questions:

1. Where has the सूत्रम् 6-4-8 सर्वनामस्थाने चासम्बुद्धौ been used in the verses?

2. Which सूत्रम् prescribes the substitution ‘औ’ (in place of the affix ‘णल्’) in the form ददौ?

दम्पती mNd

Today we will look at the form दम्पती mNd from श्रीमद्भागवतम् verse 11.7.59.

प्रजाः पुपुषतुः प्रीतौ दम्पती पुत्रवत्सलौ । शृण्वन्तौ कूजितं तासां निर्वृतौ कलभाषितैः ।। ११-७-५९ ।।
तासां पतत्रैः सुस्पर्शैः कूजितैर्मुग्धचेष्टितैः । प्रत्युद्गमैरदीनानां पितरौ मुदमापतुः ।। ११-७-६० ।।

श्रीधर-स्वामि-टीका
पतत्रैः पक्षैः । अदीनानां हृष्टानाम् ।। ६० ।।

Gita Press translation – Hearing their cooing and delighted by their sweet chirping, the pair, fond as they were of their offsprings, nourished them with (great) affection (59). The parents derived (great) joy through (the touch of) the feathers, (so) pleasant to touch, (sweet) chirps and charming movements of their happy youngs and their coming forth to meet them (60).

(1) जाया च पतिश्च = जायापती/दम्पती/जम्पती – wife and husband

(2) जाया सुँ + पति सुँ । By 2-2-29 चार्थे द्वन्द्वः – Two or more terms having the designation पदम् and standing in a relation expressible by ‘च’ (‘and’) may optionally compound to yield a compound called द्वन्द्वः। Here ‘पति’ has the designation ‘घि’ as per the सूत्रम् 1-4-8 पतिः समास एव and hence as per the सूत्रम् 2-2-32 द्वन्द्वे घि we should place ‘पति सुँ’ in the prior position in the compound.

(4) जाया सुँ + पति सुँ । By 2-2-31 राजदन्तादिषु परम्‌ – In the list of compounds ‘राजदन्त’ etc the term which ought to be placed in the prior position in the compound is actually placed in the latter position. In spite of the सूत्रम् 2-2-32 द्वन्द्वे घि, ‘पति सुँ’ is placed in the final position in the compound in order to arrive at the compound जायापती as listed in the राजदन्तादि-गण:। Note: ‘जाया सुँ + पति सुँ’ gets the designation प्रातिपदिकम्‌ by 1-2-46 कृत्तद्धितसमासाश्च। This allows 2-4-71 to apply in the next step.

(5) जाया + पति । By 2-4-71 सुपो धातुप्रातिपदिकयोः – A सुँप् affix takes a लुक् elision when it is a part of a धातुः or a प्रातिपदिकम्।

= जायापति ।

Note: जायाशब्दस्य जम्भावो दम्भावश्च वा निपात्यते – The compounds जम्पती and दम्पती are listed in the राजदन्तादि-गण: hence we conclude that ‘जाया’ may optionally take the form ‘जम्’ or ‘दम्’ in the compound जायापती to give the two optional compound forms जम्पती and दम्पती।

As per the सूत्रम् 2-4-26 परवल्लिङ्गं द्वन्द्वतत्पुरुषयोः, the compound प्रातिपदिकम् ‘जायापति’ or ‘जम्पति’ or ‘दम्पति’ is masculine since the final member ‘पति’ is masculine. This द्वन्द्वः compound (which expresses इतरेतरयोगः) is dual in number because it has two members. It declines like हरि-शब्द:।

The विवक्षा is प्रथमा ।

(6) दम्पति + औ । By 4-1-2 स्वौजसमौट्छष्टाभ्याम्भिस्ङेभ्याम्भ्यस्ङसिँभ्याम्भ्यस्ङसोसाम्ङ्योस्सुप्

(7) दम्पती । By 6-1-102 प्रथमयोः पूर्वसवर्णः – When an अक् letter is followed by a vowel (अच्) of the first (nominative) or second (accusative) case then for the two of them (अक् + अच्) there is a single substitute which is the elongated form of the first member (the अक् letter.)

Questions:

1. Can you spot a बहुव्रीहि: compound in the verses?

2. Where has the सूत्रम् 2-2-6 नञ्‌ been used in the verses?

3. Which कृत् affix is used the derive the neuter प्रातिपदिकम् ‘पतत्र’ (used in the form पतत्रैः (तृतीया-बहुवचनम्) in the verses)? Hint: The विग्रह: is ‘पतन्तं त्रायते’।

4. In which sense has a third case affix been used in the words कूजितै:, मुग्धचेष्टितैः and प्रत्युद्गमै: in the verses?
i. कर्तरि
ii. करणे
iii. हेतौ
iv. None of the above

5. Which सूत्रम् prescribes the affix ल्युट् used in the form ‘चेष्टित’ (as part of the compound मुग्धचेष्टितैः) in the verses?

6. How would you say this in Sanskrit?
“A couple (husband and wife) who has no offspring should perform this worship for getting a son.” Form a बहुव्रीहि: compound for ‘a couple (husband and wife) who has no offspring’ = ‘अविद्यमानमपत्यं ययोस्तौ (दम्पती)’। Use the feminine प्रातिपदिकम् ‘पूजा’ for ‘worship.’ Use a fourth case affix to express the meaning ‘for.’

Easy questions:

1. Which सूत्रम् prescribes the substitution ‘अतुस्’ (in place of the affix ‘तस्’) in the forms पुपुषतुः and आपतुः?

2. Where has the सूत्रम् 7-1-52 आमि सर्वनाम्नः सुट् been used in the verses?

Recent Posts

Topics