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कस्मात् ind.

Today we will look at the form कस्मात्-ind. from श्रीमद्भगवद्गीता Bg11-37.

कस्माच्च ते न नमेरन्महात्मन्‌ गरीयसे ब्रह्मणोऽप्यादिकर्त्रे |
अनन्त देवेश जगन्निवास त्वमक्षरं सदसत्तत्परं यत्‌ || ११-३७ ||

Gita Press translation “O Great soul, why should they not bow to you, who are the progenitor of Brahmā himself and the greatest of the great? O infinite Lord of celestials, Abode of the universe, You are that which is existent (Sat), that which is non-existent (Asat) and also that which is beyond both, viz., the indestructible Brahma.”

Here in this example ‘कस्मात्’ is used as an अव्ययम्। By the गणसूत्रम् उपसर्ग-विभक्ति-स्वर-प्रतिरूपकाश्च, words which mimic an उपसर्ग: or a word ending in a विभक्ति: or a vowel, may also be included in the चादि-गणः। ‘कस्मात्’ mimics the पञ्चमी-एकवचनम् of the प्रातिपदिकम् “किम्”। By 1-4-57 चादयोऽसत्त्वे, ‘कस्मात्’ gets the निपात-सञ्ज्ञा, since 1-4-57 चादयोऽसत्त्वे comes under the अधिकारः of 1-4-56 प्राग्रीश्वरान्निपाताः। Then, by 1-1-37 स्वरादिनिपातमव्ययम्, it gets the अव्यय-सञ्ज्ञा।

‘कस्मात्’ gets प्रातिपदिकसञ्ज्ञा by 1-2-45 अर्थवदधातुरप्रत्ययः प्रातिपदिकम्4-1-2 स्वौजसमौट्छष्टा… mandates the प्रत्ययाः सुँ, औ, जस् etc. after the प्रातिपदिकम् ‘कस्मात्’ । Since ‘कस्मात्’ is used as an अव्ययम्, it will only take the default सुँ-प्रत्यय:।

(1) कस्मात् + सुँ ।

(2) कस्मात् । By 2-4-82 अव्ययादाप्सुपः, the feminine affix आप् and सुँप् affixes that are prescribed after an अव्ययम् take the लुक् elision.


1. Can you spot a word in the गीता Chapter 11, verse 36, where the गणसूत्रम् “उपसर्ग-विभक्ति-स्वर-प्रतिरूपकाश्च” can be applied?

2. Where has the सूत्रम् 8-2-8 न ङिसम्बुद्ध्योः been used in this verse?

3. Where has the युष्मद्-प्रातिपदिकम् been used?

4. The term “रीश्वर” (referred to in the सूत्रम् 1-4-56 प्राग्रीश्वरान्निपाताः) occurs in which सूत्रम्?

5. By which सूत्रम् does “च” get the निपात-सञ्ज्ञा? By which one does it get the अव्यय-सञ्ज्ञा?

6. How would you say this in Sanskrit?
“Why did you not listen to what I told you?” Paraphrase “what I told you” to “what was told to you by me.” Use the adjective passive प्रातिपदिकम् “उक्त” for “told.” Similarly paraphrase “Why did you not listen” to “Why was that not listened to by you.” Use the adjective passive प्रातिपदिकम् “श्रुत” for “was listened.” Use यत्/तत्।

7. Please list the four synonyms of the word “जगत्” (प्रातिपदिकम् “जगत्” neuter, meaning “universe”) as given in the अमरकोश:। We’ve already seen these in a prior example. (Search this web site for “जगत्”)।

Advanced question:

1. In commenting on the सूत्रम् 1-4-56 प्राग्रीश्वरान्निपाताः, the काशिका says “प्राग्वचनं संज्ञासमावेशार्थम्। गत्युपसर्गकर्मप्रवचनीयसंज्ञाभिः सह निपातसंज्ञा समाविशति।” Please explain what this means.

Easy questions:

1. Where has the सूत्रम् 8-4-40 स्तोः श्चुना श्चुः been used in the verse?

2. Please derive the form “ब्रह्मण:” (पुंलिङ्गे पञ्चमी-एकवचनम्) from the प्रातिपदिकम् “ब्रह्मन्”। (Remember to use the सूत्रम् 6-4-137 न संयोगाद्वमन्तात्‌)।

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