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Daily Archives: April 14, 2011

ग्रामण्यः mNp

Today we will look at the form ग्रामण्यः-mNp from श्रीमद्भागवतम् Sb12-11-48.

उन्नह्यन्ति रथं नागा ग्रामण्यो रथयोजकाः ।
चोदयन्ति रथं पृष्ठे नैर्ऋता बलशालिनः ।। १२-११-४८ ।।

Gita Press translation “The Nagās serve the purpose of keeping the parts of the chariot together; the Yakṣas make his chariot ready for service, while the mighty Rākṣasas push the chariot from behind.”

Note: Normally the प्रातिपदिकम् “ग्रामणी” means “leader of a village.” But in this context, श्रीधर-स्वामी comments ग्रामण्य: = यक्षा:।

The प्रातिपदिकम् ‘ग्रामणी’ is a उपपद-समासः and has been formed with the धातुः “नी” using the क्विप्-प्रत्यय:। ‘ग्रामणी’ gets प्रातिपदिकसंज्ञा by 1-2-46 कृत्तद्धितसमासाश्च। The विवक्षा here is प्रथमा-बहुवचनम्4-1-2 स्वौजसमौट्छष्टा… mandates the प्रत्ययाः सुँ, औ, जस् etc. after the प्रातिपदिकम् ‘ग्रामणी’

(1) ग्रामणी + जस् ।

(2) ग्रामणी + अस् । अनुबन्ध-लोपः by 1-3-7 चुटू and 1-3-9 तस्य लोपः। 1-3-4 न विभक्तौ तुस्माः prevents the ending सकारः of जस् from getting इत्-सञ्ज्ञा।

(3) ग्रामण्य + अस् । By 6-4-82 एरनेकाचोऽसंयोगपूर्वस्य, if a प्रत्यय: beginning with an अच् (vowel) follows, then the (ending letter of the) अङ्गम् is replaced by a यण् letter in the following situation – If the अङ्गम् is अनेकाच् (has more than one vowel) and ends in a धातु: which ends in the इवर्ण: (long or short इ) and there is no conjunct consonant belonging to the धातु: prior to the इवर्ण:।

(4) ग्रामण्यः । रुँत्व-विसर्गौ – 8-2-66 ससजुषो रुः and 8-3-15 खरवसानयोर्विसर्जनीयः


1. The नकार: of the धातु: “नी” should not have changed to a णकार:, because the निमित्तम् (the रेफ:) belongs to the पदम् “ग्राम” while the नकार: of “नी” is outside this पदम्। The condition of समानपदे (ref. 8-4-1 रषाभ्यां नो णः समानपदे) has not been satisfied. But पाणिनि: himself has used the word “ग्रामणी” in the अष्टाध्यायी। This can be taken as a ज्ञापकम् (an indication/hint from पाणिनि:) that in the word “ग्रामणी” the नकार: is to be substituted by a णकार:। In which सूत्रम् does पाणिनि: use the word “ग्रामणी”?

2. Why didn’t the सूत्रम् 6-1-102 प्रथमयोः पूर्वसवर्णः apply in step 3?

3. Why do we need the सूत्रम् 6-4-82 एरनेकाचोऽसंयोगपूर्वस्य? Why not just use the सूत्रम् 6-1-77 इको यणचि like we do in नद्य:?

4. Where in the गीता (chapter ten) do we find a प्रातिपदिकम् – like ग्रामणी – a उपपद-समासः and has been formed with the धातुः “नी” using the क्विप्-प्रत्यय:?

5. This प्रातिपदिकम् (answer to question 4) has been declined षष्ठी-बहुवचनम् in the गीता। But the form is not in accordance with the rules of the अष्टाध्यायी। What would be the form as per the अष्टाध्यायी?

6. In commenting on the सूत्रम् 6-4-82 एरनेकाचोऽसंयोगपूर्वस्य, the काशिका says अनेकाचः इति किम्? नियौ। नियः। Please explain.

7. How would you say this in Sanskrit?
“Even the leader of the village came to see my son.” Use the adjective प्रातिपदिकम् “आगत” to express the meaning “came”, use the अव्ययम् “द्रष्टुम्” for “to see.”

8. The अमरकोश: gives fourteen synonyms of the word राक्षस: (प्रातिपदिकम् “राक्षस” masculine, meaning “demon.”) One of them is the word “नैर्ऋत:” (प्रातिपदिकम् “नैर्ऋत” masculine) used in this verse. Please list the other thirteen.
राक्षसः कौणपः क्रव्यात् क्रव्यादोऽस्रप आशरः ।।१-१-५९।।
रात्रिंचरो रात्रिचरः कर्बुरो निकषात्मजः ।
यातुधानः पुण्यजनो नैर्ऋतो यातुरक्षसी ।।१-१-६०।।
(इति पञ्चदश “राक्षसस्य” नामानि)

Easy questions:

1. Where else (besides in the word ग्रामण्य:) has the जस्-प्रत्यय: been used in the verse?

2. Where has the सूत्रम् 8-3-22 हलि सर्वेषाम् been used?