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सखायौ mNd

Today we will look at the form सखायौ-mNd from श्रीमद्भागवतम् Sb4-28-54.

हंसावहं च त्वं चार्य सखायौ मानसायनौ ।
अभूतामन्तरा वौकः सहस्रपरिवत्सरान् ।। ४-२८-५४ ।।

Translation – “You and I, O noble one, were swans, who were companions, living  on the bosom of the Mānasa lake and remained there for thousands of years without any shelter.”

“सखि” gets प्रातिपदिकसञ्ज्ञा by 1-2-45 अर्थवदधातुरप्रत्ययः प्रातिपदिकम्। The विवक्षा here is प्रथमा-द्विवचनम्4-1-2 स्वौजसमौट्छष्टाभ्याम्भिस्ङेभ्याम्भ्यस्ङसिँभ्याम्भ्यस्ङसोसाम्ङ्योस्सुप् mandates the प्रत्ययाः सुँ, औ, जस् etc. after the प्रातिपदिकम् “सखि”।

(1) सखि + औ । ‘औ’ gets सर्वनामस्थान-सञ्ज्ञा by 1-1-43 सुडनपुंसकस्य । By 7-1-92 सख्युरसम्बुद्धौ , when following the word “सखि” that has the designation अङ्गम्, the non-vocative affixes that have the designation सर्वनामस्थानम् behave as if they have णकारः as an indicatory letter.

(2) सखै + औ । By 7-2-115 अचो ञ्णिति, a vowel ending अङ्गम् gets a वृद्धिः substitute, when followed by a प्रत्ययः that has ञकारः or a णकारः as an indicatory letter. See easy question 1.

(3) सखायौ । आयादेश: by 6-1-78 एचोऽयवायावः


1. By which सूत्रम् does अन्तरा get the अव्यय-सञ्ज्ञा? (अन्तरा has various possible meanings – see Apte dictionary. As per श्रीधर-स्वामी, the appropriate meaning in this verse is विना – without.)

2. We have studied one सूत्रम् which is an अपवाद: for 6-1-78 एचोऽयवायावः। Which one is it?

3. Can you recall another सूत्रम् (besides 7-1-92 सख्युरसम्बुद्धौ) wherein पाणिनि: specifically mentions the प्रातिपदिकम् “सखि”?

4. Which विभक्ति:/वचनम् (पञ्चमी-एकवचनम् अथवा षष्ठी-एकवचनम्) has been used in the form “सख्यु:” used in the सूत्रम् 7-1-92 सख्युरसम्बुद्धौ?

5. In commenting on the सूत्रम् 7-1-92 सख्युरसम्बुद्धौ, the काशिका says “असम्बुद्धौ इति किम्? हे सखे।” Please explain.

6. Where has the सुत्रम् 6-1-103 तस्माच्छसो नः पुंसि been used in the verse?

7. How would you say this in Sanskrit?
“Even though Vali (प्रातिपदिकम् “वालिन्”) and Sugriva (were) brothers, still they became enemies.” Use the अव्ययम् “यद्यपि (= यदि + अपि)” for “even though” and the अव्ययम् “तथापि (= तथा + अपि)” for “still.” Use a verb from the verse for “became.”

8. The अमरकोश: gives five synonyms for the word “कुलीन:” (प्रातिपदिकम् “कुलीन” adjective, meaning “noble, born of a good family.) One of them is आर्य: (प्रातिपदिकम् “आर्य” adjective) used in this verse. Please list the remaining four.
महाकुलकुलीनार्यसभ्यसज्जनसाधवः ।।२-७-३।।
(इति षट् “कुलीनस्य” नामानि)।

Easy questions:

1. Which सूत्रम् (from Chapter One of the अष्टाध्यायी) was used to do the वृद्धि-आदेश: only for the ending letter (इकार:) of the अङ्गम् “सखि” in step 2?

2. Which सूत्रम् was used to get च + आर्य = चार्य? Which one for वा + ओक: = वौक:? Which one for हंसौ + अहम् = हंसावहम्?

3. Derive the form (हे) आर्य (सम्बुद्धि:) from the प्रातिपदिकम् “आर्य” (declined like राम-शब्द:)।

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