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शुश्राव 3As-लिँट्

Today we will look at the form शुश्राव 3As-लिँट् from श्रीमद्भागवतम् Sb4.10.22

इति ब्रुवंश्चित्ररथः स्वसारथिं यत्तः परेषां प्रतियोगशङ्कितः ।
शुश्राव शब्दं जलधेरिवेरितं नभस्वतो दिक्षु रजोऽन्वदृश्यत ।। ४-१०-२२ ।।

इति ब्रुवन्नित्यत्रापि न मायिनामित्यादेरनुषङ्गः । चित्ररथो ध्रुवः । यत्तो यत्नवान् । प्रतियोगः पुनरुद्योगस्तस्माच्छङ्कितःनभस्वतो वायोर्हेतोः ।

Gita Press translation “Addressing his charioteer as above, Dhruva (who rode in a wonderful chariot) remained on his guard, apprehending renewed opposition from the enemy, when he heard a (loud) noise like the roaring of an ocean, and further beheld in every direction the dust raised by a blast.”

शुश्राव is derived from the धातुः √श्रु (भ्वादि-गणः, श्रु श्रवणे, धातु-पाठः #१. १०९२)

In the धातु-पाठः, the √श्रु-धातुः has no इत् letters. It is devoid of any indications for bringing in आत्मनेपद-प्रत्यया:। (Neither 1-3-12 अनुदात्तङित आत्मनेपदम् nor 1-3-72 स्वरितञितः कर्त्रभिप्राये क्रियाफले applies.) Therefore, as per 1-3-78 शेषात् कर्तरि परस्मैपदम्, √श्रु takes परस्मैपद-प्रत्यया: by default in कर्तरि प्रयोग:। As per 1-4-99 लः परस्मैपदम्, 1-4-100 तङानावात्मनेपदम्, the nine प्रत्यया: from “तिप्” to “मस्” get the परस्मैपद-सञ्ज्ञा। So √श्रु can take only one of these nine प्रत्यया: in कर्तरि प्रयोग:।

The विवक्षा is लिँट्, कर्तरि प्रयोग:, प्रथम-पुरुषः, एकवचनम्, hence the प्रत्ययः is तिप्।

(1) श्रु + लिँट् । By 3-2-115 परोक्षे लिँट् , the affix लिँट् (Perfect Tense) comes after a verbal root in the sense of the past not of today, provided that the action is unperceived by the narrator.

(2) श्रु + ल् । अनुबन्ध-लोपः by 1-3-2 उपदेशेऽजनुनासिक इत्, 1-3-3 हलन्त्यम्, 1-3-9 तस्य लोपः

(3) श्रु + तिप् । 3-4-78 तिप्तस्झिसिप्थस्थमिब्वस्मस्तातांझथासाथांध्वमिड्वहिमहिङ् mandates the प्रत्ययः “तिप्” as the substitute for the लकारः। By 3-4-115 लिट् च, a तिङ्-प्रत्यय: which comes in place of लिँट् gets the आर्धधातुक-सञ्ज्ञा। Therefore “तिप्” gets the आर्धधातुक-सञ्ज्ञा। See question 2.

(4) श्रु + णल् । By 3-4-82 परस्मैपदानां णलतुसुस्थलथुसणल्वमाः, when they come in place of लिँट्, the nine परस्मैपद-प्रत्यया: – “तिप्”, “तस्”, “झि”, “सिप्”, “थस्”, “थ”, “मिप्”, “वस्” and “मस्” – are substituted by “णल्”, “अतुस्”, “उस्”, “थल्”, “अथुस्”, “अ”, “णल्”, “व” and “म” respectively.

(5) श्रु + अ । अनुबन्ध-लोपः by 1-3-3 हलन्त्यम्, 1-3-7 चुटू, 1-3-9 तस्य लोपः

(6) श्रु श्रु + अ । By 6-1-8 लिटि धातोरनभ्यासस्य , when लिँट् follows a verbal root, there is reduplication of the first portion – containing a single vowel – of the verbal root which is not already reduplicated. But if the verbal root (that has more than one vowel) begins with a vowel, then the reduplication is of the second portion – containing a single vowel.

(7) शु श्रु + अ । By 7-4-60 हलादिः शेषः, of the consonants of a reduplicate (अभ्यासः – ref. 6-1-4 पूर्वोऽभ्यासः), only the one (if any) at the beginning is retained, the rest are elided.

(8) शुश्रौ + अ । By 7-2-115 अचो ञ्णिति – A vowel ending अङ्गम् gets a वृद्धिः substitute, when followed by a प्रत्ययः that has ञकारः or a णकारः as an indicatory letter.

(9) शुश्राव । By 6-1-78 एचोऽयवायावः


1. Where has √श्रु (भ्वादि-गणः, श्रु श्रवणे, धातु-पाठः #१. १०९२) been used in a तिङन्तं पदम् in the first five verses of Chapter Eighteen of the गीता?

2. Why didn’t 3-1-74 श्रुवः शृ च apply after step 3? (Which condition was not satisfied?)

3. In the verse, can you spot a प्रातिपदिकम् which ends in the “क्विन्”-प्रत्यय:?

4. Can you spot a “अट्”-आगम: in the verse?

5. How would you say this in Sanskrit?
“Arjuna listened to Sri Krishna’s advice.” Use the masculine प्रातिपदिकम् “उपदेश” for “advice.”

6. How would you say this in Sanskrit?
“Sri Hanuman went to Lanka to search for Sita.” Use the अव्ययम् “अन्वेष्टुम्” for “to search for” and use (a लिँट् form of) √गम् (गमॢँ गतौ १. ११३७) for “to go.”

Easy questions:

1. Can you spot a “सुँट्”-आगम: in the verse?

2. Where has 8-4-63 शश्छोऽटि been used in the commentary?

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