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गमिष्यथ 2Ap-लृँट्

Today we will look at the form गमिष्यथ 2Ap-लृँट् from श्रीमद्भागवतम् 11.30.48.

द्वारकायां च न स्थेयं भवद्भिश्च स्वबन्धुभिः।
मया त्यक्तां यदुपुरीं समुद्रः प्लावयिष्यति ।। ११-३०-४७ ।।
स्वं स्वं परिग्रहं सर्वे आदाय पितरौ च नः ।
अर्जुनेनाविताः सर्व इन्द्रप्रस्थं गमिष्यथ ।। ११-३०-४८ ।।

अविता रक्ष्यमाणा इन्द्रप्रस्थं गमिष्यथेति ब्रूहीति पूर्वेणान्वयः ।। ४८ ।।

Gita Press translation – (Tell them on My behalf:) “You should no longer stay at Dwārakā with your relations in as much as the sea will submerge the capital of the Yadus (now that it has been) forsaken by Me. Taking (with you) each your own family and possessions as well as Our parents (Devakī and Vasudeva) and guarded by Arjuna, you should all leave for Indraprastha without exception.”

गमिष्यथ is derived from the धातुः √गम् (गमॢँ गतौ १. ११३७)

In the धातु-पाठः, the धातुः √गम् has one इत् letter – the ऌकार: following the मकार:। This इत् letter has a उदात्त-स्वर:। Thus √गम् is devoid of any indications for bringing in आत्मनेपद-प्रत्यया:। (Neither 1-3-12 अनुदात्तङित आत्मनेपदम् nor 1-3-72 स्वरितञितः कर्त्रभिप्राये क्रियाफले applies.) Therefore, as per 1-3-78 शेषात् कर्तरि परस्मैपदम्, in कर्तरि प्रयोग:, √गम् takes परस्मैपद-प्रत्यया: by default. As per 1-4-99 लः परस्मैपदम्, 1-4-100 तङानावात्मनेपदम्, the nine प्रत्यया: from “तिप्” to “मस्” get the परस्मैपद-सञ्ज्ञा। So √गम् can take only one of these nine प्रत्यया: in कर्तरि प्रयोग:।

The विवक्षा is लृँट्, कर्तरि प्रयोग:, मध्यम-पुरुषः, बहुवचनम्

(1) गम् + लृँट् । 3-3-13 लृट् शेषे च – With or without the presence of a क्रियार्था क्रिया (an action meant or intended for another action), the affix लृँट् is prescribed after a धातुः when used in the sense of future.

(2) गम् + ल् । अनुबन्ध-लोपः by 1-3-2 उपदेशेऽजनुनासिक इत्, 1-3-3 हलन्त्यम्, 1-3-9 तस्य लोपः

(3) गम् + थ । 3-4-78 तिप्तस्झिसिप्थस्थमिब्वस्मस्तातांझथासाथांध्वमिड्वहिमहिङ् mandates the प्रत्ययः “थ” as the substitute for the लकारः।

(4) गम् + स्य + थ । By 3-1-33 स्यतासी लृलुटोः, the affixes “स्य” and “तासिँ” are prescribed after a धातुः when followed by “लृँ” (लृँट् or लृँङ्) or लुँट् respectively.

Note: This rule is a अपवाद: for 3-1-68 कर्तरि शप्‌ etc.

(5) गम् + इट् स्य + थ । By 7-2-58 गमेरिट् परस्मैपदेषु – When not followed by a आत्मनेपदम् affix, a आर्धधातुकम् affix which begins with the letter ‘स्’ gets the augment इट् when following the verbal root √गम् (गमॢँ गतौ १. ११३७). 1-1-46 आद्यन्तौ टकितौ places the “इट्”-आगमः at the beginning of the प्रत्यय:।

Note: In the absence of 7-2-58 गमेरिट् परस्मैपदेषु, the augment इट् would not have been possible because 7-2-10 एकाच उपदेशेऽनुदात्तात्‌ blocks 7-2-35 आर्धधातुकस्येड् वलादेः here.

See question 2.

(6) गम् + इस्य + थ । अनुबन्ध-लोपः by 1-3-3 हलन्त्यम्, 1-3-9 तस्य लोपः

(7) गमिष्यथ । By 8-3-59 आदेशप्रत्यययो:, the letter “स्” is replaced by the cerebral “ष्” when preceded either by a letter of the इण्-प्रत्याहार: or a letter of the क-वर्ग: (“क्”, “ख्”, “ग्”, “घ्”, “ङ्”)। This substitution only takes place if the “स्” is an आदेश: (substitute) or part of a प्रत्यय: (affix.)


1. In which chapter of the गीता has लृँट् been used in the first verse?

2. In the धातु-पाठ:, √गम् (गमॢँ गतौ १. ११३७) is one of four monosyllabic (एकाच:) verbal roots which end in a मकार: and are अनुदात्तोपदेशा:। Which are the other three?

3. Why does पाणिनि: again say “इट्” in the सूत्रम् 7-2-58 गमेरिट् परस्मैपदेषु, even though अनुवृत्ति: of “इट्” is coming from 7-2-52 वसतिक्षुधोरिट्? The काशिका gives the answer as इड्ग्रहणं नित्यार्थम्। Please explain.

4. In order to point out the significance of the term परस्मैपदेषु in the सूत्रम् 7-2-58 गमेरिट् परस्मैपदेषु, the काशिका gives the counterexample संगंस्यते। Can you try to find a सूत्रम् (which we have not studied) in 1-3 (third quarter of the first chapter) of the अष्टाध्यायी by which we can justify the use of आत्मनेपदम् in the form संगंस्यते?

5. Commenting further on 7-2-58 गमेरिट् परस्मैपदेषु, the काशिका says “से” इत्येव, गन्तास्मि। Please explain.

6. How would you say this in Sanskrit?
“Only through knowledge will there be an end to (of) my sorrow.” This is the same sentence as in yesterday’s post. But this time paraphrase the last part of the sentence to “my sorrow will go to an end.”

Easy questions:

1. Where has 7-3-110 ऋतो ङिसर्वनामस्थानयोः been used in the verses?

2. Can you identify a spot in the verses where सन्धि-कार्यम् has not been done?

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