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नॄणाम् mGp

Today we will look at the form नॄणाम्-mGp from श्रीमद्वाल्मीकि-रामायणम् ।

राक्षसेन्द्रसुतासाधो पारुष्यं त्यज गौरवात् ।
कुले यद्यप्यहं जातो रक्षसां क्रूरकर्मणाम् ।
गुणो यः प्रथमो नॄणां तन्मे शीलमराक्षसम् ।। ६-८७-१९ ।।

Gita Press translation “Give up harshness of speech in view of my seniority, O impious son of Rāvaṇa (the ruler of ogres)! Even though I was born in the race of ogres of cruel deeds, my disposition, consisting as it does of Sattva or goodness, the foremost virtue of human beings, is not ogre-like”

‘नृ’ gets प्रातिपदिकसंज्ञा by 1-2-45 अर्थवदधातुरप्रत्ययः प्रातिपदिकम्। The विवक्षा here is षष्ठी-बहुवचनम्4-1-2 स्वौजसमौट्छष्टा… mandates the प्रत्ययाः सुँ, औ, जस् etc. after the प्रातिपदिकम् ‘नृ’

(1) नृ + आम् ।

(2) नृ + नुँट् आम् । By 7-1-54 ह्रस्वनद्यापो नुट्, the affix “आम्” takes the augment नुँट् when it follows a प्रातिपदिकम् which either ends in a short vowel or has the नदी-संज्ञा or ends in the feminine affix “आप्”। By the परिभाषा-सूत्रम् 1-1-46 आद्यन्तौ टकितौ, the नुँट्-आगम: will join at the beginning of “आम्”।

(3) नृ + नाम् । अनुबन्ध-लोपः by 1-3-2 उपदेशेऽजनुनासिक इत्, 1-3-3 हलन्त्यम् and 1-3-9 तस्य लोपः। See easy question 1.

(4) नॄनाम् । By 6-4-6 नृ च, the ऋकारः of “नृ” is elongated optionally when followed by the affix “नाम्”।

(5) नॄणाम् । By the वार्त्तिकम् (under 8-4-1 रषाभ्यां नो णः समानपदे) – ऋवर्णान्नस्य णत्वं वाच्यम्, णकारः shall be ordained in the place of the नकारः after the vowel ऋ also (along-side the रेफः and षकारः).


1. In the absence of 6-4-6 नृ च, which सूत्रम् would have applied in step 4?

2. There are two final forms possible in this example. One is “नॄणाम्” as shown above. Which is the other one?

3. Where is the प्रातिपदिकम् “नृ” used in Chapter 7 of the गीता?

4. Besides the प्रातिपदिकम् “नृ”, there is also another (more common) प्रातिपदिकम् “नर” which also means “a man.” Which form appears in the declension table of both?

5. Can you spot an अव्ययम् in the verse?

6. Why didn’t 6-4-134 अल्लोपोऽनः apply in the form क्रूरकर्मणाम् ?

7. How would you say this in Sanskrit?
“Pride (is) the cause of downfall, therefore give it up.” Use a verb from the verse for “give up”, use the masculine प्रातिपदिकम् “गर्व” for “pride” and the neuter प्रातिपदिकम् “पतन” for “downfall.” Use the अव्ययम् “तस्मात्” for “therefore.”

8. Please state the one synonym for the word “पारुष्यम्” (प्रातिपदिकम् “पारुष्य” neuter, meaning “harshness of speech”) as given in the अमरकोश:।
पारुष्यमतिवादः स्यात् ।।१-६-१४।।
(इति द्वे “अप्रियवचस:” नामनी)

Easy questions:

1. In step 3, why didn’t the ending मकार: of the प्रत्यय: get the इत्-सज्ञा by 1-3-3 हलन्त्यम् ?

2. Please list the steps in the derivation of असाधु + सुँ (सम्बुद्धि:) = असाधो । The gender here is masculine.

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