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बभूव 3As-लिँट्

Today we will look at the form बभूव 3As-लिँट् from श्रीमद्भागवतम् 10.75.39

स व्रीडितोऽवाग्वदनो रुषा ज्वलन्निष्क्रम्य तूष्णीं प्रययौ गजाह्वयम् ।
हाहेति शब्दः सुमहानभूत्सतामजातशत्रुर्विमना इवाभवत् ।
बभूव तूष्णीं भगवान्भुवो भरं समुज्जिहीर्षुर्भ्रमति स्म यद्दृशा ।। १०-७५-३९ ।।

Gita Press translation “Duryodhana was abashed at this discomfiture. Burning with rage, and with his face cast down, he silently left the Hall and immediately departed for Hastināpura. The incident raised a cry of dismay from all good people and Yudhiṣṭhira felt perturbed over it as it were. Bhagavān Śrī Kṛṣṇa, however, kept quiet over the incident, intent as He was upon relieving the burden of the earth. In fact, it was His enchanting look which threw Duryodhana into confusion and brought about the incident.”

बभूव is derived from the धातुः √भू (भू सत्तायाम्, भ्वादि-गणः, धातु-पाठः #१. १)

In the धातु-पाठः, the भू-धातुः has no इत् letters. It is devoid of any indications for bringing in आत्मनेपद-प्रत्यया:। (Neither 1-3-12 अनुदात्तङित आत्मनेपदम् nor 1-3-72 स्वरितञितः कर्त्रभिप्राये क्रियाफले applies.) Therefore, as per 1-3-78 शेषात् कर्तरि परस्मैपदम्, the भू-धातुः, in कर्तरि प्रयोग:, takes the परस्मैपद-प्रत्यया: by default. As per 1-4-99 लः परस्मैपदम्, 1-4-100 तङानावात्मनेपदम्, the nine प्रत्यया: from “तिप्” to “मस्” get the परस्मैपद-सञ्ज्ञा। So भू-धातुः can take only one of these nine प्रत्यया: in कर्तरि प्रयोग:।

The विवक्षा is लिँट्, कर्तरि प्रयोग:, प्रथम-पुरुषः, एकवचनम्, hence the प्रत्ययः is तिप्।

(1) भू + लिँट् । By 3-2-115 परोक्षे लिँट् , the affix लिँट् (Perfect Tense) comes after a verbal root in the sense of the past not of today, provided that the action is unperceived by the narrator.

(2) भू + ल् । अनुबन्ध-लोपः by 1-3-2 उपदेशेऽजनुनासिक इत्, 1-3-3 हलन्त्यम्, 1-3-9 तस्य लोपः

(3) भू + तिप् । 3-4-78 तिप्तस्झिसिप्थस्थमिब्वस्मस्तातांझथासाथांध्वमिड्वहिमहिङ् mandates the प्रत्ययः “तिप्” as the substitute for the लकारः। By 3-4-115 लिट् च, a तिङ्-प्रत्यय: which comes in place of लिँट् gets the आर्धधातुक-सञ्ज्ञा। Therefore “तिप्” gets the आर्धधातुक-सञ्ज्ञा। See easy question 2.

(4) भू + णल् । By 3-4-82 परस्मैपदानां णलतुसुस्थलथुसणल्वमाः, when they come in place of लिँट्, the nine परस्मैपद-प्रत्यया: – “तिप्”, “तस्”, “झि”, “सिप्”, “थस्”, “थ”, “मिप्”, “वस्” and “मस्” – are substituted by “णल्”, “अतुस्”, “उस्”, “थल्”, “अथुस्”, “अ”, “णल्”, “व” and “म” respectively. See question 2.

(5) भू + अ । अनुबन्ध-लोपः by 1-3-3 हलन्त्यम्, 1-3-7 चुटू, 1-3-9 तस्य लोपः

(6) भू वुक् + अ । By 6-4-88 भुवो वुग्लुङ्लिटोः , “भू” gets the augment “वुक्” when a vowel-beginning affix of लुँङ् or लिँट् follows. See question 3.

(7) भू व् + अ । अनुबन्ध-लोपः by 1-3-3 हलन्त्यम्, 1-3-9 तस्य लोपः
Note: The उकार: in “वुक्” is उच्चारणार्थ: (for pronunciation only.)

(8) भूव् भूव् + अ । By 6-1-8 लिटि धातोरनभ्यासस्य , when लिँट् follows a verbal root, there is reduplication of the first portion – containing a single vowel – of the verbal root which is not already reduplicated. But if the verbal root (that has more than one vowel) begins with a vowel, then the reduplication is of the second portion – containing a single vowel.

(9) भू भूव् + अ । By 7-4-60 हलादिः शेषः, of the consonants of a reduplicate (अभ्यासः – ref. 6-1-4 पूर्वोऽभ्यासः), only the one (if any) at the beginning is retained, the rest are elided.

(10) भु भूव् + अ । By 7-4-59 ह्रस्वः, the अच् (vowel) of a reduplicate (अभ्यासः – ref. 6-1-4 पूर्वोऽभ्यासः) is substituted by a short vowel.

(11) भ भूव् + अ । By 7-4-73 भवतेरः, अकारः is substituted for the उकारः of the अभ्यास: (reduplicate) of the verbal root √भू (भू सत्तायाम् १. १) when लिँट् follows.

(12) बभूव । By 8-4-54 अभ्यासे चर्च, in a reduplicate (अभ्यासः – ref. 6-1-4 पूर्वोऽभ्यासः), a letter of the झल्-प्रत्याहारः is substituted by a letter of the चर्-प्रत्याहारः or जश्-प्रत्याहारः। The substitutions take place as per 1-1-50 स्थानेऽन्तरतमः


1. Where has बभूव been used in the गीता?

2. Why did the “णल्”-आदेश: replace the entire प्रत्यय: “तिप्” in step 4? (Why didn’t 1-1-52 अलोऽन्त्यस्य apply?)

3. Why didn’t 7-2-115 अचो ञ्णिति apply (instead of 6-4-88 भुवो वुग्लुङ्लिटोः) in step 6?

4. Where has √भू (भू सत्तायाम्, भ्वादि-गणः, धातु-पाठः #१. १) been used with the लँङ्-प्रत्यय: in the verse?

5. Consider the form भ्रमति used in the verse. The विवक्षा is लँट्, कर्तरि प्रयोग:, प्रथम-पुरुषः, एकवचनम्। What would be an alternate form?

6. How would you say this in Sanskrit?
“There was a king by name Dasaratha.” Use the अव्ययम् “नाम” for “by name.”

Easy questions:

1. In the verse, can you spot a word in which the सूत्रम् 6-4-77 अचि श्नुधातुभ्रुवां य्वोरियङुवङौ has been used?

2. Why didn’t 3-1-68 कर्तरि शप्‌ apply after step 3 of the example? (Which condition was not satisfied?)

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