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कतमत् nAs

Today we will look at the form कतमत्-nAs from श्रीमद्भागवतम् Sb4-25-4.

श्रेयस्त्वं कतमद्राजन्कर्मणात्मन ईहसे ।
दुःखहानिः सुखावाप्तिः श्रेयस्तन्नेह चेष्यते ।। ४-२५-४ ।।

Gita Press translation “What good, O king, do you seek for yourself through rituals? (True) welfare lies in the cessation of sorrow and the attainment of happiness, and such welfare is not expected from them.”

‘कतम’ gets प्रातिपदिक-सञ्ज्ञा by 1-2-46 कृत्तद्धितसमासाश्च and सर्वनाम-सञ्ज्ञा by 1-1-27 सर्वादीनि सर्वनामानि । The विवक्षा here is नपुंसकलिङ्गे द्वितीया-एकवचनम्4-1-2 स्वौजसमौट्छष्टा… mandates the प्रत्ययाः सुँ, औ, जस् etc. after the प्रातिपदिकम् ‘कतम’

(1) कतम + अम् ।

(2) कतम + अद्ड् । By 7-1-25 अद्ड् डतरादिभ्यः पञ्चभ्यः, the affixes सुँ and अम्, get अद्ड् as their replacement, when following the five pronouns (listed in 1-1-27) beginning with “डतर” when used in the neuter.

(3) कतम + अद् । The डकारः of अद्ड् gets the इत्-सञ्ज्ञा by 1-3-3 हलन्त्यम्, and takes लोपः by 1-3-9 तस्य लोपः। The अङ्गम् “कतम” gets the भ-सञ्ज्ञा by 1-4-18 यचि भम्

(4) कतम् + अद् । By 6-4-143 टेः, when the अङ्गम् has the भ-सञ्ज्ञा, then its “टि” portion takes लोप: when followed by an affix that has डकारः as an indicatory letter.
As per 1-1-64 अचोऽन्त्यादि टि, that part of a group of sounds which begins with the last vowel of the group (and goes to the end of the group) gets the designation “टि”।
The ending अकारः is the टि-भागः of the अङ्गम् “कतम”। It is dropped by 6-4-143 टेः, since अद्ड् is a डित्-प्रत्ययः।

(5) कतमद् । “कतमद्” gets the पद-सञ्ज्ञा by 1-4-14 सुप्तिङन्तं पदम्। By 8-2-39 झलां जशोऽन्ते , the दकारः of अन्यद् gets the जशादेशः, which in this case is दकारः itself.

(6) कतमद्/कतमत् । By 8-4-56 वाऽवसाने , the दकारः gets the चरादेशः optionally yielding two possible final forms.


1. Where is the सूत्रम् 7-1-25 अद्ड् डतरादिभ्यः पञ्चभ्यः used in Chapter 2 of the गीता? Where in Chapter 7?

2. Please list the five terms – “डतर” etc. – referred to in the सूत्रम् 7-1-25 अद्ड् डतरादिभ्यः पञ्चभ्यः।

3. Which two of the five terms (answer to question 2) are affixes (प्रत्ययौ)?

4. Which one of the rules used in this example comes twice in the अष्टाध्यायी?

5. Please identify the टि-भाग: of each of the following terms:
a) राम
b) हविस्
c) ऊर्ज्
d) ओम्

6. Where is the सूत्रम् 8-2-8 न ङिसम्बुद्ध्योः used in the verse?

7. How would you say this in Sanskrit?
“You long for things for yourself, which are actually useless.”
Use a verb from the verse for “long for”, use a word from the verse for “for yourself”, use the neuter प्रातिपदिकम् “वस्तु” for “thing”, the अव्ययम् “वस्तुत:” for “actually” and the adjective प्रातिपदिकम् “निरर्थक” for “useless.” Use यत्/तत्।

8. The अमरकोश: gives eleven synonyms for the word “आनन्द:” (प्रातिपदिकम् “आनन्द” masculine, meaning “happiness.”) One of them is “सुखम्” (प्रातिपदिकम् “सुख” neuter) used in this example. Please list the remaining ten.
We have already seen these in a prior example. (Search this web site for “आनन्द”)

Easy questions:

1. Which सूत्रम् has been used to get च + इष्यते = चेष्यते? Same one has been used in न + इह = नेह।

2. What kind of सूत्रम् is 1-1-64 अचोऽन्त्यादि टि?
a) निषेध-सूत्रम् – A rule which negates (stops the application of) another rule
b) अपवाद-सूत्रम् – A rule which is an exception to another rule
c) परिभाषा-सूत्रम् – A rule which helps in interpreting/applying other rules
d) सञ्ज्ञा-सूत्रम् – A rule which defines a term

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