Home » 2011 » December » 23

Daily Archives: December 23, 2011

बिभेद 3As-लिँट्

Today we will look at the form बिभेद 3As-लिँट् from श्रीमद्भागवतम् 10.77.15

शाल्वः शौरेस्तु दोः सव्यं सशार्ङ्गं शार्ङ्गधन्वनः ।
बिभेद न्यपतद्धस्ताच्छार्ङ्गमासीत्तदद्भुतम् ।। १०-७७-१५ ।।


Gita Press translation “In the meantime Śālva hit Śrī Kṛṣṇa in the left arm with an arrow. The Śārṅga bow which was being held by that arm fell from Śrī Kṛṣṇa’s hand. It was a wonderful feat on the part of Śālva.”

बिभेद is derived from the धातुः √भिद् (रुधादि-गणः, भिदिँर् विदारणे, धातु-पाठः # ७. २)

By the वार्तिकम् – इर इत्सञ्ज्ञा वाच्या, “इर्” of “भिदिँर्” gets the इत्-सञ्ज्ञा । The इकारः of “इर्” has a स्वरित-स्वर: here. Therefore, as per the सूत्रम् 1-3-72 स्वरितञितः कर्त्रभिप्राये क्रियाफले, the √भिद्-धातुः will take आत्मनेपद-प्रत्ययाः when the fruit of the action (क्रियाफलम्) accrues to the doer (कर्त्रभिप्रायम् = कर्तृ-अभिप्रायम्)। In the remaining case – when the fruit of the action does not accrue to the doer – by 1-3-78 शेषात् कर्तरि परस्मैपदम् – the √भिद्-धातुः will take परस्मैपद-प्रत्ययाः।
In reality though, this distinction of the fruit of the action accruing to the doer or not, is rarely honored in the language. So as a practical matter, a verbal root such as √भिद् will take either आत्मनेपद-प्रत्ययाः or परस्मैपद-प्रत्ययाः regardless of whether the fruit of the action accrues to the doer or not. In short, √भिद्-धातुः will be उभयपदी। In this verse it has taken a परस्मैपद-प्रत्यय:।

The विवक्षा is लिँट्, कर्तरि प्रयोग:, प्रथम-पुरुषः, एकवचनम्, hence the प्रत्ययः is तिप्।

(1) भिद् + लिँट् । By 3-2-115 परोक्षे लिँट्, the affix लिँट् (Perfect Tense) comes after a verbal root in the sense of the past not of today, provided that the action is unperceived by the narrator.

(2) भिद् + ल् । अनुबन्ध-लोपः by 1-3-2 उपदेशेऽजनुनासिक इत्, 1-3-3 हलन्त्यम्, 1-3-9 तस्य लोपः

(3) भिद् + तिप् । 3-4-78 तिप्तस्झिसिप्थस्थमिब्वस्मस्तातांझथासाथांध्वमिड्वहिमहिङ् mandates the प्रत्ययः “तिप्” as the substitute for the लकारः। By 3-4-115 लिट् च, a तिङ्-प्रत्यय: which comes in place of लिँट् gets the आर्धधातुक-सञ्ज्ञा। Therefore “तिप्” gets the आर्धधातुक-सञ्ज्ञा।

(4) भिद् + णल् । By 3-4-82 परस्मैपदानां णलतुसुस्थलथुसणल्वमाः, when they come in place of लिँट्, the nine परस्मैपद-प्रत्यया: – “तिप्”, “तस्”, “झि”, “सिप्”, “थस्”, “थ”, “मिप्”, “वस्” and “मस्” – are substituted by “णल्”, “अतुस्”, “उस्”, “थल्”, “अथुस्”, “अ”, “णल्”, “व” and “म” respectively.

(5) भिद् + अ । अनुबन्ध-लोपः by 1-3-3 हलन्त्यम्, 1-3-7 चुटू, 1-3-9 तस्य लोपः

(6) भिद् भिद् + अ । By 6-1-8 लिटि धातोरनभ्यासस्य, when लिँट् follows a verbal root, there is reduplication of the first portion – containing a single vowel – of the verbal root which is not already reduplicated. But if the verbal root (that has more than one vowel) begins with a vowel, then the reduplication is of the second portion – containing a single vowel.

(7) भि भिद् + अ । By 7-4-60 हलादिः शेषः, of the consonants of a reduplicate (अभ्यासः – ref. 6-1-4 पूर्वोऽभ्यासः), only the one (if any) at the beginning is retained, the rest are elided.

(8) भि भेद । By 7-3-86 पुगन्‍तलघूपधस्‍य च, when a अङ्गम् is followed by a सार्वधातुक-प्रत्ययः or an आर्धधातुक-प्रत्ययः, then its इक्-letter takes गुण-आदेशः in the following two cases: i) The अङ्गम् ends in a पुक्-आगमः
or ii) The penultimate letter of the अङ्गम् has the लघु-सञ्ज्ञा।

(9) बिभेद । By 8-4-54 अभ्यासे चर्च, in a reduplicate (अभ्यासः – ref. 6-1-4 पूर्वोऽभ्यासः), a letter of the झल्-प्रत्याहारः is substituted by a letter of the चर्-प्रत्याहारः or जश्-प्रत्याहारः। The substitutions take place as per 1-1-50 स्थानेऽन्तरतमः


1. Where has 8-4-54 अभ्यासे चर्च (used in the last step of this example) been used in the first five verses of Chapter Fourteen of the गीता?

2. Can you spot a “ईट्”-आगम: in the verse?

3. Can you spot a “अट्”-आगम: in the verse?

4. In which word in the verse has 6-4-137 न संयोगाद्वमन्तात्‌ been used?

5. How would you say this in Sanskrit?
“Ravana pierced Lakshmana on the chest with a missile.” Use the feminine प्रातिपदिकम् “शक्ति” for “missile” and the neuter प्रातिपदिकम् “वक्षस्” for “chest.” Use the same धातु: as in the example for “to pierce.”

6. How would you say this in Sanskrit?
“Rejected by Indra, Trisanku fell from heaven.” Use the प्रातिपदिकम् “निराकृत” for “rejected” and use (a लिँट् form of) √पत् (पतॢँ गतौ १. ९७९) for “to fall.”

Easy questions:

1. Where has 8-4-62 झयो होऽन्यतरस्याम् been used in the verse?

2. The छकार: (letter “छ्”) used in the verse has come as a आदेश: (substitute) in place of which letter?

Recent Posts

December 2011