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जगाद 3As-लिँट्

Today we will look at the form जगाद 3As-लिँट् from श्रीमद्भागवतम् 10.85.20

सूतीगृहे ननु जगाद भवानजो नौ सञ्जज्ञ इत्यनुयुगं निजधर्मगुप्त्यै ।
नानातनूर्गगनवद्विदधज्जहासि को वेद भूम्न उरुगाय विभूतिमायाम् ।। १०-८५-२० ।।

Gita Press translation “O Lord, in the lying-in-chamber You said that, though unborn, You had, as a matter of fact, been manifesting Yourself through us in different pairs each time for defending Your own laws. Like the sky, You assume diverse forms and cast them off, even though You are one and infinite. Who can know the secret of Your wonderful potency – Yogamāyā? All people extensively sing Your glories.”

जगाद is derived from the धातुः √गद् (गदँ व्यक्तायां वाचि १. ५४)

In the धातु-पाठः, the √गद्-धातुः has one इत् letter which is the अकार: following the दकार:। This इत् letter has उदात्त-स्वरः। Hence, the √गद्-धातुः is devoid of any indications for bringing in आत्मनेपद-प्रत्ययाः। Therefore, as per 1-3-78 शेषात् कर्तरि परस्मैपदम्, the √गद्-धातुः, in कर्तरि प्रयोगः, will take the परस्मैपद-प्रत्ययाः by default. As per 1-4-99 लः परस्मैपदम्, 1-4-100 तङानावात्मनेपदम्, the nine प्रत्यया: from “तिप्” to “मस्” get the परस्मैपद-सञ्ज्ञा। So √गद्-धातुः can take only one of these nine प्रत्यया: in कर्तरि प्रयोगः।

The विवक्षा is लिँट्, कर्तरि प्रयोग:, प्रथम-पुरुषः, एकवचनम्, hence the प्रत्ययः is तिप्।

(1) गद् + लिँट् । By 3-2-115 परोक्षे लिँट् , the affix लिँट् (Perfect Tense) comes after a verbal root in the sense of the past not of today, provided that the action is unperceived by the narrator.

(2) गद् + ल् । अनुबन्ध-लोपः by 1-3-2 उपदेशेऽजनुनासिक इत्, 1-3-3 हलन्त्यम्, 1-3-9 तस्य लोपः

(3) गद् + तिप् । 3-4-78 तिप्तस्झिसिप्थस्थमिब्वस्मस्तातांझथासाथांध्वमिड्वहिमहिङ् mandates the प्रत्ययः “तिप्” as the substitute for the लकारः। By 3-4-115 लिट् च, a तिङ्-प्रत्यय: which comes in place of लिँट् gets the आर्धधातुक-सञ्ज्ञा। Therefore “तिप्” gets the आर्धधातुक-सञ्ज्ञा।

(4) गद् + णल् । By 3-4-82 परस्मैपदानां णलतुसुस्थलथुसणल्वमाः, when they come in place of लिँट्, the nine परस्मैपद-प्रत्यया: – “तिप्”, “तस्”, “झि”, “सिप्”, “थस्”, “थ”, “मिप्”, “वस्” and “मस्” – are substituted by “णल्”, “अतुस्”, “उस्”, “थल्”, “अथुस्”, “अ”, “णल्”, “व” and “म” respectively.

(5) गद् + अ । अनुबन्ध-लोपः by 1-3-3 हलन्त्यम्, 1-3-7 चुटू, 1-3-9 तस्य लोपः

(6) गद् गद् + अ । By 6-1-8 लिटि धातोरनभ्यासस्य , when लिँट् follows a verbal root, there is reduplication of the first portion – containing a single vowel – of the verbal root which is not already reduplicated. But if the verbal root (that has more than one vowel) begins with a vowel, then the reduplication is of the second portion – containing a single vowel.

(7) ग गद् + अ । By 7-4-60 हलादिः शेषः, of the consonants of a reduplicate (अभ्यासः – ref. 6-1-4 पूर्वोऽभ्यासः), only the one (if any) at the beginning is retained, the rest are elided.

(8) ज गद् + अ । By 7-4-62 कुहोश्चुः, in a reduplicate (अभ्यासः – ref. 6-1-4 पूर्वोऽभ्यासः), a letter of the कवर्गः or हकारः is replaced by a letter of the चवर्गः । The substitutions take place as per 1-1-50 स्थानेऽन्तरतमः

(9) जगाद । By 7-2-116 अत उपधायाः , a penultimate (उपधा) अकार: of a अङ्गम् gets वृद्धिः as the substitute when followed by a प्रत्ययः which is a ञित् or a णित्।


1. In the last ten verses of Chapter Nine of the गीता, where has 7-4-62 कुहोश्चुः (used in step 8 of the example) been used?

2. Where else (besides in जगाद) has 7-4-62 कुहोश्चुः been used in the verse?

3. Why is there no “नुँम्”-आगम: (by 7-1-70 उगिदचां सर्वनामस्थानेऽधातोः) in the form विदधत् (प्रातिपदिकम् “विदधत्”, पुंलिङ्गे प्रथमा-एकवचनम्)?

4. Can you spot a “णल्”-प्रत्यय: in the verse?

5. How would you say this in Sanskrit?
“Sri Krishna said to Arjuna that ‘You should not lament.'” Use the अव्ययम् “इति” as an end-quote. Take the translation of ‘You should not lament’ directly from Chapter Two of the गीता।

6. How would you say this in Sanskrit?
“Pierced by Sri Rama’s arrow, Ravana fell on the ground.” Use the adjective “विद्ध” for “pierced” and (a लिँट् form) of √पत् (पतॢँ गतौ १. ९७९) for “to fall.”

Easy questions:

1. Where has 6-4-134 अल्लोपोऽनः been used in the verse?

2. In the verse, can you spot a word which is a (short) alternate form for आवाम् (प्रातिपदिकम् “अस्मद्”, द्वितीया-द्विवचनम्)?

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