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Daily Archives: May 6, 2011

भजामि 1As-लँट्

Today we will look at the form भजामि 1As-लँट् from श्रीमद्भगवद्गीता Bg4-11

ये यथा मां प्रपद्यन्ते तांस्तथैव भजाम्यहम् |
मम वर्त्मानुवर्तन्ते मनुष्याः पार्थ सर्वशः || ४-११||

Gita Press translation “Arjuna, howsoever men seek Me, even so do I respond to them; for all men follow MY path in everyway.”

भजामि is derived from the धातुः √भज् (भ्वादि-गणः, भजँ सेवायाम्,  धातु-पाठः #१.११५३ )

The विवक्षा is वर्तमान-काले, कर्तरि प्रयोग:, उत्तम-पुरुषः, एकवचनम्।

In the धातु-पाठः, the भज्-धातुः has one इत् letter which is the अकार: following the जकार:। This इत् letter has a स्वरित-स्वर:। Therefore, as per the सूत्रम् 1-3-72 स्वरितञितः कर्त्रभिप्राये क्रियाफले, the भज्-धातुः will take आत्मनेपद-प्रत्ययाः when the fruit of the action (क्रियाफलम्) accrues to the doer (कर्त्रभिप्रायम् = कर्तृ-अभिप्रायम्)। In the remaining case – when the fruit of the action does not accrue to the doer – by 1-3-78 शेषात् कर्तरि परस्मैपदम् – the भज्-धातुः will take परस्मैपद-प्रत्ययाः।
In reality though, this distinction of the fruit of the action accruing to the doer or not, is rarely honored in the language. So as a practical matter, a verbal root such as “भज्” will take either आत्मनेपद-प्रत्ययाः or परस्मैपद-प्रत्ययाः regardless of whether the fruit of the action accrues to the doer or not. In short, भज्-धातुः will be उभयपदी। In this verse, it has taken a परस्मैपद-प्रत्यय:।

Since the विवक्षा is उत्तम-पुरुष-एकवचनम्, the प्रत्यय: will be “मिप्”।

(1) भज् + लँट् । By 3-2-123 वर्तमाने लट्, the affix लँट् comes after a धातुः when denoting an action in the present tense.

(2) भज् + ल् । अनुबन्ध-लोपः by 1-3-2 उपदेशेऽजनुनासिक इत्, 1-3-3 हलन्त्यम्, 1-3-9 तस्य लोपः

(3) भज् + मिप् । 3-4-78 तिप्तस्झिसिप्थस्थमिब्वस्मस् तातांझथासाथांध्वमिड्वहिमहिङ् mandates the प्रत्ययः “मिप्” as the substitute for the लकारः। “मिप्” gets the सार्वधातुक-सञ्ज्ञा by 3-4-113 तिङ्शित्सार्वधातुकम्

(4) भज् + शप् + मिप् । By 3-1-68 कर्तरि शप्, the शप्-प्रत्यय: is placed after a verbal root, when followed by a सार्वधातुक-प्रत्यय: that is used signifying the agent. The शप्-प्रत्यय: which is a शित्, gets सार्वधातुक-सञ्ज्ञा by 3-4-113 तिङ्शित्सार्वधातुकम्

(5) भज् + अ + मि । अनुबन्ध-लोपः by 1-3-3 हलन्त्यम् , 1-3-8 लशक्वतद्धिते , 1-3-9 तस्य लोपः

(6) भजामि । By 7-3-101 अतो दीर्घो यञि -the ending अकार: of a अङ्गम् is elongated if it is followed by a सार्वधातुक-प्रत्यय: beginning with a letter of the यञ्-प्रत्याहार:।


1. Can you spot a place in Chapter 9 of the गीता where the भज्-धातुः has taken a आत्मनेपद-प्रत्यय:?

2. Where has the अस्मद्-प्रातिपदिकम् been used in the verse? Was an alternate form possible?

3. Which terms used in the verse have the अव्यय-सञ्ज्ञा by the सूत्रम् 1-1-38 तद्धितश्चासर्वविभक्तिः?

4. Can you spot a नकारान्तं (ending in a नकार:) प्रातिपदिकम् in the verse?

5. Where has the सूत्रम् 8-2-2 नलोपः सुप्स्वरसंज्ञातुग्विधिषु कृति been applied in the verse?

6. What kind of सूत्रम् is 8-2-2 नलोपः सुप्स्वरसंज्ञातुग्विधिषु कृति?
a) निषेध-सूत्रम् – A rule which negates (stops the application of) another rule
b) अपवाद-सूत्रम् – A rule which is an exception to another rule
c) नियम-सूत्रम् – A rule which limits the application of another rule
d) विधि-सूत्रम् – A rule which prescribes an operation

7. How would you say this in Sanskrit?
“Why don’t you worship the Lord?” Use the अव्ययम् “कस्मात्” for “why” and the भज्-धातु: for “to worship.”

8. How would you say this in Sanskrit?
“I sleep (literally “I resort to sleep”) only at night.” Use the भज्-धातु: for “to resort to” and the feminine प्रातिपदिकम् “निद्रा” for “sleep.”

Easy questions:

1. Please do पदच्छेद: of तांस्तथैव and mention the relevant rules.

2. Derive the form ये (पुंलिङ्गे प्रथमा-बहुवचनम्) from the सर्वनाम-प्रातिपदिकम् “यद्”।

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