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पाम्पानि nAp

Today we will look at the form पाम्पानि nAp from भट्टिकाव्यम् 6.72.

नन्दनानि मुनीन्द्राणां रमणानि वनौकसाम् ।
वनानि भेजतुर्वीरौ ततः पाम्पानि राघवौ ॥ ६.७२ ॥

टीका
नन्दनानीत्यादि । तत उक्तादनन्तरं वीरौ राघवौ रामलक्ष्मणौ वनानि भेजतुः सेवितवन्तौ । एत्वाभ्यासलोपौ । ‘6-4-122 तॄफलभजत्रपश्च’ । पाम्पानीति पम्पाया अदूरम् ।’4-2-70 अदूरभवश्च’ इत्यण् । मुनीन्द्राणां नन्दनानि प्रमोदकारीणि । वनौकसां वनेचराणाम् । ‘√उच् (उचँ समवाये ४.१३५)’ । अस्मादौणादिकोऽसुन् । पृषोदरादित्वाद्वर्णविपर्ययः । वनमोको येषां तेषां रमणानि रतिजनकानि । ‘3-1-134 नन्दिग्रहिपचादिभ्यो ल्युणिन्यचः’ इत्यादिना ल्युः । कर्मणि षष्ठी ॥ ७२ ॥

Translation – Then the two Rāghava warriors resorted to the forests, not far from the Pampā lake, which were delightful to the best sages, and pleasurable to the forest-dwellers. (72)

(1) पम्पा ङस् + अण् । By 4-2-70 अदूरभवश्च – To denote the proper name of a place that is near (not too far away from) another place, the तद्धित: affix ‘अण्’ (prescribed by 4-1-83 प्राग्दीव्यतोऽण्) may be optionally applied following a syntactically related पदम् in which the सन्धिः operations have been performed, provided the पदम् ends in a sixth case affix and has a base that denotes that other place.

(2) पम्पा ङस् + अ । अनुबन्ध-लोपः by 1-3-3 हलन्त्यम्, 1-3-9 तस्य लोपः ।
Note: ‘पम्पा ङस् + अ’ gets the designation प्रातिपदिकम्‌ by 1-2-46 कृत्तद्धितसमासाश्च। This allows 2-4-71 सुपो धातुप्रातिपदिकयोः to apply in the next step.

(3) पम्पा + अ । By 2-4-71 सुपो धातुप्रातिपदिकयोः – A सुँप् affix takes a लुक् elision when it is a part of a धातुः or a प्रातिपदिकम्।

Note: The affix ‘अण्’ is a णित् (has the letter ‘ण्’ as इत्). This allows 7-2-117 तद्धितेष्वचामादेः to apply in the next step to perform the वृद्धिः substitution in place of the letter ’अ’, which is the first vowel of the अङ्गम् ‘पम्पा’।

(4) पाम्पा + अ । By 7-2-117 तद्धितेष्वचामादेः – The first vowel among the vowels of a अङ्गम् which is followed by a तद्धित: affix (ref. 4-1-76 तद्धिताः) which is either a ञित् (has the letter ‘ञ्’ as a इत्) or a णित् (has the letter ‘ण्’ as a इत्) takes the वृद्धि: (ref. 1-1-1 वृद्धिरादैच्) substitute.
Note: The अङ्गम् ‘पम्पा’ gets the भ-सञ्ज्ञा by 1-4-18 यचि भम् which allows 6-4-148 यस्येति च to apply in the next step.

(5) पाम्प् + अ = पाम्प । By 6-4-148 यस्येति च – When the letter ‘ई’ or a ‘तद्धित’ affix follows, the (ending) इ-वर्ण: (letter ‘इ’ or ‘ई’) or the (ending) अवर्ण: (letter ‘अ’ or ‘आ’) of the अङ्गम् with the भ-सञ्ज्ञा takes elision (लोपः)।

Note: The प्रातिपदिकम् ‘पाम्प’ qualifies वनानि, which is in the neuter gender. Hence ‘पाम्प’ declines like वन-शब्दः।

Note: Some grammarians consider ‘पाम्पा’ to be part of the वरणादि-गण:। Hence in their opinion, the सूत्रम् 4-2-82 वरणादिभ्यश्च applies to perform the लुक् elision of the चातुरर्थिक: affix अण् to give the final प्रातिपदिकम् form ‘पम्पा’ which declines in the feminine singular as per the सूत्रम् 1-2-51 लुपि युक्तवद्व्यक्तिवचने। In this scenario the final declined form in the above example would be पम्पाम् (वनानि) – instead of पाम्पानि (वनानि)।

पाणिनीयाः mNp

Today we will look at the form पाणिनीयाः mNp in पारिभाषा #56.

अकृतव्यूहाः पाणिनीयाः ∥ ५६ ∥

Translation – Those who study/know Pāṇinīyam (the treatise expounded by Pāṇini) decide not (to apply a rule, when its cause/causes is/are about to vanish.)

Note: पाणिनिना प्रोक्तम् (शास्त्रम्) = पाणिनीयम् (शास्त्रम्) – (the treatise) expounded by Pāṇini.
पाणिनीयम् (शास्त्रम्) is a तद्धितः form derived by adding the affix ‘छ’ (which is replaced by ‘इय’ as per the सूत्रम् 7-1-2) to the base ‘पाणिनि’ as per the सूत्रम् 4-3-101 तेन प्रोक्तम् in conjunction with the सूत्रम् 4-2-114 वृद्धाच्छः।

पाणिनीयमधीते वेद वा = पाणिनीयः – a person who studies or knows Pāṇinīyam (the treatise expounded by Pāṇini).
In the verse, the विवक्षा is प्रथमा-बहुवचनम्। Hence the form is पाणिनीयाः।

(1) पाणिनीय अम् + अण् । By 4-2-59 तदधीते तद्वेद – To denote a person who studies or knows that (subject matter), the तद्धित: affix ‘अण्’ may be optionally applied following a syntactically related पदम् in which the सन्धिः operations have been performed, provided the पदम् ends in the second case affix and has a base which denotes that (subject matter).

Note: ‘पाणिनीय अम् + अण्’ gets the designation प्रातिपदिकम्‌ by 1-2-46 कृत्तद्धितसमासाश्च। This allows 2-4-71 सुपो धातुप्रातिपदिकयोः to apply in the next step.

(2) पाणिनीय + अण् । By 2-4-71 सुपो धातुप्रातिपदिकयोः – A सुँप् affix takes a लुक् elision when it is a part of a धातुः or a प्रातिपदिकम्।

Note: Since the base ‘पाणिनीय’ is derived using the सूत्रम् 4-3-101 तेन प्रोक्तम्, it allows 4-2-64 प्रोक्ताल्लुक् to apply in the next step.

(3) पाणिनीय । By 4-2-64 प्रोक्ताल्लुक् – A तद्धित: affix which denotes the sense of ‘one who studies/knows’ takes the लुक् elision when it follows (a term that ends in) an affix which denotes the sense of ‘expounded’ (ref: 4-3-101 तेन प्रोक्तम्)।

Note: The प्रातिपदिकम् ‘पाणिनीय’ is an adjective. It declines like राम-शब्दः in the masculine gender.

पौराणिकाः mNp

Today we will look at the form पौराणिकाः mNp from श्रीमद्भागवतम् 12.7.5.

त्रय्यारुणिः कश्यपश्च सावर्णिरकृतव्रणः । वैशम्पायनहारीतौ षड्वै पौराणिका इमे ॥ १२-७-५ ॥

श्रीधर-स्वामि-टीका
No commentary on this verse.

Gita Press translation – Trayyāruṇi, Kaśyapa, Sāvarṇi, Akṛtavraṇa, Vaiśampāyana and Hārīta – these, as a matter of fact, are the six teachers of the Purāṇas.(5)

The प्रातिपदिकम् ‘पौराणिक’ used in the verse is derived as follows –
पुराणान्यधीते वेद वा = पौराणिकः – a person who studies or knows the Purāṇas

In the verse the विवक्षा is प्रथमा-बहुवचनम्। Hence the form is पौराणिकाः।

(1) पुराण शस् + ठक् । By वार्तिकम् (under the सूत्रम् 4-2-60 क्रतूक्थादिसूत्रान्ताट्ठक्) आख्यानाख्यायिकेतिहासपुराणेभ्यश्च – To denote a person who studies or knows that (subject matter), the तद्धित: affix ‘ठक्’ may be optionally applied following a syntactically related पदम् in which the सन्धिः operations have been performed, provided the पदम् ends in the second case affix and has as its base either –
i) the name of a narrative (आख्यानम्) or a story (आख्यायिका), or
ii) the word ‘इतिहास’ or ‘पुराण’।
Note: The affix ‘ठक्’ prescribed by the सूत्रम् 4-2-60 as well as the above वार्तिकम् is a अपवादः to the affix ‘अण्’ prescribed by 4-2-59 तदधीते तद्वेद।

(2) पुराण शस् + ठ् । अनुबन्ध-लोपः by 1-3-3 हलन्त्यम्, 1-3-9 तस्य लोपः । The letter ‘अ’ in the affix ‘ठक्’ is only for the sake of pronunciation (उच्चारणार्थ:)।

(3) पुराण शस् + इक । By 7-3-50 ठस्येकः – ‘इक’ is substituted in place of the letter ‘ठ्’, when it follows a अङ्गम्।

‘पुराण शस् + इक’ gets the designation प्रातिपदिकम्‌ by 1-2-46 कृत्तद्धितसमासाश्च। This allows 2-4-71 सुपो धातुप्रातिपदिकयोः to apply in the next step.

(4) पुराण + इक । By 2-4-71 सुपो धातुप्रातिपदिकयोः – A सुँप् affix takes a लुक् elision when it is a part of a धातुः or a प्रातिपदिकम्।

(5) पौराण + इक । By 7-2-118 किति च – The first vowel among the vowels of a अङ्गम् which is followed by a तद्धित: affix (ref. 4-1-76 तद्धिताः) which is a कित् (has the letter ‘क्’ as a इत्) takes the वृद्धि: (ref. 1-1-1 वृद्धिरादैच्) substitute.

Note: The अङ्गम् ‘पौराण’ gets the भ-सञ्ज्ञा by 1-4-18 यचि भम् which allows 6-4-148 यस्येति च to apply in the next step.

(6) पौराण् + इक । By 6-4-148 यस्येति च – When the letter ‘ई’ or a ‘तद्धित’ affix follows, the (ending) इ-वर्ण: (letter ‘इ’ or ‘ई’) or the (ending) अवर्ण: (letter ‘अ’ or ‘आ’) of a अङ्गम् with the भ-सञ्ज्ञा takes elision (लोपः)।

= पौराणिक । Note: The प्रातिपदिकम् ‘पौराणिक’ declines like राम-शब्दः।

वात्यारूपधरः mNs

Today we will look at the form वात्यारूपधरः mNs from श्रीमद्भागवतम् 10.7.26.

तृणावर्तः शान्तरयो वात्यारूपधरो हरन् । कृष्णं नभोगतो गन्तुं नाशक्नोद्भूरिभारभृत् ।। १०-७-२६ ।।
तमश्मानं मन्यमान आत्मनो गुरुमत्तया । गले गृहीत उत्स्रष्टुं नाशक्नोदद्भुतार्भकम् ।। १०-७-२७ ।।

श्रीधर-स्वामि-टीका
वात्या चक्रवातस्तद्रूपधरः कृष्णं हरन् शान्तरयः कथंचिन्नभोगतस्ततः परं गन्तुं नाशक्नोदित्यर्थः ।। २६ ।। गुरुमत्तयाऽतिगौरवेण तं तथा अश्मानमश्मवन्तं पर्वतप्रायं मन्यमानस्तेनैवात्मनो गले गृहीतत्वात्तं त्यक्तुमिच्छन्नपि नाशक्नोदित्यर्थः ।। २७ ।।

Gita Press translation – Carrying away Lord Śrī Kṛṣṇa, Tṛṇāvarta, who had assumed the form of a whirlwind, went up to the skies (to a certain height) but could not proceed (further), his impetuosity having ceased now that he (felt he) was carrying a huge burden (since the Lord had grown heavy again) (26). Taking that wonderful Boy to be a rock (of sapphire) because of His being heavier than himself (and having given up the form of a whirlwind), he could not cast Him away, caught as he was by the throat (27).

The above verses have previously appeared in the following post – मन्यमानः-mns

The प्रातिपदिकम् ‘वात्या’ used in the form वात्यारूपधरः is derived as follows –
वातानां समूहः = वात्या – whirlwind (a group of winds)

(1) वात आम् + य । By 4-2-49 पाशादिभ्यो यः – To denote a collection/group, the तद्धित: affix ‘य’ may be optionally applied following a syntactically related पदम् in which the सन्धिः operations have been performed, provided the पदम् ends in the sixth case affix and has ‘पाश’ etc (listed in the पाशादि-गण:) as its base.
Note: The word ‘वात’ is listed in the पाशादि-गणः। This allows 4-2-49 to apply here.
Note: The affix ‘य’ prescribed by the सूत्रम् 4-2-49 is a अपवादः to the default affix ‘अण्’ prescribed by the सूत्रम् 4-2-37 तस्य समूहः।

‘वात आम् + य’ gets the designation प्रातिपदिकम्‌ by 1-2-46 कृत्तद्धितसमासाश्च। This allows 2-4-71 सुपो धातुप्रातिपदिकयोः to apply in the next step.

(2) वात + य । By 2-4-71 सुपो धातुप्रातिपदिकयोः – A सुँप् affix takes a लुक् elision when it is a part of a धातुः or a प्रातिपदिकम्।
Note: The अङ्गम् ‘वात’ gets the भ-सञ्ज्ञा by 1-4-18 यचि भम् which allows 6-4-148 यस्येति च to apply in the next step.

(3) वात् + य = वात्य । By 6-4-148 यस्येति च – When the letter ‘ई’ or a ‘तद्धित’ affix follows, the (ending) इ-वर्ण: (letter ‘इ’ or ‘ई’) or the (ending) अवर्ण: (letter ‘अ’ or ‘आ’) of a अङ्गम् with the भ-सञ्ज्ञा takes elision (लोपः)।

Note: Words derived by using this सूत्रम् are used in the feminine gender in the language. Hence we form the feminine word ‘वात्या’ by adding the feminine affix टाप् as follows –

(4) वात्य + टाप् । By 4-1-4 अजाद्यतष्टाप्‌ – The प्रातिपदिकानि ‘अज’ etc. and प्रातिपदिकानि ending in the letter ‘अ’ get the टाप् affix in the feminine gender.

(5) वात्य + आ । अनुबन्ध-लोपः by 1-3-3 हलन्त्यम्, 1-3-7 चुटू, 1-3-9 तस्य लोपः

(6) वात्या । By 6-1-101 अकः सवर्णे दीर्घः

Similarly, we can derive the following forms –
१) पाशानां समूहः = पाश्या – a group of snares
२) तृणानां समूहः = तृण्या – a heap of straws

To derive the compound प्रातिपदिकम् ‘वात्यारूपधर’ we first form the षष्ठी-तत्पुरुष-समासः ‘वात्यारूप’ as follows –

वात्याया रूपं = वात्यारूपम् – the form of a whirlwind

अलौकिक-विग्रह: –
(7) वात्या ङस् + रूप सुँ । By 2-2-8 षष्ठी – A पदम् ending in a sixth case affix optionally compounds with a (syntactically related) पदम् ending in a सुँप् affix and the resulting compound gets the designation तत्पुरुष:।

(8) By 1-2-43 प्रथमानिर्दिष्टं समास उपसर्जनम् – the term ‘वात्या ङस्’ gets the designation उपसर्जनम् because in the सूत्रम् 2-2-8 (which prescribes the compounding) the term षष्ठी ends in the nominative case. Hence ‘वात्या ङस्’ is placed in the prior position in the compound as per the सूत्रम् 2-2-30 उपसर्जनं पूर्वम्‌ – In a compound a term which has the designation ‘उपसर्जन’ should be placed in the prior position.

Note: ‘वात्या ङस् + रूप सुँ’ gets the designation प्रातिपदिकम्‌ by 1-2-46 कृत्तद्धितसमासाश्च। This allows 2-4-71 to apply in the next step.

(9) वात्या + रूप । By 2-4-71 सुपो धातुप्रातिपदिकयोः – A सुँप् affix takes a लुक् elision when it is a part of a धातुः or a प्रातिपदिकम्।

= वात्यारूप ।

The विग्रहः of the षष्ठी-तत्पुरुषः compound ‘वात्यारूपधर’ is वात्यारूपस्य धरः = वात्यारूपधरः – one who possesses the form of a whirlwind

The प्रातिपदिकम् ’धर’ is derived from the verbal root √धृ (धृञ् धारणे १. १०४७) as follows –

(10) धृ + अच् । By वार्तिकम् (under 3-1-134 नन्दिग्रहिपचादिभ्यो ल्युणिन्यचः) – अज्विधिः सर्वधातुभ्यः – The affix ‘अच्’ may be used after any verbal root (to denote the agent/doer of the action.)

(11) धृ + अ । अनुबन्ध-लोप: by 1-3-3 हलन्त्यम् and 1-3-9 तस्य लोपः। Note: The affix ‘अ’ gets आर्धधातुक-सञ्ज्ञा by 3-4-114 आर्धधातुकं शेषः। This allows 7-3-84 to apply below.
Note: Since the affix ‘अ’ does not begin with a letter belonging to the प्रत्याहार: ‘वल्’, it cannot take the augment ‘इट्’ which would have been prescribed by the सूत्रम् 7-2-35 आर्धधातुकस्येड् वलादेः।

(12) धर् + अ = धर । By 7-3-84 सार्वधातुकार्धधातुकयोः, 1-1-51 उरण् रपरः

Now we form the षष्ठी-तत्पुरुषः compound ‘वात्यारूपधर’ as follows –

(13) वात्यारूप ङस् + धर सुँ । By 2-2-8 षष्ठी – A पदम् ending in a sixth case affix optionally compounds with a (syntactically related) पदम् ending in a सुँप् affix and the resulting compound gets the designation तत्पुरुष:।

By 1-2-43 प्रथमानिर्दिष्टं समास उपसर्जनम् – the term ‘वात्यारूप ङस्’ gets the designation उपसर्जनम् because in the सूत्रम् 2-2-8 (which prescribes the compounding) the term षष्ठी ends in the nominative case. Hence ’वात्यारूप ङस्’ is placed in the prior position in the compound as per the सूत्रम् 2-2-30 उपसर्जनं पूर्वम् – In a compound a term which has the designation ‘उपसर्जन’ should be placed in the prior position.
Note: ‘वात्यारूप ङस् + धर सुँ’ gets the designation प्रातिपदिकम्‌ by 1-2-46 कृत्तद्धितसमासाश्च। This allows 2-4-71 to apply in the next step.

(14) वात्यारूप + धर । By 2-4-71 सुपो धातुप्रातिपदिकयोः – A सुँप् affix takes a लुक् elision when it is a part of a धातुः or a प्रातिपदिकम्।

= वात्यारूपधर ।

Note: As per the सूत्रम् 2-4-26 परवल्लिङ्गं द्वन्द्वतत्पुरुषयोः, the compound प्रातिपदिकम् ‘वात्यारूपधर’ is an adjective since the latter member ‘धर’ of the compound is an adjective. Here it is used in the masculine since वात्यारूपधरः is qualifying तृणावर्तः। The compound declines like राम-शब्द:। प्रथमा-एकवचनम् is वात्यारूपधरः।

जनताः fNp

Today we will look at the form जनताः fNp from शिशुपालवधम् 5.14.

छायामपास्य महतीमपि वर्तमानामागामिनीं जगृहिरे जनतास्तरूणाम् ।
सर्वो हि नोपगतमप्यपचीयमानं वर्धिष्णुमाश्रयमनागतमभ्युपैति ∥ ५.१४ ∥

मल्लिनाथ-टीका
छायामिति । जनानां समूहा जनताः । ‘4-2-43 ग्रामजनबन्धु-‘ । तरूणां वर्तमानां विद्यमानां महतीमपि छायामपास्य त्यक्त्वा आगामिनीं छायां जगृहिरे। वर्धिष्णुत्वादिति भावः । न च प्राप्तत्यागो दोषाय । त्यागस्वीकारयोः क्षयवृद्धिप्रयुक्तत्वादिति भावः । सर्व इति । तथाहि — सर्वो जन उपगतं प्राप्तमप्यपचीयमानं क्षीयमाणम् । कर्मकर्तरि प्रयोगः । आश्रयं नोपैति न गृह्णाति, किन्त्वनागतमप्राप्तमपि वर्धिष्णुं वर्धनशीलमाश्रयमुपैति । सामान्येन विशेषसमर्थनरूपोऽर्थान्तरन्यासः ।

Translation – Groups of people having left the existing shade of trees, even though it was abundant, took to the upcoming (shade). Indeed, every one rejects a diminishing shelter even though it is near, and instead seeks a growing one, even if it is not at hand.

जनानां समूहः = जनता – a group of people
In the verses the विवक्षा is प्रथमा-बहुवचनम्। Hence the form is जनताः।

(1) जन आम् + तल् । By 4-2-43 ग्रामजनबन्धुभ्यस्तल् – To denote a collection/group, the तद्धित: affix ‘तल्’ may be optionally applied following a syntactically related पदम् in which the सन्धिः operations have been performed, provided the पदम् ends in a sixth case affix and has the word ‘ग्राम’ or ‘जन’ or ‘बन्धु’ as its base.

Note: The affix ‘तल्’ prescribed by the सूत्रम् 4-2-43 is a अपवादः to the default affix ‘अण्’ prescribed by the सूत्रम् 4-2-37 तस्य समूहः।

(2) जन आम् + त । अनुबन्ध-लोपः by 1-3-3 हलन्त्यम्, 1-3-9 तस्य लोपः

Note: ‘जन आम् + त’ gets the designation प्रातिपदिकम्‌ by 1-2-46 कृत्तद्धितसमासाश्च। This allows 2-4-71 सुपो धातुप्रातिपदिकयोः to apply in the next step.

(3) जनत । By 2-4-71 सुपो धातुप्रातिपदिकयोः – A सुँप् affix takes a लुक् elision when it is a part of a धातुः or a प्रातिपदिकम्।

Words ending in the तद्धित-affix ‘तल्’ are used in the language in the feminine gender. Hence we form the feminine प्रातिपदिकम् ‘जनता’ by adding the feminine affix टाप् as follows –

(4) जनत + टाप् । By 4-1-4 अजाद्यतष्टाप्‌ – The प्रातिपदिकानि ‘अज’ etc. and प्रातिपदिकानि ending in the letter ‘अ’ get the affix टाप् in the feminine gender.

(5) जनत + आ । अनुबन्ध-लोपः by 1-3-3 हलन्त्यम्, 1-3-7 चुटू, 1-3-9 तस्य लोपः

(6) जनता । By 6-1-101 अकः सवर्णे दीर्घः
Note: The प्रातिपदिकम् ‘जनता’ declines like रमा-शब्दः।

Similarly, we can derive the following forms –
१) ग्रामाणां समूहः = ग्रामता – a group of villages
२) बन्धूनां समूहः = बन्धुता – a group of relatives

राजकम् nAs

Today we will look at the form राजकम् nAs from शिशुपालवधम् 2.102.

मखविघ्नाय सकलमित्थमुत्थाप्य राजकम्‌ ।
हन्त जातमजातारेः प्रथमेन त्वयारिणा ॥ २-१०२ ॥

मल्लिनाथ-टीका
मखेति । इत्थमनेन प्रकारेण । ‘5-3-24 इदमस्थमुः’ इति थमुप्रत्ययः । मखविघ्नाय मखविघाताय सकलं राजकं राजसमूहम् । ‘4-2-39 गोत्रोक्ष–’ इत्यादिना वुञ् । उत्थाप्य क्षोभयित्वा । हन्त इति खेदे । अजातारेरजातशत्रोर्युधिष्ठिरस्य त्वया प्रथमेनारिणा जातमजनि । नपुंसके भावे क्तः ।

TranslationHaving thus agitated the entire group of kings for the destruction of the sacrifice, alas! you have become the first enemy of the one (Yudhiṣṭhira) who has no enemy.

राजकम् = राज्ञां समूहः – a group of kings

In the verse the विवक्षा is द्वितीया-एकवचनम्। Hence the form is राजकम्।

(1) राजन् आम् + वुञ् । By 4-2-39 गोत्रोक्षोष्ट्रोरभ्रराजराजन्यराजपुत्रवत्समनुष्याजाद्वुञ् – To denote a collection/group, the तद्धित: affix ‘वुञ्’ may be optionally applied following a syntactically related पदम् in which the सन्धिः operations have been performed, provided the पदम् ends in a sixth case affix and has a base that either denotes a गोत्रम् (family/lineage) or is the word ‘उक्षन्’, ‘उष्ट्र’, ‘उरभ्र’, ‘राजन्’, ‘राजन्य’, ‘राजपुत्र’, ‘वत्स’, ‘मनुष्य’ or ‘अज’।

Note: The affix ‘वुञ्’ prescribed by the सूत्रम् 4-2-39 is a अपवादः to the default affix ‘अण्’ prescribed by the सूत्रम् 4-2-37 तस्य समूहः।

(2) राजन् आम् + वु । अनुबन्ध-लोपः by 1-3-3 हलन्त्यम्, 1-3-9 तस्य लोपः ।

Note: The letter ‘ञ्’ as a इत् in the affix ‘वुञ्’ facilitates the application of the सूत्रम् 7-2-117 तद्धितेष्वचामादेः। But in the present example, since the first vowel (‘आ’) of the term ‘राजन्’ already has the designation वृद्धिः (ref: 1-1-1 वृद्धिरादैच्), 7-2-117 has no effect here.

(3) राजन् आम् + अक । By 7-1-1 युवोरनाकौ – The affixes ‘यु’ and ‘वु’ are substituted respectively by ‘अन’ and ‘अक’। As per 1-1-55 अनेकाल्शित्सर्वस्य the entire affix ‘वु’ is replaced by ‘अक’।

Note: ‘राजन् आम् + अक’ gets the designation प्रातिपदिकम्‌ by 1-2-46 कृत्तद्धितसमासाश्च। This allows 2-4-71 सुपो धातुप्रातिपदिकयोः to apply in the next step.

(4) राजन् + अक । By 2-4-71 सुपो धातुप्रातिपदिकयोः – A सुँप् affix takes a लुक् elision when it is a part of a धातुः or a प्रातिपदिकम्।

Note: The अङ्गम् ‘राजन्’ has the designation ‘भ’ here by 1-4-18 यचि भम्। This allows 6-4-144 to apply in the next step.

(5) राज् + अक = राजक । By 6-4-144 नस्तद्धिते – The ‘टि’ portion (ref. 1-1-64 अचोऽन्त्यादि टि) of a अङ्गम् (base) is elided provided the अङ्गम् –
i) has the designation ‘भ’ (ref. 1-4-18 यचि भम्)
ii) ends in the letter ‘न्’ and
iii) is followed by a तद्धित: affix
Note: The ‘अन्’ part of the अङ्गम् ‘राजन्’ has the designation ‘टि’ by the सूत्रम् 1-1-64 अचोऽन्त्यादि टि – That part of a group of sounds which begins with the last vowel of the group (and goes to the end of the group) gets the designation ‘टि’।

(6) राजक । Note: Words ending in तद्धिताः affixes denoting a collection are used in the language in the neuter gender. Hence the प्रातिपदिकम् ‘राजक’ declines like वन-शब्दः।

भैक्षम् nAs

Today we will look at the form भैक्षम् nAs from श्रीमद्वाल्मीकि-रामायणम् 2.43.4

अथास्मिन् नगरे रामश्चरन् भैक्षं गृहे वसेत् । कामकारो वरं दातुमपि दासं ममात्मजम् ∥ २-४३-४ ∥

Gita Press translation – Even if Rāma were allowed to remain at his home in Ayodhyā living on alms, it would be preferable (to me in comparison to his exile). (Nay), it would be better even to consign my son to her as a slave (4).

भिक्षाणां समूहः = भैक्षम् – alms (a collection of items got from begging)
In the verses the विवक्षा is द्वितीया-एकवचनम्। Hence the form is भैक्षम्।

(1) भिक्षा आम् + अण् । By 4-2-38 भिक्षादिभ्योऽण् – To denote a collection/group, the तद्धित: affix ‘अण्’ may be optionally applied following a syntactically related पदम् in which the सन्धिः operations have been performed, provided the पदम् ends in a genitive case affix and has ‘भिक्षा’ etc (listed in the भिक्षादि-गण:) as its base.

Note: First the सूत्रम् 4-2-37 तस्य समूहः prescribes the default affix ‘अण्’। But since ‘भिक्षा’ denotes an inanimate object, the default affix ‘अण्’ is over-ruled by the affix ‘ठक्’ prescribed by the सूत्रम् 4-2-47 अचित्तहस्तिधेनोष्ठक्। Finally the सूत्रम् 4-2-38 भिक्षादिभ्योऽण् re-prescribes the affix ‘अण्’।

Note: The form ‘भैक्ष’ may also be derived स्वार्थे (without a change in meaning) from the प्रातिपदिकम् ‘भिक्षा’ by applying the affix ‘अण्’ as per the सूत्रम् 5-4-38 प्रज्ञादिभ्यश्च। Even though ‘भिक्षा’ is not listed in the प्रज्ञादि-गणः, the सूत्रम् 5-4-38 may still be applied here, since the प्रज्ञादि-गणः is considered to be a आकृति-गणः।

(2) भिक्षा आम् + अ । अनुबन्ध-लोपः by 1-3-3 हलन्त्यम्, 1-3-9 तस्य लोपः ।

Note: ‘भिक्षा आम् + अ’ gets the designation प्रातिपदिकम्‌ by 1-2-46 कृत्तद्धितसमासाश्च। This allows 2-4-71 सुपो धातुप्रातिपदिकयोः to apply in the next step.

(3) भिक्षा + अ । By 2-4-71 सुपो धातुप्रातिपदिकयोः – A सुँप् affix takes a लुक् elision when it is a part of a धातुः or a प्रातिपदिकम्।

Note: The affix ‘अण्’ is a णित् (has the letter ‘ण्’ as इत्). This allows 7-2-117 तद्धितेष्वचामादेः to apply in the next step to perform the वृद्धिः substitution in place of the letter ’इ’, which is the first vowel of the अङ्गम् ‘भिक्षा’।

(4) भैक्षा + अ । By 7-2-117 तद्धितेष्वचामादेः – The first vowel among the vowels of a अङ्गम् which is followed by a तद्धित: affix (ref. 4-1-76 तद्धिताः) which is either a ञित् (has the letter ‘ञ्’ as a इत्) or a णित् (has the letter ‘ण्’ as a इत्) takes the वृद्धि: (ref. 1-1-1 वृद्धिरादैच्) substitute.

Note: The अङ्गम् ‘भैक्षा’ gets the भ-सञ्ज्ञा by 1-4-18 यचि भम् which allows 6-4-148 यस्येति च to apply in the next step.

(5) भैक्ष् + अ । By 6-4-148 यस्येति च – When the letter ‘ई’ or a ‘तद्धित’ affix follows, the (ending) इ-वर्ण: (letter ‘इ’ or ‘ई’) or the (ending) अवर्ण: (letter ‘अ’ or ‘आ’) of the अङ्गम् with the भ-सञ्ज्ञा takes elision (लोपः)।

= भैक्ष । Note: Words ending in तद्धिताः affixes denoting a collection are used in the language in the neuter gender. Hence the प्रातिपदिकम् ‘भैक्ष’ declines like वन-शब्दः।

आपगाः fNp

Today we will look at the form आपगाः fNp from श्रीमद्भागवतम् Sb10.47.33.

एतदन्तः समाम्नायो योगः साङ्ख्यं मनीषिणाम् ।
त्यागस्तपो दमः सत्यं समुद्रान्ता इवापगाः ∥ १०-४७-३३ ∥

श्रीधर-स्वामि-टीका
तावता च कृतार्थो भवतीत्याह – एतदन्त इति । एष मनोनिरोधः अन्तः समाप्तिः फलं यस्य सः । समाम्नायो वेदः। स तत्र पर्यवस्यतीत्यर्थः । योगोऽष्टाङ्गः । सांख्यमात्मानात्मविवेकः। त्यागः संन्यासः। तपः स्वधर्मः। दम इन्द्रियदमनम्। मार्गभेदेऽप्येकत्र पर्यवसाने दृष्टान्तः – समुद्रान्ता आपगा नद्य इवेति ∥ ३३ ∥

Gita Press translation – “In the eyes of the wise, (the teachings of) the Vedas, the (eightfold) path of Yoga, the Sāṅkhya system of philosophy (which differentiates Matter from the Spirit), renunciation, suffering hardships for the sake of one’s faith, subjugation of one’s senses and truthfulness have their goal in mind-control even as rivers terminate in the ocean (33).

The प्रातिपदिकम् ‘आप’ used in the compound आपगाः is derived as follows –
अपां समूहः = आपम् – a collection of waters

(1) अप् आम् + अण् । By 4-2-37 तस्य समूहः – To denote a collection/group, the तद्धित: affix ‘अण्’ (prescribed by 4-1-83 प्राग्दीव्यतोऽण्) may be optionally applied following a syntactically related पदम् in which the सन्धिः operations have been performed, provided the पदम् ends in a genitive case affix and has a base denoting that of which the collection is intended.
Note: As per the सूत्रम् 4-2-47 अचित्तहस्तिधेनोष्ठक् – To denote a collection, the तद्धित: affix ‘ठक्’ may be optionally applied following a syntactically related पदम् in which the सन्धिः operations have been performed, provided the पदम् ends in a genitive case affix and has as its base a term denoting an inanimate object, or the term ‘हस्तिन्’ or ‘धेनु’।
Hence if waters were considered inanimate, as per the सूत्रम् 4-2-47, the affix ‘ठक्’ would have applied in the present example. By the fact that the affix ‘अण्’ (and not the affix ‘ठक्’) has been used to form the प्रातिपदिकम् ‘आप’, we can infer that waters are not considered inanimate.

(2) अप् आम् + अ । अनुबन्ध-लोपः by 1-3-3 हलन्त्यम्, 1-3-9 तस्य लोपः

Note: ‘अप् आम् + अ’ gets the designation प्रातिपदिकम्‌ by 1-2-46 कृत्तद्धितसमासाश्च। This allows 2-4-71 सुपो धातुप्रातिपदिकयोः to apply in the next step.

(3) अप् + अ । By 2-4-71 सुपो धातुप्रातिपदिकयोः – A सुँप् affix takes a लुक् elision when it is a part of a धातुः or a प्रातिपदिकम्।

Note: The affix ‘अण्’ is a णित् (has the letter ‘ण्’ as इत्)। This allows 7-2-117 तद्धितेष्वचामादेः to apply in the next step.

(4) आप् + अ । By 7-2-117 तद्धितेष्वचामादेः – The first vowel among the vowels of a अङ्गम् which is followed by a तद्धित: affix (ref. 4-1-76 तद्धिताः) which is either a ञित् (has the letter ‘ञ्’ as a इत्) or a णित् (has the letter ‘ण्’ as a इत्) takes the वृद्धि: (ref. 1-1-1 वृद्धिरादैच्) substitute.

= आप ।

We can similarly derive the following –
१) काकानां समूहः = काकम् – a flock of crows
२) वकानां समूहः = वाकम् – a fight of cranes
३) वृकाणां समूहः = वार्कम् – a pack of wolves

The प्रातिपदिकम् ‘आपगा’ is a उपपद-समासः, derived as follows –
आपेन गच्छतीति = आपगा (नदी) – (a river) which goes (flows) with a collection of waters

(5) आप + टा + गम् + ड । By the वार्तिकम् (under 3-2-48 अन्तात्यन्ताध्वदूरपारसर्वानन्तेषु डः) अन्यत्रापि दृश्यत इति वक्तव्यम् – The affix ‘ड’ may be used after the verbal root √गम् (गमॢँ गतौ १. ११३७) when in composition with a उपपदम् which could be other than those specifically listed in 3-2-48 अन्तात्यन्ताध्वदूरपारसर्वानन्तेषु डः।
Note: In the above वार्तिकम्, the term अन्यत्र is in the seventh (locative) case. Hence ‘आप + टा’ gets the उपपद-सञ्ज्ञा here by 3-1-92 तत्रोपपदं सप्तमीस्थम्‌।

(6) आप + टा + गम् + अ । अनुबन्ध-लोप: by 1-3-7 चुटू and 1-3-9 तस्य लोपः

(7) आप + टा + ग् + अ । By 6-4-143 टेः – When the अङ्गम् has the भ-सञ्ज्ञा, then its टि portion takes लोप: when followed by an affix that has the letter ‘ड्’ as an indicatory letter. Note: The अङ्गम् does not have the भ-सञ्ज्ञा here. But still टि-लोप: is done because otherwise no purpose would be served by having the letter ‘ड्’ as a इत् in the affix ‘ड’। डित्वसामर्थ्यादभस्यापि टेर्लोपः।

= आप + टा + ग ।

We form a compound between ‘आप + टा’ (which is the उपपदम्) and ‘ग’ by using the सूत्रम् 2-2-19 उपपदमतिङ् – A सुबन्तम् (term ending in a सुँप् affix) having the designation ‘उपपद’ (in this case ‘आप टा’) invariably compounds with a syntactically related term (in this case ‘ग’) as long as the compound does not end in a तिङ् affix.

In the compound, ‘आप + टा’ is placed in the prior position as per 2-2-30 उपसर्जनं पूर्वम्‌ – In a compound a term which has the designation ‘उपसर्जन’ should be placed in the prior position. Note: Here ‘आप + टा’ is the उपपदम् and hence it gets the उपसर्जन-सञ्ज्ञा by 1-2-43 प्रथमानिर्दिष्टं समास उपसर्जनम् – A term denoted by a word (in this case ‘उपपदम्’) ending in a nominative case in a सूत्रम् (in this case 2-2-19 उपपदमतिङ्) which prescribes a compound gets the designation ‘उपसर्जन’।

‘आप + टा + ग’ gets प्रातिपदिक-सञ्ज्ञा by 1-2-46 कृत्तद्धितसमासाश्च। This allows 2-4-71 सुपो धातुप्रातिपदिकयोः to apply in the next step.

(8) आप + ग । By 2-4-71 सुपो धातुप्रातिपदिकयोः – A सुँप् affix takes a लुक् elision when it is a part of a धातुः or a प्रातिपदिकम्।

= आपग ।

The प्रातिपदिकम् ‘आपग’ is an adjective. In the present example, it refers to the feminine noun ‘नदी’। Hence we form the feminine प्रातिपदिकम् ‘आपगा’ by adding the feminine affix टाप् as follows –

(9) आपग + टाप् । By 4-1-4 अजाद्यतष्टाप्‌ – The प्रातिपदिकानि ‘अज’ etc. and प्रातिपदिकानि ending in the letter ‘अ’ get the टाप् affix in the feminine gender.

(10) आपग + आ । अनुबन्ध-लोपः by 1-3-3 हलन्त्यम्, 1-3-7 चुटू, 1-3-9 तस्य लोपः

(11) आपगा । By 6-1-101 अकः सवर्णे दीर्घः

The विवक्षा is प्रथमा-बहुवचनम्। Hence the form is आपगाः।

पितामही fNs

Today we will look at the form पितामही fNs from श्रीमद्भागवतम् Sb9.24.55.

अष्टमस्तु तयोरासीत्स्वयमेव हरिः किल ।
सुभद्रा च महाभागा तव राजन्पितामही ∥ ९-२४-५५ ∥

श्रीधर-स्वामि-टीका
अष्टमस्तु स्वयमेवासीन्नतु कर्मादिना हेतुना ताभ्यां जनितो वा, यतोऽसौ हरिः ∥ ५५ ∥

Gita Press translation- While the eighth son of (the blessed) Vasudeva and Devakī indeed was Lord Śrī Hari Himself. And the highly blessed Subhadrā, your grandmother was their daughter, O king! (55)”

पितुर्माता = पितामही – grandmother (father’s mother)

First, we derive the masculine form ‘पितामह’ as follows –

(1) पितृ ङस् + डामहच् । By 4-2-36 पितृव्यमातुलमातामहपितामहाः – The forms ‘पितृव्य’, ‘मातुल’, ‘मातामह’ and ‘पितामह’ are given as ready-made forms. They are used in the meaning of ‘father’s brother’, ‘mother’s brother’, ‘mother’s father’ and ‘father’s father’ respectively.
Note: As per the वार्तिकम् ‘मातृपितृभ्यां पितरि डामहच्’ – The affix ‘डामहच्’ is to be applied to get the final forms ‘पितामह’ and ‘मातामह’ (listed in the सूत्रम् 4-2-36) – which denote father’s father and mother’s father respectively.

(2) पितृ ङस् + आमह । अनुबन्ध-लोपः by 1-3-3 हलन्त्यम्, 1-3-7 चुटू, 1-3-9 तस्य लोपः

Note: ‘पितृ ङस् + आमह’ gets the designation प्रातिपदिकम्‌ by 1-2-46 कृत्तद्धितसमासाश्च। This allows 2-4-71 सुपो धातुप्रातिपदिकयोः to apply in the next step.

(3) पितृ + आमह । By 2-4-71 सुपो धातुप्रातिपदिकयोः – A सुँप् affix takes a लुक् elision when it is a part of a धातुः or a प्रातिपदिकम्।

Note: The affix ‘डामहच्’ is a डित् (has the letter ‘ड्’ as a इत्) and the अङ्गम् ‘पितृ’ gets the भ-सञ्ज्ञा by 1-4-18 यचि भम्। This allows 6-4-143 टेः to apply in the next step.

(4) पित् + आमह । By 6-4-143 टेः – When the अङ्गम् has the भ-सञ्ज्ञा, then its टि-portion (ref: 1-1-64 अचोऽन्त्यादि टि) takes लोप: when followed by an affix that has the letter ‘ड्’ as an indicatory letter.

= पितामह ।

Now we apply the appropriate feminine affix.

(5) पितामह + ङीष् । By 4-1-41 षिद्गौरादिभ्यश्च – In the feminine gender the affix ‘ङीष्’ is prescribed following a प्रातिपदिकम् which either (i) contains the letter ‘ष्’ as a ‘इत्’ or (ii) belongs to the class of words beginning with ‘गौर’।
Note: The affix ‘डामहच्’ is considered to be a षित् (having the letter ‘ष्’ as a इत्) as per the वार्तिकम् (under 4-2-36 पितृव्यमातुलमातामहपितामहाः) ‘मातरि षिच्च’ – When used in the sense of a mother, the affix ‘डामहच्’ (implied by the ready-made forms ‘मातामह’ and ‘पितामह’ listed in the सूत्रम् 4-2-36) is considered to be a षित् (having the letter ‘ष्’ as a इत्)। This enables 4-1-41 षिद्गौरादिभ्यश्च to apply.
Note: Some grammarians consider the forms ‘मातामह’ and ‘पितामह’ as belonging to the गौरादि-गणः, which enables the application of the सूत्रम् 4-1-41 षिद्गौरादिभ्यश्च। Hence according to them the वार्तिकम् ‘मातरि षिच्च’ is not necessary.

(6) पितामह + ई । अनुबन्ध-लोपः by 1-3-3 हलन्त्यम्, 1-3-8 लशक्वतद्धिते , 1-3-9 तस्य लोपः

Note: The अङ्गम् ‘पितामह’ has the भ-सञ्ज्ञा here as per the सूत्रम् 1-4-18 यचि भम्। This allows the सूत्रम् 6-4-148 यस्येति च to apply in the next step.

(7) पितामह् + ई । By 6-4-148 यस्येति च – When the letter ‘ई’ or a ‘तद्धित’ affix follows, the (ending) इ-वर्ण: (letter ‘इ’ or ‘ई’) or the (ending) अवर्ण: (letter ‘अ’ or ‘आ’) of the अङ्गम् with the भ-सञ्ज्ञा takes elision (लोपः)।

= पितामही । The प्रातिपदिकम् ‘पितामही’ declines like नदी-शब्द:।

Similarly, we can derive the form –
१) मातुर्माता = मातामही – grandmother (mother’s mother)

पितृव्यः mNs

Today we will look at the form पितृव्यः mNs from श्रीमद्भागवतम् Sb10.48.29.

श्रीभगवानुवाच
त्वं नो गुरुः पितृव्यश्च श्लाघ्यो बन्धुश्च नित्यदा ।
वयं तु रक्ष्याः पोष्याश्च अनुकम्प्याः प्रजा हि वः ∥ १०-४८-२९ ∥

श्रीधर-स्वामि-टीका
वो युष्माकं प्रजाः पुत्रा हि वयमिति ∥ २९ ∥

Gita Press translation – The glorious Lord said: “You are our preceptor (counsellor) and uncle, nay, our praiseworthy friend. We ever deserve to be protected, nourished and treated with compassion by you, as a matter of fact, since we are your children (29).”

पितुर्भ्राता = पितृव्यः – uncle (father’s brother)

(1) पितृ ङस् + व्यत् । By 4-2-36 पितृव्यमातुलमातामहपितामहाः – The forms ‘पितृव्य’, ‘मातुल’, ‘मातामह’ and ‘पितामह’ are given as ready-made forms. They are used in the meaning of father’s brother, mother’s brother, mother’s father and father’s father respectively.

Note: As per the वार्तिकम् ‘पितुर्भ्रातरि व्यत्’ – The affix ‘व्यत्’ is to be applied to get the final form ‘पितृव्य’ (listed in the सूत्रम् 4-2-36) – which denotes father’s brother.

(2) पितृ ङस् + व्य । अनुबन्ध-लोपः by 1-3-3 हलन्त्यम्, 1-3-9 तस्य लोपः

Note: ‘पितृ ङस् + व्य’ gets the designation प्रातिपदिकम्‌ by 1-2-46 कृत्तद्धितसमासाश्च। This allows 2-4-71 सुपो धातुप्रातिपदिकयोः to apply in the next step.

(3) पितृ + व्य । By 2-4-71 सुपो धातुप्रातिपदिकयोः – A सुँप् affix takes a लुक् elision when it is a part of a धातुः or a प्रातिपदिकम्।

= पितृव्य । Note: The प्रातिपदिकम् ‘पितृव्य’ declines like राम-शब्दः।

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