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हरति 3As-लँट्

Today we will look at the form हरति 3As-लँट् from श्रीमद्भगवद्गीता Bg2-67

इन्द्रियाणां हि चरतां यन्मनोऽनुविधीयते |
तदस्य हरति प्रज्ञां वायुर्नावमिवाम्भसि ||२-६७||

Gita Press translation “As the wind carries away a boat upon the waters, even so of the senses moving among sense-objects, the one to which the mind is attached, takes away his discrimination.”

हरति is derived from the धातुः √हृ (भ्वादि-गणः, हृञ् हरणे धातु-पाठः #१. १०४६)

The विवक्षा is वर्तमान-काले, कर्तरि प्रयोग:, प्रथम-पुरुषः, एकवचनम् ।

In the धातु-पाठः, the हृ-धातुः has one इत् letter which is the ञकार:। It gets the इत्-सञ्ज्ञा by 1-3-3 हलन्त्यम् and hence takes लोप: by 1-3-9 तस्य लोप:। Since ञकार: is an इत्, as per the सूत्रम् 1-3-72 स्वरितञितः कर्त्रभिप्राये क्रियाफले, the हृ-धातुः will take आत्मनेपद-प्रत्ययाः when the fruit of the action (क्रियाफलम्) accrues to the doer (कर्त्रभिप्रायम् = कर्तृ-अभिप्रायम्)। In the remaining case – when the fruit of the action does not accrue to the doer – by 1-3-78 शेषात् कर्तरि परस्मैपदम् – the हृ-धातुः will take परस्मैपद-प्रत्ययाः।
In reality though, this distinction of the fruit of the action accruing to the doer or not, is rarely honored in the language. So as a practical matter, a verbal root such as “हृ” will take either आत्मनेपद-प्रत्ययाः or परस्मैपद-प्रत्ययाः regardless of whether the fruit of the action accrues to the doer or not. In short, हृ-धातुः will be उभयपदी। In this verse, it has taken a परस्मैपद-प्रत्यय:।

Since the विवक्षा is प्रथम-पुरुष-एकवचनम्, the प्रत्यय: will be “तिप्”।

(1) हृ + लँट् । By 3-2-123 वर्तमाने लट्, the affix लँट् comes after a धातुः when denoting an action in the present tense.

(2) हृ + ल् । अनुबन्ध-लोपः by 1-3-2 उपदेशेऽजनुनासिक इत्, 1-3-3 हलन्त्यम्, 1-3-9 तस्य लोपः

(3) हृ + तिप् । 3-4-78 तिप्तस्झिसिप्थस्थमिब्वस्मस् तातांझथासाथांध्वमिड्वहिमहिङ् mandates the प्रत्ययः “तिप्” as the substitute for the लकारः। “तिप्” gets the सार्वधातुक-सञ्ज्ञा by 3-4-113 तिङ्शित्सार्वधातुकम्

(4) हृ + शप् + तिप् । By 3-1-68 कर्तरि शप्, the शप्-प्रत्यय: is placed after a verbal root, when followed by a सार्वधातुक-प्रत्यय: that is used signifying the agent. The शप्-प्रत्यय: which is a शित्, gets सार्वधातुक-सञ्ज्ञा by 3-4-113 तिङ्शित्सार्वधातुकम्

(5) हर् + शप् + तिप् । By 7-3-84 सार्वधातुकार्धधातुकयोः, an अङ्गम् whose final letter is an इक् gets गुण-आदेशः, when a सार्वधातुक-प्रत्यय: or an आर्धधातुक-प्रत्यय: follows. By 1-1-51 उरण् रपरः, in the place of ऋवर्ण: if an अण् letter (अ, इ, उ) comes as a substitute, it is always followed by a रँ letter.

(6) हर् + अ + ति । अनुबन्ध-लोपः by 1-3-3 हलन्त्यम्, 1-3-8 लशक्वतद्धिते, 1-3-9 तस्य लोपः

(7) हरति ।


1. Where else (besides in verse 67) in the Second Chapter of the गीता is the हृ-धातुः used with the लँट्-प्रत्यय:?

2. Why didn’t the सूत्रम् 6-1-107 अमि पूर्वः apply between नौ + अम् (द्वितीया-एकवचनम्)? (Which condition was not satisfied?)

3. Where has the सूत्रम् 7-2-113 हलि लोपः been used?

4. Which term used in the verse has the घि-सञ्ज्ञा?

5. By which सुत्रम् does इव get the अव्यय-सञ्ज्ञा?

6. Which one of the following प्रत्यया: does NOT have the सार्वधातुक-सञ्ज्ञा?
a) शप्
b) थस्
c) शस्
d) थास्

7. How would you say this in Sanskrit?
“The Sun removes the darkness of the night.” Use the masculine प्रातिपदिकम् “अन्धकार” for “darkness” and √हृ (भ्वादि-गणः, हृञ् हरणे धातु-पाठः #१. १०४६) with the उपसर्ग: “अप” for “to remove.”

8. Please list the two synonyms of “नौ:” (प्रातिपदिकम् “नौ” feminine, meaning “boat”) as given in the अमरकोश:।
स्त्रियां नौस्तरणिस्तरिः ।।१-१०-१०।।
(इति त्रीणि “नौकाया:” नामानि)

Easy questions:

1. Can you spot a नुँट्-आगम: in the verse?

2. Where has the सुत्रम् 6-1-107 अमि पूर्वः been used?

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