Home » 2011 » May » 20

Daily Archives: May 20, 2011

भवन्तु 3Ap-लोँट्

Today we will look at the form भवन्तु 3Ap-लोँट् from श्रीमद्वाल्मीकि-रामायणम् 6-67-75.

मया हते संयति कुम्भकर्णे महाबले मुष्टिविशीर्णदेहे ।
विमोचिते वानरपार्थिवे च भवन्तु हृष्टाः प्लवगाः समग्राः ।। ६-६७-७५ ।।

Gita Press translation “When Kumbhakarṇa, who is endowed with extraordinary might, has been killed by me in a duel, his body being shattered with my fist, and the king of monkeys delivered, let all the monkeys feel rejoiced.”

भवन्तु is derived from the धातुः √भू (भू सत्तायाम्, भ्वादि-गणः, धातु-पाठः #१. १)

The विवक्षा is लोँट्, कर्तरि प्रयोग:, प्रथम-पुरुषः, बहुवचनम्।

In the धातु-पाठः, the भू-धातुः has no इत् letters. It is devoid of any indications for bringing in आत्मनेपद-प्रत्यया:। Therefore, as per 1-3-78 शेषात् कर्तरि परस्मैपदम्, the भू-धातुः, in कर्तरि प्रयोग:, will take the परस्मैपद-प्रत्यया: by default. As per 1-4-99 लः परस्मैपदम्, 1-4-100 तङानावात्मनेपदम्, the nine प्रत्यया: from “तिप्” to “मस्” get the परस्मैपद-सञ्ज्ञा। So भू-धातुः can take only one of these nine प्रत्यया: in कर्तरि प्रयोग:। Since the विवक्षा is प्रथम-पुरुष-बहुवचनम्, the प्रत्यय: will be “झि”।

(1) भू + लोँट् । By 3-3-162 लोट् च , the affix लोँट् comes after a धातुः when used in the sense of command/request.

(2) भू + ल् । अनुबन्ध-लोपः by 1-3-2 उपदेशेऽजनुनासिक इत्, 1-3-3 हलन्त्यम्, 1-3-9 तस्य लोपः

(3) भू + झि । 3-4-78 तिप्तस्झिसिप्थस्थमिब्वस्मस्तातांझथासाथांध्वमिड्वहिमहिङ् mandates the प्रत्ययः “झि” as the substitute for the लकारः। “झि” gets the सार्वधातुक-सञ्ज्ञा by 3-4-113 तिङ्शित्सार्वधातुकम्

(4) भू + झ् उ । by 3-4-86 एरुः , इकारः of a लोँट् is substituted by उकारः ।

(5) भू + शप् + झ् उ । By 3-1-68 कर्तरि शप्, the शप्-प्रत्यय: is placed after a verbal root, when followed by a सार्वधातुक-प्रत्यय: that is used signifying the agent. The शप्-प्रत्यय: which is a शित्, gets सार्वधातुक-सञ्ज्ञा by 3-4-113 तिङ्शित्सार्वधातुकम्

(6) भो + शप् + झ् उ । By 7-3-84 सार्वधातुकार्धधातुकयोः , an अङ्गम् whose final letter is an इक् gets गुण-आदेशः, when a सार्वधातुक-प्रत्यय: or an आर्धधातुक-प्रत्यय: follows.

(7) भो + अ + झ् उ। अनुबन्ध-लोपः by 1-3-3 हलन्त्यम् , 1-3-8 लशक्वतद्धिते , 1-3-9 तस्य लोपः

(8) भव + झ् उ । “अव्”-आदेश: by 6-1-78 एचोऽयवायावः

(9) भव + अन्त् उ । By 7-1-3 झोऽन्तः -“अन्त्” comes in as a replacement for the झकारः of a प्रत्यय:।

(10) भवन्तु । By 6-1-97 अतो गुणे, in the place of the letter अ which not at the end of a पदम्, and the following गुण: letter, there is single substitute of the latter (the गुण: letter.)


1. Why doesn’t the झकार: of the झि-प्रत्यय: get the इत्-सञ्ज्ञा by 1-3-7 चुटू (and hence take लोप: by 1-3-9 तस्य लोपः)?

2. Can you spot a हलन्तम् (consonant-ending) प्रातिपदिकम् in the verse?

3. Which two rules used in this example belong to the “संहितायाम्” अधिकार:?

4. Where has the झि-प्रत्यय: been used in the first ten verses of the Fifth Chapter of the गीता?

5. Which सर्वनाम-प्रातिपदिकम् has been used in the verse?

6. The अमरकोश: gives eight synonyms for the word “वानर:” (प्रातिपदिकम् “वानर” masculine, meaning “monkey.”) We’ve already seen these in a prior example. (Search this web site for “monkey.”) Which one of these synonyms has been used in the present verse?

7. How would you say this in Sanskrit?
“Let all people be happy.” Use the adjective प्रातिपदिकम् “सुखिन्” for “happy.”

8. How would you say this in Sanskrit?
“You ought to wake up before sunrise.” Use the masculine (compound) प्रातिपदिकम् “सूर्योदय” for “sunrise”, use the अव्ययम् “प्रबोद्धुम्” for “to wake up” and the अव्ययम् “प्राक्” for “before.” Use the धातु: “अर्ह्” (अर्हँ पूजायाम् १. ८४१) for “ought.”

Easy questions:

1. Which terms are included in the तङ्-प्रत्याहार: (referred to in the सूत्रम् 1-4-100 तङानावात्मनेपदम्)?

2. In step 10, in the absence of the सूत्रम् 6-1-97 अतो गुणे, which सूत्रम् would have applied to give which (undesired) form?

Recent Posts