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अमुना mIs

Today we will look at the form अमुना-mIs from श्रीमद्भागवतम् Sb10-56-31.

मणिहेतोरिह प्राप्ता वयमृक्षपते बिलम् ।
मिथ्याभिशापं प्रमृजन्नात्मनो मणिनामुना ।। १०-५६-३१ ।।

Gita Press translation “For the sake of this gem did we (the leading citizens of Dwārakā headed by Myself) arrive at (the mouth of) your cave, O chief of bears; whereas I came here (inside the cave) with a view to wiping off the false imputation against Me through that gem.”

‘अदस्’ gets प्रातिपदिक-सञ्ज्ञा by 1-2-45 अर्थवदधातुरप्रत्ययः प्रातिपदिकम् and सर्वनाम-सञ्ज्ञा by 1-1-27 सर्वादीनि सर्वनामानि । The विवक्षा here is पुंलिङ्गे तृतीया-एकवचनम्4-1-2 स्वौजसमौट्छष्टा… mandates the प्रत्ययाः सुँ, औ, जस् etc. after the प्रातिपदिकम् ‘अदस्’

(1) अदस् + टा ।

(2) अद अ + टा । By 7-2-102 त्यदादीनामः, अदस् gets the अकारादेशः । As per 1-1-52 अलोऽन्त्यस्य, only the ending सकार: gets replaced.

(3) अद + टा । By 6-1-97 अतो गुणे, the अकारः at the end of “अद” and the following अकारादेशः is replaced by अकारः (पररूपम्) as एकादेशः ।

(4) अमु + टा । By 8-2-80 अदसोऽसेर्दादु दो मः, there is a substitution of उकार:/ऊकार: in place of the letter (vowel) following the दकार: of “अदस्” and the दकार: gets substituted by मकार:। This rule does not apply when there is a सकार: at the end of “अदस्”।
Note: As per 1-1-50 स्थानेऽन्तरतमः, there will be an उकार: substitution if the vowel following the दकार: is ह्रस्व: (short) and there will be an ऊकार: substitution if the vowel following the दकार: is दीर्घ: (long.)

As per 8-2-3 न मु ने, when the “ना”-आदेश: (by 7-3-120 आङो नाऽस्त्रियाम्) is to be done or has been done, the “मु”-आदेश: is not असिद्ध:। Therefore, 7-1-12 टाङसिङसामिनात्स्याः is not applied, because doing so will make 8-2-3 useless. On the same basis 7-3-102 सुपि च also does not apply after the ना-आदेशः by 7-3-120.
See question 8 and advanced question 1.

(5) अमुना । “अमु” gets the घि-सञ्ज्ञा by 1-4-7 शेषो घ्यसखि। By 7-3-120 आङो नाऽस्त्रियाम् – Following a अङ्गम् having घि-सञ्ज्ञा, the affix “आङ्” is replaced by “ना”, but not in the feminine gender. “आङ्” is an ancient name for the (instrumental singular) affix “टा”।

Questions:

1. Can you spot a word from the स्वरादि-गण: (reference 1-1-37 स्वरादिनिपातमव्ययम्) used in this verse?

2. The अव्ययम् “इह” is derived by adding the तद्धित-प्रत्यय: “ह” to the प्रातिपदिकम् “इदम्” using the सूत्रम् 5-3-11 इदमो हः। (इदम् takes the इश्-आदेश: as per 5-3-3 इदम इश्)। By which सूत्रम् does इह get the अव्यय-सञ्ज्ञा?

3. “इह” comes as the last word in which chapter of the गीता?

4. Where else (besides in “अमुना”) has the सूत्रम् 7-3-120 आङो नाऽस्त्रियाम् been used?

5. Which terms from the प्रादि-गण: (reference 1-4-58 प्रादयः) occur in the verse? Which of these have the उपसर्ग-सञ्ज्ञा (reference 1-4-59 उपसर्गाः क्रियायोगे)?

6. How would you say this in Sanskrit?
“When did the guests arrive here?” Use the प्रातिपदिकम् “अतिथि” for guest and the अव्ययम् “कदा” for “when.” Use a प्रातिपदिकम् from the verse for “did arrive.”

7. The अमरकोश: gives four words which mean “bear.” One of them is “ऋक्ष:” (प्रातिपदिकम् “ऋक्ष” masculine) used in this verse. Please list the other three.
ऋक्षाच्छभल्लभल्लूका: ।।२-५-४।।
(इति चत्वारि “भल्लूकस्य” नामानि)

Note: Some editions of अमरकोश: have “भालूका:” instead of “भल्लूका:”।

8. Derive the form “ने” used in the सूत्रम् 8-2-3 न मु ने। It is सप्तमी-एकवचनम् of the प्रातिपदिकम् “ना”।

Advanced question:

1. The सप्तमी used in “ने” in the सूत्रम् “8-2-3 न मु ने” is treated as a विषय-सप्तमी as well as a पर-सप्तमी (reference 1-1-66 तस्मिन्निति निर्दिष्टे पूर्वस्य)। Please explain.

Easy questions:

1. Please do पदच्छेद: of प्रमृजन्नात्मन: and mention the relevant rules.

2. Where has the अस्मद्-प्रातिपदिकम् been used in this verse?

3. Where has the सूत्रम् 6-1-69 एङ्ह्रस्वात्‌ सम्बुद्धेः been used?


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  1. 1. Can you spot a word from the स्वरादि-गण: (reference 1-1-37 स्वरादिनिपातमव्ययम्) used in this verse?

    Answer: The word is मिथ्या ।

    2. The अव्ययम् “इह” is derived by adding the तद्धित-प्रत्यय: “ह” to the प्रातिपदिकम् “इदम्” using the सूत्रम् 5-3-11 इदमो हः। (इदम् takes the इश्-आदेश: as per 5-3-3 इदम इश्)। By which सूत्रम् does इह get the अव्यय-सञ्ज्ञा?

    Answer: “इह” gets the अव्यय-सञ्ज्ञा by 1-1-38 तद्धितश्चासर्वविभक्तिः – the words ending in a तद्धित-प्रत्यय:, after which it is not possible to introduce all of the सुँप्-affixes, are also designated as indeclinables.

    3. “इह” comes as the last word in which chapter of the गीता?

    Answer:
    अश्रद्धया हुतं दत्तं तपस्तप्तं कृतं च यत्‌ |
    असदित्युच्यते पार्थ न च तत्प्रेत्य नो इह || 17-28||

    4. Where else (besides in “अमुना”) has the सूत्रम् 7-3-120 आङो नाऽस्त्रियाम् been used?

    Answer: Besides in “अमुना” the सूत्रम् 7-3-120 आङो नाऽस्त्रियाम् been used in मणिना ।

    मणि + टा (4-1-2 स्वौजसमौट्छष्टा…)
    = मणिना (7-3-120 आङो नाऽस्त्रियाम् – Following a अङ्गम् having घि-सञ्ज्ञा, the affix “आङ्” is replaced by “ना”, but not in the feminine gender. आङ् is an ancient name for the (instrumental singular) affix टा)।

    5. Which terms from the प्रादि-गण: (reference 1-4-58 प्रादयः) occur in the verse? Which of these have the उपसर्ग-सञ्ज्ञा (reference 1-4-59 उपसर्गाः क्रियायोगे)?

    Answer: प्र (प्राप्ता), अभि (अभिशापम्), प्र (प्रमृजन्)।
    All of these have the उपसर्ग-सञ्ज्ञा since they are used in conjunction with a धातुः।

    6. How would you say this in Sanskrit?
    “When did the guests arrive here?” Use the प्रातिपदिकम् “अतिथि” for guest and the अव्ययम् “कदा” for “when.” Use a प्रातिपदिकम् from the verse for “did arrive.”

    Answer: कदा अतिथयः इह प्राप्ताः = कदातिथय इह प्राप्ताः ।

    7. The अमरकोश: gives four words which mean “bear.” One of them is “ऋक्ष:” (प्रातिपदिकम् “ऋक्ष” masculine) used in this verse. Please list the other three.
    ऋक्षाच्छभल्लभल्लूका: ।।२-५-४।।
    (इति चत्वारि “भल्लूकस्य” नामानि)
    Note: Some editions of अमरकोश: have “भालूका:” instead of “भल्लूका:”।

    Answer: The synonyms (all masculine) of the word “ऋक्ष:” are:
    1. अच्छः (प्रातिपदिकम् “अच्छ”)
    2. भल्लः (प्रातिपदिकम् “भल्ल”)
    3. भल्लूकः (प्रातिपदिकम् “भल्लूक”)

    8. Derive the form “ने” used in the सूत्रम् 8-2-3 न मु ने। It is सप्तमी-एकवचनम् of the प्रातिपदिकम् “ना”।

    Answer:
    ना + ङि by 4-1-2 स्वौजसमौट्छष्टा…….
    = ना + इ by 1-3-8 लशक्वतद्धिते ।
    = ने by 6-1-87 आद्गुणः ।

    Note: 7-3-113 याडापः and 7-3-116 ङेराम्नद्याम्नीभ्यः do not apply here because the ending आकार: of “ना” is not the feminine affix “आप्”।

    Advanced questions:

    1. The सप्तमी used in “ने” in the सूत्रम् “8-2-3 न मु ने” is treated as a विषय-सप्तमी as well as a पर-सप्तमी (reference 1-1-66 तस्मिन्निति निर्दिष्टे पूर्वस्य)। Please explain.

    Answer: Prof. Abhyankar’s “Dictionary of Sanskrit Grammar” gives the following explanation regarding the difference between a विषय-सप्तमी and a पर-सप्तमी।
    “विषय-सप्तमी is the locative case denoting the domain or province of a particular suffix or substitute or the like, which could be actually applied later on. This विषय-सप्तमी is contrasted with पर-सप्तमी when the thing mentioned in the locative case is actually required to be present in front.”

    The वृत्तिः of 8-2-3 is नाभावे कर्तव्‍ये कृते च मुभावो नाऽसिद्धः।
    In the first part of the वृत्ति: we have “नाभावे कर्तव्‍ये मुभावो नाऽसिद्धः। which means “when the “ना”-आदेश: (by 7-3-120) is to be done (not yet done), the “मु”-आदेश: is not असिद्ध:।” This is the विषय-सप्तमी। It allows 7-3-120 आङो नाऽस्त्रियाम् to apply, setting aside 7-1-12 टाङसिङसामिनात्स्याः।

    The second part of the वृत्ति: states “नाभावे कृते मुभावो नाऽसिद्धः। which means “after the “ना”-आदेश: (by 7-3-120) has been done (“ना” is actually following the अङ्गम्), the “मु”-आदेश: is not असिद्ध:।” This is the पर-सप्तमी। It prevents 7-3-102 सुपि च from applying.

    Easy questions:

    1. Please do पदच्छेद: of प्रमृजन्नात्मन: and mention the relevant rules.

    Answer: The पदच्छेदः is प्रमृजन्, आत्मनः।
    प्रमृजन् + आत्मनः = प्रमृजन्नात्मनः (8-3-32 ङमो ह्रस्वादचि ङमुण्नित्यम्)

    Note: The पदच्छेदः could have been प्रमृजन्, न, आत्मनः too. But in this context it is प्रमृजन्, आत्मनः।

    2. Where has the अस्मद्-प्रातिपदिकम् been used in this verse?

    Answer: वयम्, प्रथमा-बहुवचनम्।

    3. Where has the सूत्रम् 6-1-69 एङ्ह्रस्वात्‌ सम्बुद्धेः been used?

    Answer: ऋक्षपते, प्रातिपदिकम् “ऋक्षपति” सम्बुद्धि:।
    ऋक्षपति + सुँ (सम्बुद्धिः) (4-1-2 स्वौजसमौट्छष्टा…)
    = ऋक्षपते + सुँ ( 7-3-108 ह्रस्वस्य गुण:)
    = ऋक्षपते + स् (1-3-2 उपदेशेऽजनुनासिक इत्, 1-3-9 तस्य लोपः)
    = ऋक्षपते (6-1-69 एङ्ह्रस्वात्‌ सम्बुद्धेः)

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