Home » 2011 » April » 11

Daily Archives: April 11, 2011

तीर्त्वा ind.

Today we will look at the form तीर्त्वा-ind. from श्रीमद्वाल्मीकि-रामायणम् ।

ते वनेन वनं गत्वा नदीस्तीर्त्वा बहूदकाः ।। १-१-३० ।।
चित्रकूटमनुप्राप्य भरद्वाजस्य शासनात् ।

Gita Press translation “Going from forest to forest, and crossing streams containing deep water, they (saw the sage Bharadwāja at Prayāga and, dismissing Guha there) later on reached Citrakūṭa according to the instructions of Bharadwāja.”

“तीर्त्वा” is a क्त्वा-प्रत्ययान्त-शब्दः formed from the धातुः “तॄ”। The क्त्वा-प्रत्यय: is prescribed by 3-4-21 समानकर्तृकयोः पूर्वकाले

‘तीर्त्वा’ gets प्रातिपदिकसञ्ज्ञा by 1-2-46 कृत्तद्धितसमासाश्च4-1-2 स्वौजसमौट्छष्टा… mandates the प्रत्ययाः सुँ, औ, जस् etc. after the प्रातिपदिकम् ‘तीर्त्वा’
By 1-1-40 क्त्वातोसुन्कसुनः , the words ending in the affixes क्त्वा, तोसुन् and कसुन्, are also designated as indeclinables. Since ‘तीर्त्वा’ is an अव्ययम्, it will only take the default सुँ-प्रत्यय:।

(1) तीर्त्वा + सुँ ।

(2) तीर्त्वा । By 2-4-82 अव्ययादाप्सुपः, the feminine affix आप् and सुँप् affixes that are prescribed after an अव्ययम् take the लुक् elision.


1. Which two other (besides तीर्त्वा) words used in the verse, get the अव्यय-सञ्ज्ञा by the सूत्रम् 1-1-40 क्त्वातोसुन्कसुनः?

2. When we discussed this verse in the class, we discovered that the commentators have given two ways of doing पदच्छेद: of “तेवनेन”। One way is shown above as “ते + वनेन”। Geeta Press has also translated according to this पदच्छेद:। Do you recall the other possibility of doing पदच्छेद: here?

3. Which of the following is true of the तोसुन्-प्रत्यय: and the कसुन्-प्रत्यय:? (These are referred to in the सूत्रम् 1-1-40 क्त्वातोसुन्कसुनः)।
a) They are used only भाषायाम् (in Classical Sanskrit)
b) They are used only छन्दसि (in the वेद:)
c) They are used both भाषायाम् and छन्दसि
d) They are used neither भाषायाम् nor छन्दसि

4. Where has the सूत्रम् 6-1-102 प्रथमयोः पूर्वसवर्णः been used?

5. In commenting on the सूत्रम् 2-4-82 अव्ययादाप्सुपः, the तत्त्वबोधिनी-टीका says – “ण्यक्षत्रियार्षे’ति सूत्राल्लुगत्रानुवर्तते”। Please explain what this means.

6. Which terms from the प्रादि-गण: have been used in this verse? Do they have the उपसर्ग-सञ्ज्ञा here? (ref. 1-4-58 प्रादयः, 1-4-59 उपसर्गाः क्रियायोगे)।

7. How would you say this in Sanskrit?
“According to the instruction of his own father, Sri Rama went to the forest.” Use the सर्वनाम-प्रातिपदिकम् “स्व” to express the meaning of “his own”, use the adjective प्रातिपदिकम् “गतवत्” to express the meaning “went.”

8. The अमरकोश: gives five synonyms for the word आज्ञा (प्रातिपदिकम् “आज्ञा” feminine, meaning “command.”) One of them is the word शासनम् (प्रातिपदिकम् “शासन” neuter) used in this verse. Please list the other four.
अववादस्तु निर्देशो निदेशः शासनं च सः ।।२-८-२५।।
शिष्टिश्चाज्ञा च ।।२-८-२६।।
(इति षट् “आज्ञाया:” नामानि)

Easy questions:

1. Derive the forms भरद्वाजस्य (षष्ठी-एकवचनम्) and शासनात् (पञ्चमी-एकवचनम्) using the सूत्रम् 7-1-12 टाङसिङसामिनात्स्याः।

2. Where has the सूत्रम् 7-1-17 जसः शी been used?

Recent Posts