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त्वरयन्ति 3Ap-लँट्

Today we will look at the form त्वरयन्ति 3Ap-लँट् from श्रीमद्भागवतम् 10.39.27

अनार्द्रधीरेष समास्थितो रथं तमन्वमी च त्वरयन्ति दुर्मदाः ।
गोपा अनोभिः स्थविरैरुपेक्षितं दैवं च नोऽद्य प्रतिकूलमीहते ।। १०-३९-२७ ।।

Gita Press translation “Śrī Kṛṣṇa (whose mind is altogether devoid of the moisture of love) is (already) comfortably seated in the chariot and, following Him, these arrogant Gopas in their bullock-carts are urging Akrūra to make haste. (On top of it) the aged ones have grown indifferent (do not interfere). And fate too is working against us today!””

त्वरयन्ति is a causative form derived from the धातुः √त्वर् (ञित्वराँ सम्भ्रमे १. ८८४)

The “ञि” at the beginning of this धातुः gets इत्-सञ्ज्ञा by 1-3-5 आदिर्ञिटुडवः। The आकारः at the end gets इत्-सञ्ज्ञा by 1-3-2 उपदेशेऽजनुनासिक इत्। Both take लोप: by 1-3-9 तस्य लोपः

त्वर् + णिच् । By 3-1-26 हेतुमति च – The affix “णिच्” is used after a root, when the operation of a causer – such as the operation of directing – is to be expressed. “णिच्” gets आर्धधातुक-सञ्ज्ञा by 3-4-114 आर्धधातुकं शेषः
= त्वर् + इ । अनुबन्ध-लोपः by 1-3-3 हलन्त्यम्, 1-3-7 चुटू, 1-3-9 तस्य लोपः
= त्वार् + इ । By 7-2-116 अत उपधायाः , a penultimate (उपधा) अकार: of a अङ्गम् gets वृद्धिः as the substitute when followed by a प्रत्ययः which is a ञित् or a णित्।
= त्वरि । By 6-4-92 मितां ह्रस्वः, a short vowel (ह्रस्व:) is substituted in place of the penultimate letter (vowel) of a verbal root which is मित् (has मकार: as an इत्) and is followed by the causative affix “णि”। Note: Any verbal root belonging to one of the following two special sections of the धातु-पाठ: is considered as a मित् (having मकार: as an इत्)।
1. Beginning with √घट् (घटँ चेष्टायाम् १. ८६७) and ending with √फण् (फणँ गतौ १. ९५५)
2. Beginning with √ज्ञप् (ज्ञपँ ज्ञानज्ञापनमारणतोषणनिशाननिशामनेषु १०. ११८) and ending with √चि (चिञ् चयने १०. १२४).
√त्वर् (ञित्वराँ सम्भ्रमे १. ८८४) belongs to the first group.

“त्वरि” gets धातु-सञ्ज्ञा by 3-1-32 सनाद्यन्ता धातवः

As per 1-3-74 णिचश्च, the verbal roots that end in the णिच्-प्रत्ययः shall take आत्मनेपद-प्रत्ययाः when the fruit of the action (क्रियाफलम्) accrues to the doer (कर्त्रभिप्रायम् = कर्तृ-अभिप्रायम्)। In the remaining case – when the fruit of the action does not accrue to the doer these verbal roots shall take परस्मैपद-प्रत्ययाः।
In reality though, this distinction of the fruit of the action accruing to the doer or not, is rarely honored in the language. So as a practical matter, a verbal root that ends in the णिच्-प्रत्ययः will take either आत्मनेपद-प्रत्ययाः or परस्मैपद-प्रत्ययाः regardless of whether the fruit of the action accrues to the doer or not. In short, it will be उभयपदी। Here it has taken a परस्मैपद-प्रत्ययः।

The विवक्षा is लँट्, कर्तरि प्रयोगः (हेतुमति), प्रथम-पुरुषः, बहुवचनम्, therefore the प्रत्यय: will be “झि”।

(1) त्वरि + लँट् । By 3-2-123 वर्तमाने लट्, the affix लँट् comes after a धातुः when denoting an action in the present tense.

(2) त्वरि + ल् । अनुबन्ध-लोपः by 1-3-2 उपदेशेऽजनुनासिक इत्, 1-3-3 हलन्त्यम्, 1-3-9 तस्य लोपः

(3) त्वरि + झि । 3-4-78 तिप्तस्झिसिप्थस्थमिब्वस्मस्तातांझथासाथांध्वमिड्वहिमहिङ् mandates the प्रत्ययः “झि” as the substitute for the लकारः। “झि” gets the सार्वधातुक-सञ्ज्ञा by 3-4-113 तिङ्शित्सार्वधातुकम्

(4) त्वरि + शप् + झि । By 3-1-68 कर्तरि शप्‌, the शप्-प्रत्यय: is placed after a verbal root, when followed by a सार्वधातुक-प्रत्यय: that is used signifying the agent.

(5) त्वरि + अ + झि । अनुबन्ध-लोपः by 1-3-3 हलन्त्यम्, 1-3-8 लशक्वतद्धिते , 1-3-9 तस्य लोपः

(6) त्वरे + अ + झि । By 7-3-84 सार्वधातुकार्धधातुकयोः, an अङ्गम् whose final letter is an इक् gets गुण-आदेशः, when a सार्वधातुक-प्रत्यय: or an आर्धधातुक-प्रत्यय: follows.

(7) त्वरे + अ + अन्ति । By 7-1-3 झोऽन्तः, “अन्त्” comes in as a replacement for the झकारः of a प्रत्यय:।

(8) त्वरय + अन्ति । By 6-1-78 एचोऽयवायावः

(9) त्वरयन्ति । एकादेश: by 6-1-97 अतो गुणे


1. In the first ten verses of Chapter Fifteen of the गीता, can you spot a तिङन्तं पदम् in which the णिच्-प्रत्यय: has been used?

2. Where else (besides in त्वरयन्ति) has the शप्-प्रत्यय: been used in the verse?

3. Where has 8-2-81 एत ईद्बहुवचने been used in the verse?

4. Can you spot a सकारान्त-प्रातिपदिकम् (a प्रातिपदिकम् ending in “स्”) in the verse?

5. How would you say this in Sanskrit?
“Why do you make me rush?” Use the अव्ययम् “कस्मात्” for “why” and √त्वर् (ञित्वराँ सम्भ्रमे १. ८८४) in the causative for “to make rush.”

6. Use some words from the verse to construct the following sentence in Sanskrit:
“Even though fate is working against me today, still I’m not worried.” Use the combination of indeclinables यदि + अपि = यद्यपि for “even though” and तथा + अपि = तथापि for “still.” Use the adjective (compound) प्रातिपदिकम् “चिन्ताकुल” for “worried.”

Easy questions:

1. Which word used in the verse is a short (alternate) form for अस्माकम् (षष्ठी-बहुवचनम् of the प्रातिपदिकम् “अस्मद्”)?

2. Why did 6-1-101 अकः सवर्णे दीर्घः not apply between गोपा अनोभिः?

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