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सम्भवामि 1As-लँट्

Today we will look at the form सम्भवामि 1As-लँट् from श्रीमद्भगवद्गीता Bg4-8

परित्राणाय साधूनां विनाशाय च दुष्कृताम् ।
धर्मसंस्थापनार्थाय सम्भवामि युगे युगे ।। ४-८ ।।

Gita Press translation “For the protection of the virtuous, for the extirpation of the evil-doers and for establishing Dharma (righteousness) on a firm footing, I manifest myself from age to age.”

भवामि is derived from the धातुः √भू (भू सत्तायाम्, भ्वादि-गणः, धातु-पाठः #१. १)

“सम्” has been used as an उपसर्ग: – ref. 1-4-59 उपसर्गाः क्रियायोगे।

The विवक्षा is लँट्, कर्तरि प्रयोग:, उत्तम-पुरुषः, एकवचनम्।

In the धातु-पाठः, the भू-धातुः has no इत् letters. It is devoid of any indications for bringing in आत्मनेपद-प्रत्यया:। Therefore, as per 1-3-78 शेषात् कर्तरि परस्मैपदम्, the भू-धातुः, in कर्तरि प्रयोग:, takes the परस्मैपद-प्रत्यया: by default. As per 1-4-99 लः परस्मैपदम्, 1-4-100 तङानावात्मनेपदम्, the nine प्रत्यया: from “तिप्” to “मस्” get the परस्मैपद-सञ्ज्ञा। So भू-धातुः can take only one of these nine प्रत्यया: in कर्तरि प्रयोग:। Since the विवक्षा is उत्तम-पुरुष-एकवचनम्, the प्रत्यय: is “मिप्”।

(1) भू + लँट् । By 3-2-123 वर्तमाने लट्, the affix लँट् comes after a धातुः when denoting an action in the present tense.

(2) भू + ल् । अनुबन्ध-लोपः by 1-3-2 उपदेशेऽजनुनासिक इत्, 1-3-3 हलन्त्यम्, 1-3-9 तस्य लोपः

(3) भू + मिप् । By 3-4-78 तिप्तस्झिसिप्थस्थमिब्वस्मस् तातांझथासाथांध्वमिड्वहिमहिङ्। ‘मिप्’ gets the सार्वधातुक-सञ्ज्ञा by 3-4-113 तिङ्शित्सार्वधातुकम्

(4) भू + शप् + मिप् । By 3-1-68 कर्तरि शप्‌, the शप्-प्रत्यय: is placed after a verbal root, when followed by a सार्वधातुक-प्रत्यय: that is used signifying the agent. The शप्-प्रत्यय: which is a शित्, gets सार्वधातुक-सञ्ज्ञा by 3-4-113 तिङ्शित्सार्वधातुकम्

(5) भो + शप् + मिप् । By 7-3-84 सार्वधातुकार्धधातुकयोः , an अङ्गम् whose final letter is an इक् gets गुण-आदेशः, when a सार्वधातुक-प्रत्यय: or an आर्धधातुक-प्रत्यय: follows.

(6) भो + अ + मि । अनुबन्ध-लोपः by 1-3-3 हलन्त्यम् , 1-3-8 लशक्वतद्धिते , 1-3-9 तस्य लोपः

(7) भव + मि । By 6-1-78 एचोऽयवायावः

(8) भवामि । By 7-3-101 अतो दीर्घो यञि – the ending अकार: of a अङ्गम् is elongated if it is followed by a सार्वधातुक-प्रत्यय: beginning with a letter of the यञ्-प्रत्याहार:।

Questions:

1. The अनुवृत्ति: of the entire सूत्रम् 7-3-101 अतो दीर्घो यञि goes into a सूत्रम् that we have studied. Which one is it?

2. Where has that सूत्रम् (answer to question 1) been used in this verse?

3. In which other places (besides in भवामि) does the सूत्रम् 7-3-101 अतो दीर्घो यञि apply in the conjugation table of the भू-धातु: in लँट्?

4. Where else (besides in the eight verse) has the form सम्भवामि been used in Chapter 4 of the गीता?

5. To which अधिकार: does the सूत्रम् 3-4-113 तिङ्शित्सार्वधातुकम् belong?
a) अङ्गस्य
b) एकः पूर्वपरयोः
c) ङ्याप्प्रातिपदिकात्‌
d) धातोः

6. Which other terms (besides “सम्”) from the प्रादिगण: have been used in the verse?

7. How would you say this in Sanskrit?
“Anger arises from greed.” Use the masculine प्रातिपदिकम् “लोभ” for “greed.” Use the भू-धातु: along with the “प्र”-उपसर्ग: for “arise.”

Advanced question:

1. Which सुत्रम् is required for replacing the सकार: of “दुस्” by a षकार: in the word “दुष्कृताम्”? Start from 8-3-37 कुप्वोः ≍क≍पौ च (which is rule that would have applied in this situation) and then look a few rules below to see if there is one that can give us the desired form.

Easy questions:

1. Derive the form साधूनाम् (पुंलिङ्गे षष्ठी-बहुवचनम्) from the प्रातिपदिकम् “साधु”।

2. Where has the ङि-प्रत्यय: been used in the verse?

3. List the letters that belong to the यञ्-प्रत्याहार:।

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