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उपहरन्तु 3Ap-लोँट्

Today we will look at the form उपहरन्तु 3Ap-लोँट् from श्रीमद्वाल्मीकि-रामायणम् 2-82-8.

उदीच्याश्च प्रतीच्याश्च दाक्षिणात्याश्च केवलाः ।
कोट्यापरान्ताः सामुद्रा रत्नान्युपहरन्तु ते ॥२-८२-८॥

Gita Press translation “Let the rulers of the north and the west as well as of the south and the east and the kings of the western borders near the Sahya mountains, who are without a throne (and therefore not enjoying sovereign rights), as well as seafaring traders bring countless jewels as offerings to you.”

हरन्तु is derived from the धातुः √हृ (भ्वादि-गणः, हृञ् हरणे धातु-पाठः #१. १०४६)

“उप” has been used as an उपसर्ग: – ref. 1-4-59 उपसर्गाः क्रियायोगे।

The विवक्षा is लोँट्, कर्तरि प्रयोग:, प्रथम-पुरुषः, बहुवचनम्।

In the धातु-पाठः, the हृ-धातुः has one इत् letter which is the ञकार:। It gets the इत्-सञ्ज्ञा by 1-3-3 हलन्त्यम् and hence takes लोप: by 1-3-9 तस्य लोप:। Since ञकार: is an इत्, as per the सूत्रम् 1-3-72 स्वरितञितः कर्त्रभिप्राये क्रियाफले, the हृ-धातुः will take आत्मनेपद-प्रत्ययाः when the fruit of the action (क्रियाफलम्) accrues to the doer (कर्त्रभिप्रायम् = कर्तृ-अभिप्रायम्)। In the remaining case – when the fruit of the action does not accrue to the doer – by 1-3-78 शेषात् कर्तरि परस्मैपदम् – the हृ-धातुः will take परस्मैपद-प्रत्ययाः।
In reality though, this distinction of the fruit of the action accruing to the doer or not, is rarely honored in the language. So as a practical matter, a verbal root such as “हृ” will take either आत्मनेपद-प्रत्ययाः or परस्मैपद-प्रत्ययाः regardless of whether the fruit of the action accrues to the doer or not. In short, हृ-धातुः will be उभयपदी। In this verse, it has taken a परस्मैपद-प्रत्यय:।

Since the विवक्षा is प्रथम-पुरुष-बहुवचनम्, the प्रत्यय: will be “झि”।

(1) हृ + लोँट् । By 3-3-162 लोट् च , the affix लोँट् comes after a धातुः when used in the sense of command/request.

(2) हृ + ल् । अनुबन्ध-लोपः by 1-3-2 उपदेशेऽजनुनासिक इत्, 1-3-3 हलन्त्यम्, 1-3-9 तस्य लोपः

(3) हृ + झि। 3-4-78 तिप्तस्झिसिप्थस्थमिब्वस्मस् तातांझथासाथांध्वमिड्वहिमहिङ् mandates the प्रत्ययः “झि” as the substitute for the लकारः। “झि” gets the सार्वधातुक-सञ्ज्ञा by 3-4-113 तिङ्शित्सार्वधातुकम्

(4) हृ + झ् उ । by 3-4-86 एरुः , इकारः of a लोँट् is substituted by उकारः ।

(5) हृ + शप् + झ् उ । By 3-1-68 कर्तरि शप्, the शप्-प्रत्यय: is placed after a verbal root, when followed by a सार्वधातुक-प्रत्यय: that is used signifying the agent. The शप्-प्रत्यय: which is a शित्, gets सार्वधातुक-सञ्ज्ञा by 3-4-113 तिङ्शित्सार्वधातुकम्

(6) हर् + शप् + झ् उ । By 7-3-84 सार्वधातुकार्धधातुकयोः , an अङ्गम् whose final letter is an इक् gets गुण-आदेशः, when a सार्वधातुक-प्रत्यय: or an आर्धधातुक-प्रत्यय: follows. By 1-1-51 उरण् रपरः, in the place of ऋवर्ण: if an अण् letter (अ, इ, उ) comes as a substitute, it is always followed by a रँ letter.

(7) हर् + अ + झ् उ । अनुबन्ध-लोपः by 1-3-3 हलन्त्यम् , 1-3-8 लशक्वतद्धिते , 1-3-9 तस्य लोपः

(8) हर + अन्त् उ । By 7-1-3 झोऽन्तः ,“अन्त्” comes in as a replacement for the झकारः of a प्रत्यय:।

(9) हरन्तु । By 6-1-97 अतो गुणे , in the place of the letter अ which not at the end of a पदम्, and the following गुण: letter, there is single substitute of the latter (the गुण: letter.) See easy question 1.


1. Where has the युष्मद्-प्रातिपदिकम् been used in the verse?

2. To which other प्रत्यय: (besides “झि”) does the सूत्रम् 3-4-86 एरुः apply?

3. Where has √हृ been used with the झि-प्रत्यय: in the गीता?

4. Can you spot a नुँम्-आगम: in the verse?

5. If the लकार: in this example had been लँट्, we would have had all the same steps, except for one. Which one is that?

6. In the लोँट्-प्रत्यय:, why is the लकार: not an इत् (by 1-3-8 लशक्वतद्धिते)?

7. How would you say this in Sanskrit?
“Let me take away your burden.” Use √हृ for “to take away” and the masculine noun “भार” for “burden.”

8. How would you say this in Sanskrit?
“How many people reside in this house?” Use the धातु: “वस्” (वस निवासे १. ११६०) for “to reside.”

Easy questions:

1. By which सूत्रम् does पाणिनि: define the गुण-सञ्ज्ञा?

2. In classical Sanskrit, which other लकारा: (besides लोँट्) have टकार: as an इत्?

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