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पपु: 3Ap-लिँट्

Today we will look at the form पपुः 3Ap-लिँट् from श्रीमद्भागवतम् 11.30.12

ततस्तस्मिन्महापानं पपुर्मैरेयकं मधु ।
दिष्टविभ्रंशितधियो यद्द्रवैर्भ्रश्यते मतिः ।। ११-३०-१२ ।।

पीयत इति पानम्मैरेयकं मदिराविशेषम् । मधु सुरसम् । दिष्टेन दैवेन विभ्रंशितधियः । नह्यन्यथा तस्मिन्स्थाने तदुचितमिति भावः । यद्रवैर्यस्य द्रवै रसैः ।।

Gita Press translation “Then, their judgement having been vitiated by (an evil) destiny, they drank there a highly intoxicating and delicious drink known by the name of Maireyaka, by the filtrates of which the intellect is perverted.”

पपु: is derived from the धातुः √पा (पा पाने, भ्वादि-गणः, धातु-पाठः #१. १०७४)

In the धातु-पाठः, the पा-धातुः has no इत् letters. It is devoid of any indications for bringing in आत्मनेपद-प्रत्यया:। Therefore, as per 1-3-78 शेषात् कर्तरि परस्मैपदम्, the पा-धातुः, in कर्तरि प्रयोग:, will take the परस्मैपद-प्रत्यया: by default. As per 1-4-99 लः परस्मैपदम्, 1-4-100 तङानावात्मनेपदम्, the nine प्रत्यया: from “तिप्” to “मस्” get the परस्मैपद-सञ्ज्ञा। So पा-धातुः can take only one of these nine प्रत्यया: in कर्तरि प्रयोग:।

The विवक्षा is लिँट्, कर्तरि प्रयोग:, प्रथम-पुरुषः, बहुवचनम्, hence the प्रत्ययः is झि।

(1) पा + लिँट् । By 3-2-115 परोक्षे लिँट् , the affix लिँट् (Perfect Tense) comes after a verbal root in the sense of the past not of today, provided that the action is unperceived by the narrator.

(2) पा + ल् । अनुबन्ध-लोपः by 1-3-2 उपदेशेऽजनुनासिक इत्, 1-3-3 हलन्त्यम्, 1-3-9 तस्य लोपः

(3) पा + झि । 3-4-78 तिप्तस्झिसिप्थस्थमिब्वस्मस्तातांझथासाथांध्वमिड्वहिमहिङ् mandates the प्रत्ययः “झि” as the substitute for the लकारः। By 3-4-115 लिट् च, a तिङ्-प्रत्यय: which comes in place of लिँट् gets the आर्धधातुक-सञ्ज्ञा। Therefore “झि” gets the आर्धधातुक-सञ्ज्ञा।

(4) पा + उस् । By 3-4-82 परस्मैपदानां णलतुसुस्थलथुसणल्वमाः, when they come in place of लिँट्, the nine परस्मैपद-प्रत्यया: – “तिप्”, “तस्”, “झि”, “सिप्”, “थस्”, “थ”, “मिप्”, “वस्” and “मस्” – are substituted by “णल्”, “अतुस्”, “उस्”, “थल्”, “अथुस्”, “अ”, “णल्”, “व” and “म” respectively.
1-3-4 न विभक्तौ तुस्माः prevents the ending सकार: of “उस्” from getting the इत्-सञ्ज्ञा।

(5) पा पा + उस् । By 6-1-8 लिटि धातोरनभ्यासस्य , when लिँट् follows a verbal root, there is reduplication of the first portion – containing a single vowel – of the verbal root which is not already reduplicated. But if the verbal root (that has more than one vowel) begins with a vowel, then the reduplication is of the second portion – containing a single vowel.
See question 2.

(6) प पा + उस् । By 7-4-59 ह्रस्वः, the अच् (vowel) of a reduplicate (अभ्यासः – ref. 6-1-4 पूर्वोऽभ्यासः) is substituted by a short vowel.

(7) प प् उस् । By 6-4-64 आतो लोप इटि च – The ending आकार: of an अङ्गम् takes लोप: when followed by a vowel-beginning आर्धधातुक-प्रत्यय: that has either:
(i) a “इट्”-आगम: or
(ii) a ककार: or ङकार: as an इत्।
Note: As per 1-2-5 असंयोगाल्लिट् कित्, the “उस्”-प्रत्यय: is कित्। This allows 6-4-64 to apply.

(8) पपुः । रुँत्व-विसर्गौ – 8-2-66 ससजुषो रुः and 8-3-15 खरवसानयोर्विसर्जनीयः


1. Can you find a तिङन्तं पदम् in Chapter One of the गीता, wherein 6-4-64 आतो लोप इटि च has been used? (Actually, can you find two of them?)

2. Why didn’t 6-4-64 आतो लोप इटि च (which a later rule in the अष्टाध्यायी compared to 6-1-8) apply before 6-1-8 लिटि धातोरनभ्यासस्य in step 5 of the example?

3. Where has 6-4-24 अनिदितां हल उपधायाः क्ङिति been used in the verse?

4. Which सूत्रम् has been used for the ईकारादेश: in the form पीयते in the commentary?

5. Commenting on the सूत्रम् 6-4-64 आतो लोप इटि च, the काशिका says “आर्धधातुके इत्येव, यान्ति।” Please explain.

6. How would you say this in Sanskrit?
“Guarded by Sri Krishna, the cows drank the clear water of the Yamuna.” Use the adjective प्रातिपदिकम् “रक्षित” (feminine “रक्षिता”) for “guarded” and use the adjective प्रातिपदिकम् “प्रसन्न” for “clear.”

Easy questions:

1. Where has 6-4-77 अचि श्नुधातुभ्रुवां य्वोरियङुवङौ been used in the verse?

2. Can you spot a लोप: (elision) of a रेफ: (letter “र्”) in the commentary?

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