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अनाशयन् 3Ap-लँङ्

Today we will look at the form अनाशयन् 3Ap-लँङ् from श्रीमद्भागवतम् 4.5.15

रुरुजुर्यज्ञपात्राणि तथैकेऽग्नीननाशयन् ।
कुण्डेष्वमूत्रयन्केचिद्बिभिदुर्वेदिमेखलाः ।। ४-५-१५ ।।

Gita Press translation “Some smashed the sacrificial vessels and extinguished the sacred fires, while others urinated in the sacrificial pits and snapped the cotton threads marking the boundaries of the sacrificial dais (in the north).”

अनाशयन् is a causative form derived from the धातुः √नश् (णशँ अदर्शने ४. ९१)

The धातुः “णशँ” is णोपदेशः, since it has an initial णकारः in the धातु-पाठः। By 6-1-65 णो नः, there is the substitution of नकारः in the place of the initial णकारः of a धातुः। So, now we have “नशँ”। The अकारः at the end gets इत्-सञ्ज्ञा by 1-3-2 उपदेशेऽजनुनासिक इत् and takes लोप: by 1-3-9 तस्य लोपः

नश् + णिच् । By 3-1-26 हेतुमति च – The affix “णिच्” is used after a root, when the operation of a causer – such as the operation of directing – is to be expressed. “णिच्” gets आर्धधातुक-सञ्ज्ञा by 3-4-114 आर्धधातुकं शेषः
= नश् + इ । अनुबन्ध-लोपः by 1-3-3 हलन्त्यम्, 1-3-7 चुटू, 1-3-9 तस्य लोपः
= नाश् + इ । By 7-2-116 अत उपधायाः , a penultimate (उपधा) अकार: of a अङ्गम् gets वृद्धिः as the substitute when followed by a प्रत्ययः which is a ञित् or a णित्।
= नाशि ।

“नाशि” gets धातु-सञ्ज्ञा by 3-1-32 सनाद्यन्ता धातवः

As per 1-3-74 णिचश्च, the verbal roots that end in the णिच्-प्रत्ययः shall take आत्मनेपद-प्रत्ययाः when the fruit of the action (क्रियाफलम्) accrues to the doer (कर्त्रभिप्रायम् = कर्तृ-अभिप्रायम्)। In the remaining case – when the fruit of the action does not accrue to the doer these verbal roots shall take परस्मैपद-प्रत्ययाः।
In reality though, this distinction of the fruit of the action accruing to the doer or not, is rarely honored in the language. So as a practical matter, a verbal root that ends in the णिच्-प्रत्ययः will take either आत्मनेपद-प्रत्ययाः or परस्मैपद-प्रत्ययाः regardless of whether the fruit of the action accrues to the doer or not. In short, it will be उभयपदी। Here it has taken a परस्मैपद-प्रत्ययः।

The विवक्षा is लँङ्, कर्तरि प्रयोगः (हेतुमति), प्रथम-पुरुषः, बहुवचनम्, therefore the प्रत्यय: will be “झि”।

(1) नाशि + लँङ् । By 3-2-111 अनद्यतने लङ्, the affix लँङ् follows a धातुः when used in the sense of past not of today.

(2) नाशि + ल् । अनुबन्ध-लोपः by 1-3-2 उपदेशेऽजनुनासिक इत्, 1-3-3 हलन्त्यम्, 1-3-9 तस्य लोपः

(3) नाशि + झि । 3-4-78 तिप्तस्झिसिप्थस्थमिब्वस्मस्तातांझथासाथांध्वमिड्वहिमहिङ् mandates the प्रत्ययः “झि” as the substitute for the लकारः। “झि” gets the सार्वधातुक-सञ्ज्ञा by 3-4-113 तिङ्शित्सार्वधातुकम्

(4) नाशि + झ् । By 3-4-100 इतश्‍च, the ending इकारः of a परस्मैपद-प्रत्ययः which came in the place of a ङित्-लकारः is elided.

(5) नाशि + शप् + झ् । By 3-1-68 कर्तरि शप्‌, the शप्-प्रत्यय: is placed after a verbal root, when followed by a सार्वधातुक-प्रत्यय: that is used signifying the agent.

(6) नाशि + अ + झ् । अनुबन्ध-लोपः by 1-3-3 हलन्त्यम्, 1-3-8 लशक्वतद्धिते , 1-3-9 तस्य लोपः

(7) नाशे + अ + झ् । By 7-3-84 सार्वधातुकार्धधातुकयोः, an अङ्गम् whose final letter is an इक् gets गुण-आदेशः, when a सार्वधातुक-प्रत्यय: or an आर्धधातुक-प्रत्यय: follows.

(8) नाशे + अ + अन्त् । By 7-1-3 झोऽन्तः, “अन्त्” comes in as a replacement for the झकारः of a प्रत्यय:।

(9) नाशय + अन्त् । By 6-1-78 एचोऽयवायावः

(10) नाशयन्त् । एकादेश: by 6-1-97 अतो गुणे

(11) अट् नाशयन्त् । By 6-4-71 लुङ्लङ्लृङ्क्ष्वडुदात्तः – When followed by लुँङ्, लँङ् or लृँङ्, an अङ्गम् gets the “अट्”-आगमः which is उदात्तः। 1-1-46 आद्यन्तौ टकितौ places the आट्-आगमः at the beginning of the अङ्गम् ।

(12) अनाशयन्त् । अनुबन्ध-लोपः by 1-3-3 हलन्त्यम् and 1-3-9 तस्य लोपः

(13) अनाशयन् । By 8-2-23 संयोगान्तस्य लोपः


1. As in this example, where in the गीता has the णिच्-प्रत्यय: been used in a तिङन्तं पदम् with √नश् (णशँ अदर्शने ४. ९१)?

2. In the verse, where else (besides in अनाशयन्) has the णिच्-प्रत्यय: been used in a तिङन्तं पदम्?

3. Can you recall another (besides 6-4-71 लुङ्लङ्लृङ्क्ष्वडुदात्तः) सूत्रम् (which we have studied) which prescribes a “अट्”-आगम:?

4. Can you spot a “शी”-आदेश: in the verse?

5. How would you say this in Sanskrit?
“A man who urinates while standing is ignoble.” Use the adjective प्रातिपदिकम् “तिष्ठत्” (ending in the शतृँ-प्रत्यय:) for “while standing” and use the adjective (compound) प्रातिपदिकम् “अनार्य” for “ignoble.” Use a धातु: from the verse for “to urinate.” Use the appropriate forms of the pronouns “यद्”/”तद्”।

6. How would you say this in Sanskrit?
“This explanation should remove (destroy) your doubts.” Use the neuter प्रातिपदिकम् “विवरण” for “explanation” and the masculine प्रातिपदिकम् “संशय” for “doubt.” Use (in the causative) the same verbal root as used in this example for “to destroy.”

Easy questions:

1. By which सूत्रम् does पाणिनि: define the उपधा-सञ्ज्ञा (used in 7-2-116 अत उपधायाः)?

2. Can you recall a नियम-सूत्रम् (a rule which limits the application) of 8-2-23 संयोगान्तस्य लोपः?

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