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पपात 3As-लिँट्

Today we will look at the form पपात 3As-लिँट् from श्रीमद्भागवतम् 10.11.43

गृहीत्वापरपादाभ्यां सहलाङ्गूलमच्युतः ।
भ्रामयित्वा कपित्थाग्रे प्राहिणोद्गतजीवितम् ।
स कपित्थैर्महाकायः पात्यमानैः पपात ह ।। १०-११-४३ ।।

Gita Press translation “Seizing him by his hind legs, tail and all, and revolving him, the immortal Lord (Śrī Kṛṣṇa) threw him lifeless against the top of a Kapittha tree. Along with the Kapittha fruits that were being made to drop (by the dead weight of his body), the demon too (who had while dying involuntarily given up his disguise and appeared in his own demoniac form) fell down.”

पपात is derived from the धातुः √पत् (भ्वादि-गणः, पतॢँ गतौ, धातु-पाठः #१.९७९)

In the धातु-पाठः, the पत्-धातुः has one इत् letter – the ऌकार: following the तकार:। This इत् letter has a उदात्त-स्वर:। Thus the पत्-धातुः is devoid of any indications for bringing in आत्मनेपद-प्रत्यया:। (Neither 1-3-12 अनुदात्तङित आत्मनेपदम् nor 1-3-72 स्वरितञितः कर्त्रभिप्राये क्रियाफले applies.) Therefore, as per 1-3-78 शेषात् कर्तरि परस्मैपदम्, the पत्-धातुः, in कर्तरि प्रयोग:, will take the परस्मैपद-प्रत्यया: by default. As per 1-4-99 लः परस्मैपदम्, 1-4-100 तङानावात्मनेपदम्, the nine प्रत्यया: from “तिप्” to “मस्” get the परस्मैपद-सञ्ज्ञा। So पत्-धातुः can take only one of these nine प्रत्यया: in कर्तरि प्रयोग:।

The विवक्षा is लिँट्, कर्तरि प्रयोग:, प्रथम-पुरुषः, एकवचनम्, hence the प्रत्ययः is तिप्।

(1) पत् + लिँट् । By 3-2-115 परोक्षे लिँट् , the affix लिँट् (Perfect Tense) comes after a verbal root in the sense of the past not of today, provided that the action is unperceived by the narrator.

(2) पत् + ल् । अनुबन्ध-लोपः by 1-3-2 उपदेशेऽजनुनासिक इत्, 1-3-3 हलन्त्यम्, 1-3-9 तस्य लोपः

(3) पत् + तिप् । 3-4-78 तिप्तस्झिसिप्थस्थमिब्वस्मस्तातांझथासाथांध्वमिड्वहिमहिङ् mandates the प्रत्ययः “तिप्” as the substitute for the लकारः। By 3-4-115 लिट् च, a तिङ्-प्रत्यय: which comes in place of लिँट् gets the आर्धधातुक-सञ्ज्ञा। Therefore “तिप्” gets the आर्धधातुक-सञ्ज्ञा। See question 3.

(4) पत् + णल् । By 3-4-82 परस्मैपदानां णलतुसुस्थलथुसणल्वमाः, when they come in place of लिँट्, the nine परस्मैपद-प्रत्यया: – “तिप्”, “तस्”, “झि”, “सिप्”, “थस्”, “थ”, “मिप्”, “वस्” and “मस्” – are substituted by “णल्”, “अतुस्”, “उस्”, “थल्”, “अथुस्”, “अ”, “णल्”, “व” and “म” respectively.

(5) पत् + अ । अनुबन्ध-लोपः by 1-3-3 हलन्त्यम्, 1-3-7 चुटू, 1-3-9 तस्य लोपः

(6) पत् पत् + अ । By 6-1-8 लिटि धातोरनभ्यासस्य , when लिँट् follows a verbal root, there is reduplication of the first portion – containing a single vowel – of the verbal root which is not already reduplicated. But if the verbal root (that has more than one vowel) begins with a vowel, then the reduplication is of the second portion – containing a single vowel.

(7) प पत् + अ । By 7-4-60 हलादिः शेषः, of the consonants of a reduplicate (अभ्यासः – ref. 6-1-4 पूर्वोऽभ्यासः), only the one (if any) at the beginning is retained, the rest are elided.

(8) पपात । By 7-2-116 अत उपधायाः , a penultimate (उपधा) अकार: of a अङ्गम् gets वृद्धिः as the substitute when followed by a प्रत्ययः which is a ञित् or a णित्।


1. Where has √पत् (भ्वादि-गणः, पतॢँ गतौ, धातु-पाठः #१.९७९) been used in a तिङन्तं पदम् in Chapter Sixteen of the गीता?

2. What would have been the final form in this example if लँङ् has been used (instead of लिँट्)?

3. In step 3, the तिप्-प्रत्यय: gets the आर्धधातुक-सञ्ज्ञा by 3-4-115 लिट् च। Now the question is – why cannot the तिप्-प्रत्यय: also get the सार्वधातुक-सञ्ज्ञा by 3-4-113 तिङ्शित्सार्वधातुकम्? (That is – why don’t the आर्धधातुक-सञ्ज्ञा and सार्वधातुक-सञ्ज्ञा co-exist here?) Note: 3-4-113 and 3-4-115 do not belong to the अधिकार: of 1-4-1 आ कडारादेका संज्ञा।
The answer to this question is given in the तत्त्वबोधिनी commentary as follows:
“लङः शाकटायनस्यैव” इति सूत्रादेवकारोऽनुवर्तते। Please explain.

4. Which सूत्रम् is used for the णत्वम् in प्राहिणोत्? (We have seen this सूत्रम् in a prior post.)

5. How would you say this in Sanskrit?
“Struck by Indra’s thunderbolt, Sri Hamuman fell on the ground.” Use the masculine/neuter प्रातिपदिकम् “वज्र” for “thunderbolt” and the adjective प्रातिपदिकम् “ताडित” for “struck.”

6. How would you say this in Sanskrit?
“Along with Sita and Lakshmana, Sri Rama went to the forest.” Use (a लिँट् form of) √गम् (गमॢँ – गतौ १. ११३७) for “to go.”

Easy questions:

1. Where has 7-3-102 सुपि च been used in the verse?

2. Can you spot a “भिस्”-प्रत्यय: in the verse?

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