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मुमोच 3As-लिँट्

Today we will look at the form मुमोच 3As-लिँट् from श्रीमद्भागवतम् 1.4.12

शिवाय लोकस्य भवाय भूतये य उत्तमश्लोकपरायणा जनाः ।
जीवन्ति नात्मार्थमसौ पराश्रयं मुमोच निर्विद्य कुतः कलेवरम् ।। १-४-१२ ।।

विरक्तस्य किं धनादिभिरिति चेत्तत्राह – शिवायेति । लोकस्य शिवाय सुखाय भवाय समृद्ध्यै भूतये ऐश्वर्याय च ते जीवन्ति न त्वात्मार्थम् । एवं सत्यसौ राजा निर्विद्य विरज्यापि परेषामाश्रयं कलेवरं कुतो हेतोर्मुमोच । न हि परोपजीवनं स्वयं त्यक्तुमुचितमित्यर्थः ।।

Gita Press translation “Men who are solely devoted to the Lord of excellent fame live, not for their own sake, but only for (promoting) the welfare, affluence and prosperity of the world. Why, then, did he cast off his body, which was the support of other beings, in a spirit of aversion?”

मुमोच is derived from the धातुः √मुच् (तुदादि-गणः, मुचॢँ मोक्षणे (मोचने), धातु-पाठः # ६. १६६)

The ending ऌकार: (which is an इत् by 1-3-2 उपदेशेऽजनुनासिक इत्) of “मुचॢँ” has स्वरित-स्वर:। Therefore, as per the सूत्रम् 1-3-72 स्वरितञितः कर्त्रभिप्राये क्रियाफले, the √मुच्-धातुः will take आत्मनेपद-प्रत्ययाः when the fruit of the action (क्रियाफलम्) accrues to the doer (कर्त्रभिप्रायम् = कर्तृ-अभिप्रायम्)। In the remaining case – when the fruit of the action does not accrue to the doer – by 1-3-78 शेषात् कर्तरि परस्मैपदम् – the √मुच्-धातुः will take परस्मैपद-प्रत्ययाः।
In reality though, this distinction of the fruit of the action accruing to the doer or not, is rarely honored in the language. So as a practical matter, a verbal root such as √मुच् will take either आत्मनेपद-प्रत्ययाः or परस्मैपद-प्रत्ययाः regardless of whether the fruit of the action accrues to the doer or not. In short, √मुच्-धातुः will be उभयपदी। In this verse it has taken a परस्मैपद-प्रत्यय:।

The विवक्षा is लिँट्, कर्तरि प्रयोग:, प्रथम-पुरुषः, एकवचनम्, hence the प्रत्ययः is तिप्।

(1) मुच् + लिँट् । By 3-2-115 परोक्षे लिँट् , the affix लिँट् (Perfect Tense) comes after a verbal root in the sense of the past not of today, provided that the action is unperceived by the narrator.

(2) मुच् + ल् । अनुबन्ध-लोपः by 1-3-2 उपदेशेऽजनुनासिक इत्, 1-3-3 हलन्त्यम्, 1-3-9 तस्य लोपः

(3) मुच् + तिप् । 3-4-78 तिप्तस्झिसिप्थस्थमिब्वस्मस्तातांझथासाथांध्वमिड्वहिमहिङ् mandates the प्रत्ययः “तिप्” as the substitute for the लकारः। By 3-4-115 लिट् च, a तिङ्-प्रत्यय: which comes in place of लिँट् gets the आर्धधातुक-सञ्ज्ञा। Therefore “तिप्” gets the आर्धधातुक-सञ्ज्ञा।

(4) मुच् + णल् । By 3-4-82 परस्मैपदानां णलतुसुस्थलथुसणल्वमाः, when they come in place of लिँट्, the nine परस्मैपद-प्रत्यया: – “तिप्”, “तस्”, “झि”, “सिप्”, “थस्”, “थ”, “मिप्”, “वस्” and “मस्” – are substituted by “णल्”, “अतुस्”, “उस्”, “थल्”, “अथुस्”, “अ”, “णल्”, “व” and “म” respectively.

(5) मुच् + अ । अनुबन्ध-लोपः by 1-3-3 हलन्त्यम्, 1-3-7 चुटू, 1-3-9 तस्य लोपः

(6) मुच् मुच् + अ । By 6-1-8 लिटि धातोरनभ्यासस्य, when लिँट् follows a verbal root, there is reduplication of the first portion – containing a single vowel – of the verbal root which is not already reduplicated. But if the verbal root (that has more than one vowel) begins with a vowel, then the reduplication is of the second portion – containing a single vowel.

(7) मु मुच् + अ । By 7-4-60 हलादिः शेषः, of the consonants of a reduplicate (अभ्यासः – ref. 6-1-4 पूर्वोऽभ्यासः), only the one (if any) at the beginning is retained, the rest are elided.

(8) मुमोच । By 7-3-86 पुगन्‍तलघूपधस्‍य च, when a अङ्गम् is followed by a सार्वधातुक-प्रत्ययः or an आर्धधातुक-प्रत्ययः, then its इक्-letter takes गुण-आदेशः in the following two cases: i) The अङ्गम् ends in a पुक्-आगमः
or ii) The penultimate letter of the अङ्गम् has the लघु-सञ्ज्ञा।


1. Where has the धातु: √मुच् (तुदादि-गणः, मुचॢँ मोक्षणे (मोचने), धातु-पाठः # ६. १६६) been used for the last time in a तिङन्तं पदम् in the गीता?

2. In which सूत्रम् (which we have studied) does पाणिनि: mention the धातु: √मुच् (तुदादि-गणः, मुचॢँ मोक्षणे (मोचने), धातु-पाठः # ६. १६६)?

3. Can you spot a “झि”-प्रत्यय: in the verse?

4. Can you spot a सुँ-लोप: (लोप: of the सुँ-प्रत्यय:) in the verse?

5. How would you say this in Sanskrit?
“Unable to bear the separation from Sri Rama, Dasaratha gave up (his) body.” Use the adjective “अशक्त” for “unable”, use the masculine प्रातिपदिकम् “वियोग” for “separation” and use the अव्ययम् “सोढुम्” for “to bear.” Use तृतीया विभक्ति: with Sri Rama.

6. How would you say this in Sanskrit?
“For the execution of Ravana, Sri Rama released a sharp arrow, given by the sage Agastya.” Use (चतुर्थी विभक्ति: with) the masculine noun “वध” for “execution”, use the adjective प्रातिपदिकम् “शित” for “sharp” and “दत्त” for “given.”

Easy questions:

1. By which सूत्रम् does the उकार: in “मुच्” get the लघु-सञ्ज्ञा (required for applying 7-3-86 पुगन्‍तलघूपधस्‍य च in the last step)?

2. What would be an alternate form for भूतये (स्त्रीलिङ्ग-प्रातिपदिकम् “भूति”, चतुर्थी-एकवचनम्)?

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