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उपजहार 3As-लिँट्

Today we will look at the form उपजहार 3As-लिँट् from श्रीमद्भागवतम् 8.22.14

तस्मै बलिर्वारुणपाशयन्त्रितः समर्हणं नोपजहार पूर्ववत् ।
ननाम मूर्ध्नाश्रुविलोललोचनः सव्रीडनीचीनमुखो बभूव ह ।। ८-२२-१४ ।।

स्वकृताहंकारादिरूपापराधस्मरणेन सव्रीडं नीचीनमधोमुखं यस्य सः ।।

Gita Press translation “Bound with the cords of Varuṇa, Balī could not offer due worship to him as he used to do before. He (simply) bowed with his head (bent low), his eyes confounded with tears (brought by the thought of the insolent language used by him with reference to the Lord), and remained with his head hung down evidently with shame.”

जहार is derived from the धातुः √हृ (भ्वादि-गणः, हृञ् हरणे धातु-पाठः #१. १०४६)

In the धातु-पाठः, the हृ-धातुः has one इत् letter which is the ञकार:। It gets the इत्-सञ्ज्ञा by 1-3-3 हलन्त्यम् and hence takes लोप: by 1-3-9 तस्य लोप:। Since ञकार: is an इत्, as per the सूत्रम् 1-3-72 स्वरितञितः कर्त्रभिप्राये क्रियाफले, the हृ-धातुः will take आत्मनेपद-प्रत्ययाः when the fruit of the action (क्रियाफलम्) accrues to the doer (कर्त्रभिप्रायम् = कर्तृ-अभिप्रायम्)। In the remaining case – when the fruit of the action does not accrue to the doer – by 1-3-78 शेषात् कर्तरि परस्मैपदम् – the हृ-धातुः will take परस्मैपद-प्रत्ययाः।
In reality though, this distinction of the fruit of the action accruing to the doer or not, is rarely honored in the language. So as a practical matter, a verbal root such as “हृ” will take either आत्मनेपद-प्रत्ययाः or परस्मैपद-प्रत्ययाः regardless of whether the fruit of the action accrues to the doer or not. In short, हृ-धातुः will be उभयपदी। In this verse, it has taken a परस्मैपद-प्रत्यय:।

The विवक्षा is लिँट्, कर्तरि प्रयोग:, प्रथम-पुरुषः, एकवचनम्, hence the प्रत्ययः is तिप्।

(1) हृ + लिँट् । By 3-2-115 परोक्षे लिँट् , the affix लिँट् (Perfect Tense) comes after a verbal root in the sense of the past not of today, provided that the action is unperceived by the narrator.

(2) हृ + ल् । अनुबन्ध-लोपः by 1-3-2 उपदेशेऽजनुनासिक इत्, 1-3-3 हलन्त्यम्, 1-3-9 तस्य लोपः

(3) हृ + तिप् । 3-4-78 तिप्तस्झिसिप्थस्थमिब्वस्मस्तातांझथासाथांध्वमिड्वहिमहिङ् mandates the प्रत्ययः “तिप्” as the substitute for the लकारः। By 3-4-115 लिट् च, a तिङ्-प्रत्यय: which comes in place of लिँट् gets the आर्धधातुक-सञ्ज्ञा। Therefore “तिप्” gets the आर्धधातुक-सञ्ज्ञा।

(4) हृ + णल् । By 3-4-82 परस्मैपदानां णलतुसुस्थलथुसणल्वमाः, when they come in place of लिँट्, the nine परस्मैपद-प्रत्यया: – “तिप्”, “तस्”, “झि”, “सिप्”, “थस्”, “थ”, “मिप्”, “वस्” and “मस्” – are substituted by “णल्”, “अतुस्”, “उस्”, “थल्”, “अथुस्”, “अ”, “णल्”, “व” and “म” respectively.

(5) हृ + अ । अनुबन्ध-लोपः by 1-3-3 हलन्त्यम्, 1-3-7 चुटू, 1-3-9 तस्य लोपः

(6) हृ हृ + अ । By 6-1-8 लिटि धातोरनभ्यासस्य , when लिँट् follows a verbal root, there is reduplication of the first portion – containing a single vowel – of the verbal root which is not already reduplicated. But if the verbal root (that has more than one vowel) begins with a vowel, then the reduplication is of the second portion – containing a single vowel.
See question 2.

(7) हर् हृ + अ । By 7-4-66 उरत्‌, a ऋवर्ण: of the अभ्यास: (reduplicate) takes the अकारादेश: when a प्रत्यय: follows. By 1-1-51 उरण् रपरः, in the place of ऋवर्ण: if an अण् letter (“अ”, “इ”, “उ”) comes as a substitute, it is always followed by a रँ (“र्”, “ल्”) letter.

(8) ह हृ + अ । By 7-4-60 हलादिः शेषः, of the consonants of a reduplicate (अभ्यासः – ref. 6-1-4 पूर्वोऽभ्यासः), only the one (if any) at the beginning is retained, the rest are elided.

(9) झ हृ + अ । By 7-4-62 कुहोश्चुः, in a reduplicate (अभ्यासः – ref. 6-1-4 पूर्वोऽभ्यासः), a letter of the कवर्गः or हकारः is replaced by a letter of the चवर्गः । The substitutions take place as per 1-1-50 स्थानेऽन्तरतमः

(10) झ हर् + अ । By 7-3-84 सार्वधातुकार्धधातुकयोः, an अङ्गम् whose final letter is an इक् gets गुण-आदेशः, when a सार्वधातुक-प्रत्यय: or an आर्धधातुक-प्रत्यय: follows. By 1-1-51 उरण् रपरः, in the place of ऋवर्ण: if an अण् letter (“अ”, “इ”, “उ”) comes as a substitute, it is always followed by a रँ (“र्”, “ल्”) letter.
See question 3.

(11) झहार । By 7-2-116 अत उपधायाः , a penultimate (उपधा) अकार: of a अङ्गम् gets वृद्धिः as the substitute when followed by a प्रत्ययः which is a ञित् or a णित्।

(12) जहार । By 8-4-54 अभ्यासे चर्च, in a reduplicate (अभ्यासः – ref. 6-1-4 पूर्वोऽभ्यासः), a letter of the झल्-प्रत्याहारः is substituted by a letter of the चर्-प्रत्याहारः or जश्-प्रत्याहारः। The substitutions take place as per 1-1-50 स्थानेऽन्तरतमः

“उप” is the उपसर्गः (ref. 1-4-59 उपसर्गाः क्रियायोगे।)
उप + जहार = उपजहार।


1. Where has √हृ (भ्वादि-गणः, हृञ् हरणे धातु-पाठः #१. १०४६) been used in a तिङन्तं पदम् in the last ten verses of Chapter Two of the गीता?

2. Why didn’t 7-3-84 सार्वधातुकार्धधातुकयोः (which a later rule in the अष्टाध्यायी compared to 6-1-8) apply before 6-1-8 लिटि धातोरनभ्यासस्य in step 6 of the example?

3. Instead of applying 7-3-84 सार्वधातुकार्धधातुकयोः (in step 10) followed by 7-2-116 अत उपधायाः (in step 11), which single सूत्रम् could have been applied to get the same result?

4. Can you spot a “वुक्”-आगम: in the verse?

5. Where else (besides in जहार) has 7-2-116 अत उपधायाः been used in the verse?

6. How would you say this in Sanskrit?
“Having deceived Sri Rama and Lakshmana, Ravana abducted Sita.” Use (a लिँट् form of) √हृ (भ्वादि-गणः, हृञ् हरणे धातु-पाठः #१. १०४६) with the उपसर्ग: “अप” for “to abduct (take away.)” Use the अव्ययम् “वञ्चयित्वा” for “having deceived.”

Easy questions:

1. Where has 6-4-134 अल्लोपोऽनः been used in the verse?

2. Which सूत्रम् is used for the “स्मै”-आदेश: in the form तस्मै?

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