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Daily Archives: May 13, 2011

रमन्ति 3Ap-लँट्

Today we will look at the form रमन्ति 3Ap-लँट् from श्रीमद्भगवद्गीता Bg10-9

मच्चित्ता मद्गतप्राणा बोधयन्तः परस्परम् |
कथयन्तश्च मां नित्यं तुष्यन्ति च रमन्ति च || १०-९ ||

Gita Press translation “With their minds fixed on Me, and their lives surrendered to Me, conversing and enlightening one another about My glories, My devotees ever remain contended and so take delight in me.”

रमन्ति is derived from the धातुः √रम् (भ्वादि-गणः, रमँ क्रीडायाम् | धातु-पाठः #१.९८९)

Note: Some editions of the धातु-पाठ: have this धातु: listed as रमुँ क्रीडायाम् instead of रमँ क्रीडायाम्।

The विवक्षा is वर्तमान-काले, कर्तरि प्रयोग:, प्रथम-पुरुषः, बहुवचनम् ।

In the धातु-पाठः, √रम् has one इत् letter which is the अकार: (or according to some – उकार:) following the मकार:। This इत् letter has a अनुदात्त-स्वर:। Therefore, as per the सूत्रम् 1-3-12 अनुदात्तङित आत्मनेपदम्, √रम् should only take आत्मनेपद-प्रत्ययाः। But in the present case, we see that a परस्मैपद-प्रत्यय: “झि” has been used. It is not that uncommon in literature to find situations like these where a परस्मैपद-प्रत्यय: has been used in spite of the fact that, as per grammar rules, a आत्मनेपद-प्रत्यय: is called for (or vice-versa.) See advanced question.

So 1-3-78 शेषात् कर्तरि परस्मैपदम् has been applied, ignoring 1-3-12 अनुदात्तङित आत्मनेपदम्।

Since the विवक्षा is प्रथम-पुरुष-बहुवचनम्, the प्रत्यय: will be “झि”।

(1) रम् + लँट् । By 3-2-123 वर्तमाने लट्, the affix लँट् comes after a धातुः when denoting an action in the present tense.

(2) रम् + ल् । अनुबन्ध-लोपः by 1-3-2 उपदेशेऽजनुनासिक इत्, 1-3-3 हलन्त्यम्, 1-3-9 तस्य लोपः
(3) रम् + झि । 3-4-78 तिप्तस्झिसिप्थस्थमिब्वस्मस् तातांझथासाथांध्वमिड्वहिमहिङ् mandates the प्रत्ययः “झि” as the substitute for the लकारः। “झि” gets the सार्वधातुक-सञ्ज्ञा by 3-4-113 तिङ्शित्सार्वधातुकम्

(4) रम् + शप् + झि । By 3-1-68 कर्तरि शप्, the शप्-प्रत्यय: is placed after a verbal root, when followed by a सार्वधातुक-प्रत्यय: that is used signifying the agent. The शप्-प्रत्यय: which is a शित्, gets सार्वधातुक-सञ्ज्ञा by 3-4-113 तिङ्शित्सार्वधातुकम्

(5) रम् + अ + झि । अनुबन्ध-लोपः by 1-3-3 हलन्त्यम् , 1-3-8 लशक्वतद्धिते , 1-3-9 तस्य लोपः

(6) रम + अन्त् इ । By 7-1-3 झोऽन्तः -“अन्त्” comes in as a replacement for the झकारः of a प्रत्यय:।

(7) रमन्ति । By 6-1-97 अतो गुणे – In the place of the letter अ which not at the end of a पदम्, and the following गुण: letter, there is single substitute of the latter (the गुण: letter.)


1. Where else (besides in रमन्ति) has the झि-प्रत्यय: been used in this verse?

2. Can you spot a नुँम्-आगम: in the verse?

3. Where is the अस्मद्-प्रातिपदिकम् used in the second line? Is that an alternate form possible?

4. The लँट्-प्रत्यय: has:
a) The आर्धधातुक-सञ्ज्ञा
b) The कृत्-सञ्ज्ञा
c) Both the आर्धधातुक-सञ्ज्ञा and the कृत्-सञ्ज्ञा
d) Neither the आर्धधातुक-सञ्ज्ञा nor the कृत्-सञ्ज्ञा

5. Which term used in the second line of the verse has the अव्यय-सञ्ज्ञा?

6. How would you say this in Sanskrit?
“The mind becomes pure by austerity.” Use the adjective प्रातिपदिकम् “शुद्ध” for “pure” and the neuter प्रातिपदिकम् “तपस्” for “austerity.”

7. How would you say this in Sanskrit?
“My father reads the गीता everyday.” Use the धातु: “पठ्” (पठँ व्यक्तायां वाचि १. ३८१) for “to read” and “प्रतिदिनम्” for “everyday.”

Advanced question:

1. There is a धातु: “चक्ष्” (चक्षिँङ् व्यक्तायां वाचि। अयं दर्शनेऽपि २. ७)। The इकार: in चक्षिँङ् is an इत् by 1-3-2 उपदेशेऽजनुनासिक इत् and the ङकार: is an इत् by 1-3-3 हलन्त्यम्। The इकार: has a अनुदात्त-स्वर: on it.
There was no need for having ङकार: as an इत् because the इकार: (which has a अनुदात्त-स्वर:) alone was enough to apply the सूत्रम् 1-3-12 अनुदात्तङित आत्मनेपदम्। The reason for having the ङकार: as an इत् is given as follows – अनुदात्तेत्त्वप्रयुक्तमात्मनेपदमनित्यम् इति ज्ञापनार्थ:। Please explain how this is used to justify usages like रमन्ति।

Easy questions:

1. Please do पदच्छेद: of कथयन्तश्च and mention the relevant rules.

2. Where has the सूत्रम् 8-3-22 हलि सर्वेषाम् been used?

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