Home » 2011 » May » 25

Daily Archives: May 25, 2011

खादति 3As-लँट्

Today we will look at the form खादति 3As-लँट् from श्रीमद्भागवतम् Sb11-11-6.

सुपर्णावेतौ सदृशौ सखायौ यदृच्छयैतौ कृतनीडौ च वृक्षे ।
एकस्तयोः खादति पिप्पलान्नमन्यो निरन्नोऽपि बलेन भूयान् ।। ११-११-६ ।।

Gita Press translation “The two (viz., the Jīva and God, the Inner Controller of the Jīva) are (distinct from the body like) a pair of birds (dwelling on a tree yet apart from it), kindred (in character as being spiritual in substance) and settled as (constant) companions in the same nest (of the heart) on the tree (of the body) by force of Māyā (the divine Will). One of them (viz., the Jīva) partakes of the fruit (in the shape of joy and sorrow to be experienced) in the peepul tree of the body (as a result of past good and evil deeds); while the other (viz., God), though going without food (in the shape of those pleasurable and painful experiences) is (always) superior (to the former) in strength (the strength of wisdom etc.).”

खादति is derived from the धातुः √खाद् (भ्वादि-गणः, खादृँ भक्षणे, धातु-पाठः #१. ५१)

The विवक्षा is लँट्, कर्तरि प्रयोग:, प्रथम-पुरुषः, एकवचनम्।

In the धातु-पाठः, the खाद्-धातुः has one इत् letter – the ऋकार: following the दकार:। This इत् letter has a उदात्त-स्वर:। Thus the खाद्-धातुः is devoid of any indications for bringing in आत्मनेपद-प्रत्यया:। (Neither 1-3-12 अनुदात्तङित आत्मनेपदम् nor 1-3-72 स्वरितञितः कर्त्रभिप्राये क्रियाफले applies.) Therefore, as per 1-3-78 शेषात् कर्तरि परस्मैपदम्, the खाद्-धातुः, in कर्तरि प्रयोग:, will take the परस्मैपद-प्रत्यया: by default. As per 1-4-99 लः परस्मैपदम्, 1-4-100 तङानावात्मनेपदम्, the nine प्रत्यया: from “तिप्” to “मस्” get the परस्मैपद-सञ्ज्ञा। So खाद्-धातुः can take only one of these nine प्रत्यया: in कर्तरि प्रयोग:। Since the विवक्षा is प्रथम-पुरुष-एकवचनम्, the प्रत्यय: will be “तिप्”।

(1) खाद् + लँट् । By 3-2-123 वर्तमाने लट्, the affix लँट् comes after a धातुः when denoting an action in the present tense.

(2) खाद् + ल् । अनुबन्ध-लोपः by 1-3-2 उपदेशेऽजनुनासिक इत्, 1-3-3 हलन्त्यम्, 1-3-9 तस्य लोपः

(3) खाद् + तिप् । 3-4-78 तिप्तस्झिसिप्थस्थमिब्वस्मस् तातांझथासाथांध्वमिड्वहिमहिङ् mandates the प्रत्ययः “तिप्” as the substitute for the लकारः। “तिप्” gets the सार्वधातुक-सञ्ज्ञा by 3-4-113 तिङ्शित्सार्वधातुकम् – The affixes of the तिङ्-प्रत्याहारः and the affixes that have शकारः as an इत् get the designation of सार्वधातुकम् if they are prescribed in the “धातो:” अधिकार:।

(4) खाद् + शप् + तिप् । By 3-1-68 कर्तरि शप्‌, the शप्-प्रत्यय: is placed after a verbal root, when followed by a सार्वधातुक-प्रत्यय: that is used signifying the agent. The शप्-प्रत्यय: which is a शित्, gets सार्वधातुक-सञ्ज्ञा by 3-4-113 तिङ्शित्सार्वधातुकम्

(5) खाद् + अ + ति । अनुबन्ध-लोपः by 1-3-3 हलन्त्यम्, 1-3-8 लशक्वतद्धिते, 1-3-9 तस्य लोपः

(6) खादति ।


1. Derive the form “भूयान्” (पुंलिङ्गे प्रथमा-एकवचनम्) from the प्रातिपदिकम् “भूयस्”। (Note: “भूयस्” ends in the ईयसुँन्-प्रत्यय:)।

2. Can you spot a णित्-प्रत्यय: (an affix which has णकार: as a marker) in the verse?

3. Where has the सूत्रम् 7-3-104 ओसि च been used?

4. Please state the one synonym for the word “नीड:/नीडम्” (प्रातिपदिकम् “नीड” masculine/neuter, meaning “a bird’s nest”) as given in the अमरकोश:।
कुलायो नीडमस्त्रियाम् ।।२-५-३७।।
(इति द्वे “पक्षिवासस्य” नामनी)

5. How would you say this in Sanskrit?
“Even if a lion (is) old, still he doesn’t eat grass.” Use the अव्ययम् “यद्यपि (= यदि + अपि)” for “even if” and “तथापि (= तथा + अपि)” for “still.” Use the adjective प्रातिपदिकम् “वृद्ध:” for “old” and the neuter प्रातिपदिकम् “तृण” for “grass.”

6. How would you say this in Sanskrit?
“Let the monkeys eat the fruits today.”

Easy questions:

1. Where has the सूत्रम् 7-1-12 टाङसिङसामिनात्स्याः been used in the verse?

2. Which सूत्रम् was used for –
a) सुपर्णौ + एतौ = सुपर्णावेतौ ?
b) यदृच्छया + एतौ = यदृच्छयैतौ ?

Recent Posts