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सन्दधे 3As-लिँट्

Today we will look at the form सन्दधे 3As-लिँट् from श्रीमद्भागवतम् Sb4.19.21

अत्रिः सन्दर्शयामास त्वरमाणं विहायसा ।
कपालखट्वाङ्गधरं वीरो नैनमबाधत ।। ४-१९-२० ।।
अत्रिणा चोदितस्तस्मै सन्दधे विशिखं रुषा ।
सोऽश्वं रूपं च तद्धित्वा तस्थावन्तर्हितः स्वराट् ।। ४-१९-२१ ।।

No commentary on these verses.

Gita Press translation “As Indra was hurriedly passing through the skies Atri directed the attention (of Vijitāśwa). The hero, however, did not obstruct him, holding as he did (in his hand) a staff with a skull on its top. Urged, however, by Atri, he set an arrow to his bowstring in indignation and aimed it at him. Indra (thereupon) gave up the horse as well as his garb and stood invisible.”

दधे is derived from the धातुः √धा (जुहोत्यादि-गणः, डुधाञ् धारणपोषणयोः | दान इत्यप्येके धातु-पाठः #३. ११)

The “डु” at the beginning of this धातुः gets इत्-सञ्ज्ञा by 1-3-5 आदिर्ञिटुडवः। The ञकारः at the end gets इत्-सञ्ज्ञा by 1-3-3 हलन्त्यम्। Both take लोप: by 1-3-9 तस्य लोपः

Since √धा has ञकारः as इत् in the धातु-पाठः, by 1-3-72 स्वरितञितः कर्त्रभिप्राये क्रियाफले this धातु: is उभयपदी। In this verse, it has taken a आत्मनेपद-प्रत्यय:।

The विवक्षा is लिँट्, कर्तरि प्रयोग:, प्रथम-पुरुषः, एकवचनम्, hence the प्रत्ययः is “त”।

(1) धा + लिँट् । By 3-2-115 परोक्षे लिँट्, the affix लिँट् (Perfect Tense) comes after a verbal root in the sense of the past not of today, provided that the action is unperceived by the narrator.

(2) धा + ल् । अनुबन्ध-लोपः by 1-3-2 उपदेशेऽजनुनासिक इत्, 1-3-3 हलन्त्यम्, 1-3-9 तस्य लोपः

(3) धा + त । 3-4-78 तिप्तस्झिसिप्थस्थमिब्वस्मस्तातांझथासाथांध्वमिड्वहिमहिङ् mandates the प्रत्ययः “त” as the substitute for the लकारः। By 3-4-115 लिट् च, a तिङ्-प्रत्यय: which comes in place of लिँट् gets the आर्धधातुक-सञ्ज्ञा। Therefore “त” gets the आर्धधातुक-सञ्ज्ञा। This prevents 3-1-68 कर्तरि शप्‌ (which requires a सार्वधातुक-प्रत्यय: to follow) from applying.

(4) धा + एश् । By 3-4-81 लिटस्तझयोरेशिरेच्, when they come in place of लिँट्, the affixes “त” and “झ” take the substitutions “एश्” and “इरेच्” respectively.
As per 1-3-10 यथासंख्यमनुदेशः समानाम् the substitutions are done respectively. And as per 1-1-55 अनेकाल् शित् सर्वस्य, the substitute “एश्” takes the place of the entire affix “त” – and not just its ending letter.

(5) धा + ए । अनुबन्ध-लोपः by 1-3-3 हलन्त्यम्, 1-3-9 तस्य लोपः

(6) धा धा + ए । By 6-1-8 लिटि धातोरनभ्यासस्य, when लिँट् follows a verbal root, there is reduplication of the first portion – containing a single vowel – of the verbal root which is not already reduplicated. But if the verbal root (that has more than one vowel) begins with a vowel, then the reduplication is of the second portion – containing a single vowel.

Note: As per 1-1-59 द्विर्वचनेऽचि, while reduplication is yet to be done, a substitution (in this case लोप: of the आकार: by 6-4-64 आतो लोप इटि च) shall not be made in the place of a vowel on the basis of a vowel (in this case एकार:) that is the cause for reduplication.
Note: This rule only temporarily stops the substitution until reduplication is done. Once reduplication is done, the substitution does takes place (in step 8 below.)

Therefore we apply 6-1-8 लिटि धातोरनभ्यासस्य before applying 6-4-64 आतो लोप इटि च

(7) ध धा + ए । By 7-4-59 ह्रस्वः, the अच् (vowel) of a reduplicate (अभ्यासः – ref. 6-1-4 पूर्वोऽभ्यासः) is substituted by a short vowel.

(8) धधे । By 6-4-64 आतो लोप इटि च – The ending आकार: of an अङ्गम् takes लोप: when followed by a vowel-beginning आर्धधातुक-प्रत्यय: that has either:
(i) a “इट्”-आगम: or
(ii) a ककार: or ङकार: as an इत्।

Note: As per 1-2-5 असंयोगाल्लिट् कित्, the “ए”-प्रत्यय: is कित् here. This allows 6-4-64 to apply.

(9) दधे । By 8-4-54 अभ्यासे चर्च, in a reduplicate (अभ्यासः – ref. 6-1-4 पूर्वोऽभ्यासः), a letter of the झल्-प्रत्याहारः is substituted by a letter of the चर्-प्रत्याहारः or जश्-प्रत्याहारः। The substitutions take place as per 1-1-50 स्थानेऽन्तरतमः

“सम्” is the उपसर्गः (ref. 1-4-59 उपसर्गाः क्रियायोगे।)
सम् + दधे = संदधे । By 8-3-23 मोऽनुस्वारः
= सन्दधे/संदधे । By 8-4-59 वा पदान्तस्य


1. Where has √धा (जुहोत्यादि-गणः, डुधाञ् धारणपोषणयोः | दान इत्यप्येके धातु-पाठः #३. ११) been used with a आत्मनेपद-प्रत्यय: (as in this example) in a तिङन्तं पदम् in Chapter Twelve of the गीता?

2. Where has 7-4-61 शर्पूर्वाः खयः been used in the verses?

3. Can you spot a “अट्”-आगम: in the verses?

4. Which सूत्रम् is used for the “अय्”-आदेश: in the form सन्दर्शयामास?

5. How would you say this in Sanskrit?
“Bharata placed Sri Rama’s (two) sandals on his (own) head.” Use (a लिँट् form of) √धा (जुहोत्यादि-गणः, डुधाञ् धारणपोषणयोः | दान इत्यप्येके धातु-पाठः #३. ११) with the उपसर्ग: “नि” for “to place”, use the feminine प्रातिपदिकम् “पादुका” for “sandal” and the pronoun “स्व” for “his own.”

6. How would you say this in Sanskrit?
“Sri Hanuman went to Lanka passing through the skies.” Use (a लिँट् form of) √गम् (गमॢँ गतौ १. ११३७) for “to go.” Use a word from the verse for “passing through the skies.”

Easy questions:

1. Where has 8-4-62 झयो होऽन्यतरस्याम् been used in the verses?

2. Which सूत्रम् is used for the “एन”-आदेश: in the from एनम् (सर्वनाम-प्रातिपदिकम् “इदम्/एतद्”, पुंलिङ्गे द्वितीया-एकवचनम्)?

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